600476051 Survey of Commercially Available Automatic Wastewater Samplers 41 1976 NEPIS online hardcopy LM 20140211 single page tiff EPA-600/4-76-051 September 1976 Environmental Monitoring Series A SURVEY OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE AUTOMATIC WASTEWATER SAMPLERS Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory Office of Research and Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 image: ------- RESEARCH REPORTING SERIES Research reports of the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, have been grouped into five series. These five broad categories were established to facilitate further development and application of environmental technology. Elimination of traditional grouping was consciously planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields. The five series are: 1. Environmental Health Effects Research 2, Environmental Protection Technology 3. Ecological Research 4. Environmental Monitoring 5. Socioeconomic Environmental Studies This report has been assigned to the ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING series. This series describes research conducted to develop new or improved methods and instrumentation for the identification and quantification of environmental pollutants at the lowest conceivably significant concentrations. It also includes studies to determine the ambient concentrations of pollutants in the environment and/or the variance of pollutants as a function of time or meteorological factors. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Informa- tion Service. Springfield. Virginia 22161. image: ------- EPA-600/4-76-051 September 1976 A SURVEY OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE AUTOMATIC WASTEWATER SAMPLERS by Richard P. Lauch Instrumentation Development Branch Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND SUPPORT LABORATORY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CINCINNATI, OHIO 45268 image: ------- DISCLAIMER This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory - Cincinnati, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recom- mendation for use. 11 image: ------- FOREWORD Environmental measurements are required to determine the quality of ambient waters and the character of waste effluents. The Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory - Cincinnati conducts research to: Develop and evaluate techniques to measure the presence and concentration of physical, chemical, and radiologi- cal pollutants in water, wastewater, bottom sediments, and solid waste. Investigate methods for the concentration, recovery, and identification of viruses, bacteria and other microbio- logical organisms in water. Conduct studies to determine the responses of aquatic organisms to water quality. Conduct an Agency-wide quality assurance program to assure standardization and quality control of systems for moni- toring water and wastewater. Included in its investigations, the Instrumentation Development Branch, EMSL, has pursued instrumentation surveys, one of which is summarized in this report. This survey, on automatic samplers, is encapsulated by the tabulation and includes most recent devices available as well as a listing of related references Dwight G. Ballinger Director Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory Cincinnati 111 image: ------- ABSTRACT This is a survey of commercial automatic wastewater samplers that are currently available. Pertinent characteristics for wastewater samplers known to the author are tabularized. Additional comments including short descriptions of each manufacturers1 equipment are given. Manufacturers names and addresses are included. A litera- ture review of the more recent reports on automatic wastewater samplers is also included. IV image: ------- CONTENTS Abstract iv Sections I Introduction 1 II Review 3 III Commercially Available Automatic Wastewater Samplers 12 Tabulation 12 Sampler Manufacturers and Additional Comments 19 IV Discussion 31 V References 32 image: ------- SECTION I INTRODUCTION Passage of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Admendments of 1972 (PL 92-500) and the ensuing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program have stressed the need for accurate and reliable effluent monitoring. Under the NPDES permit program, dischargers are required to moni- tor and report the amount and nature of all waste components so that compliance or noncompliance with the permit can be determined. Fulfillment of permit obligations will require one of the follow- ing types of monitoring: Continuous Aperiodic Grab sample Automatic sampling Continuous monitoring involves passing the sample over sensors or through an instrument that continually analyzes for specific parameters. Telemetering data into a computer for storage, statis- tical analyses, and printout are usually included with continuous monitoring. Aperiodic monitoring involves collecting a waste sample at varying intervals when specific parameters are out of tolerance or a change in flow characteristics mandates a sample. A grab sample is a single sample that will characterize a waste stream for a single point in time or over a period of time through which the waste concentrations remained constant. Automatic sampling involves the collection of waste samples on a time- or flow-proportional basis and these samples are deposited sequentially into either discrete bottles or a single container. It should also be noted that aperiodic samples can be triggered by a continuous monitor and collected into an automatic sampler (STPS).* All of the above methods of monitoring except STPS have been dis- cussed in previous literature and will not be repeated here. *Triggering an automatic sampler from a continuous monitor is called a Sample Taker Parametric System (STPS) and this system is based upon selected water quality parametric amplitudes, rather than time invariant or flow-proportional parameters. Mentink1 developed speci- fications for the STPS which are included in EPA's "Specifications for an Integrated Water Quality Data Acquisition System - Eighth Edition." image: ------- The purpose of this report is to bring information on commercially available automatic wastewater samplers up to date for those who require samplers. All U.S. companies that manufacture automatic wastewater samplers are listed with addresses and telephone numbers. Apologies are extended to any company that was inad- vertently omitted. Summarized descriptions of different sampler models are tabularized and additional pertinent comments are included. This document does not recommend any particular brand of sampler but merely compiles the available information into one report so that those who require this equipment can make a rational selection. A program for investigating performance of automatic wastewater samplers, both within the laboratory and in the field, has been initiated by the Instrumentation Development Branch, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory - Cincinnati (EMSL). Laboratory investigations are performed to determine if the sampler complies with manufacturer's specifications for accuracy and precision of timers, flow meters, sample volumes, sample multiplexing, and other characteristics specific to each sampler including elec- tronic control stability. Laboratory investigations also include tests to determine adequacy of cooling through refrigeration or icing, battery endurance, and component failure. Field tests are made to determine if the sample is representative for suspended solids, other parameters, and loss of data because of clogging or other failure. image: ------- SECTION II REVIEW There are a number of reports that would be helpful to those contemplating purchase of automatic wastewater samplers. Some of these more recent reports will be discussed here. Shelley and Kirkpatrick^ describe most of the automatic wastewater samplers that are commercially available and they include the names and addresses of