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<pubnumber>600R08049</pubnumber>
<title>US EPA's Smart Energy Resources Guide</title>
<pages>200</pages>
<pubyear>2008</pubyear>
<provider>NEPIS</provider>
<access>online</access>
<origin>PDF</origin>
<author></author>
<publisher></publisher>
<subject></subject>
<abstract></abstract>
<operator>mja</operator>
<scandate>08/04/08</scandate>
<type>single page tiff</type>
<keyword></keyword>

&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA/600/R-08/049
March 2008
      Smart Energy Resources Guide
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                                                 EPA/600/R-08/049
                                                      March 2008
Smart Energy  Resources Guide
                     Prepared By
                     Jennifer Wang
                         for
         Penny McDaniel, Superfund Project Manager
       Michael Gill, Hazardous Substance Technical Liaison
                   Superfund Division
                       Region 9
            U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
                San Francisco, CA 94105

                     Steven Rock
        Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division
        National Risk Management Research Laboratory
             Office of Research and Development
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                  Cincinnati, Ohio 45268
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Foreword

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged by Congress with protecting the
Nation's land, air, and water resources. Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the
Agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human
activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet this mandate, EPA's
research program is providing data and technical support for solving environmental problems today
and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely,
understand how pollutants affect our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risks in the future.
The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is the Agency's center for
investigation of technological and management approaches for preventing and reducing  risks from
pollution that threaten human health and the environment. The focus of the Laboratory's  research
program is on methods and their cost-effectiveness for prevention and control of pollution to air,
land, water, and subsurface resources; protection of water quality in public water systems;
remediation of contaminated sites, sediments and ground water; prevention and  control of indoor air
pollution; and restoration of ecosystems. NRMRL collaborates  with both public and private sector
partners to foster technologies that reduce the cost of compliance and to anticipate emerging
problems. NRMRL's research provides solutions to environmental problems by: developing and
promoting technologies that protect and improve the environment; advancing scientific and
engineering information to support regulatory and policy decisions; and providing the technical
support and information transfer to ensure implementation of environmental regulations and
strategies at the national, state, and community levels.
This publication has been produced as part of the Laboratory's strategic long-term research plan. It
is published and made available by EPA's Office of Research and Development to assist the user
community and to link researchers with their clients.
Sally Gutierrez, Director
National Risk Management Research Laboratory
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Notice
This document was prepared by a Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) grantee under the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 9.  The EPA makes no warranties, expressed or
implied, including without limitation, warranty for completeness, accuracy, or usefulness of the
information, warranties as to the merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose.  Moreover, the
listing of any technology, corporation, company, person, or facility in this report does not constitute
endorsement, approval, or recommendation by the EPA.
The report contains information attained from a wide variety of currently available sources, including
reports, periodicals, internet websites, and personal communication with both academically and
commercially employed sources. No attempts were made to independently confirm the resources
used.  It has been reproduced to help provide government (federal, state, and  local), industry and
other end users, with information on methods to reduce GHGs and diesel emissions at waste
cleanup and redevelopment sites.
All links in this document are active as of February 26, 2008.
Acknowledgments
This document was prepared under the Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) program by
Jennifer Wang. The RARE project was conceived and organized by Penny McDaniel, Mike Gill
(Region 9) and Steve Rock (ORD), with support, advice, contributions, guidance, and review by:
Elizabeth Adams,  Dorothy Allen, Rich Bain, Richard Baldauf, Monica Beard-Raymond, Jen  Blonn,
Elaine Chan, S.J. Chern, Brendan Cox, Suzanne Davis, Ashley DeBoard, Joseph DeCarolis,  Regan
Deming,  Jeff Dhont,  Rebecca  Dodder,  Matt Domina,  Charlotte Ely,  Lauren  Fondahl,  Rachel
Goldstein, Dennis  Johnson, Ozge Kaplan, Kingsley  Kuang, Jamie  Liebman, Jerry Lai, Ben Machol,
Andy Miller, Gary  Miller, Heather Nifong, Carlos Pachon, Cara Peck, Kristin Riha, Nancy Riveland-
Har, Ray Saracino, Bobbye Smith, Susan Thorneloe, Maggie Witt and Martin Zeleznik.  Thanks to
the many to project managers who shared information on their sites.
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About the Regional Applied Research Effort
The Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) Program promotes collaboration between the EPA
regional offices and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD).  The goals of the program
are to:
   .   Provide the regions with near-term research on high-priority, region-specific science needs,
       Improve collaboration between regions and ORD laboratories and centers, and
   .   Build a foundation for future scientific interaction.
ORD provides $200,000 per year to each region to develop a research topic or topics, which are
then submitted to a specific ORD laboratory or center as an extramural research proposal.  Once
approved, the research is conducted as a joint effort with ORD researchers and regional staff
working together to meet region-specific needs. Each region's Regional Science Liaison (RSL)
coordinates RARE Program activities and is responsible for ensuring the research results are
effectively communicated and utilized in the region.
Past RARE research topics have touched upon all aspects of environmental sciences, from human
health concerns to ecological effects of various pollutants. However, the RARE Program can be
used as a tool to address any type of issue or problem that a region  identifies as a high  priority
research need and for which ORD has the necessary expertise and  capability to address.
                                                                                        IV
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                                                '-sa-
      of Contents
Executive Summary
Chapter 1:   Introduction.
  1.1   Overview of the Smart Energy Resources Guide (SERG) 	2
  1.2   The Cleanup-Clean Air Initiative (CCA)	3
  1.3   Incorporating Emissions Reductions Into Site Cleanups	4
  1.4   Importance of Reducing the Superfund Program Environmental Footprint	4
Chapter 2:   Energy Basics, Energy Conservation and Efficiency, Renewable Energy
Introduction, Purchasing Clean Energy and Carbon Sequestration	6
  2.1   Understanding Electrical Energy and Key Terms	6
  2.2   Understanding Energy in Fuels and Key Terms	8
  2.3   Energy Conservation and Energy Efficiency	9
  2.4   Renewable Energy Introduction, Net Metering and Utility Bills	10
  2.5   Purchasing Clean Electricity	11
  2.6   Carbon Sequestration 	12
Chapter 3:   Solar Power	14
  3.1   Solar Power Terminology	14
  3.2   Solar Power Technology Basics	15
  3.3   Assessing Solar Power Potential and Size of a PV System	17
  3.4   Grid-Tied or Stand-Alone Systems	18
  3.5   Capital Cost, O&M, Installers and Warranties	20
  3.6   Permits and Environmental Concerns	22
  3.7   Success Stories	22
Chapter 4:   Wind Power	25
  4.1   Wind Power Terminology	25
  4.2   Wind Power Technology Basics 	27
  4.3   Assessing Wind Power Potential and Sizing a Wind Turbine	29
  4.4   Grid-Tied or Stand-Alone Systems	32
  4.5   Capital Costs, O&M,  Permits, Insurance and Environmental Concerns	32
  4.6   Finding Wind Turbine Vendors and Installers	34
  4.7   Success Story	35
Chapters:   Landfill Gas-to-Energy	37
  5.1   Landfill Gas-to-Energy Terminology	37
  5.2   Landfill Gas-to-Energy Technology Basics	38
  5.3   Assessing Landfill Gas-to-Energy Project Potential and System Components	40
  5.4   How Much Energy Can a Landfill Produce?	42
  5.5   Capital Cost and Possible Business Models	42
  5.6   Landfill Gas Environmental and  Safety Concerns and Permits	43
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  5.7   Success Stories	44
Chapter 6:  Anaerobic Digestion	47
  6.1   Anaerobic Digester Terminology	47
  6.2   Anaerobic Digester Technology Basics	48
  6.3   Basic Digester Components, Types of Digesters and Assessing Anaerobic Digester
       Potential	49
  6.4   Anaerobic Digester Energy Production	53
  6.5   Capital Cost, O&M, Developers and Possible Business Models	54
  6.6   Environmental Benefits and Concerns, Safety and Permits	56
  6.7   Success Stories	57
Chapter 7:  Biomass Gasification	61
  7.1   Gasifier Terminology	61
  7.2   Gasifier Technology Basics	62
  7.3   Gasifier System and Energy Generation	63
  7.4   Assessing Biomass Gasifier Project Potential	64
  7.5   Emissions Reductions, Capital Cost, Permits, Involved Parties and Partnerships	65
  7.6   Success Story	66
Chapters:  Cleaner Diesel	67
  8.1   Importance of Reducing Diesel Emissions	67
  8.2   Approaches to Reduce Diesel Emissions	69
  8.3   Clean Diesel Sample Language and Relevant Laws and Regulations	78
  8.4   Success Stories	79
Chapter 9:  Funding Resources and Opportunities	81
  9.1   Resources for Finding Funding Opportunities and Funding Opportunities Chart	81
  9.2   National Funding	88
  9.3   Arizona Funding	98
  9.4   California Funding	99
  9.5   Hawaii Funding	106
  9.6   Nevada Funding	107
Chapter 10:  Tools 	109
  10.1   Energy Efficiency Calculators, Technical Assistance Resources, and Informational
        Resources	109
  10.2  Purchasing Clean Energy Informational Resources	110
  10.3  General Renewable Energy Economic Calculations	111
  10.4  General Renewable Energy Calculators, Technical Assistance, Informational Resources
        and Contractor Licensing Information	112
  10.5  Solar Power Tools	114
  10.6  Wind  Power Tools	115
  10.7  Landfill Gas-to-Energy Tools	117
                                                                                       VI
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  10.8  Anaerobic Digestion Tools	118
  10.9  Biomass Gasifier Tools	119
  10.10  Clean Diesel Tools	121
Appendix I:  ERRS and RAC Contract Language	124
Appendix II: Federal Regulations and Goals	126
Appendix III:  Solar Power	128
  More Solar PV Terms and Definitions	128
  Solar PV Technology	128
  More Questions to Ask Your Potential Solar Installer	133
  Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)	134
Appendix IV: Wind Power	135
  Wind Technology	135
  Calculating Wind Turbine Output Power	136
Appendix V: Landfill Gas-to-Energy	137
  Preliminary Evaluation Worksheet	137
  Combined Heat and Power (CHP)	138
  Electricity Generation	138
Appendix VI: Anaerobic Digestion	143
  Preliminary Evaluation Checklist for Manure Feedstock	143
  Calculating Energy Potential in Dairy Manure  	144
  Digester Biology	145
  Sludge or Effluent	146
Appendix VII: Biomass Gasification	147
  How Does Gasification Work?	147
  Types of Gasifiers	147
Appendix VIM: Cleaner Diesel	150
  Verified Technologies	150
  Engine Family Name	152
  Estimating Emissions From On-Road Transport Trucks	152
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory	154
Appendix X: Utility Rate Schedules	172
Appendix XI: Green Pricing Programs	174
Appendix XII: Net Metering Programs	176
                                                                                   VII
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Acronyms and Abbreviations
AC          Alternating current
AFO         Animal feeding operations
AFV         Alternative fuel vehicles
AH          Amp-hours
ASTM        American Society for Testing and Materials
AWEA       American Wind Energy Association
BACT        Best available control technologies
bhp-hr       Brake horsepower - hour
BIPV         Building-integrated photovoltaic
BTU         British thermal unit
C            Carbon
CARB        California Air Resources Board
CCA         Cleanup-Clean Air Initiative
CEC         California Energy Commission
CERCLA     Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
cf            Cubic foot
cfd          Cubic foot per day
CFDA        Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
cfm          Cubic foot per minute
CFR         Code of Federal Regulations
CH4         Methane
CHP         Combined heat and power
CIG         Conservation Innovation Grants
CMAQ       Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality
CMP         Carl Moyer Memorial Air Quality Standards Attainment Program
CNG         Compressed natural gas
CO          Carbon monoxide
CO2         Carbon dioxide
CPUC        California Public Utilities Commission
CREBs       Clean Renewable Energy Bonds
CSI          California Solar Initiative
CSP         Concentrated solar power
CT          Combustion turbine
DC          Direct current
DCA         Dichloroethane
DOC         Diesel oxidation catalyst
DOE         U.S. Department of Energy
DOT         U.S. Department of Transportation
DPF         Diesel particulate filter
EERE        DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
                                                                                   VIM
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EGR         Exhaust gas recirculation
EIA          DOE Energy Information Administration
EO          Executive Order
EPA         U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPAct        Energy Policy Act
EPBB        Expected performance base buydown
EQIP         Environmental Quality Incentives Program
ERP         Emerging Renewables Program
ERRS        Emergency and Rapid Response Service
FEMP        Federal Energy Management Program
FPPC        Farm Pilot Project Coordination, Inc.
FY          Fiscal year
GAC         Granulated activated carbon
GCW        Groundwater circulation wells
GHG         Greenhouse gas
GRO         Greater Research Opportunities
GSA         General Services Administration
GSFC        Goddard Space Flight Center
GW          Gigawatt
H2           Hydrogen
HC          Hydrocarbons
hp           Horsepower
HRT         Hydraulic retention time
1C           Internal combustion
IEA          International Energy Agency
IRS          Internal Revenue Service
kg           Kilogram
kW          Kilowatt
kWh         Kilowatt-hour
kWh/m2       Kilowatt-hour per square meter
Ifg           Landfill gas
LFGE        Landfill gas-to-energy
LMOP        Landfill Methane Outreach Program
LNG         Liquefied  natural gas
Isd          Low-sulfur diesel
urn          Micrometer
m           Meter
m2           Square meter
m/s          Meters per second
MACRS       Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System
MSW        Municipal solid waste
mph         Miles-per-hour
MOA         Memorandum of agreement
                                                                                   IX
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MPO         Metropolitan planning organization
MW          Megawatt
NASA        National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NCDC        National Clean Diesel Campaign
NEG         Net excess generation
NETL        DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory
NMOC        Non-methane organic compounds
NNEMS      National Network for Environmental Management Studies
NOX          Nitrogen oxides
NREL        DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory
O&M         Operations and maintenance
ON           Operating Industries Incorporated
ORD         EPA Office of Research and Development
OTAQ        U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality
P2           Pollution Prevention
P&T          Pump-and-treat
PBI          Performance based incentive
PCE         Perchloroethylene
PG&E        Pacific Gas and Electric Company
pH           Potential of hydrogen
PIER         Public Interest Energy Research
PM          Particulate matter
PPA         Power purchase agreement
ppm          Parts per million
PRP         Potentially responsible party
psig          Pounds-force per square inch gauge
PV           Photovoltaic
RAC         Response Action Contracts
RARE        Regional Applied Research Effort
RCRA        Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RD&D        Research, development and demonstration
RD/RA        Remedial Design/Remedial Action
REC         Renewable energy credit/certificate
REPC        Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit
REPI         Renewable Energy Production Incentive
RFP          Request for proposals
RI/FS        Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study
ROD         Record of Decision
RPM         Remedial project manager
RPM         Revolutions per minute
RSL          Regional science liaison
SARE        Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education
SCE         Southern California Electric Company
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scfm         Standard cubic feet per minute
SDG&E      San Diego Gas and Electric Company
SERG        Smart Energy Resources Guide
SGIP         Self Generation Incentive Program
SOW         Statement of work
SO2          Sulfur dioxide
SOX          Sulfur oxides
SVE         Soil vapor extraction
TCA         Trichloroethane
TCE         Trichloroethylene
TOU         Time-of-use
ulsd          Ultra-low-sulfur diesel
USDA        U.S. Department of Agriculture
VOCs        Volatile organic carbons
W           Watt
W/m2         Watts per square meter
WRAP        Western Regional Air Partnership
WURD       Western United Resource Development Corporation
                                                                                    XI
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Remedial actions taken to clean up hazardous waste sites for environmental restoration and
potential reuse are often sources of diesel and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.  Many
remediation systems, such as pump-and-treat (P&T), may operate for many years, demanding
electricity from fossil-fuel powered utilities.  Heavy-duty equipment used in construction during site
remediation are usually diesel powered.  Opportunities to lessen these emissions exist through
innovative approaches and new technologies. The purpose of this guide is to provide information on
available mechanisms to reduce these emissions at cleanup sites.
Reducing GHG and diesel emissions are important challenges facing this country.  Executive orders
have been issued  and federal and state laws passed to address both concerns.  GHG emissions
from human activities are directly linked to global climate change. Diesel emissions are known to
cause premature deaths and a wide variety of respiratory illnesses.  The Cleanup-Clean Air Initiative
(CCA) was established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 9 Superfund and
Air Divisions to encourage GHG and diesel emissions reductions at  cleanup sites.  Through these
efforts, CCA staff have engaged in pilot projects and changed Emergency and Rapid Response
Service and Response Action Contracts to include language on renewable energy  and clean diesel.
This document discusses many opportunities to reduce emissions due to energy use from
remediation activities.  Examples include energy efficiency upgrades, implementing on-site
renewable energy projects, and carbon sequestration. An overview of renewable energy
technologies is presented including costs, availability, applicability, estimated emissions reduction
benefits, considerations, permitting, vendor information, funding resources and success stories.
Renewable energy technologies covered in this guide are solar, wind, landfill gas, anaerobic
digesters, and gasifiers. Additional methods for utilizing renewable energy are provided.  Similar
information is provided for diesel emissions reduction technologies and cleaner fuels.  This
document includes information on reducing diesel emissions through retrofitting diesel equipment,
using cleaner and  alternative fuels, and simple, low-cost  practices such as idle reduction.  Currently,
there are approximately 15 EPA cleanup sites that are using cleaner diesel technologies and fuels or
renewable energy to power their remediation systems.
The Smart Energy Resources Guide (SERG) is a tool for project managers to help them assess and
implement these technologies and practices on Superfund sites as well as other cleanup sites. With
this information, project managers may be better prepared to discuss emissions reductions
strategies with contractors and/or developers. While resources cited in this document focus on
Region 9 territories, many are applicable in other parts of the nation.
Executive Summary
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CHAPTER 1:    INTRODUCTION
Remedial actions taken to clean up hazardous
waste sites for environmental restoration and
potential reuse at U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) Superfund Program sites are often
also sources of harmful greenhouse gas (GHG) and
diesel emissions. Region 9 Superfund's Cleanup -
Clean Air Initiative (CCA) aims to encourage and
facilitate emissions reductions at cleanup sites. The
Smart Energy Resources Guide (SERG) was
created as part of the initiative to provide
information on emissions reductions opportunities
for remediation project managers.  This information can be useful for ascertaining emissions
reductions opportunities at cleanup sites and as background information to facilitate communication
with contractors and/or developers about cleaner energy.
                   Chapter 1 Table of Contents
           1.1  Overview of the Smart Energy
               Resources Guide (SERG)
           1.2  The Cleanup-Clean Air Initiative (CCA)
           1.3  Incorporating Emissions Reductions Into
               Site Cleanups
           1.4  Importance of Reducing the Superfund
               Program Environmental Footprint
1.1   OVERVIEW OF THE SMART ENERGY RESOURCES GUIDE (SERG)

