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<title>Education for Sustainability:  An Agenda for Action</title>
<type>single page tiff</type>
<keyword>education sustainability environmental sustainable educational national learning development community communities global programs information students teachers environment training nonformal action educators</keyword>
<author>  President's Council on Sustainable Development. </author>
<publisher>President's Council on Sustainable Development : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs.,</publisher>
<subject> Education--Economic aspects--United States ; Sustainable development--Study and teaching--United States ; Environmental education--United States</subject>


This report is the product of work initiated at the "National Forum on
Partnerships Supporting Education about the Environment," a demonstration
project of the President's Coxmcil on Sustainable Development, held at the
Presidio, San Francisco, California, in the fall of 1994.
Many private, nonprofit, and  government
sector organizations participated actively in
developing  the  recommendations  in  this
/gencfe /or Actwn.The recommendations and
proposed  initiatives do  not  necessarily
reflect Administration  policy  or  specific
views of any single contributor.


  Visit our web site @
            For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328
                   ISBN 0-16-048783-8

 %S%aSic' %K8r 1 ^to$  ^Sw* a   ^
 education for sustainability:
            an agenda for action
 Chapter I   A Program for Change
 Chapter 2  Formal Education  	  II
           Action I   Green Schools: Models and Approaches	  12
           Action 2   Professional Development  	  14
           Action 3   Essential Learnings	  16

 Chapter 3  Nonformal Education	'. . . 23
           Action 4   Public Awareness	24
           Action 5   Sustainable Development Extension Network . . 27
           Action 6   Community Visioning and Assessment	29
           Action 7   Workforce Development	33
           Action 8   Lifelong Learning	36

 Chapter 4  Cross-cutting Themes	45
           Action 9   State and Federal Policy Changes	46
           Action 10  Technology and Information	50
           Action I I   Multicultural Perspectives	56
           Action 12  Global Perspectives	59

 Chapter 5  Moving Forward	  67

 Conclusion 	77
 Acknowledgments and Contributors



                                                               "It is our task in our time and in our generation to
                                                               hand down undiminished to those who'come after
                                                               us, as was handed down to us by those who went
                                                               before, the  natural wealth and beauty which is ours."

                                                                                                    John F.Kennedy, 1961
to serve society by fostering the transformations needed to set us
on the path to sustainable development.The time has come to
ensure that the concepts of education for sustainability—in the
broadest sense—are discussed and woven into a framework upon
which current and future educational policy is based.
As stated in Agenda 2/,the document produced by the  1992
United Nations  Conference on the Environment and
Development, education is "critical for promoting sustainable
development."1 Understanding the principles of sustainability and
the interdependence of the environment, the economy, and
social systems can help us learn to make the changes necessary
to become effective stewards of natural  resources and the
environment. Education for sustainability of which many other
disciplines are indispensable components, will engage partners
from all arenas—adult education, on-the-job training, other
formal and nonformal education  programs, and the media—to
reach out to as  many individuals  as possible. Clearly, the time is
right to engage in a dynamic process to  educate not only
children but all citizens about the economic and environmental
realities of today's world.
The "National Forum on Partnerships Supporting Education about
the Environment" met in October 1994. Participants developed  a
common and compelling vision: to broaden our concept of
education to include sustainable development. Individuals from
business and government, the educational community, and
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) came together to share
common themes, ideas, and challenges related to education for
sustainability.This event paved the way for a diverse group of
stakeholders to begin a long-term consensus-building process.
This process of sharing ideas and forging new partnerships
resulted in this document: Education for Sustainability: An Agenda for
Action.The Agenda lays out a number of recommendations as to
how we can build concepts of sustainability into our educational
programs. Interwoven with these recommendations are specific
initiatives, and opportunities for interested individuals from all
sectors to become partners, leaders, or participants in activities
that educate for sustainability.The recommendations provide a
framework for a flexible strategy and a toolbox of ideas, which can
be tailored to educational strategies reflective of individual and
community  needs.The hope is that, through a variety of
approaches, education for sustainability can involve broader
audiences than it has in the past.
A key feature of the Agenda is the "Opportunities for
Partnerships" section at the conclusion of each chapter.This
section lists organizations mentioned in the chapter and is a vital
reference tool in  that it provides  readers with names,
organizations, and resources to guide next steps. A sampling of
programs and successful initiatives is presented to illustrate
cooperative efforts and partnerships that are working.The Agenda
is designed to serve as a model for projects, programs, and
opportunities to encourage collaboration among a diverse set of
Hundreds of individuals from across the country contributed to
the formation of this Agenda. Its implementation will require
diverse talents to further develop the ideas presented in this
document. Working together, we  can make education for
sustainability a critical part of a lifelong learning process.


What Is

Education for sustainability is a

lifelong learning process that leads to

an informed and involved citizenry

having the creative problem-solving

skills, scientific and social literacy, and

commitment to engage in responsible

individual and cooperative actions.

These actions will help ensure an

environmentally sound and

economically prosperous future.
in  1987, is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs."2 In a sustainable society,
environmental protection and economic objectives belong to a common framework. The
President's Council on Sustainable Development's definition of sustainable development has
been broadened to include social equity.3  In a sustainable world, environmental protection,
economic objectives, and social justice should be linked in harmony.
Many educators are helping society achieve sustainability by teaching the three "e's"—
environment, economics, and equity—along with the traditional three "r's"—reading, writing,
and arithmetic. In so doing, they are fostering awareness of sustainability among individuals,
communities, institutions, and governments. In coming decades, education for sustainability
has the potential to serve as a tool for building stronger bridges between the classroom and
business, and between schools and communities.
In this document, the term education for sustainability is used as an umbrella term.4 As
such, it may embrace components from traditional disciplines such as civics, science,
political science, geography, and others.
                                   CHAPTER   I

 Historically, various conferences and organizations have offered definitions of
 environmental education.5 Under some of these definitions, environmental
 education includes the economic, environmental, and social dimensions contained in
 the concept of education for sustainability. A working definition of education for
 sustainability is provided here (see previous page) as a contribution to the national
 As attention  to the concept of sustainability escalates domestically and abroad, our
 efforts must  continue to bring all stakeholders together in its pursuit.The roles of
 citizens, communities, industry, and government in achieving the goals outlined in
 recent national reports on sustainability suggest that efforts should be increased to
 ensure that thoughtful, comprehensive planning is promoted by the formal and
 nonformal education community.
 These efforts should focus attention on the delivery systems used to achieve these
 goals. A key question is, "Have educational efforts produced an informed citizenry,
 an environmentally and scientifically literate citizenry, and a cadre of technical-
 policy-managerial professionals proficient in guiding our nation's industries,
 communities, and governments?"
 Although previous environmental education efforts have resulted in successes,
 much remains to be done. Many people, for example, still confuse the issue of
 global warming with that of depletion of the ozone layer. A study by Carnegie-
 Mellon University in 1994 revealed that even well-educated citizens believe that
 climate change would cause increased cases of skin cancer and that a personal
 response should be to give up aerosol sprays.6 Similarly, a  1992 national opinion
 survey conducted by Peter D. Hart Research Associates indicated that only one
 percent of those surveyed listed endangered species as a serious environmental
 problem.7 Only one in five had heard of the loss of biological  diversity. In  1991 and
 1992, a pair of surveys by the Roper Organization tested Americans' "green point
 average."8 The average adult and teenager were able to answer fewer than four out
 of 10 questions correctly.
 These surveys reveal an important need for a citizenry with increased knowledge
 of the environment and the integrative skills needed for understanding the
 interdependent relationships between the environment and the economy.
 Responsible action by all citizens, based on the best available data, requires a
targeted effort to improve the ways that we  use available information. Education is
 key in responding to this need.
 If sustainability is to be achieved, educators should take a leadership role, breaking
 new ground to prepare society for an age of accelerating change in a world of
 increasingly diverse and growing populations, an expanding economy, and  changing
global environment

Developing  a  Framework

  In the fall of 1994, the National Science and Technology Council
  convened a forum for national leaders from education, the
business sector, government, and nongovernmental organizations
to explore strategies for building effective partnerships to support
education for sustainability.The "National Forum on Partnerships
Supporting Education about the Environment," held at the Presidio
in San Francisco, was co-chaired by John H. Gibbons, Assistant to
the President for Science and Technology; Madeleine Kunin,
Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education; Keith
Wheeler, Executive Director, Global Rivers Environmental
Education Network (GREEN); and Ralph Ponce de Leon,
Corporate Vice President of Motorola, Inc. More than 100
individuals with a broad range  of expertise came together to work
on this issue, including corporate leaders, university administrators,
professionals in the field of environmental education, state and
federal officials, as well as teachers, scientists, and students.
Together, they explored collective and individual roles, common
visions, and opportunities for collaboration. One major objective
of the national forum focused  on the development of a blueprint
supporting education for sustainability. The outcome is the
present document, Education for Sustainability: An Agenda for Action.
Its purpose is to lay out a plan of action to integrate education for
sustainability into broader educational curricula. Business,
government, and nongovernmental organizations working in
consort can help in this process, in particular, by establishing
partnerships to facilitate cooperative interrelationships among
formal and nonformal educational efforts.
In a parallel  process, the President's Council on Sustainable
Development (PCSD) brought together leaders from industry,
government, and environmental, labor, and civil rights organizations
to develop policy recommendations to  enhance the sustainability
of our nation's economic, environmental, and social future.The 25-
member council, which  was created by  an executive order in June
 1993, consists of five cabinet secretaries, chief executive officers of
businesses, and executive directors of nongovernmental
The work of Phase I of the Council was accomplished through
eight task forces: Principles, Goals, and Definitions; Public Linkage,
Dialogue, and Education; Eco-Efficiency; Energy and Transportation;
Natural Resources; Population and Consumption; Sustainable
Agriculture; and Sustainable Communities.The Public Linkage Task
Force's Education Working Group, also  chaired by Madeleine
Kunin, developed a policy framework to enable all learners to
become educated for sustainability.

In March 1996, the report of the President's Council on
Sustainable Development, Sustainable America:A New Consensus for
Prosperity, Opportunity, and a Healthy Environment for the Future, was
delivered to President Clinton. As the Council enters Phase II,  its
focus will shift toward implementation of its policy
recommendations. The Agenda for Action provides a framework
for implementing the Council's education recommendations.

A Course for Action

   From these two parallel processes (National Forum and PCSD)
   came a clear recognition that the job of integrating the
principles of sustainability into our nation's educational system
requires skills and actions different from those currently
contributed by education, government, business, or nonprofit
organizations. Our hope is that An Agenda for Action will cast a
broad enough net to encompass all stakeholders. We can
succeed only if all groups are working together.
This Agenda for Action charts a clear course for a new spirit of
collaboration, with emphasis pointing most noticeably toward the
environmental aspects of sustainability. Such a  course will require
the help of many disciplines focusing on the interconnections
among the natural and built environment, and  the economic and
political forces that influence the world around us. These forces
are fluid and subject to changing conditions. Sustainable
development is therefore a process rather than a fixed goal.
Our national vision of sustainability will develop and mature in the
future as environmental, economic, and social forces undergo
change.The philosophical principle that sustainability is a process
will need to be reaffirmed continually as our nation advances along
the path to sustainability.
Similarly, the dialogues during the meetings of  the National Forum
and PCSD led to a recognition that successful efforts for
implementing education for sustainability depend on six core
themes. Collectively, these themes outline a course of action to
educate for sustainability.They are (I) lifelong  learning,
(2) interdisciplinary approaches, (3) systems thinking,
(4) partnerships, (5)  multicultural perspectives, and
(6) empowerment
                                    CHAPTER  I


Hie plirase "lifelong learning" is used in this

document as an umbrella term that bridges

formal and nonformal education. It is

employed In this broad sense to emphasize the

integrated nature of all education, throughout

one's life.  All forms of formal and nonformal

education are part of the seamless process of

lifelong learning.
    Education is a process that is—or should be—ongoing throughout one's lifetime.
    As the Ontario Teachers Foundation has stated, learning is not "a prerequisite
to living but is its accompaniment."' Lifelong learning is the first major theme of An
Agenda for Action. Traditionally defined, "lifelong learning" refers to nonformal
education that occurs after one's formal schooling has been completed. In this
document, we use "lifelong learning" to encompass formal education as well as
nonformal learning throughout one's lifetime. One reason for broadening the term
is that education begins in the home, and this early learning does not find a
comfortable resting place in the traditional definition of lifelong learning. But the
main reason is that learning is a seamless process that occurs in myriad nonformal
and informal ways during an individual's lifetime.
    Education for sustainability requires an understanding of the interdependence
    and interconnections of humans and the environment. It's elements include
knowledge of global socio-geopolitical disciplines, biological and physical sciences,
and human socio-economic systems. For example, education for sustainability will
prepare policymakers for merging economics and the natural sciences with other
disciplines when developing environmental policy.
Environmental issues traverse studies of the natural sciences (biology, earth
sciences), social studies (economics, anthropology, geography, and history), and the
humanities (philosophy, the arts, ethics, and literature). Many schools have begun
integrating environmental examples into some of their coursework, thereby
fostering enthusiasm for science and other disciplines. Infusing the concept of
sustainable development throughout K-12 and undergraduate  curricula can help
make classroom learning relevant.
Ideally, disciplinary courses with social, economic, or environmental content should
be accompanied by interdisciplinary subject matter on sustainability, which draws
from a number of content disciplines.To the extent possible, educational curricula
and pedagogy should reflect the interconnections among disciplines that are central
to sustainable development.The benefit of this approach is that sustainability is an
ideal organizing theme ideal for encouraging integrative thinking. Learning about
sustainability necessitates breaking down the walls between  disciplines, perhaps by
focusing on a single real-world  issue addressed from various perspectives.To
support this kind of experience, existing education  standards may need to be
revisited to embrace the major elements of sustainability.
Whatever the approach, the process used and resources employed to integrate
education for sustainability across the curriculum will remain a local issue to be
                                                    A   PROGRAM   FOR  CHANGE

addressed and continuaNy assessed by communities, local and regional programs,
and their respective stakeholders. Course materials with regionally specific, hands-
on examples will have to be developed, and teachers will benefit from training and
practical assistance.
Equally important, interdisciplinary approaches should be encouraged as part of
nonformal educational experiences. "Nonformal education" is used by  educators
to indicate those forms of learning acquired in informal  contexts, such as the
media, workplaces, and community activities. All learners—both children and
adults—need to see the connections among discrete bits of knowledge gained on a
daily basis if they are to respond to the challenges posed by a nation moving
toward  sustainability.
    Educators generally accept that the first goal of learning is to impart knowledge
    and the second is to teach skills such as problem solving, conflict resolution,
consensus building, information management, interpersonal expression, and critical
and creative thinking. Education encompassing the concepts of sustainability offers
an  exemplary vehicle for developing and exercising many of these skills which are
increasingly being sought by employers. Increasingly, these are the skills that
employers are seeking in a world of complex problems requiring integrative
In Technology for a  Sustainable Future, the National Science and Technology Council
noted, "Given the  interwoven nature of environmental problems, systems
approaches are essential if we are to attain sustainable development."10 Thinking
that synthesizes and evaluates linkages among disciplines is needed if we are to
understand the global implications of environmental and economic decisions. As
socio-economic problems and environmental issues become increasingly complex,
advanced technologies can serve as a tool helping the human mind synthesize and
integrate mountains of data.
The importance of systems thinking cannot be ignored. Any concept—including
sustainability—should be open to informed debate and sustainable development
should not be taught as an ideology or as  a goal, but rather as an ongoing process:
 not as a set of irrevocable answers, but as a way of continually asking better
                                     CHAPTER   I

  In addition to bridging disciplines, education for sustainability will
  mean reaching beyond schools to involve businesses and
 individuals with specialized expertise throughout the community.
 In the 21st century, learning about economic and social
 development as well as the built environment and natural
 resources will be the collective responsibility of public and private
 institutions, communities, businesses, and individual citizens
 worldwide. Partnerships among governments, educational
 institutions (from K-12 schools to community colleges and
 universities), industries, nongovernmental organizations, and
 community groups are increasingly important
 Increasingly, businesses require a workforce that is both
 environmentally literate and skilled in interdisciplinary systems
 approaches to solving problems. Businesses can support formal
 education by participating in classwork as mentors, by offering
 Internships, by providing employees with opportunities for
 advanced training, and by employing business sites as classrooms.
 Most importantly, the business community and the education
 profession can engage in ongoing dialogue about common goals
and how best to achieve them. Federal, state, and local
governments can support educational activities in the public and
private sectors and build  intergovernmental alliances to advance
education and  training by supporting educational activities.
Educational institutions should seek ways to collaborate with
nongovernmental organizations  and industry to advance common
     To be effective in reaching people across the country and
     around the world with a message that is relevant and
 meaningful, education for sustainability must encompass an
 appreciation of diverse cultural perspectives. This requires that the
 content of educational materials reflect divergent cultural
 approaches to sustainability. Educational materials and programs
 should be made accessible to all interested communities.
 Furthermore, educational programs should be rooted in the actual
 experiences of people in their own communities.These programs
 should not assume a common understanding of sustainability's
 political and social context.
 Finally, young people from diverse cultural backgrounds must be
 provided with the training and access necessary to pursue
 environmental and scientific careers. Only then will the workforce
 charged with implementing sustainability begin to reflect the rich
 diversity of U.S. society and the world at large.
    Education is generally agreed to be the most effective way to
    impart knowledge and skills that can be applied outside the
classroom in everyday life.The desired outcome is informed
citizens who are prepared to participate responsibly in a
sustainable society. Students can be empowered by giving their
voice to new ideas and through action, such as voluntary
community service, which is, itself, an educational tool. Nonformal
education programs also provide good opportunities for learners
to act individually and collectively by providing the knowledge and
skills necessary to evaluate and discuss complex issues. Education
for sustainability can provide a vehicle for engendering responsible
citizenship, utilizing a variety of instructional models and guidelines
that have been long accepted in the field of education. "
Sharing experiences about successful  actions that are engendered
by education for sustainability in its formal and nonformal modes
will accelerate the transition to sustainability. Information about
existing models of sustainability can be disseminated through the
media, multimedia technologies, information clearinghouses, and
other means, both nationally and internationally.
                                                    A  PROGRAM   FOR  CHANGE

In summary, Education for Sustainability: An
 I.  Lifelong le
The potential forj
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                                                       ^-•.      •-..  ..
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                                           TF/^plpffir5Tt-^v-i ,77 rt~": •  . -         .....    .
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              sustainability offers an oppo
                                                 evllofrarKJ exercise integrated
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                                                       ^^^^r^-^f-: —	-•'""	'-•/      '
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                                                            j8fe"-;S^S>^:"T-:=r^'"^ ':~ ' *J! ~.-r- -- .^.;
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                     ijciprmary approaches,
 iSJtElqEing, partnerships, and
institutions to contribute to
                                                              .  .
                                                           actions and initiatives
                                                     anTTjinitfatives form the heart of
These underlying themes lay the foundati
outlined in the coming chapters. Collectively,
Education for Sustainability:An Agenda for Actio
              CHAPTER   I

 Lessons  Learned
      One lesson learned from the first 25 years of educational
      efforts aimed at addressing education about the
 environment is that there is an opportunity for improved
 collaboration. Individual roles for each stakeholder are important,
 but collective action is essential to  reduce duplication and leverage
 scarce resources. All sectors of society should work toward
 complimentary goals so that education for sustainability can
 achieve Its full potential. Educators, the private sector, government,
 and nongovernmental organizations should evaluate their
 respective strengths and address how to better coordinate limited
 resources. Awareness of shared needs and common ground is the
 first step.
 Educators have identified a number of obstacles that are impeding
 the integration of information about the environment and
 sustainabilicy in formal learning settings. One obstacle is that the
 interdisciplinary content of education for sustainability does not
 easily fit into a discipline-oriented educational process. Other
 obstacles are the lack of general agreement among professional
 educators that education for sustainability is a priority and there is
 insufficient professional preparation for teaching the core content
 of sustainability issues.  Until recently, there has been a lack of
 consensus on an effective system for evaluating programs and
 materials in  order to ensure quality; however, the North American
 Association  for Environmental Education (NAAEE) has developed
 material standards for evaluating environmental education
 New approaches to learning may offer significant benefits.  New
 approaches will be more readily accepted if the benefits of
 teaching education for sustainability are understood.  Professional
 training is needed to enable teachers to introduce new curricula
 and methods into the classroom. Still another challenge for
 educators is finding ways to incorporate diverse cultural
 perspectives. Administrators in universities and colleges should
 consider adopting sustainable procurement practices and persuade
funders to support interdisciplinary research and teaching, which is
 Increasingly needed for finding sustainable solutions.
 Nongovernmental organizations frequently are faced with the
challenge of trying to persuade foundations, businesses, and the
public to sustain support for effective programs over an extended
period of time, rather than changing focus annually. Many nonprofit
 entities, both small and large, have learned that collaborative,
 synergistic approaches strengthen programmatic initiatives and
 contribute to longevity and the much-needed financial resource

 Business leaders can contribute by working with educators to set
 priorities to ensure that their support for educational programs is
 allocated to those that are effective, produce measurable results,
 and survive long enough to have a real impact. At the same time,
 companies can participate in mentoring programs and internships.
 In the past, the business sector has made a number of indirect
 contributions to education for sustainability, such as developing
 innovative systems-oriented approaches to problem solving. In
 addition  to these kinds of contributions, business can finance
 training for their workers in the use of sustainable technologies
 and develop innovative approaches to protect the environment
 and ensure economic prosperity.