manufacturers so that potential users will know where to purchase this equipment or obtain additional information. They also give an interesting discussion on intakes that includes solids distribution within a stream, and variation of solids col- lection with intake orientation and intake velocity. Velocity within the sampling train is discussed. Specific examples that illustrate the accuracy of different methods of proportioning including simple composite, volume-proportional to instantaneous flow rate, volume-proportional to flow since last sample, and time- proportional to flow since last sample are given. Shelley^ reports on the design and testing of a prototype automatic sewer sampling system. The prototype sampler is described and results of field and lab tests given. Field sampling was to demon- strate reliability and lab testing was to determine representative collection of solids. Synthetic solids were used with specific gravities ranging from 0.92 to 2.65. Four different commercially available samplers were also tested under the same flow conditions as the prototype. Overall performance of the prototype sampler was relatively good for solids with specific gravity of 1.06. Perform- ance of the prototype was more erratic at a specific gravity of 2.65. Performance of the commercially available samplers was more erratic than the prototype at both specific gravities. The report also discusses the requirements of a sampling system when broken down into five basic subsystems that include intake, gathering sys- tem, transport, storage, and controls. An interesting discussion of the intake function is presented that includes intake orientation, intake velocity, flow velocity, particle size and solids specific gravity. Harris and Keffer4 performed field evaluations on the Sigmamotor, Brailsford, ISCO, SIRCO, Pro-Tech, QCEC, and N-Con samplers. They analyzed samples according to Standard Methods5 for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nonfilter- able solids (NFS). Data obtained from different compositor image: ------- combinations were compared to each other and to those resulting from manual sampling methods. These sampler comparison studies on raw waste showed variations in water chemistry data that were greater than could be explained by laboratory analytical error and variation between samplers for NFS was the most significant. The U.S. Army6 has performed an extensive evaluation of different wastewater samplers that included both lab and field studies. Synthetic waters were used in their lab studies and these included tests for representative collection of biologicals, biodegradables, suspended solids, colloids, dissolved gases, and volatile organics. Field tests were for suspended solids and reliability. Conclusions included a ranking of the 16 samplers tested based on physical capa- bility, reliability, and representative sample collection. Craft, et al, discusses commercially available wastewater sampling and monitoring equipment and includes descriptions of the following water samplers: FMC (Tru-Test), N-Con (Sentinel), Phipps and Bird, QCEC (model E), BIF (Sanitrol), Lakeside (Trebler), Bristol Engi- neering (model M4), Pro-Tech, Brailsford, and Sigmamotor. o The handbook for monitoring industrial wastewater is an excellent guide that explains different methods of automatic wastewater sample collection and includes a section on the different types of flow- measuring equipment for wastewater flow. Wood and Stanbridge9 reported on different samplers that are used in England. Different manufacturers and methods of collection are dis- cussed. Suspended solids results are given for a test in which five samplers drawing from a receptacle containing well-screened sewage were compared with manual samples. Four of the samplers compared favorably and one that used a very low continuous flowrate only collected 77 percent of the average solids. Volumetric accuracy of their U-Tube sampler was best for the samplers that were compared. Shelley and Kirkpatrick10 discuss over 70 different generic types of primary flow measurement devices according to the fundamental physi- cal principles involved along with evaluations regarding their suitability for measurement of storm and combined sewer flows. A review of commercially available flow measurement equipment, listing manufacturer and including a description of each device, is given. A review of selected U.S. EPA project experience in flow measurement is presented along with a summary of current ongoing research efforts• The report also includes a review of the characteristics of storm and combined sewer flows, a discussion of the need for such flow measure- ment, the types of flow data required, and the time element in flow image: ------- data. Requirements and desirable features of flow measurement equipment along with an evaluation sheet that can be used for specific application is presented. performed a statistical evaluation on Sonford (Serco) sam- plers to confirm whether manual and automatic sampling methods are equivalent. Their results showed that the vacuum type automatic sampler evaluated in their study, may be used to collect repre- sentative wastewater samples on a composite basis. They also suggested sampler modifications to provide adequate sample preser- vation. Performance of the Manning model S-4000 wastewater sampler and the model F-3000 flow meter was investigated. 12 The sampler and flow meter were tested at temperatures of 2, 20, and 35C to determine accuracy, precision, and drift. Battery endurance was determined. Discrete sample temperatures versus time were recorded under iced conditions to determine preservation capability. Field tests were performed to determine representative collection of suspended solids and ability of the unattended sampler to collect raw sewage sam- ples over a 24-hour period. A report on application and procurement of automatic wastewater samplers13 discusses different sampler characteristics and includes compositing, proportionality, preservation, lift, and power require- ments. Application is discussed with reference to compliance with the NPDES Permit program. Selection and procurement of automatic wastewater samplers are included. Performance investigation of an ISCO model 1391 water and waste- water sampler was reported. Laboratory tests were made to determine accuracy and precision of the timer, flow meter, and sample volumes. Battery endurance was determined and sample temperatures were recorded under iced conditions to determine preservation capability for a 24-hour period. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Waste^S should be con- sulted before sampler purchase to determine the preservatives (such as sample cooling or chemical addition) that may be required for the parameters of interest. Some samplers include an ice chest, others provide mechanical refrigeration, and some permit the addi- tion of more than one preservative; therefore there is a need to consider the type of sample preservation that will be required before sampler purchase. image: ------- The Handbook for Sampling and Sample Preservation of Water and Wastewater16 discusses sampling program objectives, type of sample, use of automatic samplers, flow measurement, sampling techniques, preservation, sampling statistics, and methods. Figures 1 through 6 depict some typical components of automatic wastewater samplers. Figures 7, 8 and 9 show typical flow meters for collecting samples that are proportional to flow. These specific pictures were chosen for illustration only and they do not constitute endorsement of this equipment or recommendation for use. image: ------- Figure 1. Top of ISCO water sampler, showing pump, controls and battery. Figure 2. Intake of Manning Model S-4000 water sampler. image: ------- Figure 3. Solid-state control circuitry of Manning Model S-4000 water sampler. Figure 4. N-Con Sentry 500 water sampler showing intake, bottle rack, stepping arm, pump, and controls. image: ------- Figure 5. Sample tray, discrete sample bottles, and ice compartment of ISCO water sampler. Figure 6. Constant volume chamber of Manning water sampler. image: ------- Figure 7. ISCO Model 1470 float-type flow meter. 