The SERG was created for CCA to provide technical information to Region 9 Superfund remedial
project managers (RPMs) and to help them make economic decisions about reducing GHG and
diesel emissions from energy use in
remediation activities at Superfund
sites.  An optimal phase in which to
start considering these actions is
during the Remedial
Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS)
phase of a cleanup. The technical
information in this document may
assist in designing a remediation
system during the Remedial
Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA)
phase as well.  Efforts to reduce
emissions can also be applied during
remedy system optimization and
evaluation, 5-year reviews, and
Record of Decision (ROD)
amendments. While some
information presented in this guide is
Region 9-specific, much of the
information is also applicable for
other parts of the nation.  RPM
          What the SERG Can Do for You
The SERG provides information on practices and
technologies that can reduce emissions from electricity
and diesel use at cleanup sites. This information can be
used to:
    Assess possibilities of cleaner electricity and diesel
     at cleanup sites.
    Share information with contractors.
    Provide background information in order to better
     communicate with contractors and/or developers on
     emissions reductions strategies.
    Provide a starting point for implementing cleaner
     electricity and/or diesel projects.
    Reference guide for funding opportunities.
    Reference guide for tools to help estimate costs of
     technologies and emissions reductions.
Chapter 1: Introduction
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counterparts, such as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) site and state project
managers, may also find this guide useful.
See Chapter 2 for overviews on energy, conservation and efficiency, general renewable energy,
purchasing clean energy, and carbon sequestration. Review Chapter 3 through Chapter 7 for more
in depth information on renewable energy technologies that may be applicable for cleanup sites.
Chapter 8 provides information on diesel emissions reduction practices and technologies. See
Chapter 9 for funding and incentives for energy efficiency efforts, renewable energy projects, and
cleaner diesel technologies. Find tools such as calculators, technical resources, and sources of
further information for energy efficiency, purchasing clean energy, renewable energy and cleaner
diesel in Chapter 10. Calculators to measure emissions and emissions reductions are also included
in Chapter 10.  In addition, Chapter 10 provides resources to help select a properly licensed
renewable energy contractor. Appendix I includes an excerpt of contract language that incorporates
CCA principles. Appendix II lists relevant executive orders and federal goals related to emissions
reductions.  Appendices III-VIII provide supplemental information on renewable energy technologies
and cleaner diesel.  Find the Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory in
Appendix IX. Appendix X includes resources to find local utility rate schedules on-line.  Appendix XI
provides  a list of Green Pricing Programs in Region 9 states and territories.  Last, Appendix XII
provides  a summary of some net metering programs in Region 9 states and  territories.
The SERG focuses on cleaner energy and cleaner diesel technologies and practices.  Although
there are many other methods to reduce the environmental footprint of cleanup sites, those
strategies extend beyond the scope of this guide.