 While there are  many successful education efforts underway
 across the federal government, there is an opportunity for officials
 to address  the lack of effective coordination among the
 educational activities of individual agencies. Duplication of efforts
 among agencies as well as a steady decline in fiscal support limit
 efforts to advance education for sustainability.
 In addition, government, the scientific community, educators, and
 the media should ensure that information provided to the  public is
 accurate, useful and  clearly presented.The vehicles by which
 information is furnished—internet, the media, publications—are
 continually changing and require ongoing training, skill acquisition,
 and upgrades in equipment.

The initiatives recommended in An Agenda for Action are intended
to address these obstacles and encourage each sector to act
 individually as well as collectively.
                                                    A  PROGRAM  FOR  CHANGE

    A Leader in Education and the Environment: Bill Stapp
    A number of educators have played pivotal roles in the history of environmental education and sustainability. One name in
    particular appears at many of the milestones. In 1968, Dr. Bill Stapp worked with graduate students at the University of
    Michigan to develop the first formal definition of the term "environmental education" Stapp wrote,"Environmental education is
    aimed at producing a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and "its associated problems,
    aware of how to help solve these problems, and motivated to work toward their solution."12
    The next milestones were the international Belgrade (1975) and Tbilisi (1977) conferences. Stapp spearheaded these
    conferences in his role as the first director of environmental education for the U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
    Organization (UNESCO).These international conferences focused on a goal of improving all ecological relationships, including
    the relationship of humanity with nature and people with each other.
    Later in Stapp's career he began focusing on issues of environmental justice.  While focusing on water quality monitoring at a
    watershed  level, Stapp  noted that most rivers start near rural communities that are demographically white, flow through
    mostly white suburbs, and end up passing through inner cities populated by many low-income, minority, and ethnic
    At yet another milestone, Stapp founded the Global  Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN).Today, GREEN links
    learners in  140 nations. Education for sustainability owes much of its present energy to far-sighted leaders such as Bill Stapp.
In This  Report
   Formal and nonformal modes of education are integral components of a lifelong
   learning process. In the coming chapters, formal and nonformal education are
discussed as discrete approaches for the purposes of analysis. Educational
processes and the infrastructure on which they depend are complex systems.;
however, An Agenda for Action uses a linear method of description where the ideal
would be to mirror the web of interrelationships that characterizes the real world.
An Agenda for Action proposes three  broad policy recommendations and twelve
strategic actions for implementing those recommendations.The proposed actions
are developed further through a number of specific initiatives.The initiatives
represent programs which are in  need of support, being planned or underway.
Success stories are offered as models for illustration purposes and for potential
replication. Ideas for individual and collective participation by each sector are
explored.These ideas offer a rich pool of opportunities for partnerships to advance
education for sustainability.

                                 CHAPTER   I

            s of Opportunities for ^Partnerships
 Global Rivers Environmental Education Network
  721  E. Huron Street
  Ann Arbor, Ml 48 1 04
  Contact: Keith Wheeler
  rax: 3 1 3-76 1 -495 1
 GREEN is an Innovative, action-oriented approach to education,
 based on an interdisciplinary watershed education model.
 GREEN'S mission is to improve education through a global
 network that promotes watershed sustainability. Its goals
 include incorporating all areas of the curriculum into an
 integrated watershed education program that links education,
 government, nongovernmental organizations and other
 members of die community working with schools and
 communities to provide information to develop watershed
 education programs.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO)
 77, Place de Fontenoy
 75352 PARIS 07 SP
 Paris, France
 Phone: (33-1) 45 68 1000
 Fax: (33-1) 45 67 1690
UNESCO promotes collaboration among nations' through
education, science, culture, and communication in order to
advance universal respect for justice, law, and the human rights
and fundamental freedoms that are affirmed for the peoples of
the world by the Charter of the United Nations.
President's Council on Sustainable Development
 730 Jackson Place, N.W.
 Washington, D.C. 20503
 Contact-Angela Park
Tire PCSD was established by President Clinton in 1993—a
unique mix of 25 individuals representing business, labor,
environmental, civil rights, tribal, and local leaders along with
members of the President's CabinetThe PCSD's mission is to
develop a "national sustainable development action strategy
that will foster economic vitality while protecting our natural
and resources." The PCSD produced a report that
outlines the first steps the nation needs to take in order to
move toward a more sustainable future.
                                i o
                                               A  PROGRAM  FOR   CHANGE

"One raswft [of formal education] is that students graduate without knowing how to think in whole systems,
how to find connections, how to ask big questions, and how to separate the trivial from the important. Now
more than ever, however,  we need people who think broadly and who understand systems, connections,
patterns, and root causes."
                                                                                          David Orr
                                                                                         Earth in Mind

                           reflect the rest of the world and be holistic systems.This chapter and the following
                           one focus on formal and nonformal education as distinct activities, but only for the
                           purposes of study and analysis. Ultimately, education is a seamless lifelong process.
                           Similarly, all forms of education must focus on interconnections: the linkages found
                           in nature and those connecting economic systems, environment, arid society.
                                                                          I I

Ensure that the interconnections between
the environment, economy, and social
structures become an integral part of formal
education, starting with kindergarten and
continuing through elementary and
secondary school and on through training at
the college, university, and professional levels.
                                                 Design and support opportunities for integrating the concepts and principles of
                                                 education for sustainability into formal educational programs from early grade
                                                 school through the university level.
   Sustainable development requires much broader public awareness and
   understanding of the natural resource and economic challenges facing the world
in the 21st century. The 3,000 institutions of higher education in the United States
are significant but largely overlooked leverage points in the transition to a
sustainable world. Not only do they prepare students who will become teachers
and leaders in the educational field, they also educate the students who will
become leaders in other fields. These institutions also influence their alumni, many
of whom constitute our nation's current leaders.

In primary research published by the Worldwatch Institute, a survey was  conducted
of more than 715 universities that are members of the American Association of
Colleges for Teacher Education. The survey  revealed that only 13 percent of the
universities that responded offer a required  course in environmental education.
Generally, interdisciplinary courses with an environmental focus are increasing in
colleges and  universities, but they remain under-utilized. According to the United
Nations Environmental, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), only about 7 percent of
institutions of higher education offer degrees in the environmental sciences.
Faculty members can play a strong role  in education, research, policy development,
information exchange, and community outreach.They can contribute new ideas,
engage in bold experimentation, as well  as contribute to new knowledge.
Institutions of higher learning should place a greater emphasis on interdisciplinary,
systemic, and strategic ways of thinking.
Students, parents, alumnae, prospective employers, organizations that fund research
and education (government, industry, and foundations), and the public are all
consumers, clients, or supporters of education's services. Individually, they have
varying degrees of influence on academic direction  and programs, but collectively
they have great potential to encourage innovation in education.
                                   I 2
                                                       FORMAL  EDUCATION

                   INITIATIVE  I.I
                   State boards of education should be
                   encouraged to consider the importance of
                   education for sustainability and to include it
                   in licensure, standards, and guidelines for
                   program approval developed at the state
                   level for K-12 teachers and principals.
  In today's press for educational reform, environmental education
  overlaps with other priorities, such as the education of diverse
learners, use of integrated or comprehensive services,
incorporation of advanced technologies in the classroom and
parent involvementTherefore, education for sustainability presents
an opportunity to meet more goals of education reform.
There is not one state where environmentaf education or
education for sustainability programming has been fully
incorporated into formal education institutions.13 The states that
have moved toward comprehensive programs in environmental
education have formed partnerships and secured support leading
to the adoption of legislative mandates and other formal guidelines.
Growing public support for literacy on sustainability will serve as a
catalyst and incentive to encourage educational leaders to invest in
the infrastructure needed to insure the infusion of accurate, timely
content on sustainability in K-12 curricula.
     Lessons Learned  in Washington  State
     "Environmental education is a powerful tool for school improvement," reports Marcia Siam Wiley, program supervisor for the
     Model Links Program in the State of Washington. In 1993, a cadre of Washington public schools initiated an effort to place
     environmental education programs at the center of school improvement efforts.Together, this network of schools has moved
     steadily forward while documenting what is being learned.

     Strategies pivotal to the program's success include the foEowing:
        • Start small by working at a project scale that is realistic; not all teachers and classes need to be involved initially.
        • Focus on using education for sustainability to improve instruction and enhance what is already being done.
        • Explaining why you are doing what you are doing, and discuss the program with parents, teachers, feeder schools, the school
         board, and administrators.
        • Invite community participation in specific ways; let others know what is needed, and in return, what the school can offer.
        • Allow time to organize information and assess what is and is not working.
        • Recognize that change takes time: "go slow to go fast."
        • Involve key players, such  as librarians, educational assistants, and community experts in curriculum design.

        These and other lessons learned are described in on-line process portfolios.

     "Each year we see more clearly the pivotal role education plays in preparing our society for the challenges of today and
     of the future. Matters related to the environment are at the forefront of these challenges'.'
                                                                                                        Judith Billings
                                                                             Washington State Superintendent of Public Instruction

                    INITIATIVE  1.2
                    Implement partnerships to help institutions
                    of higher education achieve the transition
                    to education for sustainability.
    Participants from all sectors—education, government, NGOs,
    and business—should explore the intellectual, institutional, and
operational changes that are needed to make the shift to
sustainability. Implementing the changes will require innovative and
cost-effective and approaches to leverage additional resources.
University presidents, deans, faculty members, students, as well as
Individuals outside academia, should participate in identifying
strategies and building partnerships to pursue them.
                    INITIATIVE  1.3
                    Support exemplary models of "green
                    campuses," that is, operational practices
                    that engage the learning community in
                    planning and decision-making for achieving
                    sustainable educational environments.
  Interest in providing programs of study that emphasize education
  for sustainability is growing at schools and universities across the
United States. Demand for these institutions to reduce the
environmental impact of their own operations is increasing as well.
Initiatives in this area can encourage successful efforts by school
administrators, building managers, teachers, faculty members, and
students by helping publicize university projects as models of
sustainability that could be replicated by communities, businesses,
and homeowners. One approach is the Clinton Administration's
proposed School  Construction Initiative, which is a $5 billion dollar
school construction and renovation program and could potentially
offer opportunities for energy efficiency and other sustainable
A useful resource for models is a 1995 report by the National
Wildlife Federation, Ecodemia, a compendium of success stories
achieved by colleges and universities that have launched creative
management practices.1'1 This guide highlights the numerous
partnerships on campuses across America that have resulted in
economic and environmental victories.
There are additional examples. The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency Administrator, Carol Browner, and The George
Washington University President, Stephen Joel Trachtenberg, signed
a landmark public-private partnership on December 12,1994.
Under that agreement, The George Washington University and
EPA formed a partnership to enhance leadership and stewardship
in environmental management and sustainable development—the
GreenU Initiative.
The Center for Environmental Education, a nongovernmental
organization published, Blueprint for a Green School,'3 which
addresses school operations and adds a wealth  of ideas aimed at
curricula and instruction. Many similar resources are available,
paving the way for educational institutions to emerge as
community leaders and exemplars of innovative environmental and
economic practices.
Encourage the incorporation of education for sustainability
in pre-service and in-service professional development
^professional development is the bridge between the present and
I  the future as educators work to meet the new challenges of
guiding students in achieving higher standards of learning.
Understandably, the rising interest in environmental literacy and
education for sustainability has created expectations that timely,
accurate content will be taught
Lack of attention to preparation for teaching environmental literacy
and sustainability results in missed opportunities to incorporate
these basics into the curricula of educational programs. Most
educators recognize a sense of responsibility for preparing students
to live and work in a global society.The question remains as to
how to deliver adequate training and staff development.
The nation's K.-12 public and private schools employ 2.8 million
teachers today. At least 3.3 million teachers will be needed by the
year 2003.16 Yet the implications of preparing new teachers and
                                                       FORMAL   EDUCATION

those already in the profession for teaching the principles of
sustainability have not been given serious consideration. Making
the connection between the education of teachers and the
environmental literacy of students as an outcome of education is a
key step toward sustainable development.
Helping teachers incorporate education for sustainability
effectively into the learning process not only will advance scientific
and environmental literacy, but also will assist students in
developing critical thinking skills.
                    INITIATIVE 2.1
                    Leadership by federal and state
                    governments, institutions of higher
                    education, professional societies, and the
                    private and nonprofit sectors is needed in
                    support of pre-service professional
                    development in education for sustainability.
     Most new teachers graduate from teacher preparation
     institutions with limited knowledge of education for
sustainability and ways that it can be incorporated into their
teaching. In fact, most university professors who offer core
courses in educational methodology have not themselves had the
preparation necessary to infuse sustainability concepts into their
courses and the internships they oversee.

The many professional organizations serving teachers, teachers'
unions, and college and university accreditation programs can
contribute to the leadership needed to focus college and
university teacher training programs on incorporating sustainability
concepts. In addition, initiatives funded by the private sector
should serve as examples for ensuring adequate pre-service
training. In particular, the private sector could exert influence
through its investments in university partnership programs related
to teacher development.
The need for pre-service teacher training in environmental
curricula can hardly be overemphasized. Substantial background
and expertise, along with necessary resources, is needed to impart
skills and attitudes effectively. According to  a recent study, the
majority of teachers feel that they are not prepared for
conveying the broad spectrum of issues and content related to
the environment.17
Whether in elementary, middle, or high school classes, infusion of
the concepts and skills of economics, natural resources, and the
global environment into existing curricula, rather than a separate
class, has proved to be the most frequently selected approach to
teaching the concepts of sustainability.
In-service training will be most effective when a school district's
recommendations regarding "scope and sequence" preparation
     Oberlin College
     Environmental  Design Center
     As part of the Environmental Studies Program at Oberlin College in Ohio, students, faculty members, and outside experts are
     working together to design a new building on campus.
     The building will be a state-of-the-art structure aiming at achieving zero emissions and advanced energy and materials
     efficiency, and using non-toxic and recycled materials, ecological waste water systems, applications of solar and other
     renewable energy technologies, and ecological landscaping.
     Oberlin's  new Environmental Center is intended to be a hub for interdisciplinary education, research, and action on the
     complex array of problems and opportunities facing humankind in the 21 st century. It is hoped that this project will influence
     other colleges and universities that are building or renovating structures.The aim is to reduce environmental impacts and a
     substantial portion of the billions of dollars spent annually to operate physical facilities.
                                   CHAPTER2                                      15

includes, but are not limited to: (I) learning environmental
concepts, (2) acquiring educational methods and professional skills,
and (3) receiving guidance during initial classroom applications. In
addition, a way to measure student progress is essential.
                     INITIATIVE 2.2
                     Cooperative efforts and partnerships are
                     necessary to insure that all in-service
                     teachers receive training and support in
                     classroom applications of a range of
                     education materials addressing the concept
                     of sustainability.
    Empowering teachers to create opportunities that will enable
    all learners to be educated for sustainability is the challenge
for successful professional development. In-service training
requires the cooperation of state departments of education,
institutions of higher education, leaders in school districts,
professional education organizations, private and nonprofit sectors,
and most importantly, community members. Opportunities for
professional growth must respond to real needs faced by
teachers every day. Acquisition of the resources necessary to plan
and implement responsive opportunities in educational settings,
whether they are rural or urban, first-grade science, or 12th-
grade economics. The U.S. EPA has funded the Environmental
Education and Training Partnerships which brings 18 nonprofit
organizations and universities together to deliver in-service
training to more than 35,000 teachers.
States should be encouraged to provide incentives to align teacher
licensing and certification standards to include education about
sustainability. Partnerships among those involved in the
development of effective professional  standards are essential.
                           "il Learnings
Identify and formalize a set of essential skills and knowledge for all
students that reflect a basic understanding of the interrelationships
among environmental, economic, and social equity issues.
     Eication about the environment and sustainability should be
      integral part of every student's schooling. When infused
throughout the curriculum, education for sustainability supports
the high standards set by the traditional disciplines. Currently,
however, the advancement of environmental education nationwide
is inconsistent, achieving a high profile where the state—or even
individual teachers—have made a commitment to it and being
practiced at a minimal level or not at all elsewhere.
Education about the environment and sustainability, as recognized
by leading practitioners, goes well beyond the biological and
physical sciences to encompass economic, political, and social
systems that draw on and impact the natural and built
environments. Environmental and sustainability education deal
with these systems at the local, national, and global levels. Good
education is based on inquiry, critical analysis, and presentation
of a variety of perspectives.
Because education  about the environment and sustainability is
interdisciplinary, previous efforts to define discipline-centered
standards have not fully captured it essence. Although largely
based in natural science, environmental education touches on
geography, economics, history, and  civics.  Standards for each of
these disciplines have environmental content, yet there is no
umbrella document that describes the integration of these
disciplinary standards to create curricula that will produce
environmentally literate citizens.
Currently, educators at the state and district levels are struggling
to define new statewide learning standards based on the voluntary
national standards certified under the Goals 2000 program.
Educators have called for a set of essential learnings in
environmental education that could be integrated into these
standards. Funders  of environmental and global education projects
also have expressed a need for a set of peer-reviewed, widely
agreed-upon learning standards that could guide them in assessing
programs. Additionally, many states have adopted mandates to
teach environmental education. However, without a generally
accepted framework of skills and concepts, these mandates can be
difficult to implement and evaluate.
                                    I 6
                                                        FORMAL  EDUCATION

A  Story of Success
Wisconsin has trained hundreds of environmental education leaders, who are having an impact on thousands of
students throughout the state.The program's success is attributable to partnerships among public and private entities
committed to a systematic in-service program. According to Rick Wilke, associate dean at the University of Wisconsin-
Stevens Point,"The critical element is cooperation among agency, university, school district, and nonformal educators in
achieving common goals." Wilke believes other states can be just as successful.The following chronology highlights
Wisconsin's key accomplishments:
 1988    An environmental education center is created to coordinate in-service teacher training.
 1989    Four sequential in-service courses are designed to be offered throughout the state by 25 adjunct faculty from the
         University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.
 1990    A National Science Foundation grant is received to kick off the program, and legislation is enacted to create the
         Wisconsin Center for Environmental Education at the university.
 1991     An initial group of 600 teachers from around the state complete the courses, and research on teaching practices in
         environmental education in Wisconsin is initiated.
 1992    A network for disseminating information to teachers and coordinating planning is established, and teacher liaisons
         are recruited in approximately 1,000 schools. A master's degree  program focused on leadership in environmental
         education is launched.
 1993    Results from the 1991 research are used to guide planning. A three-year National Science Foundation grant is
         secured to support the statewide courses and  master's degree program. An initial 25 teachers enroll in the
         master's program.
 1994    Another 600 teachers complete the in-service  courses, and an additional 25 educators enroll in the master's
         degree program. Research is undertaken to determine the effectiveness of the courses.
 1995    Plans are developed for sustaining the statewide courses and  master's degree program once the National Science
         Foundation funding ends.
 1996    More than 70  teachers pursue master's degrees, and 22 statewide courses are offered.Tuition revenue supports
         continuation of the courses, and research continues to ascertain  changes in teaching practices.Thirty-two
         graduates from the master's program are working throughout the state as environmental education leaders.
                            CHAPTER   2
                                                                                1  7

"We need to bring our educational
programs a neiv ethic. Man is capable of
care as much as he is of destruction.... If
tve can make conservation a national
cause,  we can raise generations who will
learn that the earth itself is sacred....
Once that ethic is taught, beginning in
our kindergartens, no  more American
wilderness  hotels will be broken and turned
to dust."
                         William O.Douglas,  1961
                                                                      INITIATIVE  3.1
                                                                      The North American Association for Environmental
                                                                      Education and its partners are following a critique-and-
                                                                      consensus process for development of learning standards in
                                                                      environmental education that are consistent with the
                                                                      recommendations of the National Education Goals Panel.
  Standards provide focus and direction. By defining the content, these standards help
    acilitate the provision of quality education that is equitable, coherent, and efficient
The North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE), working with
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the World Resources Institute, Illinois
University and others have begun a process to develop a set of learning standards that
can be used at the state, district, or school levels to develop curricular benchmarks for
environmental education in the 4th, 8th, and 12th grades.The process of developing
performance standards involves educators in  the fields of science, social studies,
geography, and environmental education; representatives from environmental
organizations, business, and communities; and students.
The standards will stress the importance of scientific understanding and inquiry as
well as critical thinking skills and the ability to express conclusions.These standards
also will address the need for students to be involved in activities that promote and
demonstrate responsible citizenship.
The development of environmental education standards is intended to be an open
process, and opportunities for review and comment will be provided. When
consensus has been achieved, application will be made to the National  Education
Goals Panel for certification of the environmental education standards  as national
The standards will be widely distributed through education associations to education
officials, curriculum writers, and teachers. NAAEE emphasizes that its intention is not
to duplicate work done by other groups, but rather to draw together existing
standards and supplement them where necessary to present a coherent picture of
the content of environmental education.
                                    I 8
                                                        FORMAL   EDUCATION

 photo courtesy of Bill Stapp
                                     )unng the^njuMohmental education conference, we learned about
                                   environwf&ntal issues irfGabdjj^But we also'learned about. homJo
incorporate environmental themes into the ^everyday curriculum.   —
         f               *j?    pi            *'»•'•'    sas
EnvironmWtytal education offend a way to introduce new teaching     ™

methodology inWihe classroom and to mak^ the lessons more relevant

to students'lives."
                                            toft        Peace Corps Volunteer
Teachers worldwide are completing professional training delivered by Peace Corps volunteers and local colleagues from the
countries where the volunteers serve.The goal is to enhance mainstream education as a tool for community development.The
strategy for implementing this "Education for Development" philosophy is simple: Infuse environment themes into traditional
subjects such as mathematics, science, and English.
Gabonese educators, for example, are learning to use
environmental and natural resources themes as part of
exercises for developing English-language skills.Teachers of
math, physics, and chemistry use specific examples from the
environment to teach basic concepts.
One objective is to solidify a connection between schools
and communities. Raising students' awareness of local
environmental issues encourages community service,
involves parents, and provides a real-life context for students
to use their knowledge. In Gabon, many of the lesson plans and
activities developed by educators as a result of the Peace Corps training
are being adopted nationwide.This type of teacher training is a component of Peace
Corps education projects throughout the world.