10 image: ------- I Milt lull! '.'IH INSTRUMENT Figure 8. Manning Model F-3000 dipper-type flow meter. Figure 9. Sigmamotor Model LMS 400 bubbler-type flow meter. image: ------- SECTION III COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE AUTOMATIC WASTEWATER SAMPLERS This section of the report includes a tabulation on pages 13 and 14 that illustrates the characteristics of the different samplers provided by 28 manufacturers. One contemplating procurement of commercial wastewater samplers can minimize his catalog research by employing the tabulation. Additional comments including items that would not fit into the table along with manufacturer's addresses are given following the table. There may be a few sampler manufacturers that were inadvertently omitted and these companies are invited to send the Agency their sampler informa- tion. TABULATION An explanation of the sampler table is in order because tables require succinctness but a little more detail is required, so the following definitions of the headings within the table are given: Manufacturer - The name given is the company name or the common brand name that is known to the sampler. Complete names, addresses, and phone numbers for each company are included fol- lowing the table. Model number - Model numbers include the company's basic model or models. Different models with slight variations may also be available. Approximate cost - Costs are constantly changing so that quota- tions can easily differ from the tabulation. Prices given approximate the sampler costs and includes refrigeration for regrigerated models but not the flow meter for flow-proportional models. Dimensions and Weight - Dimensions and weight are subject to slight variations as manufacturers incorporate modifications to compete in a field that is presently very dynamic. Sample Bottles^ - Number of sample bottles is usually fixed. In some cases a compositor that collects multiple discrete samples can be coverted to collect a single composite. Capacity may also be changed on some units to satisfy the user's needs. 12 image: ------- MANUFACTURER KF Sanitrol Brailsford Brailsford Brailsford Brailsford BVS BVS BVS BVS Bristol Chandler Collins EMA ETS Fluid Kinetics FMCCorp. Horizon lydragard Hydra-Numatic ISCO ISCO ISCO jkeside Manning Markland Markland N-Con N-Con MODEL NO 41-4 EVS-3B DC-F OU-2 EP PP-100 pre-ioo SE-400 SE-600 M-4KT SR-10 40-2R 200 AC FS-4 CuBtom Doalgn Tru-Test 7578 FP HNS 1392 1480 1580 T2 S-4000 1301 104T-CLK Surveyor Scout APPRO X. I COST Oil 67 67 296 373 373 700 900 2700 2900 941 2245 1343 239 100 2850 600 370 1980 200 800 900 855 350 150 250 275 520 DIMENSIONS WD.» DPTH.» HT. or Dl*.« HT. 27.3 x 25.4 xVA 30.5 x 22.9 x 48. 30.5 x 24 x 48.3 30.5 x 22.9 x 48.3 Small 31.8 x 25.4 x 46 43.2 x 49.5 x 45.1 61 x 61 x 122 61 x 61 x 122 7.6 x 30.4 27.2 x 59.7 x 108 50.8 x 61 x 122 20x83 108 x 46 x 55 49.6 x 60.4 x 131 40.6 x 23.5 x 57.2 10.2 x 74 91.4x33.4x91.4 49.5 x 53.3 48.5 x 64.8 48.5 x 64.8 43.8 x 57.2 3.2 x 30.5 x 71.1 Small 5.6 x 15.3 x 43.2 H 2 ? 18.1 8.7 8.72 8.72 L 35 79.5 79.5 3.2 45.4 100 9.1 31.8 I47.6 12.7 3.2 90.8 18.2 14.1 14.1 25 18.1 7.2 L 10 BOTTLES 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 28 1 1 1 24 1 1 1 1 757 378 757 757 3785 9463 5678 18,925 18,925 3785 8000 18,925 U 3785 7500 9463 U 18,925 500 11,350 1,350 U 500 7570 7570 U 3785 ul Ref. Ret. Ref. Ref Ref. Ice Ref. Ref. ce ce ce Ref. ce MATERIALS EXPOSED TO SAMPLES Nalgene 'olypropylen *olypropylen Polypropylen Polypropylen Plastic Plastic Polyethylene Polyethylene Polypropylen 'olyethylene Polyethylene U Plastic Polyethylene olyetnylene u Polyethylene 'olyethylene Polyethylene Polyethylene U Polyethylene Polyethylene U U olypropylena Tygon Tygon Tygon Tygon Tygon Tygon Tygon Plastic Plastic PVC Polyethylene Plastic Tygon Plastic Tygon Tygon Tygon Tygon Plastic Tygon Tygon Tygon U Tygon Other Fiberglass Plexiglas Teflon Teflon Teflon PVC PVC PVC PVC Stainless U Polypropylene Aluminum Noryl Silicone Stainless Bronze Silicone Silicone Silicone Plexiglas Plexiglas E.P.T. E.P.T. Buna-N Silicone *JI m 10.2 23.2 23.2 23.2 H H L 93.3 75 96.3 24.1 96.3 H H 12.1 to V 762 182 213 213 213 6096 6096 975 671 610 77 883 457 914 457 790 790 790 670 914 914 182 457 1 IIUUI) pmviNi 3.1G 3.16 3.16 3.16 3.16 12.7 50.8 9.5 9.5 50.8 4.8 9.5 12.7 6.35 £.35 6.35 12.7 9.5 6.35 6.35 12.7 6.35 TyPE OF PUMP Dipper Vacuum Piston Piston Piston Pressure Pressure Submersible Submersible Plunger into Pipeline Vacuum Moyno Solenoid Plunger Peristaltic Centrifugal Peristaltic Pressure Impeller Peristaltic Peristaltic Peristaltic Scoop Vacuum Pressure Pressure Impeller Peristaltic PURGE 1 CYCLE 1 X X X X X CONTROLS 'rop X X X X X X X X lime Prop X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Solid State X X X X X X X X X X POWER X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X £ CO X X X X X X X X X X X X X n • X X X X X ft Ss F P P P p P P F f F F F F P F F P P F P P P F P P F P P X • HAS. U • USER SUPPLIED , L • LOW, H • HIGH image: ------- MANUFACTURER N-Con N-Con N-Con NP Enterprises Phips & Bird Pro-Tech Pro-Tech Pro-Tech Pro-Tech OCEC QCEC QCEC QCEC Sigmamotor Sigmamotor Sigmamotor Sigmamotor Sigmamotor Sigmamotor Sigmamotor Sigmamotor SIRCO SIRCO SIRCO SIRCO Sonford Sonford TMI TMI Tri-Aid Sciences Waste Watcher MODEL NO. Sentry Trebler Sentinel NPE 8392-300 CG-125 CG-150 CEL-300 Da-240S CVE E CVE II LF WD-1 WD-5 WM-4-24 WM-6-24 HAP-2 WAP-5 WM-1-24R HAC-5R B/ST-VS B/IE-VS B/OP-VS MK-VS NW-3 HG-4 MARK 38 MARK 48 CUSTOM DESIGN CS/TP x • o. 0 < U 1100 1600 850 800 900 1500 5700 570 1000 950 960 650 1100 1100 1400 700 1050 1525 1300 1670- 1100- 1778 'TTT? VsM 1000 500 845 950 1425 DIMENSIONS »D.« OPTH.K HT. or DIA.K HT. (cms) 40.6 x 35.6 x 33 58.5 x 25.4 x 147.4 33 x 25.4 x 43.2 33 x 25.4 x 43.2 33 x 48.3 x 43.2 76.2x81.2x182.9 38.1 x 38.1 x 60.9 20.3 x33x VAR. 38.1 x 43.2 x 38.1 39.4 x 7.7 34.3 x 25.4 x 36.9 50 x 37 x 64 50 x 37 x 64 50 x 37 x 64 34.3 x 25.4 x 36.9 50 x 37 x 64 53.4 x 55.9 x 86.4 53.4 x 55.9 x 125 40.7 x 40.7 x 55.9 39.4 x 39.4 x 68 33.8x31.4x33.5 36.8 x 66 38 x 38 x 47 20 x 20 x 7 II * 15.9 84 9.1 9.1 13.7 24.9 45.4 15.9 10 14 27 25.4 29 11.4 19.1 56.8 44.5 127 123 91 17 23.2 14.5 20.2 10.5 SAMPLE BOTTLES Mo. 24 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 24 1 1 24 1 24 1 24 i 24 24 1 12 24 1 Cap. (mil 450 U 7570 U 5678 5678 5678 100 1893 U 3785 U 9462 18,925 450 450 9462 18,925 460 18,925 473 15.140 SOO 473 3785 570 570 U a *"o o REF. REF. REF. REF. ICE ICE REF. REF. REF. REF. REF. REF MATERIALS EXPOSED TO SAMPLES Bottles Glass U Polyethylene U TFE Resins TFE Resins TFE Resins TFE Resins Glass Glass U Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Polyethylene Stainless Polyethylene Plastic Glass Polyethylene Glass Glass U Tubing Tygon TFE Resins TFE Resins PVC Stainless Tygon Plexiglas U Tygon Tygon Tygon Tygon Tygon Tygon Tygon Tygon Plexiglas PVC PVC PVC Tygon Tygon Tygon Silicone Tygon Other Silicone PVC PVC Stainless PVC PVC PVC PVC Plexiglas Stainless Brass Stainless PVC Plexiglas Plexiglas Stainless Stainless Stainless Stainless Silicone Velocity in) sample line! (™i/~Kl\ 12.1 H 99.7 99.7 H H 9.7 4.2 9.7 4.2 9.7 4.2 9.7 VAR. H 140 34 to 457 L 305 914 914 914 914 610 610 670 548 670 548 670 548 670 670 6096 670 396 53 300 300 762 670 q Bf r— Z 6.35 50.8 3.16 3.16 12.7 127 6.35 12.7 3.16 6.35 3.16 6.35 3.16 6.35 3.16 3.16 9.53 9.53 6.35 6.35 6.35 9.53 7.9 TyPE OF PUMP Peristaltic Scoop U Vacuum Dipper Pressure 'ressure Submersible Submersible Vacuum Dipper Vacuum Plunger into 'pipeline Nutating Finger Nutating Finger Nutating Finger Nutating Finger Vacuum Dipper Pressurized Source Vacuum Evacuated bottles Telescoping tuba Evacuated bottles Evacuated bottles Peristaltic Peristaltic So X X X X X X X X X X X X CONTROLS low rop X X X X X X iine 