1.2   THE CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR INITIATIVE (CCA)
The Cleanup - Clean Air Initiative is a cross-program partnership between the EPA Region 9 Air and
Superfund Divisions. CCA aims to protect human health by reducing air pollution at Superfund  sites
during  remedial action, construction and redevelopment. CCA seeks to encourage, facilitate and
support implementation of diesel emissions and GHG reduction technologies and practices at
Superfund cleanup and redevelopment sites.  The use of cleaner fuels, retrofit technologies, and idle
reduction practices on diesel equipment used at Superfund sites for purposes of construction is
consistent with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
(CERCLA) section 121(b)(1). In addition, CCA seeks to reduce GHG emissions through better
energy management practices, such as the use of renewable energy technologies and improved
energy efficiency.
To accomplish the emissions reductions goals, Cleanup - Clean Air:
       Raises awareness of the potential for GHG and diesel emissions reductions at Superfund
       site cleanup and redevelopment;
       Promotes Cleanup-Clean Air projects by providing coordination and facilitation support for
       potential projects that reduce diesel and GHG emissions;
   .   Creates an open forum for information sharing, and works to leverage significant new
       resources to  expand voluntary emissions reductions; and
Chapter 1:  Introduction
 image: 








       Creates momentum for future GHG and diesel emission reduction efforts within the
       Superfund Program and elsewhere.
Visit the CCA website at www.epa.gov/region9/cleanup-clean-air.

1.3   INCORPORATING EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS INTO SITE CLEANUPS
Some of Region 9 Superfund contracts now include language on cleaner diesel and electricity. The
Emergency and Rapid Response Services Contract (ERRS) strongly encourages contractors to use
clean technologies and/or fuels on all diesel equipment to the extent practicable and/or feasible.
The Response Action Contract (RAC) requires contractors, when directed by EPA, to use cleaner
engines, cleaner fuel and diesel emissions control technology on diesel powered equipment where
feasible and to evaluate all reasonably feasible renewable energy sources. See Appendix I (page
124) for the incorporated language.
GHG and diesel emissions reductions from cleanup activities can also be achieved through the
following mechanisms:
   .   Modifying the Statement of Work under RAC (completed in Region 9)
   .   Developing Stand Alone Contract or Interagency Agreements with the Army Corps Of
       Engineers
          o  Request for proposals (RFP) to energy providers
          o  General Services Administration schedule
For fund-lead sites, RPMs have more control over which contractors are chosen. If it is lead by a
potentially responsible party (PRP), it is  best to encourage PRPs to make efforts to reduce diesel
and GHG emissions and provide information on emissions reduction technologies and practices.

1.4   IMPORTANCE OF REDUCING THE SUPERFUND PROGRAM
      ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT
Reducing GHG and  diesel emissions is a high priority for our nation. Presidential executive orders
(EOs) and state and federal strategies have stressed the importance of GHG and diesel emissions
reductions. For example, the EPA Administrator's Action Plan includes goals to promote diesel
emissions reductions and renewable energy development. For a listing of some of the policies,
regulations and executive mandates that are driving efforts to reduce emissions, see Appendix II
(page 126).
Many remediation systems constructed for Superfund site cleanups operate for decades and/or have
high energy consumption levels.  Fossil  fuel electricity generation is a major source of GHGs, (a
primary cause of climate change) as well as other pollutants. Also, remediation activities often
include the use of diesel equipment, which consumes fossil fuels and emits toxic diesel exhaust,
potentially exposing site workers and surrounding communities.
In the U.S., most electricity is generated from coal or natural gas combustion.  Power generation
from fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide (CO2), a GHG, as well as other air pollutants into the
Chapter 1: Introduction
 image: 