                   INITIATIVE 3.2
                   Create a focus group which is
                   representative of formal and nonformal
                   educators, including those who teach
                   adults as well as youth, to develop and
                   continually evaluate indicators of essential
                   learnings for sustainability.
   Sustainable living is a current topic of discussion in many
   classroom and nonformal educational programs across the
nation. A process for review, compilation, and assessment of
these ongoing programs will serve as a reality check for
education for sustainability. Assessment is an essential step for
receiving input from  professionals on the development of
essential learnings for sustainable living.
The purpose of this focus group will be to articulate and refine a
workable definition of sustainability, capture the essence of key
concepts, and clarify  the critical components necessary to convey
the cognitive and affective aspects of sustainable lifestyles.Where
appropriate, the group may then recommend changes in national
environmental education standards-
Education is often identified as the key to a desirable future.
Within the  education arena, groups are committed to global
education, economic education, cultural diversity, and
environmental protection and improvement.The key is linking the
expertise and activities of these groups and articulating a shared
vision that encourages a new comprehensive approach to
education for sustainability.

As society  enters the era of transition to sustainability,
educational systems also are  undergoing a transformation.
Educational institutions face the responsibility of preparing
students for challenges and opportunities that will require the
ability to do complex reasoning focusing on global issues.The
actions proposed in this chapter are needed to help pave the
way for professionals in the field to "lead the conversation."

        The Fetzer Vineyard Story

                        "The Fetzer Children's Program continues to be used as an example of what is possible
                        when a business believes in the value of children's education and the environment,"
                                                                                                          Paul Dolan
                                                                                                     CEO F&jzerVineyard

        The Fetzer Vineyard, which is located in Hopland, California, initiated the Fetzer Children's Garden &
        Program in 1994 at the firm's organic garden and food education center. The Fetzer Children's Garden
        Program allowed children from the local community to use the Fetzer garden as a classroom setti
        about how food is grown, how to make healthy choices in meal preparation, and how to see the inte
        between insects and the organic garden environment Although the program was discontinued in 199)
        demonstrated that a business can create and fund a unique educational program for young children, te
        families.When preparation for the program began, the Fetzer staff, school district administrators, a teacl
        the University of California at Davis Cooperative Extension personnel, 4-H Clubs, garden and culinary
        environmental biologists, artists and poets, cultural docents, and teen leaders formed a partnership to
        community experiences that demonstrate the connections from earth to the table and a healthy body^

                                  2 0
                                                      FORMAL  EDUCATION

&xamples of (jpportanitzes for
National Wildlife Federation
  1400 16th Street, N.W.
 Washington, D.C. 20036
 To order call: 1-800-432-6564, ($14.95)
"Ecodemia is the story of how America's colleges and universities
are changing their day-to-day operations in response to a growing
environmental awareness."
The Fetzer Childrens Garden & Culinary Arts Program
  1621 Cedar Street
Model Links Program
 P.O. Box 47200
 Olympia,WA 98504-7200
 Phone: 360-664-3684
 Fax: 360-586-3894
The Model  Links Program is a project creating 10 prototype
projects to  demonstrate that environmental education is a
powerful tool for helping implement essential learnings in reading,
writing, communication, and mathematics. Participating elementary
and middle  schools will develop and implement a curriculum
integration  plan with environmental education as the focus of their
restructuring efforts. In 1993, this project was  initiated with a
$250,000 grant from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under
the Environmental Educational Grants program.
                                                              National Education Goals Panel
                                                                1255 22nd Street, N.W., Suite 502
                                                                Washington, D.C. 20037
                                                                Contact: Ken Nelson,
                                                              The National Education Goals Panel is a bipartisan and
                                                              intergovernmental body of federal and state officials created in July
                                                              1990 to assess state and national progress toward achieving the
                                                              National Education Goals. President Clinton established the Goals
                                                              Panel an independent federal agency in 1994 by signing the Goals
                                                              2000: Education America Act.The Goals 2000 Hotline is  1-800-

North American Association for
Environmental Education
  1255 23rd Street, N.W., Suite 400
 Washington, D.C. 20037
 Contact: Ed McCrae
The North American Association for Environmental Education is a
network of professionals and students working in the field of
environmental education throughout North America and more
than 25  countries around the world.The organization promotes
and supports the work of environmental educators. NAAEE is also
a major partner is the Environmental Education and Training
Partnership (EETAP).
World Resources Institute
  1709 New York Avenue, N.W.
 Washington, D.C. 20006
 Contact: Mary Paden
 Phone: 202-662-2573

The World Resources Institute, a policy research and capacity
building institute that works internationally on environment and
development issues, maintains an environmental education project
that produces secondary school and university level educational
materials on issues such as sustainable development, water
pollution, deforestation, urban development, poverty, population
growth, and resources consumption. WRI's Environmental
Education Project works with other organizations to promote
quality environmental education in the United States and
Peace Corps
  ! 990 K Street, N.W.
 Washington, DC 20526
 Contacc Jamie Watts
The mission of the Peace Corps is to promote world peace and
friendship by providing qualified volunteers to interested countries
In need of trained manpower, by fostering a better understanding
of Americans on the part of the people served, and by fostering a
better understanding of other people on the part of Americans.
                                  2 2
                                                      FORMAL  EDUCATION

                    educational expejsilnces in their daily lives than ever before. Formal learning is only
                    the beginmpgnoday, we can gain information and knowledge through the media,
                         Drkplaces, and community activities. Nonformal education offers hands-on
                    experiences as well as more traditional modes of learning. As indicated by the
                    Commission on Global Governance, the need for these nonformal educational
                    experiences is urgent:

"The collective power of people to shape the future is greater now than ever
before, and the need to exercise it is more compelling. Mobilizing that power
to make life in the twenty-first century more democratic, more secure, and
more sustainable is the foremost challenge of this generation.'
                    Systematic approaches are needed to help educational consumers sort through and
                    tie together the information resulting from everyday experiences. An Agenda for
                    Action attempts to articulate opportunities to craft nonformal educational
                    experiences that enhance the ability of citizens to be better consumers, producers,
                    policymakers, and stewards of the environment for their communities.

Expand public access to opportunities to
learn about sustainability issues as they relate
to the private, work, and community lives of
Support a campaign to raise public awareness of sustainability, convey information
on indicators of sustainable development, and encourage individuals to adopt
sustainable practices in their daily lives.


I n today's world, information about the global environment, and sustainable
I development is increasingly available through television, print media,
telecommunications networks, and commercial software products. Using this
information.American citizens make decisions about day-to-day actions on what to
buy and what to do about issues that affect their communities. Although the public
has a heightened awareness of sustainability issues and is responding by making
wise decisions  regarding those issues, the process of sifting through information is
not as easy or  helpful as many would like. Unclear messages increase the difficulty
of encouraging an individual (or targeted audience) to engage in action or make
informed choices.
Federal agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U. S.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis and groups such as the
President's Council on Sustainable Development are creating sustainable
development indicators so that the American public can track and monitor
progress in specific areas.Yardsticks for measuring our nation's progress toward
sustainability and staying in touch with the impacts  of day-to-day actions on natural
and built environments, economic growth and  social systems are vital. Such efforts
can benefit from media attention and support from groups working  cooperatively
to raise the collective awareness and knowledge base of the American public. Only
then can the public's understanding of the meaning and importance of sustainability
be enhanced.
School systems in the United States are struggling to develop and implement the
requisite curricula to teach youngsters about the importance of sustainability and
its relationship to quality of life. Businesses, community groups, and professional
organizations have engaged in this dialogue and have been quick to realize that
more information is needed.
                                   2 4
                                                   NONFORMAL  EDUCATION

                     INITIATIVE 4.1
                     Foster increased public awareness of
                     sustainability through a public awareness
  A concerted public awareness effort will assist the American
/  \public in gaining a firm grasp of the concept of sustainability
and the practices that promote it. The program should employ
specific examples of everyday actions that are sustainable,
descriptive, potential cumulative benefits associated with
sustainable behavior, and the positive impacts of changed U.S.
policies and practices on the world as a whole.

If these efforts are successful, individuals will understand that these
changes are worthwhile and have the potential to raise the quality
of their lives. Easily understood information should be shared on a
regular basis.This information should include relevant measures to
gauge societal progress towards sustainability.
                     INITIATIVE 4.3
                     Entertainment media may consider
                     designing a coordinated media campaign
                     to raise youngsters' awareness of
     The popularity of the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, a
     television program that is seen in 80 countries by 300 million
children a day, suggests that entertainment media can play a role in
raising the awareness of young children about a concept like
sustainability." Such an effort must engage a wide range of
stakeholders and yield benefits for all—most importantly, children.
                    INITIATIVE 4.2
                    Support a system of regularly updated,
                    comprehensible national benchmarks of
                    progress toward the goals of sustainability.
"Throughout the United States, decisions are made that affect the
  I long-term health and viability of communities.These decisions
are responses to growth and development issues and the use and
protection of natural resources. Individual citizens often sense a gap
between their own day-to-day choices and the impact on events at
the broader community, national, or global scales.

With help from the media, a focused partnership aimed at informing
the public about indicators of sustainability can help bridge this gap.
The indicators can provide citizens with information that
demonstrates individual contributions to the overall picture. Such
efforts are under discussion, but no one best formula has been found
to date. With further discussion, however, a system of benchmarks
will emerge that can play a significant role in informing individuals.

     Rescue Mission: Planet Earth

     Sustainable Development Indicators

     Young people around the world are playing a role in monitoring progress toward
     susrainable development through the Sustainability Indicators Project, which is
     sponsored by the United Nations. Under this project, youth help measure progress
     toward building and maintaining healthy communities.The Sustainability Indicators
     Project is spearheaded by Rescue Mission: Planet Earth, an organization with
     affiliates throughout the world.
     School groups, individuals, community groups, and families are invited to participate
     In the projectThe kinds of questions the program is trying to address include:
     "What is happening in your community?" "Are people becoming more prosperous
     while at the same time healing and conserving the environment?"

     Rescue Mission was begun in  1992 by Peace Child International.The initial project, a
     book tided Rescue Mission: Planet Earth, is a children's edition of Agenda 2 /.The
     book, which is filled with case studies, pictures, poems, and  photos, was written and
     illustrated by thousands of young people around the world.

     After publication of the book, Rescue Mission: Planet Earth became an independent
     organization.The United Nations asked Rescue Mission to  create a project that will
                               give young people a role in identifying Sustainability
                         fl    ««  indicators and monitoring the progress achieved
           __  _    „__        since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio.
      ikavotimaiRescue Mission Kind Earth
What is an "INDICATOR"?
Sustainable Development Indicators are based on the broad issues
discussed in. Agenda 21 and involve looking at specific environmental or
social issues, pinpointing trends through analysis. For example, if youth in
Seattle, Washington, monitor the number of days each year they can see the
peak of Mount Rainier, then this can be a simple indicator of air quality in
that region. Similarly, youth can determine the number of new jobs created
in a community in a given year, or analyze population growth over time. For
further information on the "Rescue Mission Indicators Packet," contact
Rescue Mission or The Foundation for the Future of Youth.
                                    2 6
                                                   NONFORMAL   EDUCATION

                     INITIATIVE 4.4
                     Support the continued outreach to
                     American journalists on issues rekted to
    Efforts have been launched to inform the journalism community
    in a systematic way about issues of global environmental
 concern. Examples include The Reporter's Environmental Handbook,
 published by the New Jersey Institute of Technology and Reporting
 Climate Change, published by the National Safety Council. Such
 efforts have been limited, however, and require additional
 resources and a broader base of information on current, accurate
                    INITIATIVE  4.5
                    Establish incentive programs, such as
                    national awards, to recognize successful
                    partnerships within the business
                    community that support educational efforts
                    on sustainability.
"T"he private sector, especially the business community, has been
  I responsible for some of the most innovative programs in the
environmental and sustainable development arena. Nevertheless,
school personnel struggle to establish successful partnerships to
tap the expertise of the business and industry community. At the
same time, businesses are searching to identify the best
educational approaches.

Incentives are needed to encourage and sustain partnerships and
successes that are working. Recognition for those who are
investing  resources and creative energy in the formation and
implementation of educational programs can encourage others if
they believe that their work will be publicly acknowledged.
                ^_^i^ble Developrnent  '"'
 Establish an extension network to enhance the capacity of
 individuals, workforces, and communities to live sustainably.


  If the public is to become more involved in local sustainability
  issues, support mechanisms are needed to translate research
 information, transfer new technologies, introduce educational
 strategies, develop public policy, and organize at the community
 level to chart sustainable courses of action. A successful extension
 network would empower individuals in communities  to shape
 their own futures through an appropriate mix of education,
 technical assistance, and fiscal support. Extension networks give
 individuals the tools to control their own futures, while providing
 data and information, educational expertise, and needed financial

 In addition to the Cooperative Extension System (USDA) based on
 the Smith-Lever Act,20 other federal agencies have developed
 extension services, such as Sea Grant (NOAA), Space Grant
 (NASA), and the Manufacturing Extension Service (Commerce).
 These extension units need a mechanism whereby they can
 continue to use their own networks, invest their own funds, partner
 with other agencies, and make contributions to  communities around
 a common set of goals.
                    INITIATIVE 5.1
                    Establish a national Sustainable
                    Development Extension Network
                    (SDDENET) to foster access to information,
                    technical expertise, and collaborative
                    strategies that result in action taken by local
     Anew mechanism is needed that includes but is not exclusively
     controlled by any one existing extension entity. A redefined
Sustainable Development Extension Network could employ services
offered by diverse educational units such as community colleges,
public schools, and private sector educational entities, as well as
nongovernmental organizations  focusing on similar issues and
priorities. At the same time, the new network can build upon the

current infrastructure that exists in every county in the United
States through the Cooperative Extension System, Sea Grant, and
Space Grant programs.
The existing extension system could contribute to the new
Sustainable Development Extension Network by providing
technical assistance that brings together researchers who are
developing new technologies and those who adopt those new
technologies; promoting sustainable development practices by
providing information on sustainable alternatives and benefits;
facilitating community visioning and planning processes; and
providing access to current data and information  available through
electronic gateways.
A national Sustainable Development Extension Network could
help provide bridges among areas of expertise in  government
agencies, universities, and colleges.To address the concerns of
consumers, producers, communities, and individuals, a new
collaborative strategy could be deployed among organizations that
would provide assistance. A Sustainable Development Extension
Network also would help ensure that local needs drive  national
policy; national policy and programs are coordinated; and research,
education, and extension roles for government and private sector
agencies are clarified. Success ultimately will be assessed by the
actions taken by local communities.
A Sustainable Development Extension Network should  be
coordinated with other initiatives described in An Agenda for
More specifically, the network could:
 I. Assist in the implementation of a national effort to increase
   awareness of sustainability at the state and  community levels.
2. Identify, document, and electronically link community civic groups,
   schools, businesses, and other entities interested in sustainable
3.  Provide for local and state participation in the  development of
    essential learnings in sustainability, design of community visioning
    and assessment processes, student performance outcomes,
    criteria for curriculum development, and other standards.
4.  Coordinate the efforts  of major groups that design  community
    visioning and assessment processes by documenting strategies
    and compiling results of such efforts.
 5.  Identify model programs that satisfy agreed-upon standards of
   sustainable development.
6.  Design and deliver training to organizations and individuals
   interested in applying principles of sustainability to their
   businesses, governments, projects, families, or schools.

7.  Develop a five-year plan of action that targets specific
   geographic areas through a priority-setting process, and
   recommend public policy that enables the actions.

8.  Develop a multidimensional matrix that includes
   environmental, economic, and social components so each
   agency role will be maximized in terms of education, technical
   support, and financial assistance to specific geographic areas.

9.  Coordinate the above functions with new and existing
   clearinghouses related to education for sustainability across the
The proposed action plans, management structure, funding
mechanism, and evaluation indicators for the Sustainable
Development Extension Network are based on shared decision-
making and leadership, coordinated actions, individual and
collective organizational accountability for funds and program
outcomes, and management for results. Although the goal might
be reached more quickly through unilateral investment in a single
organizational entity, the national goal of sustainable development
requires a more comprehensive strategy.
Representatives from the participating agencies as well as state
consortia should direct a process to determine how a Sustainable
Development Extension Network can best be managed, staffed,
and financed.The process should be coordinated  with the national
policy recommendations from the  President's Council on
Sustainable Development and the  Sustainable Communities
Implementation Team of the National Environmental Technology
Strategy. This process should result in the development of
accountability indicators, collection of data, analysis of results, and
formulation of recommendations and conclusions concerning a
Sustainable Development Extension Network.
                                    2 8
                                                     NONFORMAL   EDUCATION

The formation, structure, management, leadership, and
implementation of a Sustainable Development Extension Network
could be based on the following principles:

• Research-based technology is generated and applied as
  determined by community needs.

• Transfer of technology to communities and individuals is based
  on an appropriate combination of education plus technical and
  financial support aimed at user adoption.

« Management processes for identifying needs, setting priorities,
  and building coalitions and partnerships are inclusionary.

• Targeted and focused assistance  responds directly to local
  communities and needs.

• Existing research, education, and extension management and
  delivery systems are utilized, redefined, and expanded.

• Alternative implementation strategies and organizational
  participation models are provided.

• Consistency in substance among programs and the results from
  programs are  based on a verified set of principles and outcomes.
•  Management and design of the structure and process are not
  dominated by any one entity, but developed through a
  collaborative process of defining  common goals and unique
  organizational  roles.
 Encourage partnerships and activities that support community
 visioning and assessment activities.
\ /isioning processes enable communities to plan for the long-
  V term health of their communities and make decisions that will
determine the economic viability of their communities. Many
communities across the nation have taken this challenge seriously
and are engaged in a process of visioning and assessment leading
to strategic planning. Local decision-making can be enhanced with
information and technical assistance from state and federal

At the international level, Chapter 28 of Agenda 21 of the 1992
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
(UNCED)  charged communities with formulating action plans to
move toward a sustainable future.21 This process calls for the
broadest possible public participation, with representatives from
diverse areas coming together to define sustainability on the local
level and support plans and projects that will implement their
communities' visions.
    Farmers and Rural Landowners  Take Positive  Steps
    In 1991, a group of federal agencies initiated a unique voluntary approach to pollution prevention in rural areas.The Farm
    Assessment System and Home Assessment System (Farm*A*Syst/Home*A*Syst) has a simple goal: with technical assistance
    from the agencies, landowners increase their knowledge of health- and non-health-related risks from pollution, look critically at
    their property, and  then take voluntary actions to reduce the risks.