'rop X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X olid tate X X X POWER o X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X a X X X X X X X X X X M if X X F I X X X X Sa )S p F F F F p p p F p F p F p p p p p p F F F F F P P P P P F F X - HAS. U - USER SUPPLIED, L - LOW. H - HIGH image: ------- Type Cooling - This refers to mechanical refrigeration or an ice compartment that is supplied by the manufacturer. If refrig- eration is listed, it is included in the price. If not listed, it may be possible for the user to supply his own refrigerator or ice chest. Materials Exposed to Samples - Materials exposed to the sample are important because these compounds could dissolve into the water sample and interfere with parameters that are of interest. Materials listed in the table are supplied as standard equip- ment; other materials may also be available on request. Velocity in Sample Line - Velocity within the sample line is of concern because it should be high enough to keep suspended solids in solution. Relatively high velocity will also reduce the effect of slime growth on the inside surface of the sample tubing. Maximum Lift - It is always best to install the sampler as close to the waste stream as possible. Theoretically, surface type pumps cannot lift water through a vertical distance of more than one atmosphere; and it is a good rule of thumb not to exceed 1/2 atmosphere. Intake I.D. - Internal diameter of the sample line must be large enough to allow solids of interest to pass and also to prevent clogging, but increased diameter lowers velocity and solids may be lost. Type of Pump - Specific waste types and sampling conditions may require a certain type of pump. Different manufacturers incorpo- rate the following types of lifting mechanisms that are referred to in the tabulation: a) Dipper g) Moyno n) Scoop b) Vacuum h) Solenoid plunger o) Pressurized c) Piston i) Finger source d) Pressure j) Nutating p) Evacuated e) Submersible k) Peristaltic bottles f) Plunger into 1) Centrifugal q) Telescoping pipeline m) Impeller tube a) Dipper - a dipper is a small bucket that revolves into the waste stream on a chain or belt and then dumps the sample into a funnel that directs it into a suitable container. 15 image: ------- b) Vacuum - vacuum pumps are diaphragm pumps that evacuate a chamber and this allows atmospheric pressure to force the sample into the evacuated chamber and then into the sample container. Automatic solenoid valves are usually incor- porated with vacuum pumps and these valves reverse the direction of air flow so that the sample line is blown out before and after taking a sample. Sample does not go through the vacuum pump or the solenoid valve. c) Piston - piston pumps for samplers are the syringe type that pump at a constant and low flow rate. d) Pressure - pressure, listed under type of pump in the table, refers to pneumatic ejection of the sample from a chamber within the waste stream through a line and into the sample container. e) Submersible - submersible pumps are mounted within the waste stream and include the intake, pump, electric motor and power leads. f) Plunger into pipeline - plunger into pipeline is a method of removing a sample from full pipeline flow that is usually under pressure. A hollowed chamber on the end of a shaft is forced into the pipeline by a pneumatic cylinder or electric solenoid and then withdrawn so that the sample is allowed to drain into a container. g) Moyno - moyno pumps are positive displacement worm type pumps that are manufactured by Robbins and Myers Corpora- tion. h) Solenoid plunger - this method is used by Environmental Marketing Associates and is explained on page 21. ,j,k) Finger, nutating, and perististaltic are three different types of motion applied to the outer tubing surface that result in the same effect. Tubing ware, metering accuracy, flow rate, pressure and power requirements are factors to consider when selecting these pumps. 1) Centrifugal - centrifugal pumps draw sample into the eye of an impeller and centrifugal force expels sample at the periphery with sufficient pressure to overcome friction losses and lift between the pump and the sample container. Centrifugal pumps are not self-priming and the sample line between the eye of the impeller and the waste stream must be filled with water to start the pump. m) Impeller - impeller pumps that are referred to in the table are semi-positive displacement units that incorporate a rubber impeller and are self-priming for small lifts. n) Scoop - scoops listed in the table mean the Trebler scoop that is manufactured by Lakeside Equipment Company. Dimen- sions of the Trebler scoop are such that this device will 16 image: ------- collect a sample that is flow-proportional when it is properly installed upstream from a weir or flume. o) Pressurized source - sample is taken from a liquid flow that is supplied from an external pressure source. No pump is included with the sampler. p) Evacuated bottles - when this principle is used, a vacuum pump or hand pump is supplied to evacuate the sample bot- tles. Bottles are sealed with spring clips and these clips are released sequentially through a timer and sample is drawn into the bottle. q) Telescoping tube - Sonford Products Corporation (Model HG-9) incorporates a hollow telescoping tube that dips into the waste stream and upon return, the sample drains down the inside of the tube and into the sample container. Purge Cycle - This means that the sample lines are forcibly backflushed before or after the sample is taken. Some samplers backflush the sample line, both before and after the sample is taken. Controls a) Flow-proportional samplers are listed in the table, as being flow-proportional only if the company actually manu- facturers a flow meter. The price, listed in the table, does not include the cost of the flow meter. The Trebler scoop and Hydragard (Model FP) are exceptions in that these units are inherently flow-proportional when installed up- stream from a weir or flume and they do not require an additional flow meter at extra cost. Many of the other samplers that are listed in the table will sample propor- tional to flow if a flow-proportional signal is supplied by the user. b) Time-proportional. This is usually included as standard equipment on all of the samplers that are listed. c) Solid-state. An (X) under solid state means that solid- state circuits are used throughout the controls without mechanical relays, stepping switches, or mechanical timers. Power requirements - power source requirements of specific samplers are given by an (X) in the table. In all cases, a battery-powered unit will also operate on 115 VAC through an appropriate converter. 17 image: ------- Portable or Fixed - (F) or (P) in the table indicates if the unit is fixed or portable, respectively. Some manufacturers will provide custom designed sampling instal- lations on request and a few manufacturers specialize mainly in custom designed permanent installations. These companies have a line of standard components that they can adapt to the specific needs of the user. 18 image: ------- SAMPLER MANUFACTURERS AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS 1. BIF Sanitrol Unit of General Signal Corporation P.O. Box 4, 1800 12th Street, SE Largo, Florida 33540 Telephone: 813-584-2157 BIF markets a dipper-type sampler with timer that delivers a sam- ple every 1.88, 3, 7.15, or 15 minutes. A flow-proportional contact closure will activate their standard samplers and 4 to 20 ma or 1- to 5-volt signal converters for flow-proportioning are also available at extra cost. Sample cooling with an all stain- less steel refrigerator is available. The basic sampler is made of fiber glass including the sampling cup, but stainless steel is also available. Another version of the BIF sampler uses a pump to deliver a continuous flow through a flume with a sampling cabinet. A portion of sample is dipped from this flume on either a time- or flow-proportioned basis. The lower part of the cabinet is refrig- erated and this section contains the composite sample container. 