atmosphere. In 2005, more than 2.6 billion metric tons of CO2 were emitted from electricity
production in the  U.S.1 The U.S. population is about 300 million, so on average, the nation
generated approximately 8.7 metric tons of CO2 per person due to electricity production in 2005.
A survey conducted of half of Region 9 Superfund sites found that they will emit approximately
428,174 tons of CO2 from remediation activities between 1990 and 2009 due to electricity
consumption.  This amount of CO2 is equivalent to that from 84,000 cars on the road for one year or
powering about 50,000 single family homes for one year. From 1985 to 2009,  an estimated 3,140
tons of nitrogen oxides (NOX), 848 tons of carbon monoxide (CO), and 105 tons of particulate matter
(PM) will result from diesel equipment use at these sites (DeBoard, EPA GRO  Fellow, 2007). See
Appendix IX (page 154) for the full report.
CCA seeks to aid the Superfund Program to remediate sites in a manner that minimizes
environmental impacts and to set positive examples for the public and other agencies.  There are a
variety of opportunities for Superfund to reduce GHG and diesel emissions including the following,
which are discussed in this guide:
    .   Energy Efficiency                             •   Renewable Energy Technologies
    .   Purchasing Clean Energy                     •   Cleaner Diesel Technologies
       Carbon Sequestration                         •   Cleaner and Alternative Fuels
At the time of writing, 15 EPA cleanup sites were identified  that  currently use renewable energy to
power some or all of their remediation activities (Dellens, EPA NNEMS Fellow, 2007).2  The majority
of these sites are utilizing groundwater extraction and treatment systems, one uses soil vapor
extraction  (SVE), and others are using renewable energy for powering irrigation and data collection
purposes.  See the EPA publication Green Remediation and the Use  of Renewable Energy Sources
for Remediation Projects (http://cluin.0rg/s.focus/c/pub/i/1474/) for more details.
Chapter 1:  Introduction
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                                                                CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                       DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
CHAPTER 2:    ENERGY BASICS, ENERGY CONSERVATION
AND EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY INTRODUCTION,
PURCHASING CLEAN ENERGY AND CARBON
SEQUESTRATION
This section begins with a refresher of electrical and
fuel energy basics. It includes information on
options to reduce electricity and fuel use and
associated environmental impacts. Conservation
and energy efficiency opportunities as well as
renewable energy are discussed.  Purchasing clean
electricity is another strategy discussed in this
chapter to reduce the unwanted impacts of site
cleanups. The end of this chapter includes an
overview of carbon sequestration on contaminated
lands which may be considered to mitigate GHG
emissions.
        Chapter 2 Table of Contents
2.1  Understanding Electrical Energy and
    Key Terms
2.2  Understanding Energy in Fuels and Key
    Terms
2.3  Energy Conservation and Energy
    Efficiency
2.4  Renewable Energy Introduction, Net
    Metering and Utility Bills
2.5  Purchasing Clean Energy
2.6  Carbon Sequestration
2.1   UNDERSTANDING ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND KEY TERMS
Think of a faucet with a hose to help understand amps, voltage, and watts. Electricity running
through a wire is analogous to water running through a hose (Fig. 1).
                  Figure 1 Electric circuit and hose. Image courtesy Solar On-Line and NOT
Voltage  Voltage is the "pressure" that pushes electrons along in a wire.  This "electrical pressure" is
   analogous to water pressure in a garden hose.  The greater the pressure, the more energy each
   parcel of water in the hose has and the greater the force with which it is pushed along. Voltage is
   measured in volts, usually abbreviated "V."4
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Amperes (Amps) An ampere is a unit of measure of electrical current.  An electrical current is the
    rate at which electrons flow past a given point in a wire. This electrical flow rate is analogous to
    a volume of water flowing per second.  Amperes is usually abbreviated "amps" or "I."5
Power (Watts) The rate at which electricity is produced or consumed is referred to as power. It
    measures how much energy is needed to start a device or operate a piece of equipment per unit
    time. Using the water analogy, power is the combination of water pressure (voltage) and rate of
    flow (current) that allows work to be done (e.g., lighting a light bulb, water turning  a turbine).
    This rate of energy use or production is measured in watts (W). It can also be measured in
    horsepower (hp). One hp is equivalent to 745.7 W. The power rating is usually found on the
    specifications of a piece of equipment.

                            Power (watts) = voltage (volts) x current (amps)
    One can see the relationships among voltage, amperage and power by returning  to the garden
    hose analogy. A high-pressure garden hose with a pinhole opening will shoot a tiny stream of
    water far into the air. The water has high energy, but there is very little water actually flowing
    (high voltage, low amperage). In  contrast, consider a large pool of water slowly exiting a very
    large pipe. There is a large amount of  water moving, but it has low energy (low voltage, high
    amperage). Most modern energy production systems generate both high voltage and high
    amperage electricity.
Energy Usage The actual energy used is measured in watt-hours (Wh). A 60-watt light bulb needs
    60 watts of power to operate.  If it operates for 3 hours, this light bulb will use 60 Wx 3 hours =
    180 Wh of energy.

                      Electrical Energy (Wh) = Power (W) x Time Operated (hours)
    You most often see kWh on an energy  bill and it stands for kilowatt-hours.  One kilowatt is 1,000
    watts, and so a kilowatt-hour is 1,000 watt-hours.  A megawatt (MW) is 106 watts  and a gigawatt
    (GW) is 109 watts.  A typical 3 bedroom house will use about 600 kWh a month.6  Another energy
    unit, the  British Thermal Unit (BTU), is  usually used to describe the energy content in fuels like
    natural gas. One kWh is equivalent to  3,414 BTUs.
Load  A load is the general term for the power demanded by any device, equipment, or appliance
    that consumes electricity.
Alternating and Direct Current Electricity needs a complete circuit to flow. Electricity  flowing in one
    direction is referred to as  direct current (DC) and is typically found in batteries and solar
    modules. Electricity that cyclically reverses direction is referred to as alternating current (AC).
    Most appliances and equipment use this type of power and utility companies provide power as
    AC. Some renewable energy sources  such as solar power and small wind turbines generate
    electricity as DC and an inverter is used to convert it to usable AC power.7
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2.2   UNDERSTANDING ENERGY IN FUELS AND KEY TERMS
Different types of fuels are used to run construction equipment and vehicles, and to produce heat
and electricity from renewable energy projects. Heavy-duty equipment like excavators, dozers,
drills, and back hoes are used at cleanup sites during removals and construction. Most heavy-duty
equipment runs on diesel fuel.  Alternatively biogas or syngas fuels are used to generate electricity.
Common energy terms associated with fuel include the following:
Biogas Gas produced from the decomposition of organic matter which can be used for heating or
   electricity generation. Biogas is produced in a landfill or anaerobic digester. See Chapter 5 for
   information on landfill gas and Chapters for information on anaerobic digesters.
bhp-hr (Brake horsepower- hour)  Net power after frictional power losses  in the engine are
   subtracted from the maximum theoretical output power is the brake horsepower. Often seen as
   g/bhp-hr (grams per brake horsepower-hour) when assessing emissions.

                       Emissions (g) =     q    x  bhp x hours of operation
                                      bhp-hr
BTU (British Thermal Unit)  The amount of heat (energy) required to raise the temperature of one
   pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.8  Usually refers to energy content in fuels. 3,414 BTU =
   1 kWh.
Combined  Heat and Power (CHP)  Practice of generating electrical and thermal energy and utilizing
   both, also known as cogeneration.  When generating electricity, excess heat is produced and
   this valuable energy is often wasted.  Capturing the thermal energy for heating dramatically
   increases efficiency.9
Energy content The amount of energy that can be released by burning a fuel.  See "BTU."
Fuel efficiency/fuel economy Measure of how well chemical energy in a fuel is converted into kinetic
   energy to operate equipment.
Heat rate Calculated as the fuel energy input divided by the electricity output of prime movers.  It is
   closely related to the efficiency of the electricity generation system.  Higher heat rates indicate
   lower efficiency.
Horsepower (hp)  Like watts, a measure of the power required to operate a device or piece of
   equipment. One hp is equivalent to 0.7457 kW.
Prime Mover  Devices that convert fuels to mechanical energy (e.g., gas turbines, reciprocating
   engines, steam turbines). Biogas or syngas can fuel prime movers to generate mechanical
   energy which in turn can drive a generator to produce electricity and heat.10
Syngas  Gas composed of CO and hydrogen (H2) produced by gasification technologies that can be
   used for heating and/or electricity generation. See Chapter 7 for information on gasifiers.
Chapter 2: Energy Basics, Energy Conservation and Efficiency, Renewable Energy Introduction,
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2.3   ENERGY CONSERVATION AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Conserving energy and improving energy efficiency are the first steps to reducing electricity and fuel
use.  Energy efficiency efforts reduce pollution and demand on resources, and can save money in
many cases. There are many opportunities to improve energy efficiency at cleanup and
redevelopment sites.