    To date, more than 22,000 individual assessments have been  conducted by farmers, rural homeowners, and ranchers. Actions
    they have, taken to reduce risks on their property range from improving indoor air quality to reducing lead levels in drinking
    water and improving petroleum storage and pesticides handling.

    Participants have invested more than $15 million to reduce environmental risks.The success of the program lies in its flexible
    framework and the local support it generates.

    Farm*A*Syst/Home*A*Syst program materials have been adapted for multicultural use and integration into school curriculaThe
    program is a cooperative effort initiated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education, and
    Extension Service, USDA's Natural Resources Conservation  Service, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A number
    of interagency and private sector partnerships are supporting the programs throughout the United States and Canada.
                                CHAPTER  3

             As a follow-up to Agenda 21 in the United States, the President's Council on
             Sustainable Development (PCSD) was organized to recommend an action strategy
             to move the nation toward a sustainable future. One of the Council's eight task
             forces was the Sustainable  Communities Task Force. Likewise, a Sustainable
             Communities Implementation Team emerged from the National Environmental
             Technology Strategy developed by the National Science and Technology Council.
             These community visioning and assessment efforts at the national level have helped
             to reinforce the numerous community groups throughout the country that are
             achieving local successes by taking new directions and action at the local level.

             Support for community visioning and assessment can be coordinated with other
             initiatives proposed in An Agenda for Action. Interactions with the proposed
             Sustainable Development Extension Network, essential learnings efforts in formal
             education, lifelong learning programs, and the national information clearinghouse
             should be fostered. Just as  Goals 2000 relies extensively on community support for
             educational excellence, community-based educational institutions play a central role
             in shaping the future of communities. Recognition of the importance of education
             in the overall design and implementation of a community vision is a key element of
             this initiative.
                                 INITIATIVE 6.1
                                 Create a national program in partnership with organizations
                                 that may include the National Council of Mayors, the
                                 National Governors' Association, and the National
                                 Association of Counties, that will provide educational
                                 resources and leadership training in support of community
                                 visioning and assessment.
                   National support of visioning processes can include facilitating the exchange of
                   ideas by providing appropriate and timely information about successful
              models for replication; training of leaders for visioning processes; expansion of
              local, regional, national, and international visioning networks; and engagement of
              communities across the nation in integrated, holistic approaches to long-term
              planning for sustainable communities.
              A national program such as this could include the following four components: (I)
              Identifying and compiling examples of visioning processes that have been successful in
              communities in the United States and other nations; (2) Designing and developing a
              workbook and other resource materials for dissemination to interested communities
              to serve as a guidebook for action and planning at the community level; (3)
              Establishing a Leadership Institute for Sustainable Communities to train leaders in
              facilitating cooperative planning by diverse stakeholders; and (4) Establishing a council
3 o
                 NONFORMAL  EDUCATION

                 through the proposed Sustainable Development Extension Network to coordinate
                 efforts at the state and federal levels in support of community visioning activities.

                 A number of communities are in various stages of defining their future and are
                 employing a variety of visioning approaches. A national clearinghouse could
                 facilitate the sharing of successful strategies from communities of various sizes
                 that are wrestling with challenges in diverse environmental and economic
                 contexts.These successes can serve as models for communities with similar
                 characteristics.The tasks to accomplish this include:
        «f * fc*aflli*>te/-$>
        »"*tfei& *ii«^irtK4»-
- Jentifying and compiling
examples of visioning        *
  1 *f* 4-1    ^ ^   ^  ia ^   s*   ^%
processes that^have been    n
successful in communities in .1\
  ie* United States and other
                    1 Identifying successful practices, analyzing the processes used, and
                     distilling commonalities into transferable models.

                    1 Developing print and media materials that illustrate these models and
                     describe methods for replicating visioning and long-term planning
                    A structured workbook and other information can aid stakeholders in
                    planning, dialogue, and information gathering at the local level.  Indicators
                    of progress or benchmarks described in the workbook could include:
                    • Demonstration of investment by partners representing diverse

                    • Ongoing engagement in a community visioning process or
                     commitment to begin such a process;

                    • Definition of the "community," i.e., population center, a coalition of
                     communities in a region, watershed, or ecoregion;

                    • Identification of currently existing resources, i.e., constituencies,
                     community resources, and natural resources;

                    • Design of a mechanism for continuously redefining, reinvesting, and
                     reinventing the community as a self-sustaining entity; and

                    • Emphasis on continuing education, training, and retooling designed to
                     generate a workforce that is appropriately prepared for new
                     technologies and job opportunities.

Communities to train
                                           Key to the success of community visioning and planning are skillful
                                           leadership and advocacy by a few central figures.
                                           • A "trainer of leaders model" could be developed and implemented as
                                             part of the initial phase of encouraging communities to participate in a
                                             visioning process with long-term planning toward a sustainable future.

                                           • The model could emphasize teamwork building, processes for
                                             inclusion of all constituencies, group facilitation skills, networking, and
                                           • Leaders and communities with successful experiences could serve as a
                                             cadre of mentors and development teams to transfer knowledge and
                                             skills to other leaders in communities with similar needs and
                                             characteristics (e.g., sister cities).
ittaojjgh the Sustainable   Ji(
          merit Extension
                                           ' The proposed Sustainable Development Extension Network should
                                            form a coordinating council with representatives from federal agencies,
                                            local  and state governments, business and industry, nongovernmental
                                            organizations, and professional associations.
                                           •The council should  provide a management function at the national
                                            level  and encourage a coordination function at the state level.

                                           • A streamlined, accessible, and efficient system for enabling
                                            communities to request assistance for planning grants, consulting
                                            services, community assessments, and educational support should be
                          3 2
                                          NONFORMAL  EDUCATION

                     j-	--	—ITJJ.JIF	
                     force Development	
Infuse sustainability concepts and practices into development of the U.S. workforce.


T™he current workforce must have the opportunity to develop the skills needed
  I to work sustainably, and future workers need to be adequately prepared in this
area prior to entering the workforce.Training for sustainability will require
initiatives at the state and community levels.Workforce development is also an
important concern for federal policymaking since fewer than 25 percent of our
nation's population obtains a four-year university degree.22 Solutions will require
new federal policies similar to those of the School-to-Work Opportunities Act.23
Work-based learning, coupled with related academic training, can provide America's
young people with the knowledge and skills they need to make an effective
transition from school to a first job in a high-skill, high-wage career track.
  Partnership Prepares Youth for Tomorrow's World
                             High school juniors and seniors in New York state's southern area are completing apprenticeships
                             in the printing industry, thanks to a partnership spearheaded by the Cornell Cooperative
                             Extension in Broome County. Students learn about environmental regulations that insure high
                             standards during product design  and manufacture.They also acquire the technical and social skills
                             necessary to enter a high-performance workplace.

                             Partners include a number of area high schools, the Cornell Youth and Work Program at Cornell
                             University, and the Anitec Image Corporation, a division of International Paper. By working
                             together, the partners in this model apprenticeship program are involving young people in  an
                             industry's manufacturing, research, and development processes. Cornell Cooperative Extension
                             and the Business Alliance in Broome County administer the program.
  photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of Education

"In the new global economy, the only
resource that is really rooted in a
nation—the ultimate source of all its
Wealth—is its people. To compete and
win, our workforce must be luell
educated, well trained, and highly
                              Robert B. Reich
                         U.S. Department of Labor
The transition from an agricultural to an industrial society and, more recently, to an
information society have prompted changes in employment that have not been
sufficiently reflected in workforce development programs. Occupations that once
offered solid careers are in decline; therefore people who are planning their careers
need to assess what skills will be in demand. Employment is expected to reach
147.5 million by 2005, a 12 percent rate of increase24 over the coming decade. Since
job projections are clouded by uncertainties caused by unforeseen changes in
technology or the balance of trade, a workforce must be developed that is readily
adaptable to change.
This need for flexibility and a highly skilled workforce presents a genuine
opportunity for educators. If employers are willing to pay more  for highly skilled
workers, then the quality of education and training should be raised. If linked
effectively to careers, the proportion of good jobs can be increased.The challenge
is to sustain economic vitality and the quality of life that is sometimes taken for
                                                                     INITIATIVE  7.1
                                                                     Disseminate effective school-to-work models that emphasize
                                                                     issues of sustainability while encouraging dialogue with the
                                                                     business sector to address sustainability through hiring and
                                                                     recruitment practices.
                                                     Because the national school-to-work initiative is built upon business
                                                     partnerships, it is important for these programs to integrate components of
                                                 industry-based skill standards. In addition, although many programs are in
                                                 operation, those that promote sustainability have not been identified.

                                                 As efforts like these are launched, the business community could provide job
                                                 opportunities and  internships for students who are studying the principles of
                                                 sustainable development. Attention given to hiring and recruitment practices would
                                                 help complete the cycle and secure an appropriately trained workforce.
                                                                     INITIATIVE 7.2
                                                                     Strengthen the partnership between the U.S. Department of
                                                                     Labor and the American Association of Community Colleges
                                                                     to support education for sustainability.
                                    3 4
                                                    NONFORMAL   EDUCATION

      The development of partnerships with institutions of higher
      education that have the capacity to deliver training to large
  numbers of workers is of paramount importance. A partnership
  funded by the U.S. Department of Labor is attempting to
  implement a comprehensive workforce training initiative that is
  based in community colleges.The partnership is designed to
  enhance the effectiveness of the community college system in
  responding to the retraining needs of dislocated workers as well
  as incumbent workers seeking to upgrade their skills or obtain
  skills certification.The information resulting from  this project is
  disseminated via the Training Technology Resource Center,
  operated by the U.S. Department of Labor.
                     INITIATIVE 7.3
                     Use the U.S. Department of Labor's
                     Training Technology Resource Center as
                     the dissemination vehicle for workforce
                     development information on programs,
                     research, and organizations in the area of
                     education for sustainability.
"TP"he center is an on-line information resource created by the
  I  U.S. Department of Labor's Employment and Training
Administration to gather and disseminate information related to
current workforce development programs and practices.This
initiative would engage the department's regional offices in the
identification and collection of programs, practices, and policies at
the local level. Involvement of the regional offices is an important
component of the Center's reinvention activities.
                   INITIATIVE 7.4
                   Examine the feasibility within the
                   Department of Labor's Occupational
                   Information Network (0*NET) of collecting
                   and disseminating information on
                   emerging occupations in energy efficiency
                   and waste reduction.
    The Department of Labor's Occupational Information
    Network is an automated replacement for the department's
print-based "Dictionary of Occupational Titles." O*NET provides a
f%; ••'•
J!  Training  and Employment for
H"  Disadvantaged Youth  in Maine
     The Penobscot Job-Corps Center, located in Bangor, Maine, is the first center in the country to offer a program in Waste Water
                       Treatment Students enter an actual "shop" environment that includes a sludge pilot plant, laboratory and
                       maintenance shop.They are assigned a peer mentor for the first month, and they receive an array of classroom-
                       type teaching aids. Participants study water quality and environmental issues.They learn how to determine load
                       requirements by interpreting meter and gauge readings, how to regulate the flow of sewage by monitoring
                       control panels and adjusting valves and gates, and how to conduct the tests required at waste water plants. A
                       variety of completion levels are offered, along with opportunities for off-center training at three of Maine's waste
                       water treatment plants. Students who successfully complete the training can expect a competitive salary.
     About Job Corps

     Job Corps is a national training and employment program administered by the Department of Labor,
     which serves economically disadvantaged young people between the ages of 16 and 24, primarily
     high school dropouts. Unique to Job Corps and key to its success is its residential program, offering
     students comprehensive services 24 hours a day. Job Corps operates through a partnership among
     government, labor, and the private sector.
                                                                                       photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of Education

timely, easy-to-use computer database that supports national
efforts to revitalize the American workforceThe database is an
operational prototype for collecting, analyzing, organizing,
publishing, and disseminating scientifically verified information on
worker skills and job requirements. O*NET will help millions of
employers, workers, educators, and students make informed
decisions about education, training, and careers. It also could foster
sustainability by highlighting occupations related to energy
efficiency and waste reduction.
_	_	     framing	
Encourage lifelong learning about sustainability at the individual,
household, and community levels.
     As commonly defined, lifelong learning is "adult education for
     individuals who no longer attend school on a regular, full-time
basis." The term lifelong learning encompasses adult education for
vocational and professional advancement, enjoyment and leisure,
and remediation for improving basic skills and knowledge needed
to function as a member of a family or community. Although the
concept initially focused on community colleges, the idea is
spreading to public schools, institutions of higher education,
community agencies, proprietary schools, and computer software
The continually changing world in which we live requires that
learners of all ages educate themselves throughout their lives.This
need is compounded by the fact that fewer than 25 percent of the
U.S. population obtains a four-year college degree. Among two-
year college students enrolled as students in October 1990,77
percent were not enrolled a year later.25 Given these statistics,
many individuals must obtain skills outside the classroom.
More people than ever before are looking to various forms of
lifelong learning opportunities to upgrade their skills and increase
their job stability. In the 1970s, more than 80 percent of all adults
were involved in self-directed learning each year, and  the average
adult spent 500 hours a year in either formal or nonformal learning
programs.3*  More than 60 million adults participated in some form
of lifelong learning activities in the 1980s.27 Figures released by the
College Board  in  1993 demonstrate that the proportion of adult
students in college enrollments has been increasing steadily over
the past two decades: from about 30 percent in  1970 to 40
percent in 1980 to close to 45 percent in 1990.28
The U.S. Department of Commerce has found that in most
regions of the world, the population aged 15 to 64 is expected to
grow faster than the school-age population.29 In addition, by the
year 2020 people who are 60-plus in North America, Europe, and
the former Soviet Union will constitute 24 percent of the
population of those regions as compared with individuals from
birth to 4, who will comprise 6 percent.30 These demographic
changes suggest that opportunities for lifelong learning will
become increasingly important.
Americans need to remain competitive in the workplace, both
domestically and internationally. Continuous learning helps bolster
public awareness of the changing global marketplace while
encouraging individuals to be more productive and successful
citizens.Technology helps adult learners gain greater control  over
when, where, and how they obtain new skills and knowledge.
Computers and telecommunication devices provide new access to
learning for remote populations, special populations such as the
disabled, and workers on-site and at home.
Learning about the concept of sustainability is an ongoing process.
Learning opportunities should include the essential learnings  of
sustainable development and the practical approaches that
contribute to sustainable living.
Lifelong learning at the individual level  is critical to reaching the
National Education Goal's fifth objective, which  states that every
adult American will be literate by year 2000 and will possess the
knowledge and skills necessary to compete in a global economy.31
To keep abreast of changes  in their fields and advances in
technology, an increasing number of adults are taking courses to
advance their careers, upgrade their skills, and enrich their lives.
As a result, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has reported that
employment of adult educators is  expected to grow faster than
the average for other occupations as the demand for adult
education programs continues to rise.32
Many members of our nation's adult population lack the literacy
and mathematical skills needed for success in modern society.
Basic education for adults is an increasing concern because of low
literacy levels among the adult population. In 1990, nearly one
billion  adults worldwide aged 15 and over were illiterate.33 The
National Adult Literacy Survey of 1992 revealed that
approximately 48 percent of the adults in the United States scored
                                    3 6
                                                     NONFORMAL  EDUCATION

Physicians for the Environment
Educating Doctors and the Public
The health care industry is educating its workforce about the environment through activities of the National
Association of Physicians for the Environment (NAPE). Founded in 1992, NAPE encourages physicians, nurses,
pharmacists, and veterinarians to inform patients and animal owners about the impacts of environmental
pollutants on health so they understand that pollution prevention is disease prevention. Members include the
American Medical Association and thirty other medical societies.

The organization has instituted a nationwide program to "green" more than 388,500 medical facilities: offices of
physicians, dentists, and veterinarians; medical clinics; long-term health care facilities; laboratories; blood banks;
medical schools; pharmacies; and the offices of health organizations such as the American Cancer Society and
American Lung Association.

Other activities include establishing environmental audits in hospitals, medical schools, and pharmaceutical
companies to reduce energy consumption and  medical wastes; convening conferences  on environmental health
issues, such as air and water pollution; emerging infectious djseases;
establishing a clearinghouse and Internet home page for health
information related to environmental issues; encouraging physicians
to take a leadership role in their communities to educate the public
about health-related environmental issues; helping the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency educate physicians and the public
about the UV Index developed by the National Weather Service; and
involving physicians in global environmental issues such as
biodiversity, e.g., by surveying the 150 most widely prescribed drugs
to determine their derivation from the natural world.

NAPE could be a model for a national coalition of health
professionals for the environment. Members could include
organizations for nurses and health-related professionals such as
epidemiologists and toxicologists; health and life insurance groups;
hospitals; medical media; pharmaceutical organizations; biotechnology
associations; and voluntary health organizations. Medical schools have
already formed the Consortium for Environmental Education in
Medicine, whose membership includes faculty members from Boston
University, Brown, Harvard, Massachusetts.Tufts and Rhode Island
medical schools.

at the two lowest levels of literacy proficiency, i.e., indicating that
they are almost illiterate." Comprehensive adult literacy programs
that teach out-of-school adults basic literacy and occupational
skills are the most beneficial programs because they allow
individuals to obtain jobs and lead more successful and
satisfying lives.
Encouraging lifelong learning about sustainability at the household
level depends partly on the extent to which adults are aware and
pass on that knowledge. If parents are lifelong learners, children
also are likely to become lifelong learners.When adults take full
advantage of the many resources available in their community, they
will strengthen the relationship between home and school while
enhancing their own work and personal lives.
At the community level, libraries are an important force in  .
fostering literacy skills and providing adult part-time education.
Community colleges offer a valuable resource as well. Community
college programs that serve the needs of the community and
strengthen the education of local citizens should be identified and
                   INITIATIVE 8.1
                   Develop community college courses and
                   programs aimed at producing the skills and
                   information needed for contributing to
                   sustainable activities at work and during
                   leisure activities.
     Courses should highlight retraining on practical skills and the
     changing role of technology. Continued efforts by nonprofit
groups, civic organizations, and the business community are
needed to ensure that needs responding to a vision of healthy,
prosperous neighborhoods and communities are being identified
and met

    Vision into Action
    Software for Understanding Sustainability
    A promising computer software program for lifelong learning about sustainability is currently under development. "Vision into
    Action," Is aimed at helping individuals and families move from a broad-brush understanding of global sustainability to a
    comprehension of its meaning in their own lives and communities.
    Users work through a personal, family, and community assessment and visioning process. A number of success stories and
    models of sustainability are documented that can be adapted by individuals for use in their own lives, businesses, and
    organizations.They also can enter data to track their own progress toward sustainability.
    The developers welcome submission of examples from communities and families. Once development is completed, the "Vision
    into Action" program will be available from the Global Action and Information Network in Santa Cruz, California.
                                  3 8
                                                  NONFORMAL  EDUCATION

  Reaching Out—Promoting Community Sustainability
  The Center for Better Communities, headquartered in Honolulu, Hawaii, is a relatively new nonprofit organization comprised of
  planners, architects, and concerned citizens who strive to create better, and more livable communities.The Center functions as a
  resource for information on new visions for designing communities. Founders of the organization say that one of their key roles is
  initiating and facilitating discussion of fresh alternatives to existing development patterns in order to address issues of diversity,
  equity, and a healthy, prosperous future.

  Workshops, conferences, training, and other services are used to raise awareness and inform the public, elected officials, educators,
  and other professionals. A seminar series entitled "Re-inventing the Environmental Agenda" serves as a community forum for
  discussing current environmental issues and highlights examples of how ordinary people, locally and globally, are taking the lead in
  achieving sustainability.The Center's over-riding goal is community capacity-building, i.e., nurturing the ability for people to problem
  solve responsibly as a community.