2. Brailsford & Company Incorporated Milton Road Rye, New York 10580 Telephone: 914-967-1820 The Brailsford sampler incorporates either a vacuum or a piston pump. Units are either AC or battery powered. An explosion- proof model is available. These units are lightweight, relatively small in size, and convenient for field use; but an additional ice chest is required if the samples are to be cooled. Samples can be either time-proportioned or linearly-proportioned to water level. 3. Bradywine Valley Sales Company (BVS) P.O. Box 243 Honey Brook, Pennsylvania 19344 Telephone: 215-273-2841 The models PP-100 and PPR-100 are small lightweight gas operated portable samplers. The sample chamber fills by gravity and the sample remains in the chamber until the timer activates a valve that directs pressurized gas (usually Freon) to the chamber. This gas pressure forces the sample into a container. The model PPR includes an absorption refrigerator that operates on 12 VDC. Models SE-400 and SE-600 are larger nonportable units that include a built-in refrigerator. These samplers are powered by 115 VAC and incorporate a submersible pump. 19 image: ------- 4. Bristol Engineering Company 204 South Bridge Street Box 696 Yorkville, Illinois 60560 Telephone: 312-553-7161 This type of sampler is used for drawing samples from a pres- surized pipeline. It is screwed into the pipeline and a plunger protrudes into the line and withdraws the sample which then drains into a collection container. The number of individual samples is adjusted proportional to time. The standard unit is powered by air pressure at 80 psi. Electrically powered units (120 VAC, 60 Hz) are also available. The price given in the table includes an all solid-state timer, fittings kit, air lines, 1-gallon poly- propylene sample bottle, and size change adapter for a wide mouth bottle. Modifications are available to satisfy specific require- ments. 5. Chandler Development Company 1031 East Duane Avenue Sunnyville, California 94086 Telephone: 408-738-1060 This sampler uses a Thomas Industrial vacuum pump that will over- come 671 cm of lift. Operation is either time invariant or proportional to a user supplied flow-proportional signal. The smallest restriction within the sampler is 1.9 cm diameter. Internal sampler lines are PVC. The user must supply lines from the cabinet to the waste stream. Volume of each aliquot is vari- able from 25 to 105 ml. 6. Collins Products Company P.O. Box 382 Livingston, Texas 77351 Telephone: 713-327-4200 Collins provides a 1/2 hp moyno pump that continually supplies a wastewater sample through a stand pipe that is mounted inside of a Plexiglas housing. A timer actuates a three-way valve that turns off the flow through the stand pipe. Water trapped within the stand pipe drains into the sample container. The stand pipe provides a precise quantity of sample for the container (standard is 3 cc every 30 seconds). Refrigeration for the sample container is provided. Continuous high flow rate insures representative solids and flushing of all lines. The smallest restriction within the system is a 3/8 inch ball valve that has a 0.714 cm diameter opening. Collins provides modifications to this system as re- quested by the purchaser. Flow-proportioning is available when 20 image: ------- a user-supplied contact or milliamp signal from a flow meter is supplied. This signal causes the time between samples to vary proportional to flow. 7. Environmental Marketing Associates (EMA) 3331 Northwest Elmwood Drive Corvallis, Oregon 97330 Telephone: 503-752-1541 EMA samplers consist of an outer tube (about 10.2 cm diameter) that extends into the waste stream. A plunger (piston) extends internally to the bottom of the outer tube. Sample enters by gravity through 0.923 cm diameter holes in the plunger. A solenoid is energized from a timer (every 15 sec to 1/2 hr) and the plunger is pulled through a vertical distance within the tube. Sample that is trapped within the lower part of the tube is forced through a line and into the sample container. An insulated chest is provided for icing the sample. This sampler is light in weight and can be battery operated; but most of these units have been powered by 115 VAC and used in fixed locations. EMA samplers can also be controlled form a flow meter through a totalizer and contactor. 8. ETS Products 12161 Lackland Road St. Louis, Missouri 63141 Telephone: 314-878-1703 The model FS4 collects 12 discrete 1-gallon (3,785 ml) samples over a 24-hour period. Samples are pumped continuously at a rate of 1/3 gph (.00035 liter per sec). Continuous sampling has the advantage of drawing some effluent over the entire period, but low sample velocity may impair suspended solids results at locations where solids are high. Discrete samples of large volume makes manual flow proportioning easier and an adequate amount of sample is available for analysis. 9. Fluid Kinetics Incorporated 3120 Production Drive Fairfield, Ohio 45014 Telephone: 513-874-5121 Fluid Kinetics manufactures Streamguard Models FPS-103 and FTS 200 sampling controls, Models PP 60E, PP-71E, and 60EA12D sample pumping systems and the model DA-2451 discrete liquid sampler attachment. They also sell Universal Engineered Systems Incor- porated (UES) flow measuring equipment that includes control, totalizing, telemetry, and recording. The company specializes 21 image: ------- in adapting these components to collect wastewater samples for the user's application. Specific components can be combined to take single composite or multiple discrete samples that are pro- portional to time or flow. Mechanical refrigeration is also available. Fluid Kinetics also manufactures the Model GS-100 Liquid grab sampler that collects a grab sample from specific depths within the waste stream. 10. FMC Corporation Environmental Equipment Division 1800 FMC Drive Itasca, Illinois 60143 Telephone: 312-893-1800 Refrigeration and/or pumping systems are optional for FMC's Tru- Test Sampler. Sample is pumped from the waste stream into the sample chamber of the sampler; at this point the sample is dipped from the chamber and displaced through a funnel into the sample container. Pumps supplied with the unit give a velocity that is satisfactory for representative suspended solids. FMC recommends the unit for raw waste, primary, and final effluent. True-Test samplers will pass solids up to 1.27 cm in diameter. The sampler uses solid state digital logic circuits that can be programmed to take from three samples per second to one sample every 99.99 minutes. Tru-Test samplers will accept flow meter signals for flow-proportional samples on a constant volume, time varying basis. 11. Horizon Ecology Company 7435 North Oak Park Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60648 Telephone: 312-647-7644 This is a small, portable, battery-operated sampler with peristal- tic pump. The unit is lightweight, has rechargeable batteries, and is convenient for field work. Battery condition can be checked with a built-in battery tester. Samples can be taken in intervals of 15 minutes, 30 minutes, or continuously, Sample volume is set with a switch on the control panel. 