Conservation and Increasing Efficiency in Equipment
While preserving the priority of remediating a contaminated site to cleanup levels specified in the
ROD, energy conservation may be considered during remedy selection. In long-term remedial
action, remediation equipment may operate for years and even decades.  In order to reduce energy
demand as well as wear, equipment should be purchased and maintained for maximum efficiency.
Although a piece of equipment may be over-sized in order to compensate  for infrequent unexpected
loads, note that the piece of equipment may not run at its maximum efficiency for the majority of
operation.  For example, a 50-hp pump engine may be very inefficient running at 30 percent of its full
power. Installing a 15-hp engine instead can reduce energy bills compared to running the 50-hp
engine at low power.11 Properly sizing and maintaining pumps will prevent electricity and money
from being wasted and will reduce  pollution.  Compare efficiency curves of pumps and purchase/rent
a motor that is just powerful enough to meet what is required.
See Introduction to Energy Conservation and Production at Waste Cleanup Sites
(www.epa.gov/swertio1/tsp/download/epa542s04001.pdf), a May 2004 EPA Engineering Forum
Issue Paper for details on opportunities to make your pumps more efficient.
The same concept applies to diesel engines used during cleanup.  Diesel fuel is wasted when
oversized equipment is used to perform a job that a smaller piece of equipment is better suited to
complete.

Optimizing Electricity Use Schedules
Utilities often resort to alternate, more expensive,  polluting sources of energy during times of high-
demand such as summer daytime hours.  Time-of-use (TOU) rate schedules often categorize these
times as "on-peak" hours.  Under TOU schedules, electricity prices during  on-peak hours are often
significantly higher than during mid-peak or off-peak hours. Reducing electricity use at your site
during on-peak hours can help to minimize the need for utilities to operate beyond their base loads
and can  reduce your utility bill.  If available, contact an account manager at your utility to help
compare different rate schedules to see which one best suits the electricity demands of your site in
order to  reduce costs. See Appendix X (page 172) fora list of web pages  where you can find rate
schedules for many utilities providing service in Region 9 states and territories.
Chapter 2: Energy Basics, Energy Conservation and Efficiency, Renewable Energy Introduction,
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2.4   RENEWABLE ENERGY INTRODUCTION, NET METERING AND UTILITY
      BILLS
Renewable energy is obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible (e.g., solar, wind,
biomass).  While fossil fuels are being depleted, renewable energy technologies provide a lasting
source of energy.  This document includes information on solar power, wind power, landfill gas-to-
energy projects, anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification. Other renewable energy
technologies such as hydropower, geothermal, tidal power, and biomass direct-combustion and
pyrolysis are not covered in this guide. See Table 1 for a chart that summarizes applications and
costs of some of these technologies. Cleanups may require a high electricity demand.  Using
renewable energy can avoid many of the pollutants emitted from fossil fuel use, including GHGs.
Renewable energy use also reduces the demand to extract fossil fuels. Solar and wind power are
widely available resources and the technologies are well established. Cleanup sites that are near
landfills may consider capturing landfill gas if available. Sites that have potential  biomass resources
nearby may consider anaerobic digesters or gasifiers to produce electricity.  Solar and wind  options
also  require less maintenance and operational costs compared to  digesters and gasifiers.
Additionally, implementing a renewable energy project can reduce energy bills. Some utilities have
net metering programs which can increase monetary savings.  Net metering programs allow grid-tied
utility customers who generate electricity in excess of their consumption to credit that amount for
later use.12 For example, when  a wind turbine produces more electricity than is consumed on-site,
excess electricity is sent to the grid.  For net metered systems, the utility acts like a giant battery.
When wind power is unavailable, the site can use the energy credits from the utility. Some utilities
may  purchase excess power generated from renewable energy projects. Not all utilities have a net
metering program. See Appendix XII (page 176) for net metering  programs in Region 9 territory.
Also, review the cleanup site's energy bill to become familiar with how it is charged for electricity
use.  Commercial and agricultural customers are often charged per kWh (the electricity actually
consumed), as well as per kW(the power the utility needs to have available). This kW charge  is
based on the highest level of power demanded during the month.  This charge is often a large
portion of the bill and may also be difficult to avoid. It may be worth sizing a renewable energy
system for the purpose of reducing the demand charge.
Table 1 Summary of Some Renewable Energy Applications and Costs13
Energy Source
Solar
Wind
Landfill gas
Applications
P&T, SVE, data collection,
general energy production
P&T, SVE, general energy
production
General energy
production
Cost
(Generating
Capacity)
$8-$10 per watt
$2-$4 per watt
$2-3 per watt
Cost (Use)
$0.04-$0.07 per
kWh
$0.20-$0.30 per
kWh
$0.07-$0.09 per
kWh
U.S. Production
120MW(PV)
11,961 MW
1.195MW
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2.5   PURCHASING CLEAN ELECTRICITY
While it may not be feasible for a cleanup and redevelopment site to produce its own renewable
energy, there are other options for a site to offset its carbon emissions from energy use.  Options
include buying Renewable Energy Credits and participating in green pricing programs. To estimate
emissions reductions from purchasing clean electricity, go to EPA's Power Profiler listed in Chapter
10 (page 112.)

Renewable Energy Credits
Renewable Energy Credits (RECs), also called Renewable Energy Certificates or Green  Tags,
represent the environmental benefit from producing energy from renewable resources separate from
the actual electricity.  A REC puts a dollar value on the environmental benefits of clean energy that
can be traded and sold independently of any actual electricity.  After the REC is sold, the clean
energy producer sells renewable electricity at the market price for conventional electricity. For
example, producers of renewable energy, such as wind farm owners, register the amount of
electricity they produce and can receive RECs. They can in turn sell two different products,
electricity and RECs, to two different customers. REC owners can claim that they have offset their
emissions from fossil fuel electricity consumption with cleaner renewable energy.  The EPA
purchases RECs to offset 100 percent of its energy use in EPA facilities nationwide. For a list of
REC retailers, go to www.eere.energv.gov/greenpower/markets/certificates.shtml?page=1.