                  "/ believe that sustainability is the organizing principle—both context and framework—for
                  environmental literacy.... It merges education and application, so learning becomes a way of life for
                  taking personal responsibility—together—for all decisions that affect the environment. The essential
                  building blocks for sustainability are our daily lifestyle choices"
                                                                                Ramona K. Mullahey
                                                                                Center for Better Communities
A range of educational opportunities and venues must be tapped as tools for
raising public awareness and knowledge of sustainability. More attention must be
directed to these tools—how they are developed and how they are used—by the
business and nonprofit sectors as well as those whose primary mission is
education. Current research reveals that Americans are increasingly concerned
about the needs of future generations.35 The challenge is to work to sustain quality
of life and a healthy environment.
                                                                                  3 9

           s of Opportunities for ^Partnerships
The American Association of Community Colleges
 One Dupont Circle, N.W. Suite 410
 Washington, D.C. 20036
 Contact:James McKenney
The American Association of Community Colleges serves the
interests of the nation's two-year colleges; ensuring that the
achievements, capacities, and interests of the colleges are
recognized and understood among U.S. Congress,The White
House, and federal agencies. It also collaborates with national
higher education associations, trade associations, and other groups
that represent the constituencies that are  important to local
colleges.The association's role encompasses advocacy, policy
initiatives, research, educational services, and coordination.
The Consortium for Environmental Education in
Medicine (CEEM)
  17 Monsignor O'Brien Highway
  Cambridge, MA 02141
  Contact: Madaleine R. Ochinang
The Consortium for Environmental Education in Medicine is a
nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing human health by
understanding its relation to the environment. CEEM is working on
a systematic effort to bring environment and health perspectives
into medical education.
Center for Better Communities
  PO Box 1348
  Honolulu, HI  96807
  Contact: Ramona Mullahey or Alex Neuhold
  Fax: 808-528-4217
The Center for Better Communities is a nonprofit, tax-exempt
educational resource organization, founded in 1995, whose mission
is to foster research, thought, and action in support of quality
environments and more livable communities.
Cornell Cooperative Extension
  358 Roberts Hall
  Cornell University
  Ithaca, NY  14853
  Contact: Benjamin Wood
  Phone: 607-255-2231
  Fax: 607-255-0788

The Cornell Cooperative Extension System links research,
knowledge, and technology to the needs of individuals, families,
businesses, and communities throughout New York State.The
systems purpose is to provide economic, social, environmental, and
agricultural education.
                                  4 o
                                                  NONFORMAL  EDUCATION

Voluntary Pollution Prevention Programs
  B142 Steenbock Library
  Madison.WI  53706
  Contact: Gary W.Jackson
  Phone: 608-262-0024
  Fax: 608-265-2775
Farm*A*Syst/Home*A*Syst is a successful partnership between
government and  industry that meets the pollution challenges posed
by farms and other rural resources.The program's formula of
education, self-assessment, and action plans motivates rural
landowners to voluntary action.
 National Association of Physicians
 for the Environment (NAPE)
  6410 Rockledge Drive, Suite 412
  Bethesda,MD 20817
  Contact: Betty Farley
  Phone: 301-571-9791
 NAPE, a nonprofit organization, works with the national medical
 specialties and subspecialties, with national, state, and local medical
 societies, and local medical societies, and with individual physicians
 to deal with the impacts of environmental pollutants on the organs,
 systems, or disease processes best known to them. NAPE also
 informs patients and the public about the impact of pollutants and
 the necessary health steps that should be taken to reduce or
 eliminate those pollutants.
The Foundation for the Future ofYouth
  11426 Rockville Pike, Suite 100
  Rockville, MD 20852
  Contact: David Pines
The Foundation for the Future ofYouth is an idea-generating and
problem-solving organization working with young people to
develop a vision for their future and the mechanisms for realizing
that vision.The foundation offers innovative thinking, strategic
resources, and visionary leadership for building healthy
environments.The foundation coordinates U.S. activities for the
global action project spawned from Rescue Mission: Planet Earth, a
young persons version of Agenda 21.
O*NET:The Occupational Information Network
  Office of Policy and Research
  Employment and Training Administration, N5637
  U.S. Department of Labor
  Washington, DC. 20210
  Phone: 202-219-7161 x!30
O*NET is the automated replacement for the print-based
Dictionary of Occupational Tides. It provides a timely, easy-to-use
computer database that supports national efforts to revitalize the
American workforce. O*NET is an operational prototype for
collecting, analyzing, organizing, publishing, and disseminating
scientifically verified, worker skill and job requirement information.
                                   CHAPTER  3
                                                                                       4 1

PenobscotJob Corps Center
  1375 Union Street
  Contact: Greg Dumonthier
  Phone: 207-990-3000x168
Job Corps is the nations largest residential education and training
program for disadvantaged youth.The program provides
occupational exploration, world of work and social skills training,
and competency-based vocational and basic education. Participants
In Penobscot Job Corps Center's Waste Water Treatment program
study water quality and environmental issues from the perspective
of waste water treatment
Rescue Mission
 The White House
 Buntingford, Herts SG9 9AH
 United Kingdom
 Phone: (+44) 176-327-4459
 Fax: (+44) 176-327-4460
 E-mail: 100640.3551
Rescue Mission works throughout the world bringing innovative
thinking, strategic resources, and leadership to our young people
and youth workers to develop and realize a vision for their future.
President's Council on Sustainable Development
  730 Jackson Place, N.W.
  Washington, D.C. 20503
  Contact: Angela Park
The PCSD was established by President Clinton in 1993—a
unique mix of 25 individuals representing business, labor,
environmental, civil rights, tribal, and local leaders along with
members of the President's CabinetThe PCSD's mission is to
develop a "national sustainable development action strategy
that will foster economic vitality while protecting our natural
and cultural resources." The PCSD produced a report that
outlines the first steps the nation needs to take in order to
move toward a more sustainable future.
School-to-Work Opportunities Act
The National School to Work Office
 400 Virginia Avenue, S.W., Suite 210
 Washington, D.C. 20024
 Contact J.D. Hoye
The purpose of this Act is to establish a national framework within
which all states can create  statewide school-to-work opportunities
systems that are a part of comprehensive education reform; are
integrated with the systems developed under the Goals 2000:
Educate America Act and the National Skill Standards Act of 1994;
offer opportunities for all students to participate in a performance-
based education and  training program that will enable them to earn
portable credentials: prepare the students for first jobs in high-skill,
high-wage careers; and increase their opportunities for further
education, including education in a four-year college or university.
                                   4 2
                                                   NONFORMAL  EDUCATION

Training Technology Resource Center
  Room N6507
  U.S. Department of Labor
  Washington, D.C. 20210
  Contact: Brian Shea
The Training Technology Resource Center was created by the U.S.
Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration to
provide information on workforce development models, new
initiatives, and emerging policies. Its mission is to serve as an
electronic  point of access to a wide range of workforce
development information and to promote information sharing
throughout the Employment and Training Community.The center
accomplishes this by collecting and disseminating information on
subjects like "one-stop career center systems," emerging training
and learning technologies.
Vision Into Action Program
Global Action and Information Network
  740 Front Street, Suite 355
  Santa Cruz, CA 95060
  Contact: Bill Leland
The Vision Into Action Program is an interactive program to
encourage individuals to act in their personal lives and
communities for sustainability.The program guides people in
setting goals, selecting appropriate actions, and monitoring
progress toward sustainability.
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension
Service (CSREES)
 Aerospace Building, Room #329C
 Ag Box 2210
 Washington, D.C.  20250-2210
 Contact:  Greg Crosby, National Program Leader

4  4
                              NONFORMAL    EDUCATION

 of policies that can help establish an infrastructure for fostering education for
 sustainability.That journey can begin through the formulation of recommendations
 that are broad in scope, touch all learners, and can serve as catalysts for action. In
 this chapter, four cross-cutting actions are offered that lay the foundation for a solid
 infrastructure for education for sustainability.

 These recommendations address goals both at the federal and state levels.They
 suggest taking advantage of communication and information technologies that
 access quantities of information never before possible in the classroom. They also
 take into account the planet's rich diversity of cultures and look beyond the United
 States to our nation's global partners.Together with their related actions, they are
 the building blocks for broadening education for sustainability.
                                            4 S

                                                                             I Federal Policy Changes
                                                                             MW ••	   "^'«'	 ".  ' *^		—.	S2....,	
Institute policy changes at the federal, state,
and local levels to encourage education for
sustainability; develop, use, and expand access
to information technologies in all educational
settings; and encourage understanding about
how local issues fit into state, national, and
international contexts.
                                                 Initiate strategic state and federal policy changes, including establishing necessary
                                                 partnerships, as the foundation for a coordinated strategy for education for
    At the state and federal levels, interest and investment in environmental
    education are long-standing. Historically, state and federal agencies have
delivered a spectrum of programs and directed resources to advance environmental
careers, as well as to protect and enhance human health and the environment. In
addition, state and federal agencies have invested in promoting the increase in
knowledge and skills needed for the public to make informed decisions about the
use and conservation of natural resources.  Encompassing the broader, overarching
vision of sustainability will require partners in government to develop  effective
approaches to education and public understanding.
Limited resources hinder government efforts to support opportunities in the field
of education for sustainability. Even when resources are available, there are no
guarantees from year to year that the support will be reauthorized. Nor are
available resources adequate to support agency missions and meet the public's need
for education and training  in this area.
A coordinated effort among federal agencies to foster collaboration, engage in long-
term planning and sharing  of resources should be pursued.  One consequence of an
uncoordinated single agency mission approach is duplication of efforts and overlap
in programs.  Enhancing cooperation and  coordination will help in designing
effective programs and materials that broadly reflect agency missions and respond
to the public's needs.
Although exemplary collaborative projects at the state and federal levels are
underway, the resources needed to sustain such efforts and maintain ongoing
communication is a challenging undertaking. The  result is a limited number of
sustained quality programs and insufficient evaluation  and promotion of the success
of these programs.
                                    4 6
                                                    CROSS-CUTTING  THEMES

     The Clinton Administration's priorities include the creation of
     jobs, educational reform, workforce training, economic
 competitiveness, and environmental protection. In short, the
 Administration has a strong commitment to sustainability. How
 can we meet the needs of today without compromising the ability
 of future generations to meet their own needs? One solution is
 education; another is technology.

 The National Environmental Education Act of 1990 is designed to
 improve public understanding of the environment and to advance
 and develop environmental education  and training.The Act directs
 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to  play a
 leadership role among federal agencies in implementing the new
 law and encourages partnerships among federal government
 agencies, local education institutions, state agencies, not-for-profit
 educational and environmental organizations, and the private
 sector. This role  is assisted by the National Environmental
 Education and Training Foundation (NEETF).The Act has provided
 the  EPA with the authority to administer national grants, teacher
 training, internship and youth programs.
 In 1993, a working group of the Federal Coordinating Council
 for Science,  Engineering, and Technology, co-chaired by the  EPA
 and the U.S. Department of Education found a growing interest
 in environmental education among federal agencies. In
 addition, the agencies recognized that needs in this area have
 been exceeding the resources available and that an opportunity
 exists to coordinate priorities and resources, thereby reducing
 duplication among the agencies.
 Congress affirmed its commitment to education through
 bipartisan support of the Goals 2000: Educate America Act.35 The
 principles underlying Goals 2000 include: the need for high
 expectations  for students; full participation by parents, educators,
 and communities  in education; safe and disciplined learning
 environments; quality teaching and professional development;
 effective and coordinated use of technology in learning; systemic
 reform; and custom-made school improvements. Goals 2000
 provides national  leadership to  enable states and communities to
 raise academic performance.
The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy,
understanding the importance of raising academic standards and
aware of the need for educating students about environmental
 technologies, identified education as a priority policy area of the
 National Environmental Technology Strategy.The Strategy calls for an
 integrated, interdisciplinary education and training system for
 students at all levels.

 The National Environmental Technology Strategy, in combination with
 Goals 2000 and other educational initiatives throughout the
 federal government, such as initiatives led by the National
 Aeronautics and Space Administration, Environmental Protection
 Agency, National Park Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric
 Administration, National Science Foundation, Department of
 Energy, Peace Corps, and others can help ensure that all learners
 achieve  high standards and are knowledgeable about sustainable
 environmental technologies of the future. We owe all learners
 nothing less.
                         INITIATIVE 9.1
                        Establish a working group within the
                        National Science and Technology
                        Council to devise and coordinate the
                        implementation of broad federal
                        policies for education for sustainability,
                        ensuring an integrated set of federal
                        programs directed to high priority
                        national needs.
  In 1993, the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC)
  was established by President Clinton to coordinate policy
development, coordination, and implementation of the $72 billion
federal budget dedicated to science and technology.
Approximately $6 billion of this budget is earmarked for research
and development related to the environment and  natural
resources, but only a small fraction of these funds are focused on
education for sustainability.
The Council ensures that federal funds are directed to national
goals—both near- and long-term—and helps federal managers
become familiar with related programs in other agencies, ensuring
that efforts  are not duplicated, and facilitating coordination of similar
activitiesTwo NSTC reports resulting from this effort, Technology for
a Sustainable Future: A Framework for Action and Bridge to a Sustainable
Future:A National Environmental Technology Strategy,36 include
discussions and recommendations pertaining to the advancement of

environmental and sustainability education at the K-12, community
college, and university levels.
Of the Council's nine committees, two in particular play a leadership
role in advancing education relating to sustainability: the Committee
on Environment and Natural Resources and the Committee on
Education andTraining.The Committee on Environment and Natural
Resources provides a mechanism for interagency coordination
related to domestic and international environmental and natural
resources Issues.The Committee on Education and Training works
to coordinate and focus federal efforts so that they become a
powerful force in helping Americans meet the challenges of the 21st
century. This will be accomplished by ensuring that all Americans
have access to quality education and training tailored to their
individual learning and workplace needs, and achieving exemplary
performance that is second to none in science, math, engineering,
and technology in American classrooms  and workplaces."
A Working Group on Education for Sustainability has been
established that builds on the expertise of these two NSTC
committees and other education efforts across the government
Priority activities will be developed by the participating federal
agencies. The Working Group on Education for Sustainability can
guide this coordination, linking and maximizing federal investments
in education for sustainability. Agency initiatives in this area must be
carefully coordinated if collective action  and collaborative
partnerships are to become benchmarks of federal leadership.
Additionally, the working group should coordinate its activities with
 the EPATask Force on Environmental Education, which was created
 to advise the EPA on its implementation of the National
 Environmental  Education ActThe broad policy perspective of the
 National Science andTechnology Council's Working Group on
 Education for Sustainability coupled with the specific mandate of the
 Federal Task Force on Environmental Education could provide a
 beneficial 2-pronged approach to education for sustainability across
 the federal government Leveraging limited federal resources to spur
 initiatives in the private sector should be a priority. Ultimately, the
 working group's efforts should result in an integrated set of federal
 programs directed to national needs and closely linked to and
 supportive of private sector, state, and international activities.
                       INITIATIVE 9.2
                       Explore ways to coordinate resources,
                       make education for sustainability more
                       central to agency missions, and increase
                       funding of education for sustainability
                       programs and research.
      Once coordinated efforts are established among federal agencies
      to enhance government's capacity for designing, developing, and
supporting educational efforts in the area of sustainability, it will be
possible to provide technical assistance to federal agencies for
maintenance of these programs. Strategic planning and investment in
long-range strategies to strengthen efforts in education and evaluate
the effectiveness of such investment is not only necessary but is the
key to the success of educational programs.

Assistance in identifying needs and responding with strategic
programs and materials that tap the strengths  of other agencies
and partners from the private and nongovernmental sector is
greatly needed. Linkages and partnerships that are effective and
resourceful—and persist over time—would ensure that the
educational community benefits from a coordinated effort to
provide responsive programs and services.
  It is essential that states take the lead in infusing education for
  sustainability into the classroom. Development of programs
 related to sustainability varies from state to state and among
 communities around the country. No one state has incorporated
 this kind of programming fully into its formal and nonformal
 educational institutions. A given student may receive an
 environmental education unit in one or two classes in the early
 grades, and possibly an environmental studies elective in high
 school. If students are to develop interdisciplinary, systems-based
 knowledge of the natural and built environments and the skills to
 participate actively in developing a sustainable society and
 economy, education for sustainability should be infused into more
 subject areas and at all grade levels. It also should  be reinforced  in
 postsecondary institutions and  outside the walls of the classroom.
 Fortunately, education leaders in many states are working toward
 these goals.

                                    4 8
                                                     CROSS-CUTTING   THEMES

 Programs and initiatives in many states date back to the 1960s and
 1970s. Professionals in the field developed educational frameworks
 for environmental education, created teaching materials and
 programs, and conducted research to help facilitate the infusion. In
 many states, education leaders also worked to pass legislation
 encouraging the teaching of environmental education.They worked
 to create positions for environmental education specialists in state
 education agencies and advanced initiatives for incorporating
 environmental education across the curriculum.
 The challenge today is to encourage and support comprehensive
 programs that result in learners with a commitment to sustaining
 ecologically sound and economically prosperous communities,
 cities, and regions.To date, work has been completed toward
 outlining the components of a state-level comprehensive
 environmental education program. "Comprehensive," in this case,
 refers to a combination  of program, structure, and funding

 The National Environmental Education Advancement Project,
 (NEEAP) headquartered at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens
 Point, has been assisting  states in their efforts to develop
 comprehensive programs. NEEAP, with the support of its
 partners—the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, North
 American Association for Environmental Education, National
 Wildlife Federation, and the National Fish and Wildlife
 Foundation—provides seed funding, leadership training, consulting
 services, a clearinghouse, and a quarterly newsletter to individuals
 interested in strengthening state-level environmental education
 programs. NEEAP has developed "EE 2000," a project that will
 assist 20 states by the year 2000 in building comprehensive
 environmental education programs.
Across the nation only a handful of states have achieved a majority
of the components: Maryland, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and
Wisconsin. In addition, at least 30 other states have a few, or at
 least one, cornerstone component in place. Many of these states,
including Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois,
Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Missouri, North Carolina,
Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota,Tennessee.Texas,Washington,
and Wyoming, have active environmental education associations,
committees, or councils that are currently in the process of
strengthening their state environmental education programs.
                        INITIATIVE 9.3
                        Develop consortia to coordinate, both
                        among states and at the federal level,
                        the infusion of education for
                        sustainability into formal and
                        nonformal educational institutions.
     As states design comprehensive programs, moving forward
     through legislative or administrative channels and public-
private partnerships, efforts to coordinate across state lines and
with federal agencies are crucial.The formation of state consortia
as partners with federal agencies to participate in setting priorities
will ensure open lines of communication, consistency, coordination,
and accountability.
State consortia will be formed by linking existing and essential
networks of public and private entities in each state.The purpose
of the consortia will be to integrate research, education, and
extension functions in support of sustainable development
practices at the community  level, and to coordinate with other
states in the region and with federal agencies.

Components of State-Level Comprehensive
Environmental Education (EE)  Programs
                                                                    © National Environmental
                                                                    Education Advocacy Project

"Today, zve have a dream for a different
kind of superhighway that can save lives,
create Jobs, and give every American
young and old, the chance for the best
education available to anyone,
anywhere, I challenge you connect
all of our classrooms, all of our libraries,
and all of our hospitals and clinics by
the year 2000."
                                   Al Gore
                  Vfce President of the Unfted States
                           igy and Information

Coordinate or enhance existing essential tools for formal and nonformal
environmental and sustainable development education, including multimedia
computer and telecommunications technologies and an information

   Success in advancing education for sustainability programs nationally and globally
   will depend to a large degree on the extent to which advanced communication
systems such as the Internet are used to make information available to teachers,
students, and the public. Nationwide, tens of millions of people have access to the
Internet Globally, the rate at which the Internet is being accessed is advancing at
lightning speed.The Internet and the associated World Wide Web are highly
efficient and cost-effective systems for linking educators, policymakers, students, and
parents interested in advancing education for sustainability.
In parallel with the growth of the Internet, the demand for information by way of
interactive, multimedia technologies have advanced rapidly in recent years and are
projected to continue to grow even faster in the years ahead. In the United States
alone, the number of homes containing multimedia personal computers is
increasing rapidly. A multitude of products are available commercially and are being
used in schools, homes, and workplaces.These include a variety of interactive
multimedia products such at CD-ROMs, which allow students to learn about the
environment through text, audio, and video images. Educational tools such as these
are designed to hold students' interest and encourage creativity while conveying
information. Computer-aided environmental education that takes advantage of new
interactive multimedia approaches will grow dramatically in the coming decade.
Society is being transformed by information and communication technologies, yet
the application of this technology in the classroom is lagging. As  recently stated by
the U.S. Department of Education:

  "Everywhere we look, technology is changing the way we work and
  live. Everywhere, that is, but in our classrooms. In an information-
  age society we have factory  era schools. In classrooms that could be
  modern communication centers for learning, the basic media of
  instruction continue to be blackboards and chalk. Only a handful
  of schools have full access to the new technologies that are
  becoming so central to our lives, and the abundant learning
  resources available on the information superhighway are out of
  reach for most of our teachers, students, and parents."3"
                                 5 o
                                                CROSS-CUTTING  THEMES

Studies have demonstrated that students are capable of learning at substantially
higher levels than they are achieving at present. Information and communication
technologies offer major opportunities for improvement, and these technologies are
the key to ensuring a well-trained, highly motivated workforce.
Given the attractiveness of interactive multimedia to students, progress toward
sustainability will depend in part on the extent to which modern technologies are
employed in disseminating curricula and related education resources. Access to
technology is clearly a limiting factor in advancing this field nationally and globally.
In the United States, lack of telephone lines in classrooms is a barrier to teachers'
participation in electronic communications networks.The good news is that access
to telephone lines and advanced communication devices is improving at a rapid
pace. In  1993, approximately one-fourth of U.S. schools had modems.39  By 1994,
those figures inched up to nearly 65 percent in all schools, including 77 percent of
all high schools had this technology.'10 Telecommunications systems are advancing
rapidly worldwide, and the education community should continue to take advantage
of this emerging network to reach millions of individuals and organizations on a
global scale.
Equity in access to advanced educational technology will be an important factor as
these technologies expand and mature. Ensuring equal access to technology is
critical, and resources from both the public and private sectors will be required by
educational institution.
"In our GLOBE* program, we are studying
how to take measurements and send them
over the Internet. We have taken
temperature readings, soil moisture
readings, cloud observations, solid and
rain precipitation readings, water
temperature andpH readings. The readings
show us how the changing weather and
seasons affect the everyday events we
normally see and ignore, to better
understand the environment we live in, is
to help better the environment we live in."