12. Hydragard Automatic Samplers 850 Kees Street Lebanon, Oregon 97355 Telephone: 503-258-2628 This company makes models HP and FP samplers. The HP is time- proportional from a neumatic pulse relay. Timing is adjustable with a needle valve. Sampling rate is variable from 10 samples per minute to one sample every 30 minutes. The unit requires an 22 image: ------- air compressor that is not supplied but can be purchased from Speedair or Thomas Industries. The smallest opening within the sample line for the HP is 1/2 inch. The model FP is flow-proportional and it must be mounted upstream from a user- supplied weir or flume. Both models are approximately 74 cm long and weigh approximately 3.2 Kg. The sample bottle is supplied by the user and neither model is refrigerated. Operation of the flow-proportional unit (model FP) is identical to the model HP except the sampling chamber is a tapered tube and this taper is proportional to the specific weir or flume that is being used. The company also makes a unit for drawing samples from a pipe- line. 13. Hydra-Numatic Sales Company 65 Hudson Street Hackensack, New Jersey 07602 Telephone: 201-489-4191 The Hydra-Numatic weighs 90.8 Kg. and is meant for fixed loca- tions. It includes a 1/4 hp Jabsco pump with flexible impeller. Suction lift is 457 cm. The sampler operates proportional to time and it will also accept signals from an external flowmeter. Intake velocity is relatively high and therefore the sampler should be satisfactory for waste samples that are high in sus- pended solids. Hydra-Numatic also sells the complete line of BVS samplers. 14. Instrumentation Specialties Company (ISCO) P.O. Box 5347 Lincoln, Nebraska 68524 Telephone: 402-799-2441 ISCO makes three samplers: model nos. 1392, 1480, and 1580. These units are professionally designed and the company is con- tinually incorporating the latest innovations (such as solid-state digital logic) in their equipment. ISCO samplers are portable, can be installed within manholes, and will operate from either 12 VDC or 115 VAC. Models include both 28-bottle discrete and single composite-type samplers. Sample flow rate appears to be high enough for collecting representative suspended solids sam- ples. ISCO also sells a flow meter that makes the sampler flow-proportional when the flow meter is installed upstream from a weir or flume. When the flow meter is used, sample volume is constant and time between samples varies with flow. ISCO samples are cooled by adding ice to the center of the sample compartment. Multiplexing is available and this option will place up to four samples in one bottle before indexing to the next sample bottle. 23 image: ------- 15. Lakeside Equipment Corporation 1022 East Devon Street Bartlett, Illinois 60611 Telephone: 312-837-5640 The Lakeside Trebler is a flow-proportional scoop that is con- trolled by a timer to dip samples in intervals of from 2 to 60 minutes. The scoop must traverse the entire depth of the waste stream and swing radius can be up to a maximum of 36 inches. For accuracy of flow-proportioning, the end of the scoop should just touch the bottom of the channel. The scoop must be mounted up- stream from a weir or flume. It appears that a representative sample would be taken since the entire depth of the waste stream is traversed. The company also sells a mini-trebler sampler that uses direct drive and is therefore more compact. Required power is 115 VAC, 60 Hz. The company also claims the mini-sampler will run for 24 hours from a 12-volt motorcycle battery through an inverter (12 VDC to 115 VAC, 60 Hz). The user must supply a sam- ple container that holds 1 to 5 gallons. Lakeside provides a small refrigerator for the sample. N-Con Systems Company also sells the Lakeside Trebler mini-sampler. 16. Manning Environmental Corporation 120 Dubois Street Box 1356 Santa Cruz, California Telephone: 408-427-0230 The Manning Model S-4000 collects 24 discrete sequential samples. A vacuum pump is used and sample flow rate is high. Solid-state logic is used in the control function and samples are taken pro- portional to either time or flow. Time-proportioning uses a quartz crystal clock and flow-proportioning incorporates Manning's portable dipper flow meter. Flow-proportional control provides a constant volume of sample over a variable time interval. This portable fits into manholes and it operates from a rechargeable 12-volt battery. Samples can be cooled by adding ice to the center of the sample compartment. Option of placing multiple samples in one bottle or the same sample in multiple bottles is switch selectable. Placing the same sample in multiple bottles allows addition of different preservatives. 17. Markland Specialty Engineering LTD. Box 145 Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada Telephone: 416-625-0935 The sample inlet is a flexible duckbill that acts as a check valve. After this inlet chamber is filled, compressed air forces the 24 image: ------- sample from the inlet chamber into the sample bottle. The manufacturer states that the duckbill is nonclogging. The unit incorporates a solid-state timer that will accept signals from a user-supplied flow meter. Required air pressure is obtained from the house supply, a separate compressor or a compressed air cyl- inder for the portable model. The unit may be powered from either 115 VAC or 12 VDC. 18. N-Con Systems Company Incorporated 308 Main Street New Rochelle, New York 10801 Telephone: 914-235-1020 N-Con makes five models of water samplers that include the Sur- veyor, Scout, Sentry, Trebbler, and Sentinel. The Surveyor, Scout, and Sentry are portable units and the Trebbler and Sentinel are fixed units. The Trebbler is a dipping flow-proportional sampler that N-Con manufacturers under license from Lakeside Engineering Corporation. The other samplers pump the wastewater sample to the unit. These units cover different approaches to sample collection that incorporate different inlet velocities, time- and flow-proportioning, single or multiple discrete compos- ites, and different methods of cooling, including icing and mechanical refrigeration. 19. NPE Enterprises Incorporated P.O. Box 69 Lewiston, New York 14092 Telephone: 716-754-4828 The NPE sampler incorporates a unique vacuum method that accurately measures a precise sample of effluent on a timed-sequence or remote- signal basis. Samplers are composited into a refrigerated and insulated retention chamber. The system is custom-designed for the user's effluent and manufactured according to chemical process equipment standards for permanent installation. Parts that contact either the effluent stream or sample are noncorrosive. NPE Samplers use a compressor that evacuates a vertical draw tube and a column of effluent is lifted into this tube. The sample falls into a calibrated slide arm that is connected to the draw tube with a Y-fitting. A level sensor within the draw tube initiates a signal that shifts the air control valve and changes draw tube vacuum to pressurized air for backflushing. A ball valve opens and the sample within the side arm is forced into the refrigerated compartment. Liquid does not go through a pump and there are no small restrictions within the system. It does not appear that clogging of the system would be a problem, NPE samplers 25 image: ------- incorporate Foxboro flow, pH, and conductivity measuring equipment when specified. The NPE sampler is usually a complete and perma- nent installation for the user's requirement, however, individual components are also available. 20. Phipps and Bird Incorporated Sixth and Byrd Streets P.O. Box 2V Richmond, Virginia 23205 Telephone: 804-644-5401 This is a dipper-type sampler that is designed to sample trash- laden streams where it is not possible to operate a pump. Power requirement is either 115 VAC or 12 VDC. The sampler can be controlled manually, from a timer, or from an integrated flow- meter signal. The sample container is supplied by the user. Samples can be iced or cooled in a refrigerator that is supplied by Phipps and Bird at extra cost. 21. Pro-Tech Roberts Lane Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355 Telephone: 215-644-4420 Pro-Tech offers a variety of portable and stationary samplers. Some of these samplers are powered by gas pressure (nitrogen, air, Freon) and some are electrically powered. Pro-Tech's gas pressure samplers incorporate an inlet chamber with check valve that allows sample to enter the chamber by gravity and then pressure is applied to the chamber, the check valve closes and the sample is forced into the sample container. Pro-Tech's all electric samplers incor- porate a submersible pump that provides a continuous flow of sample through the unit and to waste; upon command a solenoid diverts this sample into a collection container for a predetermined length of time. All Pro-Tech samplers are actuated automatically by inter- nally generated signals, and most of these samplers also offer a flow-proportional feature for accepting external triggering (by dry-contact closure) from a variety of flow-measuring devices supplied by others, whether in the form of a pretotalized signal, a series of time-duration signals, or digital pulses. The small portable samplers collect a single composite and the larger sta- tionary units will collect either a single composite sample or 24 discrete samples. Mechanical refrigeration is available on Pro-Tech's stationary units. 