Green Pricing Programs
Some utilities provide green pricing as an optional service. These options provide an opportunity for
customers to support the  utility company's investment in renewable energy technologies.
Participating customers pay a premium on their electric bills to cover the additional cost of renewable
generation relative to conventional generation. More than 600 utilities in the nation,  including
investor-owned, municipal utilities, and cooperatives, offer a green pricing option.  The price
premiums charged in green pricing programs range from 0.7 cents per kWh to as much as 17.6
cents per kWh.  Contact your utility to  see if they offer a green  pricing program.  See Appendix XI
(page 174) for some green pricing opportunities in  EPA Region 9 states and territories.

Power Purchase Agreement
Another option for using renewable energy is to enter into a power purchase agreement (PPA). A
PPA is a long-term agreement to buy electricity from a power producer. A company that  provides
PPA services will use its own funds to install a renewable  energy system on your site. The company
will own  the system and sell the produced power to provide the needed power for your remediation
system.  This type of agreement may be applicable for the renewable energy technologies discussed
in this document. PPAs may also be considered if a renewable energy project on a  cleanup site
produces a surplus of energy that can be sold to another party. For more information, go to EPA's
Guide to Purchasing Green Power pages 22-23
(www.epa.gov/greenpower/documents/purchasing  guide  for web.pdf).
Chapter 2: Energy Basics, Energy Conservation and Efficiency, Renewable Energy Introduction,
Purchasing Clean Energy and Carbon Sequestration                                        11
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                                                                     CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                           DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
2.6   CARBON SEQUESTRATION
Carbon sequestration is the process of removing CO2 from the atmosphere and storing it in another
form. Carbon can be stored in plant-life, soils, and geologic formations. While CO2 can be
sequestered in geologic formations such as oil and gas reservoirs, un-mineable coal seams, and
deep saline reservoirs, this section focuses on carbon sequestration in plants. Restored lands may
provide space for carbon sequestration in plant matter.  Plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere
and store it in  biomass (Fig. 2).14  Plants store CO2 in their tissues and also release some CO2 back
into the atmosphere. Soils also store and release CO2. Net sequestration results if the rate of
removal is  higher than the rate of release.  Young, fast-growing trees in particular will remove more
CO2 from the atmosphere than they will release.15 An informational and technical resource is the
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) which is currently
researching carbon sequestration on  mined lands16
(www.netl.doe.qov/technoloqies/carbon seq/index.html).
Carbon sequestration rates
vary by tree species, soil
type, regional climate,
topography and
management practice. In
the U.S., fairly well-
established values for
carbon sequestration rates
are available for most tree
species. Soil carbon
sequestration rates vary by
soil type and cropping
practice and are less-well
documented but information
in this area is growing.
18
         Atmospheric carbon is fixed
         by trues and other vegetation
         through photosynthesis.
          Some carbon is  \^•...-.
          internally transferred  \
          from aboveground
          to belowground.
          carbon to soils.
    Carbon is lost back to the atmosphere through
    respiration and decomposition of organic matter.
                                           Aboveground carbon:
                                           -Stem
                                           -Branches
                                            Foliage
            Fallen leaves and
            branches add
          J Scarbon to soils
 f.  Carbon is lost to
4 ,- the atmosphere
   throughsoil
  I respiration.
                                                   \
           Belowground carbon:
           -Roots
           - Litter
                          7
                     \
       ban is            ' Soil Carbon:
Some carbon is
transferred from            -Organic
belowground carbon         - Inorganic
(e.g., root mortality) to the soils.
                                   Figure 2  Carbon sequestration in plant-life. Image courtesy EPA
                                                                                      17
Planting trees on lands
previously not forested is called afforestation, which may be feasible for some cleanup sites.
Afforestation can sequester about 0.6-2.6 metric tons of carbon per acre per year for approximately
90-120 years.19  Carbon accumulation in vegetation and soils eventually reaches a saturation point.
This happens, for example, when trees reach maturity, or when the organic matter in soils builds
back up to original levels before losses occurred.  Even after saturation, the trees or agricultural
practices need to be sustained to maintain the accumulated carbon and prevent subsequent losses
of carbon back to the atmosphere.
           20
Use the following document to estimate the amount of carbon sequestered in trees at your site:
Method for Calculating Carbon Sequestration by Trees in Urban and Suburban Settings by the
DOE, Energy Information Administration (EIA) published in April 1998
(ftp://ftp.eia.doe.qov/pub/oiaf/1605/cdrom/pdf/sequester.pdf).
Chapter 2: Energy Basics, Energy Conservation and Efficiency, Renewable Energy Introduction,
Purchasing Clean  Energy and Carbon Sequestration                                          12
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For more information go to:
n   EPA Carbon Sequestration Web Pages: General information on carbon sequestration in
    agriculture and forestry, www.epa.gov/sequestration
n   DOE Carbon Sequestration Web Pages: Information on DOE carbon sequestration efforts.
    www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/seguestration
n   NETL Carbon Seguestration Web Pages: Information on current carbon sequestration research.
    www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/carbon  seg
n   The Contribution of Soils to Carbon Sequestration (Plains CO? Reduction Partnership, August
    2005): Document detailing soil carbon sequestration.
    www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/carbon  seg/partnerships/phase1/pdfs/ContributionSoils.pdf
n   West Coast Regional Carbon Seguestration Partnership:  This partnership is a collaborative
    research project bringing together dedicated scientists and engineers at 70 public agencies,
    private companies, and nonprofits to identify and validate the best regional opportunities for
    keeping CO2 out of the atmosphere, www.westcarb.org/
    Mary Jane Coombs
    Research Coordinator
    West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership
    E-mail: marviane.coombs@ucop.edu
Chapter 2:  Energy Basics, Energy Conservation and Efficiency, Renewable Energy Introduction,
Purchasing Clean  Energy and Carbon Sequestration                                         13
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CHAPTER 3:    SOLAR POWER
Various technologies are available to capture
energy from the sun.  Photovoltaic (PV) technology
converts solar energy directly to electrical energy.
In addition, heat from the sun can be used in solar
hot water heaters or in concentrated solar power
modules (see Appendix III page 134). While other
forms of solar power are available, this guide
focuses on PV technology. The Pemaco Superfund
site in southern California  is currently augmenting
some of its grid-power consumption with a 3-kW
solar PV system (see Section 3.7). PV systems
typically require little maintenance depending on the
complexity of the system.
                                                          Chapter 3 Table of Contents
                                                  3.1  Solar Power Terminology
                                                  3.2  Solar Power Technology Basics
                                                  3.3  Assessing Solar Power Potential and
                                                      Size of a PV System
                                                  3.4  Grid-Tied or Stand-Alone Systems
                                                  3.5  Capital Cost, O&M, Installers and
                                                      Warranties
                                                  3.6  Permits and Environmental Concerns
                                                  3.7  Success Stories
3.1   SOLAR POWER TERMINOLOGY
The following are some solar power terms and definitions.  See Appendix III (page 128) for more
terms.
Photovoltaic (PV)  Solar power technology that converts light energy into electrical energy.21
PV Cell Smallest semiconductor element within a PV
   module to perform the immediate conversion of light into
   electrical energy. They are also referred to as solar cells
   (Fig. 3).23
PV Module Individual PV cells wired together in a sealed
   unit is called a module. It is the smallest assembly of
   solar cells and additional parts, such as interconnections,
    intended to generate DC power.
                                24
                                        .25
                                                          Figure 3 Multi-crystalline solar cell. Image
                                                                 courtesy Law/ton Ltd22
PV Panel A group of modules wired together.
PV Array PV system component composed of one or more
   PV modules or panels wired together. The array is an
   interconnected system of PV modules that function as a single electricity-producing unit.
                                                                                  26
Battery  A device that stores electricity for use when the PV system is not providing enough energy
   to meet the demand.27  Typical batteries for PV systems last for 5-10 years.28 See Appendix III
   (page 130).
Charge  Controller A device that prevents overcharging of the batteries and the batteries from overly
   discharging electricity.29 See Appendix III (page 132).
Chapter 3:  Solar Power
                                                                                        14
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                                                                   CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                          DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
Inverter A device that changes direct current (DC) power to alternating current (AC).  Electricity
    produced by the PV system is DC, and stored as DC if batteries are used, but appliances and
    equipment usually use AC power. The inverter converts DC electricity to AC either for stand-
                                                     so
    alone systems or to supply power to an electricity grid.   See Appendix III (page 132).
Balance of System Term used to describe PV system parts that include all hardware such as wiring
    and safety equipment that keep the system functional.31
Net Metering Net metering programs allow grid-tied utility customers who generate electricity in
    excess of their consumption to credit that amount for later use.
    for some net metering programs in Region  9 states.
                                                            32
             See Appendix XII (page 176)
3.2   SOLAR POWER TECHNOLOGY BASICS
Sunlight hits PV cells and creates an electrical
current. PV systems generate electricity without
noise nor pollution (although production of PV
systems results in some emissions, see Section
3.6) and are widely available.  PV systems have a
useful life of at least 25 years until the unit
produces power at 80 percent of its original power
rating.35 PV technology can be installed in areas
with sufficient space and solar resource.  The
core component of a solar panel is a PV cell.  A
PV module is made  up of individual PV cells wired
together in a sealed unit.  An array is made up of
interconnected modules (Fig. 4).
   Call
            Modulo
                             Arr.iy
Figure 4 PV cells are interconnected into a module,
and modules are interconnected to form an array to
  increase power output. Image courtesy EERE33
                                                 Antirefleettan coaling —,
                                                 Transparent adhesive
                                                 •.' wi i gla*s
                  Sunlight
                  lull
                  Front Contact
                             Curnint
PV cells are composed of at least two layers of
semiconductor material, commonly silicon.
Sunlight hitting the cell causes electrons to flow
in a single direction, generating DC electricity
(Fig. 5). An inverter is then needed to convert
the electricity to AC. See Appendix III (page
128) for more information on  PV technology.
You can view a short video by DOE's Office of
Energy Efficiency and Renewable  Energy
(EERE) at the following link to see how a solar
cell converts sunlight into electricity:
www1.eere.energv.gov/solar/animations.html.