                                  Jason Terry
                                 GLOBE student
            Kingsburg High School, Kingsburg, California
                                                                                     ,14-earning and Observations to Benefit
                                                                                     Ironment (GLOBE) is an international
                                                                                     —-ES-^—    x       '
                                                                                       fid*education program coordinating the
                                                                                      [.students, teachers, and scientists to
                                                                                     and understand the global environment.
                                  CHAPTER   4

                                                                 INITIATIVE  I O.I
                                                                 Enhance existing interactive information and
                                                                 communications networks designed to facilitate the
                                                                 exchange of information on education for sustainability
                                                                 through the Internet, linking educators, students, and
                                                                 policymakers globally.
                                                During the past year, thousands of organizations have established Internet
                                                World Wide Web "home pages" that allow computer users to access
                                           information about a wide range of programs and activities. A home  page permits
                                           an individual to identify information products and access them instantly. It also
                                           facilitates two-way communication and cooperative activities, allowing educators to
                                           organize and exchange a wide range of information.
                                           A newly created federal home page for environmental and sustainability education,
                                           for example, could facilitate access to information on programs in federal
                                           departments and agencies, grant programs, government-supported projects in the
                                           private sector, and projects  in states and  communities, as well as information on
                                           educational tools and curricula. Such a home page could be facilitated by the
                                           National Science and Technology Council.
                                                                  INITIATIVE  10.2
                                                                  Develop, regularly update, and disseminate a videotape
                                                                  or CD-ROM that features the current year's highlights
                                                                  related to successful efforts in education for
                                                                  sustainability, such as partnerships, leaders who have
                                                                  played important roles, curriculum materials, and other
                                                                  information resources.
                                                igrams in education for sustainability are expanding rapidly nationally and
                                              internationally, and vast quantities of materials and information on educational

 Technology Learning Challenge Offers Partnership  Opportunities
 In 1994, the Clinton Administration, through the U.S. Department of Education, announced Technology Learning Challenge
 grants to serve as catalysts for change. The grants support communities of educators, parents, industry partners, and
 community leaders who are working to craft their schools for the 21 st century. The department awards $9.5 million in
 challenge grants to 19 communities a year. In February 1996, President Clinton announced America's Technology Literacy
 Challenge, an expanded version that will, if passed by Congress, award $2 billion over five years.
                                             CROSS-CUTTING  THEMES

successes, within and outside the classroom, are being developed. Educators need
easy access to information that will aid them in teaching. Likewise, at the university
level, information on education for sustainability is increasingly in demand as
universities build multidisciplinary teaching and research programs in this area.

The advances are so rapid that an annually updated resource, in the form of a "who's
who" or national "spotlight" would be useful for educators, students, parents,
community leaders, government officials, industry managers, and individuals  in
nonprofit organizations addressing education for sustainability.
                         INITIATIVE 10.3
                         Support coordination of existing clearinghouses to offer
                         collaboratively a primary point of contact for
                         incorporating and disseminating the vast array of
                         information resources on education for sustainability
                         available through print and electronic media.

  Information related to education for sustainability is available in a variety of
  formats—hard copy curricula to multimedia CD-ROMs to "distance learning"
activities. Programs include the Educational Resources Information Clearinghouse
(ERIC), EE-Link, various compendiums, and on-line networks such as EcoNet.To
date, there has not been an effort to coordinate and link existing services through a
"one-stop-shop" for the user that identifies all links to  any desired end product,
whether existing materials, conferences or programs, information for dissemination
to the public, or vital linkages between an identified need of a particular student
body and a scientist or other expert.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Education Division has
launched a new effort, the Environmental Education and Training  Partnership, which,
among other objectives, facilitates partnerships between existing clearinghouses
such as ERIC, the Eisenhower Clearinghouse, EE-Link, and services offered by the
North American Association for Environmental Education.This program will
provide a resource library aimed at improving existing databases of environmental
education materials as well as access to such information. Additionally, the
Environmental Education and Training Partnership will complete the development
of standards for environmental education  materials and provide training on
methods of evaluation of environmental education materials using existing
databases.  As part of an  effort to explore additional partnerships in this area, the
partnership will facilitate a meeting with providers of environmental education
databases and clearinghouses.
With the increased use of emerging technologies, information clearinghouses
should provide national access through electronic routes such as e-mail and
conferencing, as well as traditional communication modes such as a toll-free
telephone number, fax, and mail.

                                          A coordinated clearinghouse system is essential in order to provide a
                                          comprehensive, user-friendly service. Such a system should encourage critical
                                          evaluations so that future needs for information in the field may be identified.
                                                                  INITIATIVE  10.4
                                                                  Make greater use of geographic information systems
                                                                  and other databases related to the environment and
                                                                  sustainability in educational curricula.
                                               Geographic information systems (GIS) are essential tools for monitoring
                                               natural resources, environmental quality, and modifications of local,
                                           regional, national, and global ecosystems.The federal government, states, and
                                           private organizations maintain tremendous quantities of data on natural
                                           resources and environmental quality. Information is increasingly becoming
                                           accessible to users worldwide by way of advanced telecommunications
                                           technology. City planners, land use authorities, and others are making use of
                                           GIS increasingly in their everyday work.
                                           Students and teachers should be aware of the availability and utility of these
                                           systems. Appropriate education courses should familiarize students with the types
                                           of databases that exist, the methods for accessing them, and the ways they can be
                                           used to monitor environmental change and guide decisions about resource use and
                                           environmental protection.

Revitalization of an  Urban Neighborhood
To promote revitalization of Detroit's inner city, Cass Technical High School is working with the Urban Environmental
Education Resource Center through a program titled "Urban Environmental Education in Detroit" to use geographic
Information systems (GIS) to help students observe how environmental conditions in their neighborhoods could be improved
by using GIS mapping applications.
In collaboration with the University of Michigan's School of Public Health, the  students are using GIS applications to map
200,000 homes located in school districts that exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for acceptable lead
levels in drinking water. Detroit public schools will use this data to compare standardized test scores of elementary school
students from neighborhoods that have lead pipes and those that do not.
"We need to do away with textbook education and move toward technological education," says Randall  E. Raymond, teacher
and director of the Cass High School program. "Using GIS systems that focus  the students' learning on their own communities
allows them to make valuable contributions to the revitalization and regrowth of their communities."
                                             CROSS-CUTTING  THEMES

»»      University of Connecticut
                       TO:     Interested Colleagues
                       FROM:  Chester Arnold and Project team colleagues: Jim Gibbons and Heather Nelson,
                               University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension System
                       RE:      Chester Creek Watershed Project
                       Many folks across the country continue to struggle with how to implement effective water-
                       shed or "ecosystem" projects, and those of us in Connecticut are no exception. However,
                       we feel that our Tidelands watershed projects are beginning to demonstrate the potential
                       of the approach that we've been slowly working our way through—an approach based on
                       interdisciplinary natural resource information, public-private partnership, the educational
                       use of geographic information system (GIS) technology, and close collaboration with both
                       local officials and private land owners.
                       The Chester Creek Watershed Project—our first Tidelands project—is a natural resource
                       management initiative demonstrating that nonregulatory public education programs
                       planned and conducted in close cooperation with local  residents and officials can effectively
                       protect natural resources  and foster environmental stewardship.Through  information gath-
                       ering and a series of public education programs supported by geographic  information sys-
                       tem (GIS) mapping technology, the Project is providing town residents and decision makers
                       with information and tools that they can use to make better decisions regarding the use
                       and management of their local natural resources.
                       The Project is an ongoing  public/private collaboration between the Town of Chester and a
                       project team from the University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension System, The
                       Nature Conservancy-Connecticut Chapter, and the University of New Haven.The Project
                       began in 1993, supported by a one-year seed grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection
                      Agency Region I; the educational initiatives begun that year, however, are open-ended and
                      will extend into the foreseeable future.
                      We continue to expand and modify this model in a second Tidelands effort and we invite
                      your comments and inquiries.We are interested in helping colleagues in the Land Grant
                      and Sea Grant systems to  adapt our approach to their states, and we'd love to talk to you.


                                         chmil Perspectives

            Emphasize and reflect multicultural perspectives at all levels of formal and
            nonformal education.

                The demographic composition of our nation's classrooms and communities is
                becoming more diverse than it has been at any other time in U.S. history. One
            aspect of this transformation is that students are increasingly children of color
            while teachers are predominantly white. Many of these children are from immigrant
            families and, for many, English is not their primary language. Additionally, a significant
            number of America's children face an array of conditions that affect their ability to
            learn and succeed in school and life.These conditions include poverty and violence,
            teen pregnancy, and a rollback of educational and employment opportunities.

            Recognition is growing that multicultural approaches to teaching and more  inclusive
            content are needed in all forms of education. Educators in both formal and
            nonformal programs need special training to teach in settings that are increasingly
            diverse racially, culturally, and linguistically.Teachers of all ethnic groups can benefit
            from preparation that assists them in performing effectively in diverse settings.
            The phrases "environmental justice" and "environmental equity" are relatively new,
            but the underlying concepts are not.The goal of environmental justice is to ensure
            that all people, regardless of age, ethnicity, gender, social class, or race are "equally"
            protected from environmental hazards. Environmental justice expands the notion of
            environment from natural ecosystems to the landscapes where people live, work,
            and play.
            Several reports over the past 25 years, beginning in 1971 with the annual report of
            the President's Council on Environmental Quality, describe disparities in
            environmental impacts by health and demographic groups. In recent years, the
            environmental justice movement has highlighted the special plight of low-income
            neighborhoods and communities of color with  respect to the inequitable
            distribution of environmental exposures and risks. In  addition, the movement has
            stressed ways in which information can be used to address these problems at the
            local level. In the 1980s, grassroots  and community action groups began mobilizing
            to focus attention on the adverse health effects associated with hazardous waste
            incinerators, landfills, sewage treatment plants, and industrial facilities. Because of
            the proximity of these facilities to low-income and minority communities, residents
            in adjacent areas often are disproportionately burdened by the potential health
            effects created by these facilities, such as nausea, asthma and bronchitis.This
            problem is coupled with the fact that low-income and minority groups often  have
            limited access to health care.
s 6
                 CROSS-CUTTING  THEMES

                        INITIATIVE 1 I. I
                        Increase professional development among teachers who
                        are incorporating education for sustainability in urban
                        and rural settings that are characterized by diverse
                        cultural groups.
T"~he demographic transformation under way in the United States challenges
  I  educators to develop relevant and inclusive materials reflective of their
communities; new multidimensional pedagogies for working with culturally,
economically, and linguistically diverse children and communities; and new inclusive
visions of an active multicultural citizenry committed to sustainable communities.

Efforts should be made to assist educators in developing specific competencies for
success in teaching education for sustainability in culturally diverse settings.The
needed skills include conflict resolution, intercultural communication, and
approaches that are sensitive to cultural values and practices in communities.
  Environmental Teacher Institute
  Since 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Morgan State
  University in Baltimore, Maryland, have teamed up to sponsor the Environmental
  Teacher Institute, which provides training to educators who teach in settings that
  are increasingly diverse.
  The Institute offers a nontraditional approach to community outreach by
  empowering teachers from under-represented communities to have a stronger role
  in environmental decisions affecting their communities.Teachers are recruited from
  states across the nation.The Institute's objectives are to expose teachers to a
  variety of environmental issues and discuss methods for bringing the knowledge
  into the classroom; to familiarize teachers with local environmental justice issues;
  and to recruit minority and disadvantaged students for environmental  jobs and

  At each  Institute, teachers develop materials and teaching strategies that they can
  take back to their communities. According to an EPA official, "Ultimately, these
  teachers will become a part of nationwide communications networks that will
  disseminate key data about environmental issues and will be helpful in  recruiting
  students to pursue careers in fields related to protecting the environment"
 The educational value of this

 Institute went far beyond the walls of
 the conference room. The

 multicultural diversity [of

participants and speakers] was a

 most helpful and interesting aspect of
 the Institute. It gave me insight to the

 different ways we  may have  to use to
 reach students of varied

                             Gail Brodnax
            Science Teacher, Marksville, Louisiana

                                                                 INITIATIVE 11.2
                                                                 Support efforts to introduce all educators and students
                                                                 to the issues and perspectives of the environmental
                                                                 justice movement.
                                              The advent of the environmental justice movement provides an opportunity to
                                              nurture an interest in education for sustainability issues among educators.
                                          Though many teachers are aware of the environmental justice movement through
                                          the media and professional publications, most do not have adequate tools and
                                          background information to educate students in the classroom.
                                          The environmental justice movement has spawned a number of community-based
                                          educational innovations that could benefit mainstream conceptions and practices.
                                          Likewise, these communities could benefit from interaction with traditional
                                          environmental educators, who could broaden environmental literacy among
                                          members of those communities beyond the specific issues they face.
                                          These community-based multicultural approaches to education  for sustainability are
                                          supportive of the cultural and linguistic traditions and heritages of diverse
                                          peoples. New and innovative examples that are culturally relevant and
                                          appropriate abound.They are clearly extensions of what is normally considered
                                          education for sustainability.

Harlem Environment Access Project
The Harlem Environment Access Project is an innovative pilot project directed by The New York City Economic
Empowerment Zone (NYC EZ).Through the deployment of information technologies and relevant environmental curriculum
materials, the Harlem project is intended to empower schoolchildren, teachers, and parents in the  NYC EZ to address some
of the numerous environmental injustices suffered by this community of 200,000 people, who have a high incidence of
poverty.The digital networking of schools provides access to a breadth of intellectual and cultural resources, and enables
modes of interaction and communication that were not formerly possible.
The project has several primary goals: to engage students in learning about environmental issues that are  relevant to their
lives and their community; to provide students with new technologies and new sources of information to assist them in
addressing local environmental concerns; and to expose students to the possibilities of careers in environmental science,
management and law.
The project connects the information resources and expertise of Columbia University and the Environmental Defense Fund
with students and teachers in the NYC EZ.The National Telecommunications and Information Administration is funding the
project. Columbia University and the Environmental Defense Fund plan to continue development of project software and
content for a period of at least three years following the completion of the 1 8-month pilot project.

                              5 8
                                              CROSS-CUTTING  THEMES

                     ib&l Perspectives

Continue to expand international linkages for environmental education and
education for sustainability.


     Achieving sustainability requires an unprecedented degree of international
     cooperation, understanding of the global forces that affect human lives, and
empowerment of students to be responsible citizens. Education about sustainable
development has progressed substantially, primarily through the efforts of individual
nations and regions. Many environmental challenges—such as climate change, air
pollution, and loss of species—are global in nature.The impacts on human health,
livelihoods, and international peace underscore the seriousness of these challenges.
Responses must be global in scope and grow out of the cornerstone activities that
began in the 1970s in Stockholm and continued in Tbilisi and Belgrade, and in the
work of the  Brundtland Commission.

The United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED),
held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, led to specific education recommendations.The
topics addressed  in many, if not all, chapters of Agenda 21  outline the platform from
which education in the future must be launched. Agenda 21 speaks not only to the
need for international cooperation, but also to the necessity of maintaining a global
perspective while taking action and responsibility in the context of local

Many countries have embraced the themes of Agenda 21 as part of their programs
in environmental education, global education, and development education. Lessons
are being learned and the pace of progress continues on a global scale. In some
countries, young people are learning about the workings of global ecological
systems and the delicate interconnections between social, environmental and
economic systems.To further these advances countries should play an active role to
ensure that sustainability themes crosscut curricula at all educational levels.
 "One certainty is that the world in

 which students will live will be

 increasingly interdependent, marked

 by accelerating economic,

 technological,  and social change; and

 driven by an urgent search for

patterns of economic and urban

 development that sustain  the

 environment and its resources."
                               Jean Perras
                 Learning for a Sustainable Future

     —	INITIATIVE  12.1

                       Educate tor global sustainability by:
      '••yiL       (1) introducing all students to issues
                       raised at the Stockholm and Tbilisi
                       conferences, and by the Brundtland
                       Report and Agenda 21 of the United
                       Nations Conference on Environment
and Development (UNCED); (2) sharing sustainability
approaches used by other nations, both their successes and
challenges, through distance learning and other forms of
communication; and (3) exposing students to the responsibilities
shared by industrialized and developing countries for providing
solutions to environmental, economic and social challenges.
      One key to a sustainable future is the realization that we are
      all citizens of one Earth, dependent on common resources
and on one another. Recognizing that major environmental
challenges are not limited by political boundaries or geographic
lines of demarcation is merely the beginning. A leap forward in
present curriculum  planning must occur if today's youth are to be
prepared to contribute to sustainable development Education  is
the vehicle for imparting the knowledge, attitudes, expertise, and
values needed by die generations to come.
                        INITIATIVE 12.2
                        Support the convening of an
                        international congress on education for
                        sustainability to take pkce early in the
                        next decade as a catalyst for strategic
                        planning for the remainder of the 21st
A     conference with a significant voice from youth can serve as
     the next milestone in the series of actions that have marked
 the development of education for sustainability.The time has come
 for a venue where the common ground will be education for
 susralnability. Educators and consumers from all walks of life
 should explore the paths being taken to merge environmental,
 economic, and social themes.
                       INITIATIVE  12.3
                       Participate in global partnerships on
                       education for sustainability that build
                       on the progress since the 1972
                       Stockholm Conference, while being
                       tailored to reach generations of the
                       21st century.

   Specific partnerships and activities that address the needs faced
   by educators in various regions of the world will strengthen
youth's capacity to respond effectively to today's compelling
agenda for action. More resources are needed to foster
partnership programs. Educational sectors, both formal and
nonformal, can benefit from such partnerships, as demonstrated by
many of the programs and activities already in operation.

Alliances must be forged to build international linkages among the
major organizations involved in global education, development
education, and environmental education worldwide. Strategically,
this will include calling upon them to identify—on national, •
regional, and international levels—the primary institutions,
organizations, and agencies involved in education for sustainability.
Established  networks such as the Consortium for International
Earth Science Information Network (CIES1N), telecommunications
centers, and Internet capabilities can greatly facilitate the exchange
of information.
                                   6 0
                                                   CROSS-CUTTING  THEMES

   Global Perspectives, Local Practices
                                                              "We don't want to reinvent the wheel, but blindly
                                                              using educational materials developed elsewhere
                                                              would reduce the chances of widespread use of the
                                                              materials in our country."
                                                                                                     Meena Raghunathan
                                                                                Centre for Environment Education,Ahmedabad, India
  When the World Resources Institute (WRI), a Washington-based policy research institute which focuses on global sustainable
  development issues, attempted to distribute a new high school curriculum on global issues, Meena Raghunathan responded with the
  statement above.This is a typical reaction among educators worldwide. But by working with Raghunathan and environmental
  educators in nine other countries.WRI developed a network of centers that are producing local adaptations of teachers' guides
  about global issues.

  "There are three aspects to dealing with global  issues," says WRI education director Mary  Paden. "First is the global perspective	
  taking a worldwide, big-picture look at topics such as biodiversity, climate change, poverty, population, or consumerism. It means
  looking at data that show conditions and trends as well as regional variations. Second, to be interesting and real, the big picture
  must be tied to local situations and cultures.Third, is the matter of perspectives. People from different parts of the world have
  different takes on these issues, and listening to them is highly enriching."
  Educators in each country adapt WRI's global curricula units to incorporate local examples and to suit their own  educational
  system's requirements while retaining the global conditions and trends data. As the units are developed, they are  shared with other
  countries. For example, the Indian biodiversity unit was sent to Indonesia.
  "There is nothing else like this guide in Mexico," says MargotAguillar of Grupo de Education Ambientales."lt is in Spanish, has
  Mexican artwork, was created in Mexico, yet it has a lot of global  information that is hard to get in the  schools here."
  As part of this, international partners like Aguillar, Raghunathan, and other educators will review WRI's next U.S. teacher's guide,
  Sustainable Cities, which will incorporate diverse perspectives with the help of the reviewers, as well as present trends and
  examples from around the world.
In the first century of the new millennium, the quest for environmental improvement will be framed in terms of science and new
technologies, but also will benefit from the wisdom and values espoused by indigenous peoples of the world. Educators and educational
systems can respond more vigorously to this global challenge with new methodologies, information technologies, and partnerships on
national and international levels.