22. Quality Control Equipment Company (QCEC) P.O. Box 2706 Des Moines, Iowa 50315 Telephone: 515-285-3091 26 image: ------- QCEC makes sampler models CVE, CVE II, E, AND LF. Models CVE and CVE II operate on QCEC's patented vacuum system that lifts liquid through a suction line into the sampling chamber. The vacuum pump then shuts off and the sample is forcibly drawn into the sample container. Double pressurized blow-down of the sample lines is standard on the CVE II and optional on the CVE. The model E is a dipper sampler that is designed for permanent installations and the company claims that it is clog proof. The model LF sampler incorporates an electrically-controlled air cylinder that moves a shaft in and out of a liquid line or tank. Model LF samplers are leak proof. Standard timed-interval control is basic to all QCEC effluent samplers. Models CVE, E, and LF will accept flow- proportional signals at slight extra cost. The standard model CVE II sampler is all solid state and it will accept 4-20 ma signals from flow meters and perform its own integration to provide flow-proportional sampling. It also accepts time-pulse signals, signals from sampling switches, or will operate on a straight timed-interval basis. The CVE II is available in the standard portable unit, a mechanically refrigerated model, and in a specially-designed housing for suspension in manholes. 23. Sigmamotor Incorporated 14 Elizabeth Street Middleport, New York 14105 Telephone: 716-735-3616 Sigmamotor makes many different sampler models. Stationary units are powered by 115 VAC and portable models are powered by either 115 VAC or 12-volt batteries. A converter is available for re- charging batteries. Models that supply either single composite or multiple discrete samples are available. Mechanical refrigeration is included on some models. Both flow- and time-proportioning is available. Some models incorporate Sigmamotor's nutating pump and other models use their finger pump. Both of these pump types squeeze the sample through the tubing and sample does not come into contact with any part of the pump. Different Sigmamotor sampler models will respond to one of three types of flow- proportional signals. These are time-variable sample collection in response to a flow-proportional switch closure, time-variable sample collection in response to a varying 4-20 milliamp signal from a user-supplied transmitter and continuous sampling with sample pump flow rate directly proportional to a varying 4-20 milliamp input signal. Sigmamotor also manufactures their own model LMS-400 battery- operated, open-channel flow meter that enables one to dial-in-all 27 image: ------- standard flow and depth equations. It works on the bubbler principle, and is powered by 115 VAC or 12 VDC rechargeable batteries, The LMS-400 is equipped with a pressure sensitive strip chart (for a continuous record of flow) and a digital totalizer that indicates total flow. Flow-proportional input to an automatic water sampler is incorporated within the flow meter and it will indicate the time at which individual samples were taken. Only a sampling of the Sigmamotor samplers are listed in the tabulation as the models were too numerous to list all of them. 24. SIRCO Controls Company 8815 Selkirk Street Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Telephone: 604-261-9321 SIRCO makes a number of different sampler models. These models include units that are: portable, stationary powered by 115 VAC or battery, single composite, multiple discrete composite, refrigerated, and non-refrigerated. SIRCO samplers can be either time-proportional or they can be controlled from a user-supplied, flow-proportional signal. Different samplers incorporate a lift- ing mechanism that is either a vacuum pump or a small dipping bucket. The vacuum pump provides relatively high sample velocity and it also backflushes the sample line. Another model is avail- able that collects the sample from a pressurized source and no lifting mechanism is required. 25. Sonford Products Corporation 100 East Broadway, Box B St. Paul Park, Minneapolis 55071 Telephone: 612-459-6065 Sonford makes models NW-3 and HG-4 wastewater samplers. The model NW-3 consists of 24 discrete bottles and lines that are evacuated with a vacuum pump and sealed. A spring-wound timer rotates a tripper arm that releases one tube each hour (on standard unit) and the sample is drawn into the evacuated bottle. This unit is portable and requires no electric power after the bottles are evacuated. The model HG-4 uses a telescoping tube that moves down into the effluent stream and then back up, allowing the sam- ple to flow down the center of the tube and into the sample container. The model HG-4 can be powered from either 115 VAC or a 12-volt battery. 26. Testing Machine Incorporation (TMI) 400 Bayview Avenue Amityville, New York 11701 Telephone: 516-842-5400 28 image: ------- TMI sells the Mark 3B, Mark 4B, and Mark 4BE samplers. All three models operate on the evacuated bottle principle and the company includes a hand pump, vacuum gage, and all fittings that are required for evacuating the bottles in the field. Each bottle has a separate tube that leads to the inlet manifold. Models 3B and 4B use a spring driver clock to trip tube clamps that allow sample to be sucked into the bottles. The model 4BE uses a battery-powered clock. The 3B has 12 discrete bottles and the 4B and 4BE will accept either 12 2-liter or 24 1-liter bottles. All three samplers can use 0.57-liter bottles. Standard spring- driven clocks will collect samples at intervals of 1/4, 1/2, 1, or 2 hours and timers that provide intervals different from these are also available. The sampling sequence on the 4BE can be started by an external signal (contact closure) such as pro- vided by a float switch or integrator. This is useful for monitoring storm water or other abnormal events. Sampling stops when the signal is removed. These samplers are manufactured in England by North Hants Engi- neering Company LTD. and they are distributed in the United States by Testing Machines Incorporated. 27. Tri-Aid Sciences, Incorporated 161 Norris Drive Rochester, New York 14610 Telephone: 716-461-1660 Tri-Aid Sciences constructs custom-designed, permanently installed flow-proportional samplers and wastewater monitors. Most of their equipment incorporates noncontacting ultrasonic flow measurement in flumes and half pipes. The flow measurement and sampling control utilizes total solid-state electronics with a versatility that enables it to be used with all primary flow elements and sensing devices. The sampling system pumps a small, continuous flow of wastewater through a sampling diverter valve and returns it to the main wastewater flow. When the sampler control signals a sample is to be taken on the basis of flow, a frequent, small, accurate sample is diverted to the sample bottle that accumulates the flow- proportional composite sample. A peristaltic pump, normally 3/8 inch, 1/2 inch, or 3/4 inch I.D. is used to continuously circulate a portion of the wastewater flow through the sampling diverter valve and return it to the wastewater stream. Suction lift for the pump is approximately 25 feet of water. Power requirements for the sampler are 100 VAC, 5 amps. A flow-through monitor for pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and/or other parameters may be included in the sampling line for continuous monitoring and recording. 