International cooperation will be key to sharing trends in thinking, research, and pedagogy. Coordination among groups such as the
U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN) or World Conservation Union; United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); and the  United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP) will lead to support for much-needed  collaborative relationships among established and  emerging
environmental and social programs, institutes, and resource centers. Shared research, the articulation of coherent strategies, and
common resources accompanied by systematic dissemination of results at a multinational level will add significantly to achieving a
desirable and prosperous future.

             of Opportunities for irartnersnips
Chester Creek Watershed Project
  1066 Saybrook Road, Box 70
 Haddam,CT 06438-0070
 Contact: Chester Arnold
 rax: 860-345-3357
 E-mail: camold@canr I
The Chester Creek Watershed Project is the first of theTidelands
Watershed Projects on theTidelands region of the lower
Connecticut FUver.The projects are collaborations between the
University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension's Nonpoint
Education for Municipal Officials (NEMO) team and The Nature
Conservancy.The project is a natural resource management
initiative focusing on public education to protect natural resources
and foster environmental stewardship.
Consortium for International Earth Science Information
Network (CIESIN)
  1747 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 200
  Washington, D.C. 20006
Established in 1989, CIESIN is a nonprofit, nongovernmental
organization that provides information to help scientists, decision-
makers, and the public better understand our changing world.
CIESIN provides on-line access to data, information, and
applications used by researchers, decision-makers, and the public
to reach a better understanding of how human activity is driving
global environmental change.
Institute for Global Communications (IGC)
  18 De Boom Street
 San Francisco, CA 94107
 Contact Anthony Whitworth

ECONET is one of five networks operated through the IGC
Network. ECONET provides access to a variety of
environmentally related home pages, numerous conferences, and
resource centers on-line. IGC provides software, frequent updates
describing new features on the networks, and technical support.
  To access EE-Link's gopher server, the URL server is:
EE-Link is an on-line source of information about environmental
education. It provides access to teaching resources on the
Internet, including articles, databases, grant information, and
instructional materials. EE-Link is funded by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency as part of the Environmental Education and
Training Partnership Program and is housed at the University of
                                    6 2
                                                    CROSS-CUTTING  THEMES

Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics,
Science, and Environmental Education (ENC)
  1929 Kenny Road
  Columbus, OH 43210-1079
  Toll-free telephone: I -800-621 -5785
The Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and
Science Education encourages the adoption and use of K-12
curriculum materials and programs that support state and national
efforts to improve teaching and learning in mathematics and
science. It provides K-12 teachers with a central source of
information on mathematics and  science curriculum materials.
 ERIC (Educational Resources Information Clearinghouse)
  Office of Education Research and Improvement
  Department of Education
  Washington, D.C.
  Toll-free telephone: I-800-443-ERIC
 The ERIC system, managed by the U.S. Department of Education,
 Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), consists
 of 16 clearinghouses, a number of adjunct clearinghouses, and an
 ERIC searchable database that contains more than 800,000
 records of journal articles, research reports, curriculum and
 teaching guides, conference papers, and books.
Environmental Education and Training Partnership
  1255 23rd Street, N.W., Suite 400
 Washington, D.C. 20037
 Phone: 202-884-8828
The Environmental Education and Training Partnership, funded by
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is a three-year endeavor
managed and coordinated by the North American Association for
Environmental Education. EETAP provides training for teachers and
other education professionals, enhances existing environmental
education clearinghouses, and facilitates partnerships and networks
of education and environmental professionals.
Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the
  744 Jackson Place, NW
  Washington, D.C. 20503
  Contact Margaret G. Finarelli
  Phone: 202-395-7600
The GLOBE Program is a hands-on program that joins students,
educators, and scientists from around the world in studying the
global environment. GLOBE's worldwide network of students
work under the guidance of GLOBE-trained teachers to make
environmental observations, report their data to a GLOBE
processing facility, receive and use global images created from their
data, and study environmental topics in their classroom.
                                 CHAPTER  4
                                                                                    6 3

Global Rivers Environmental Education Network
 721 E Huron Street
 Ann Arbor, Ml 48104
 Contact: Keith Wheeler
 Phone: 313-761-8142

GREEN is an innovative, action-oriented approach to education,
based on an interdisciplinary watershed education model. GREEN's
mission is to improve education through a global network that
promotes watershed sustainability. Its goals include incorporating
all areas of the curriculum and working with schools to develop
watershed studies programs; and providing communities with
strategies for sustaining these programs.
National Environmental Education Advancement Project
 College of Natural Resources
 University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
 Stevens Point,Wl 54481
 Contact Abby Ruskey
The National Environmental Education Advancement Project is a
national organization that aids state and local environmental
education leaders in promoting their environmental education
efforts and develops informational items on building state
capacities for environmental education.
The Harlem Environmental Access Project
  Institute for Learning Technologies
  Columbia University Teacher's College
  New York, NY 10021
  Contact: Robbie McClintock
  WWWeb: 12/heap/index.html
The Harlem Environmental Access Project is dedicated to helping
school children In five participating schools find solutions to local
and global environmental issues.
Technology Learning Challenge
  Interagency Learning Technology Task Force, Suite 6200
  U.S. Department of Education
  600 Independence Avenue, S.W., Suite 6200
  Washington, D.C. 20202
The Technology Learning Challenge is a grant program providing an
average of $ I  million a year for five years to 19 school systems
throughout the country for the purpose of improving education
through new learning technologies.
                                                               University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension System
                                                                College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
                                                                Haddam Cooperative Extension Center
                                                                1066 SaybrookRoad
                                                                P.O. Box 70
                                                                Haddam, CT 06437
                                                                Contact  Chester Arnold
                                                                E-mail: carnold@canr I
                                                                WWWeb: I .html
                                   6 4
                                                   CROSS-CUTTING  THEMES

Urban Environmental Education in Detroit
  Cass Technical High School
  2421 Second Avenue
  Detroit, Ml  48201
  Contact: Randall E. Raymond
  Phone: 313-494-2605x315
The Urban Environmental Education in Detroit program is a nationally and
internationally recognized program designed to help urban youth make positive
contributions to improve their urban environment.
World Resources Institute (WRI)
  1709 New York Avenue, N.W.
  Washington, DC 20006
  Contact: Mary Paden
  Phone: 202-638-6300
Created in  1982, the World Resources Institute is an independent center for policy
research and technical assistance on global environmental and development issues.
WRI is dedicated to helping governments and private organizations of all types
cope with environmental, resource, and development challenges of global
                                  CHAPTER  4
                                                                                     6 5

6 6
                       CROSS-CUTTING   THEMES

illustration: Rescue Mission Planet Earth
                              MOVI    h
                              themes into formal and nonformal education programs, businesses, communities
                              and NGOs has been the result of a diverse grassroots movement that has
                              succeeded despite many obstacles.The range and diversity of programs is the
                              movement's strength, but also its weakness. Diversity sometimes results  in
                              duplication of efforts, lack of a shared vision, and deprivation of the strength that
                              comes from a common voice. The  1994 "National Forum on Partnerships
                              Supporting Education about the Environment" fostered a dialogue in search of a
                              common vision and consensus on overall goals and  priorities.The  process of
                              building on that dialogue to develop An Agenda for Action has been a goal for this
                              shared vision.
                                           CHAPTER  5
                                                                        6 7

               Putting the Agenda  into Action
                  Educational change cannot follow purely from mandates, whether state or
                  federal, although such efforts can be effective as catalysts. Instead, change will
              emerge from grassroots initiatives, as the history of environmental education clearly
              demonstrates. Increasingly, the demand for education about the environment is
              being initiated from students themselves. Adults can add their voices to this call as
              individuals and, collectively, as members of civic and professional organizations.They
              can speak out as well in their roles as teachers and professionals, as employees and
              employers in the business community, and as responsible citizens and civil servants
              at all levels of government

              A balance between "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches will be necessary for
              education for sustainability to realize its full potential. Grassroots activities will
              continue to drive progress through the bottom-up approach that has characterized
              the field to date. Government can assist, however, by continuing and improving  its
              coordinating role, and funding innovation and research.
              Options for each sector, based on present resources and given current challenges,
              are discussed in the  remainder of this chapter. Potential roles, priorities, and next
              steps for the major stakeholders are explored.These options represent a
              snapshot of the collective thinking of the participants in the Forum and the many
              professionals who  have taken part in the subsequent development of An Agenda
              for Action.
              The purpose of An Agenda for Action is to focus attention on the critical needs of
              education for sustainability, as they are seen today, and suggest, with a keen eye on
              the future, strategies for the 21 st century for moving forward. Present thinking is
              evolving, however, and the strategies outlined in An Agenda for Action will be
              reshaped overtime in response to unforeseen changes. An Agenda for Action is not a
              strategy, "set in  concrete," but rather a living document.
                  Educators will be at the forefront in pursuing the actions outlined in the Agenda,
                  whether acting as individuals infusing environmental perspectives into their
              classes or collectively fostering education for sustainability through their
              educational institutions, professional societies, state infrastructures, and local or
              national advocacy groups.

              As individuals, teachers are responsible for pursuing opportunities for professional
              training to incorporate the principles of sustainability in their courses. In addition,
              they can  enlist the help of nongovernmental organizations to ensure that their
              efforts embody diverse cultural perspectives.They can initiate innovations—or
6 s
                 MOVING   FORWARD

inform themselves about the efforts of others—to bring the
business sector and the community at large into the educational
experience.They can participate in workshops and seminars that
help teachers find appropriate uses for advanced information and
communication technologies for teaching about sustainability.They
can initiate or replicate successful attempts to make the classroom
serve as a model of sustainability for the community.
In all of these activities, teachers and faculty will find allies and
willing assistance from higher education, professional societies, the
business community, nongovernmental organizations, and state and
federal agencies. In turn, they have the formidable responsibility of
ensuring that their educational offerings on sustainability
consistently meet the highest standards and serve students,
parents, and the community.
Professionals in higher education play one of the most decisive
roles, that of initiating innovative programs. By finding ways to
integrate interdisciplinary and systems approaches in their own
undergraduate and graduate courses, they will train a new
generation of teachers who will be more effective at inspiring
creative thinking and sound decision-making among their students.
Through university-level research activities, these professionals can
break down the barriers between disciplines and enliven their own
teaching as a side benefit.They will benefit  by searching out every
opportunity to engage their colleagues from other disciplines in
their research  and teaching activities.
      One of the effective ways individuals can contribute to
      sustainability is by investing time and resources in educating
themselves about the complex environmental and natural
resources issues that affect their lives each  day. Individuals of all
ages can participate in and build on many of the initiatives in An
Agenda for Action through self-awareness, education, and
information exchanges with friends, family, and colleagues.
Success in educating others for sustainability depends greatly on
individual initiative.

Thousands of Americans are already committed to sustainability,
but many still lack awareness and accurate information. Individual
roles include empowerment through increasing knowledge, skills,
and changing attitudes. Roles as consumers are especially
important to sustainability in terms of individual action, but equally
crucial is collective action through partnering with schools as
parents, alumnae, and as members of community and civic
Commitment to lifelong learning is a way for individuals to gain
the knowledge necessary to make informed decisions in their
personal and professional lives.They can enroll in adult education
classes at their local  community college or accompany their
children on the next school field trip.They can encourage their
employers  to work collaboratively with youth as mentors, or ask
employers  to help expand the work of a local community group
that is restoring rivers and streams.There are literally hundreds of
actions  individuals can take to educate themselves and help
advance sustainability.
      Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) play a critical role in
      advancing education for sustainability through research,
publications, training, service efforts for their members and clients,
funding, and community outreach activities. Although some NGOs
can maximize their impacts and minimize organizational costs by
focusing their efforts at the national level, others can be most
effective and influential in their local communities or home
states. For example, the Environmental Defense Fund, Columbia
University, and the Countee Cullen Library in the New York City
Empowerment Zone drew on each institution's expertise to
implement a program based on information technology to
educate inner city children and their teachers about
environmental impacts that affect their community.

The next steps for NGOs include helping educators define
standards and identify ways to support existing standards in
science, mathematics, and geography education. In addition, they
can develop materials for lifelong learning in cooperation with
nonformal and formal education venues.  NGOs are in a position
to set the stage and lead the way for collaborative alliances and
initiatives, based on the lessons they have learned in delivering
effective and long-lasting programs. The American Forum on
Global Education, for example, houses the Sustainability Education
Center. Its mission is to promote the concept of sustainability in
educational environments by using collaborative  programs,
research, and materials development as vehicles.
                                   CHAPTER  5
                                                                                        6 9

Local community organizations also can play an important role in
maximizing the strengths of the numerous stakeholders they
scrve.They can tap into the cultural viewpoints and norms,
business and industry expertise, and the vibrancy of religious
Historically, professional organizations such as the National
Science Teachers Association and the North American
Association for Environmental Education have played a central
role in the evolution of environmental education. Specialized
professional and research organizations, such as the Center for
Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education, the Global
Change Research Program, and the National Council for
Geographic Education, as well as related professional groups, such
as the American Association of Engineering Societies, have
established committees or task forces that focus on sustainability
and the environment. Other national efforts include the National
Consortium for Environmental  Education and Training, the
Environmental Education and Training Program, the Global
Network of Environmental Education Centers, and the National
Environmental Education Advancement Project
In addition to convening national conferences and seminars on
education for sustainability, professional organizations disseminate
information on topics pertaining to the environment and distribute
educational publications, newsletters, curriculum guides, and
creative teaching aids. Professional groups also offer technical
assistance to teachers and provide reference assistance, as  well as
conduct training programs and workshops.These organizations
bring together professionals who might otherwise have limited
direct contact, such as elementary school and secondary school
teachers, and practicing professionals in various fields of expertise.
Above all, they promote education at all levels and work to
enhance the status, quality, and effectiveness of methods of teaching
about the complex relationships of economics, social conditions,
and the environment
Each of these organizations, in addition to working individually to
support education for sustainability, can increase their nationwide
impact by expanding their partnerships. A coalition speaking with
one voice on issues such as the need for professional pre-service
and in-service sustainability training for teachers would be  very
influential. A coalition also could work to encourage adoption of
the materials and learner outcome standards being developed by
the North American Association for Environmental Education.

Such a coalition could work with the existing organized labor
infrastructure to promote vocational training for jobs related to
sustainability.The coalition also could collaborate  with labor and
businesses to expand opportunities for retraining workers
displaced as resource-intensive industries downsize, and improve
on-the-job upgrading of skills that workers need in order to
deploy sustainable production practices that save  energy and
raw materials.
    The tools needed to breathe life into An Agenda for Action
    include vitality, enthusiasm, the courage to tolerate change, and
a healthy sense of adventure. In short—youth are a very important
part of the process.

Leaders from business, government, nongovernmental
organizations, and academia are forging new initiatives to educate
citizens about what it takes to live sustainable lives. Involving young
people in this process from the beginning is essential to insure
their ownership and partnership as new policies, practices, and
activities are developed.
The economic and social viability of our nation's communities are
dependent on youth.Young people generate billions of dollars in
annual consumer revenues. In addition, they are actively involved  in
activities in a number of economic sectors such as sports and
recreation, religious institutions, local libraries, and community-
based youth organizations. Moving forward with An Agenda for
Action with the vision and cooperative energy of today's youth is an
important step. Bringing together youth and leaders of the adult
community is essential to generating partnerships and  trust.
                                   7 o
                                                    MOVING   FORWARD

     Companies and corporations have a direct interest in the quality of our nation's
     educational system because the students of today are the workforce of
tomorrow. Employees who are trained in the principles of sustainability, for example,
are in a position to positively influence the production processes of their companies
to conserve energy and minimize waste of raw materials.
Businesses bring a number of resources to the table, from financial support to
technical skills and research. As companies select issues to address, they should weigh
their interests, define the nature  of their involvement, and decide which arenas to
work in—whether local, state, regional, national, or international.
The result of these deliberations might be a decision, for example, to help young
people explore their future careers, whether through mentoring programs,
internships, or school-to-work opportunities that enable  students to experience
a variety of occupations.The environmental technology industry  has a particular
responsibility to encourage careers in environmental fields.Through professional
societies, this industry should work with the schools to find ways to invite
environmental professionals into the classrooms as guest teachers and students
into the business environment  to observe how employees tackle real-world
Businesses can take steps to incorporate the  principles of industrial ecology into
their operations and encourage  on-the-job training in  sustainable production
processes. In doing so, they will be in good standing with the community for their
environmental record, while at the same time reduce their economic costs.
Numerous companies are providing support to formal and  nonformal education.
Part of that commitment is ensuring that their dollars are spent efficiently. Business
can participate in curricular development activities with business schools,
universities, and engineering schools to ensure that educational programs meet the
needs of the business community. Even publicizing business's own successes in
introducing sustainable practices is an important educational effort that will help
the nation move forward on the path to sustainability.
As with the other sectors, businesses can work individually or collectively. Just as
the health care industry has stepped forward  to educate the public on the
relationship between health and  the environment, the forest industry has taken it
upon itself to introduce sustainable forestry practices and invite the public to grade
its efforts. Likewise, An Agenda for Action challenges the advertising community to
take the lead in finding ways to educate the public about sustainability and lend its
marketing expertise to promote sound education programs, nationally and  at the
local level.
"Show me a person who understands the
wise use of resources—capital, labor, and
the environment—and I will show you a
business leader of the future."

                            Samuel C.Johnson
                                SC Johnson Wax
                                                                                                      illustration: Rescue Miss/on Planet Earth

                                                  A  community is only as strong as the citizens who live in it. Forward-looking
                                                 /^communities recognize that it is up to them to encourage new economic
                                                 opportunities and ensure that local schools are training a workforce that will be
                                                 prepared for new jobs in a changing world. A community working through school
                                                 districts, local government, and nonprofit civic organizations can create
                                                 opportunities for formal and nonformal learning that will prepare its citizens for a
                                                 sustainable future.

                                                 The single most important step is to initiate a serious long-term planning process
                                                 that begins with envisioning sustainable practices appropriate to local conditions.
                                                 Civic leaders have a responsibility to inform themselves about successful
                                                 community and neighborhood projects. A number of these projects are highlighted
                                                 in this document and  in the two reports produced by the Public Linkage, Dialogue,
                                                 and Education Task Force and the Sustainable Communities Task Force of the
                                                 President's Council on Sustainable Development.
                                                 Local governments and civic groups can reach out to business and academic
                                                 communities for assistance. In other words, municipal governments and local
                                                 community organizations should serve as catalysts for initiating partnerships and
                                                 helping  build consensus on the need to infuse the principles of sustainability into
                                                 the educational curricula of local schools. In addition, civic groups in particular
                                                 should seek out opportunities to  engage their members actively in the classroom
                                                 as mentors and  project leaders
HusuatfoiK Rescue Masfon fhmt Earth
                                    7 2
                                                     MOVING  FORWARD

                                                                                of the Firtat
                                                                                                            iif i iu
    Education for sustainability requires active state leadership.
    Many states prefer to adopt a decentralized approach to
 achieving sustainability. But for those states that have a formal
 structure, such as an advisory council and a state coordinator for
 environmental education, it would be appropriate to play a
 leadership role in advancing education for sustainability. One
 option is to take legislative steps to further the initiatives; which
 implies a responsibility for ensuring that the resulting programs
 are adequately funded. States also can enlist the private sector's
 assistance in supporting these activities.
 In addition, states can provide technical assistance, adoption or
 promotion of curriculum standards, assistance with professional
 development to enhance educators' preparation for teaching
 sustainability, adoption of teacher certification standards, support
 of multicultural training for teachers, and assistance with
 community visioning processes. Many states already are working
 actively to develop statewide plans for sustainability that include
 encouraging local planning.

 Finally, state actions also can be crucial in linking communities and
 school districts with federal agencies that can provide assistance.
 "Education about the environment can best be
 accomplished through the cooperative efforts of diverse
 groups. The very nature of bringing diverse groups
 together—the parts—emphasizes the strength derived
from the  whole system. As we look to the future and
 the challenges  we will face,  we will need the wisdom
 that only the whole system can provide us."

                                                Kristina Allen
             Arizona Stole Education Agency Representative to the U.S. EPA
     The financial community— individual and institutional investors,
     banks, and international financial institutions—will play a key
 role in funding educational activities.  Advancing education for
 sustainability in the years ahead will require careful planning, vision,
 and commitment of leaders from the public and private sectors.
 Implementing some of the initiatives presented in An Agenda for
 Action could prove to be smart investments.The publication and
 dissemination of educational materials, for example, has long been
 a profitable industry  in the United States and abroad.The
 development and commercialization of educational technologies,
 including computers and telecommunications devices, is a thriving
 industry worldwide. Institutions such as the World Bank and other
 development banks can  influence the direction  and level of effort
 devoted to education for sustainability activities.

 Perhaps the greatest challenge is finding novel ways to attract
 investors to this important activity. In October  1995, the World
 Bank convened a major  conference on financing for sustainable
 development. Dialogues  such as this are key to  directing the talent
 and resources of the financial community

      ___Ji1 pf Fou nd, a
      Historically, nongovernmental organizations  have relied on the
      support of public and private foundations  to help finance
work for the  environment and education.Today, public sources of
funding are diminishing, while the number of organizations seeking
money is growing. It is therefore increasingly important that
foundations participate in the national dialogue  on goals and
priorities for education for sustainability. Foundations, as
stakeholders in this process, are ideally positioned to facilitate a
broad, comprehensive approach to sustainability by raising
awareness about the interdependence of economic, social, and
environmental issues.

                The federal government should work closely with state and local governments
                and the private sector to catalyze and coordinate national and international
            activities-The departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Energy, Interior,
            Labor, Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation, and others,
            have programs addressing the environment and various aspects of sustainability.
            Helping the nation articulate its near- and long-term educational  needs is an
            important role for departments and agencies throughout the federal government.
            The federal government should work to ensure that limited federal funds are
            carefully targeted toward high-priority national needs and that department and
                  -.efforts are not duplicative.The National Science and Technology Council can
                             ; federal activities throughout the Executive Branch and help
                                         ; and priorities to the Legislative Branch.
                                      i serves as a source of information about the
                                     H|ysing telecommunications technologies, federal
                                              easy access to a wealth of information.The
                                            cjng education  for sustainability will undoubtedly
                                              i of new directions, the  policies and  programs
                                               ngly influence the capacity of the nation to
                                           Hof wing while protecting  resources for future
oTganzations tha| partici
   ironment in
                                               jucation for sustainability has risen steadily
                                              rthe call to action has been delivered, and
                                              international groups.The United Nations
                                             e 1972 U.N. Conference on the Human
                                           among the first to respond.The call was clearly
                                        iment titled An International Strategy for Action in the
                                      ton and Training for the 1990s.41
                  FlaFfengJgf^c-1%the international community is to maintain open lines  of
                      iBon and evaluate policies in an integrated fashion. Only then can it
             reach all people to promote approaches that integrate social, economic, and
             environmental policies. Efforts emerging from this base of communication can be
             directly applied to the advancement of skills, knowledge, and practice worldwide.
7 4
                 MOVING  FORWARD

 Oxampfes of Opportunities for
American Forum for Global Education
  120 Wall Street, Suite 2600
  New York, NY 10005
  Contact: Tom Keehne
The American Forum for Global Education is a private, nonprofit
organization dedicated to promoting the education of our nation's
youth for responsible citizenship in an increasingly interconnected
and rapidly changing world.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Education Division
 401 M Street, S.W.
 Washington, D.C. 20460
 Contact C. Michael Baker
The National Environmental  Education Act of 1990 charged the
EPA with the responsibility of providing leadership at a national
level to improve environmental literacy—the Act establishes
various programs—grants, teacher training, internship and youth
award programs.
Global Network of Environmental Education Centers
  601 South Concord Street, Suite LLA
  Knoxville.TN  37919
  Contact: John Paulk
The Global Network of Environmental Education Centers is a
network of organizations worldwide, whose mission is to provide
opportunities and resources for member centers to participate in
joint environmental education programming at all levels; to unify
environmental education centers under a collective voice; and to
strengthen and develop environmental education as a recognized
and respected international institution.

7  6

conclusion:  a  crossroad
 "Even the most casual reading of the Earth's vital signs
 immediately reveals a planet under stress. In almost all the
 natural domains, the Earth is under stress—it is a planet that
 is in need of intensive care. Can the United States and the
American people, pioneer sustainable patterns of consumption
and lifestyle, (and) can you educate for that? This is a
challenge that we would like to put out to you."

                                                     Noel J. Brown
                                         Regional Office for North America
                                    United Notions Environment Programme
               National Forum on Education about the Environment October 1994
in recent years suggests that a unique opportunity to advance
education for sustainability has arrived. On the one hand, the
field is benefiting from increased attention from professional
societies, continued surges of public concern over local and
national and international environmental issues, and ongoing
engagement by nongovernmental organizations and federal
agencies. In addition, the impetus provided by the Earth
Summit, the National Science and Technology Council, and the
President's Council on Sustainable Development is catalyzing
increased public attention to education for sustainability. This
trend is fostering interdisciplinary linkages among the natural
and social sciences. Achieving a sustainable future will not
happen unless our educational  system graduates citizens and
specialists who understand the interconnections among the
environmental, economic, and social disciplines.
Today, education for sustainability is positioned to enter the
national stage as a priority for the coming decade.Taken together,
the initiatives and framework laid out in An Agenda for Action
offer a starting point.  The hope is that the Agenda will
stimulate further dialogue and  action on these initiatives.

The overarching goal is to infuse the concepts  of sustainability
into all learning from structured schooling in formal education
settings to lifelong learning in nonformal programs. Education for
sustainability can help prepare our society for a fast-paced world
of rapid scientific, social, technological, workforce, and
demographic changes.
       Increasingly, citizens young and old are flooded with information.
       On the Internet, for example, they can find information about
       global-scale environmental changes like global warming, loss of
       biodiversity, and the ozone hole; how human activities contribute
       to these changes, how they are inter-related and how they affect
       ecosystems and human health.The most up-to-date scientific
       information is more readily available than ever before.The key
       question, however, is whether citizens will be able to understand
       how to use this information. Education is a vehicle that can ensure
       that technology and the capacity to use  information are available
       to everyone.

       Education is our bridge from the past to the present and from
       the present to the future. A deep recognition of the importance
       of education is the necessary first step if we are to achieve the
       level of democratic participation envisioned by this country.
       Infusing the concepts of sustainability throughout learning
       experiences will help foster that awareness. Involvement of
       educators, government, businesses, and nongovernmental
       organizations working toward common goals will lead to an
       understanding of multiple perspectives and informed decision-

       How we meet the future is in our hands. Education for
       sustainability provides an opportunity to craft the future we want
       for a sustainable America.

7  8


     I   United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Agenda 21: Programme of Action for Sustainable
        Development (New York: United Nations, 1992).
  Chapter One

    2   The World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission), Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford
        University Press, I987),p.43.

    3   The President's Council on Sustainable Development, Sustainable America:A New Consensus for Prosperity, Opportunity, and a Healthy
        Environment (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1996).

    4   The term education for sustainability or sustainability education complements a number of other fields such as environmental
        education, global education, economics education, development education, multicultural education, conservation education, outdoor
        education, global change education, and others. Education for sustainability is considerably broader and encompasses many aspects
        of these respected and established fields of study.

    5   Definitions of environmental education have been presented in the following documents: U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
        Organization (UNESCO), Be/grade Charter (Belgrade.Yugoslavia, 1975); Final Report, Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental
        Education (Tbilisi, USSR, 1977);The World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission), Our Common
        Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987); North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE), Defining
        Environmental Education:The NAAEE Perspective, Unpublished paper, 1983; United Nations Conference on Environment and
        Development (UNCED), Agenda 2 /.-Programme of Action for Sustainable Development (New York: United Nations, 1992); International
        Council for Adult Education,  7 Year Plan for Major Institutional Change, Phase II,  1996; National Archives, Memorandum of Understanding
        on Environmental Education among the Department of the Environment Canada and the Secretariat of Social Development Republic of
        Mexico and the Environmental  Protection Agency, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, DC: 1992).
    6   Carnegie-Mellon University study cited by Susan Cohen,'The Warm Zone," The Washington Post Magazine, July 1995.
    7   Peter D. Hart Research, Goals and Priority Action Projects: Environmental Education about Fish andWildlife Conservation (Troy, Ohio:
        North American Association  for Environmental Education, 1994), p. 2.

    8   The Roper Organization, "America's Environmental GPA" and "Teen America's Environmental GPA,"  both surveys commissioned by
        SC Johnson & Son, Inc., 1991 -1992.

    9   Ontario Teachers Foundation position paper, 1993, p. 10. Cited in Jody Naters, "Learning for a Sustainable Future," December 1994

    10  National Science and Technology Council, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Technology for a Sustainable Future: A Framework
        for Action (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1994), p. 110.

    11   Harold R. Hungerford, Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions: Skill Development Modules (Champaign, IL: Stripes
        Publishing Company, 1992).

    12  William B.Stapp,"The Concept of Environmental Education," The Journal of Environmental Education, 1:1,Fall I969,p.3l.

   13   Abbey Ruskey, National Environmental Education Advancement Project, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Unpublished paper,
       November 1995.
   14   Julian Keniry, National Wildlife Federation, Ecodemia (Washington, DC: 1995).
   IS   jayne Chase, Blueprint for a Green School (Jefferson City, Missouri: Scholastic, 1995).
   16   U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics (Washington, D.C.:
       Government Printing Office, !995),Table 4.
   17   Rosalyn McKeown-Ice, Environmental Education Literacy Needs Assessment Project Assessing Environmental Literacy of Student and
       Environmental Education Needs for Teachers—Final Report 1/9/93-95. National Consortium for Environmental Education and Training,
   18   The Commission of  Global Governance, Our Global Neighborhood, The Report of the Commission of Global Governance (Oxford:
        Oxford University Press, 1995), p. I.
   19    Personal conversation with Taylor Grant, SABAN Entertainment, February 1996.
   20    Agriculture Extension Work Act (Smith-Lever Act), P.L 63-95, May 8,1914.
   21    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED),"Local Authorities' Initiatives of Agenda 21," Agenda 21:
        Programme of Action for Sustainable Development (New York: United Nations, 1992).
   22    U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics, The
        Condition of Education (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1994), p. 68.
   23    School-to-Work Opportunities Act, P.L. 103-239,1993.
   24    U.S. Department of Education, Where We Stand in Education (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1994).
   25    Mindi Maline, Lifelong LeorningrA Conceptual Framework  (The National Institute on Postsecondary Education, Libraries and Lifelong
        Learning. 1995).
   26   Ibid.
   27   Carol B.Aslanian, "Trends in Adult Learning" (New YorkThe College Board, Office of Adult Learning, 1993).
   28   U.S. Department of  Commerce, Bureau of the Census, World Population Profile: 1994 (Washington, DC: Government Printing
        Office, 1994).
   29   Ibid.
   30   U.S. Department of  Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Reaching The Goals: Goal 5—Adult Literacy and
        Lifelong Learning (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, July 1993), p.6.
   31    Fullerton, op.cft.
   32   U.N. Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, World Social Situation in the / 990s (New York: United
        Nations,  1990).
   33   U.S. Department of  Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Adult Literacy in America:A First  Look at the Results of the
        National Adult literacy Survey (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1992).
   34   Ibid.
                                   8 0

Chapter Four

  35   Goals 2000: Educate America Act, H.R. 1804,1994. U.S. Department of Education, The Goals 2000 Act: Supporting Community Efforts
       to Improve Schools (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1994), p. I.

  36   National Science and Technology Council, (NSTC), Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Technology for a Sustainable
       Future:A Framework for Action (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1994). NSTC, OSTP, Bridge to a Sustainable Future:A
       National Environmental Technology Strategy (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1995)

  37   Ibid.

  38   U.S. Department of Education, Interagency Technology Task Force, Technology Learning Challenge (Washington, DC: Government
       Printing Office, 1995), p. 2.

  39   Software Publishers Association, Software Publishers Association Market Report (1994-95 school year), Education Section (Washington,
       DC: October 1995), p. 105.

  40   Ibid.

Chapter Five

  41   UNESCO-UNEP, International Strategy for Action in the Field of Environmental Education andTraining for the 1990s (Nairobi & Paris,
                                                                                     8 I

8  2

                 This report was prepared by the planning group of the "National Forum for Partnerships Supporting Education about
                 the Environment" with the help of hundreds of contributors. The chapters of this report are the product of much
                 hard work and spirited debate.The members of the planning group include:

                                                   Steve Hulbert     Capitol Chevrolet, Olympia,Washington

                                                   Mark Schaefer    The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy
                                                   Carole Wacey     U.S. Department of Education

                                                   Keith Wheeler     Global Rivers Environmental Education Network

                 The planning group wishes to thank Colleen McNerney, who served as project coordinator and senior
                 contributor for the report; and Norah Deakin Davis, contributor and editor, an employee of the Waste Policy
                 Institute, a U.S. Department of Energy contractor.

                 The group also expresses thanks to Marcia Seidner, with The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy
                 for her contributions to the Agenda and production assistance over the past year; and to Paul Jutton, with the
                 Office of Administration, Executive Office of the President, for its layout and design.

                 The planning group also would like to acknowledge the support and resources contributed by the U.S.
                 Environmental Protection Agency, U. S. Department of Education.The White House Office of Science and Technology
                 Policy, U.S. Department of Energy, and the Waste Policy Institute (WPI). Additional support was contributed by Global
                 Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), Motorola, Second Nature, SC Johnson Wax, Inc., General Motors
                 Corporation, the National Consortium for Environmental  Education and Training (NCEET) at the University of
                 Michigan, and The Copen Family Fund.
                 We  thank all  those who
                 contributed their time and
                 energy to this project.
 Thomas Acker   •         Wheeling Jesuit College
 Maeve Adams             Finer High School
 Kristina Allen              Arizona State Education Agency Representative
 Andy Aim                Global Rivers Environmental Education Network
 Sha-King Alston            University of Massachusetts, Lowell
 Gordon Ambach           Council of Chief State School Officers
 John Anderson             Center for Improvement of Student Learning
 Bill Andrews              California Department of Education
 Carl Anthony              Earth Island Institute and Urban Habitat Program
 Lori Arguelles             National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
 Matthew Arnold           Management Institute for Environment and Business
 Adela Backiel              U.S. Department of Agriculture
 Michael Baker             U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 David Behler              President's Council on Sustainable Development
 John Behm                National Wildlife Federation
 Edwin Behrens             Procter and Gamble Company
 Judith Billings              Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction
 Beth Binns                Waste Policy Institute, Department of Energy Contractor
 Tommie Blackwell           Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)
 Cliff Block                WestEd Laboratory
 Martha Blue               The Conservation Fund
Judy Braus                World Wildlife Fund
 Gary Brewer              University of Michigan
Jessie Brinkley             National Parks and Conservation Association
 Noel Brown               United Nations Environmental Programme (former)
 Bliss Browne              Imagine Chicago
 Burlie Brunson             Lockheed Sanders, Inc.
 Bunyan Bryant             University of Michigan
                                                                                        8 3

                Magalen Bryant
                Marjorie Buckholtz
                Kathie Buffington
                John Byrne
                Jim Chace
                Randy Champeau
                Robert Chandler
                Ed Claussen
                Shelley Cohen
                Nancy Colleton
                Judy Cook
                Corey Cooke
                Peter Copen
                Anthony Cortese
                Duane Cox
                Kevin Coyle
                Greg Crosby
                Elizabeth Grossman
                James Crowfoot
                Goery Delacote
                Paul Dickinson
                Cheryl Dobbins
                Samuel  Doctors
                Virginia Donohue
                Morgan Dowe
                Roland  Droitsch
                Monique Dugars
                Anne Enge
                Nicole Fall
                John Farrington
                Jacob Pillion
                Peggy Finarelli
                Liza Finkel
                Mary Lee Fitzgerald
                Barbara Frank
                Maline Frush
                Jessica Fullmer
                Kathleen Gavin
                Orin Gelderloos
                Cynthia Georgeson
                John Gibbons
                Tom Gladwin
                 Neal Glasgow
                James Gonzalez
                Judith Gradwohl
                 Running Grass
                 Denise Graveline
                 Sharon Haines
                 Christy Halvorson
                 Gary Hanna
                James Harvey
                 Michelle Harvey
                Jim Hasler
                 Roland Haun
                 Susan Hayhurst
                 Colien Hefferan
                 Lars Helgeson
                 Gary Herbertson
                 Charles Hopkins
                 Bill Hough
                 Thomas Hudspeth
                 Bob Huggins
                 Harold Hungerford
                 Ronn Hunt
                 Brian Huse
                 David Imig
                 Shirley Ireton
                 Gary Jackson
                 Kayla Johnson
ig Foundation
National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Motorola, Inc.
River Watch Network
Pacific Gas and Electric Energy Center
North American Association for Environri
National Park Service
The Grove Consultants International
President's Council on Sustainable DevelopiJ
The Institute for Global Environmental Sti
The Enviro Systems Group
Waste Policy Institute, Department of Ene
The Copen Family Fund
Second Nature
Alliance for Environmental Education
National Environmental Education and 1
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Weyerhauser Company
Antioch College
The  Exploratorium
Partnership for Environmental Technology Education
Basic Technologies International
California State University
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. Department of Education intern
U.S. Department of Labor
Finer High School
Earth Island Institute
U.S. Department of Labor
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
U.S. Peace Corps
Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)
University of Michigan
Geraldine R. Dodge Institution
U.S. Department of Energy
Compliance and Closure, Inc.
Sustainable Development Forum
Institute for Sustainable Communities
University of Michigan
SC Johnson, Inc.
White House Office of Science and Technology Policy
New York University
Finer High School
Center for Environment,Technology, and Communication
Smithsonian Institution
Three Circles Center for Multicultural Environmental Education
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
International Paper Company
The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (former)
U.S. Department of Education
Transamerica Corporation
 National Environmental Education and Training Foundation
The Clorox Company
American Association of School Administrators
 U.S. Department of Education intern
 U.S. Department of Agriculture
 Mayville State University
 North American Coalition on Religion and Ecology
 Toronto Board of Education
 United Nations Association, California Division
 Bittersweet Project
 National Park Service
 Southern Illinois University
 U.S. Department of Education
 National Parks and Conservation Association
 American Association of Colleges forTeacher Education
 National Science Teachers Association
 Madison, Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service
 Capital High School
8 4

 Roger Johnson
 Lynda Johnston
 Geoffrey Jones
 Julie Jubeir
 Patricia Kane
 Thomas Keehn
 Cheryl Keen
 Henry Kelly
 Glynn Key
 Elana Kim
 Clifford Knapp
 Willard Kniep
 Mark Knutson
 Jim Kohlmoos
 Laura Kothavala
 Martin Krasney
 Madeleine Kunin
 Pat LaDonne
 Mary Jo Larson
 Keith Laughlin
 Bill Leland
 Lisa Bryce Lewis
 Michael Libbee
 Kenney Lilliquist
 Mark Under,
 Bob Litman
 Tom Lovejoy
 Ronald Loving
 Amory Lovins
 James Lyons
 Alexander M;
 James MacGregoi
 Jean MacGregor
 Kathleen MacKini
 Thomas Malone
 Antoinette Matthi
 Robbie M.
 Ed McG
 Kathy M<
 Nancy MI
Kathleen McLaughlin
Scott McVay
Gus Medina
Lou Middleman
Dennis Minano
Garrett Mitchell
William Mittlefehldt
Trish Morse
Lynn Mortensen
Gary Mulkey
Ramona Mullahey
Jeanne Murphy
Cindy Musick
Dean Nafziger
Lisa Narodick
Rae Nelson
Paul Nowak
Betty Olivilo
Molly Olson
Brian O'Neil
David Orr
Lisa Ostendorf
Jack Padalino
Mary Paden
Tom Parker
           University of Minnesota
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 National Aeronautics and Space Administration
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World Resources Institute
 U.S. Department of Energy

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                 John Perry
                 Clay Peters
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                  'avid Pines
                   Jph Ponce de Leon
                 Brenda Pulley
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                 Randell Raymond
                 Dave Rejeski
                 Linda Roberts
                 WJ. Robwedder
                 David Rockland
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                 Krishna Roy
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                 Mike Savidge
                 Joseph Sax
                 Michael Schneider
                 Stephen Schneider
                 Theresa Schwerin
                 Sara Segal
                 Larry Selzer
                 Brian Shea
                 Jack Shea
                 Gary Short
                 Andrea Shotkin
                 David Sibbet
                 David Silverberg
                 Bora Simmons
                 Tom Smart
                 Bradley Smith
                 Kenneth Smith
                 Nicholas Smith-Sebasto
                 Elliot Soloway
                 Molly Soule
                 Talbert Spence
                 William Stapp
                 Karl Stauber
                 Roger Strelow
                 Theodore Strong
                 Darleen Stoner
                 Jane Stutsman
                 Art Sussman
                 Bryan Thomlinson
                 John Turner
                 Carol Walcoff
                 Jamie Watts
                 Cecilia Weckstrom
                 MarciaSiam Wiley
                 Richard Wilke
                 Benjamin Wood
                 David Wood
                 David Woollcombe
                 Danijela Zunec
Center for Urban Community Development
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