29 image: ------- 28. T. A. Baldwin Company Incorporated 16760 Schoenborn Street Sepulveda, California 91343 Telephone: 213-894-7153 T. A. Baldwin Company manufactures the Waste Watcher model CS/TP sampler. This sampler uses a TAT Engineering Company peristaltic pump and collects a single composite sample. An adapter is avail- able that enables the unit to take 12 discrete samples instead of the single composite. Two sizes of mechanical refrigerators are also available for the Waste Watcher sampler. Sampler controls are solid state except for an electromagnetic counter and relays. The sample line is purged before taking the sample for a period of from 1 to 5 minutes. T. A. Baldwin supplies a flow meter that consists of a Palmer-Bowlus flume that uses a capacitance elec- trode transducer. The capacitance electrode gives a signal that varies linearly with flow. This signal is totalized and controls the sampler through a dry contact closure so that the sample is taken at a switch selectable multiple of flow; hence a constant- volume, time-variable sample is obtained. Waste Watcher flow meters also include a panel meter, recorder, and totalizing counter. The flow meter is all solid state except for the counter. The flow recorder also shows the time at which the sample was taken. 30 image: ------- SECTION IV DISCUSSION The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Program has stressed the need for effluent monitoring over speci- fied periods for specific parameters. Automatic wastewater samplers are useful tools for collecting samples that will provide the data that are required by NPDES. It is necessary to collect accurate and precise samples that are representative of the waste stream from which they came. These samples will be analyzed and the data obtained will determine permit compliance or noncompliance. It is therefore necessary to pick an automatic sampler that will accurately collect representative samples to provide the required information. The object of this document is to condence, sum- marize, and localize automatic wastewater sampler information facilitating rational equipment selection. Reading this report, others previously issued, and visiting laboratories engaged in automatic sampling, should provide a tentative user with adequate information for his project. 31 image: ------- SECTION V REFERENCES 1. Mentink, A. F., "Specifications for an Integrated Water Quality Data Acquisition System," 8th Edition with Addenda, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Cincinnati, Ohio, January 1968. 2. Shelley, P. E., and Kirkpatrick, G. A., "An Assessment of Auto- matic Sewer Flow Samplers - 1975," Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio. Available through National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 21161, EPA-600/2-75-065, December 1975. 3. Shelley, P. E., "Design and Testing of a Prototype Automatic Sewer Sampling System," Municipal Environmental Research Labora- tory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio. Available through National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161, EPA- 600/2-76-006, March 1976. 4. Harris, D. J., and Keffer, W. J., "Wastewater Sampling Method- ologies and Flow Measurement Techniques," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region VII, Surveillance and Analysis Divi- sion, Technical Support Branch, Field Investigations Section, Kansas City, Mo. 64108, June 1974. 5. APHA, AWWA, WPCF, "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 13th Edition, American Public Health Associa- tion, Washington, D.C. 20036, 1971. 6. Barkley, J. J., Peil, K. M., and Highfill, J. W., "Water Pollu- tion Sampler Evaluation," U.S. Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Deitrich, Frederick, Md. 21701, January 1975. 7. Craft, T. F., and Ingols, R. S., "Wastewater Sampling and Test- ing Instrumentation," Georgia Institute of Technology Technical Report No. AFWL-TR-73-69, July 1973. 8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Handbook for Monitoring Industrial Wastewater," Technology Transfer, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 20460, August 1973. 32 image: ------- 9. Wood, L. B., and Stanbridge, H. H., "Automatic Samplers," Water Pollution Control, G.B. 67, 1968, (5) 495-520. 10. Shelley, P. E., and Kirkpatrick, G. A., "Sewer Flow Measurement - A State-of-the-Art Assessment," Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio. Available through National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161, EPA-600/2- 75-027, November 1975. 11. National Field Investigations Center - Denver, "Comparison of Manual (Grab) and Vacuum Type Automatic Sampling Techniques on an Individual and Composite Sample Basis," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NFIC, Denver, Colo., September 1974. 12. Lauch, R. P., "Performance Investigation of the Manning Model S-4000 Portable Wastewater Sampler and the Model F-3000 Dipper Flowmeter," Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protec- tion Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268. Publication forthcoming. 13. Lauch, R. P., "Application and Procurement of Automatic Waste- water Samplers," National Environmental Research Center, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, EPA-670/4-75-003, April 1975. 14. Lauch, R. P., "Performance of the ISCO Model 1391 Water and Waste- water Sampler," National Environmental Research Center, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, EPA-670/4-75-001, February 1975. 15. Methods Development and Quality Assurance Research Laboratory, National Environmental Research Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, "Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Technology Transfer, Washington, D.C. 20460, 1974. 16. Huibregtse, K. R., and Moser, J. H., "Handbook for Sampling and Sample Preservation of Water and Wastewater," Envirex Inc., A Rexnord Company, Environmental Sciences Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contract No. 68-03-2075, Publication forthcoming. 33 image: ------- TECHNICAL REPORT DATA (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing) 1. REPORT NO. 2. EPA-600/4-76-OS1 4. TITLE ANDSU3TITLE A SURVEY OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE AUTOMAT WASTEWATER SAMPLERS 7. AUTHOR(S) Richard P. Lauch 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Environmental Monitoring and Support Labor Office of Research and Monitoring U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS Same as above 3. RECIF 5. REPO 1C Sept 6. PERF 8. PERF 10. PRO atory 1HD6 11. CON 13. TYP 14. SPOI IE. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES MENT'S ACCESSION-NO. RT DATE ember 1976 (Issuing date) ORMING ORGANIZATION CODE ORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. GRAM ELEMENT NO. 21 TRACT/GRANT NO. E OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED YSORING AGENCY CODE EPA/ORD 16. ABSTRACT This is a survey of commercial automatic wastewater samplers that are currently available. Pertinent characteristics for wastewater samplers known to the author are tabularized. Additional comments including short descriptions of each manufacturers' equipment are given. Manu- facturers names and addresses are included. A literature review of the more recent reports on automatic wastewater samplers is also included. 17. KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS a. DESCRIPTORS Samplers, Sampling, Acceptance sampling, Sequential sampling, Composites, Water pollution. 18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Release to public b.lDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENOE Automatic wastewa samplers, Survey automatic water s Effluent samplers 19. SECURITY CLASS (This I Unclassified 20. SECURITY CLASS {This f Unclassified D TERMS c. COSATI Field/Group ter of amplers, 13B Itport] 21. NO. OF PAGES 40 image: -------