Crystalline and Amorphous Modules
Current cutting-edge PV technology can convert up to 40 percent of solar energy that hits a PV
panel into electricity. Most readily available crystalline PV systems have solar cells with efficiencies
                                                  n-Type semiconductor	'
                                                  l> Type semiconductor —    • &**k tontaet

                                               Figures  Inside a solar PV cell. Image courtesy EERE34
Chapter 3:  Solar Power
                                       15
 image: 








of around 10-15 percent. Amorphous PV cells, or
thin-film technology, have maximum efficiencies of
about 10 percent.  They are ideal for building-
integrated uses such as roof tiles or shingles (Fig.
6).36 Advancing technologies show that they may
soon produce electricity at rates almost as high as
crystalline modules and may drastically bring down
the cost of solar power.
37
Single-crystalline PV devices are made from a
single large silicon crystal.  Multi-crystalline
modules are made from multiple crystals grown
together and are slightly less efficient than single-
crystal modules. Amorphous modules are
manufactured  by depositing semi-conductor
material onto a sheet of glass or plastic.
Crystalline modules are delicate and need to
be mounted on a rigid frame. Amorphous
modules are flexible and their efficiency is not
as affected as crystalline varieties by high
temperatures,  shading or cloudy days. While
100 ft2 of crystalline cells produce roughly 1
kW, 100 ft2 of amorphous cells will produce
about 0.60 kW.39

Tracking or Fixed Tilt
Estimating Solar Power Emissions Reductions
Using FindSolar.com and EPA's Power Profiler
 www.epa.qov/cleanenerqy/powerprofiler.htm
Consider the Pemaco Superfund site as an
example. FindSolar.com estimates that a 3-kW
solar system in southern California produces
about 375 kWh per month. Then, go to the Power
Profiler and enter the required information. Under
"Make a Difference," select "My Emissions." Enter
375 kWh into the "Average Monthly Use" option.
The Profiler estimates that about 4,311 pounds of
CC>2 are released annually from producing 375
kWh of conventional electricity each month.  This
means that the 3-kW PV system at Pemaco
prevents an estimated 4,311  pounds of CO2 from
being released into the atmosphere every year.
Tracking units point the modules at the
optimal angle to the sun throughout the day
(Fig. 7).  They can increase efficiency by 15
percent in the winter and 40 percent in the
summer and thus can reduce the size of the
system but require significant additional costs.
They may need  more frequent maintenance
due to moving parts. They are best used at
sites with long hours of sunlight and with no
shading. Fixed tilt units do not move;  they are
tilted at an angle equal to the degree of latitude
of the site to capture the greatest amount of
energy over the  year without using a tracking
system.41
                             Figure 6 Building integrated PV (BIPV) shingles.
                                      Image courtesy Kyocera38
                           Figure 7 Solar tracking unit. Image courtesy Northern
                                        Arizona Wind and Sun40
Chapter 3: Solar Power
                                                                      16
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                                                                            CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                                 DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
3.3  ASSESSING SOLAR POWER POTENTIAL AND SIZE OF A PV SYSTEM

Sites that receive direct sunlight without shading from 9 am to 3 pm have good solar power potential.

The following DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) website provides maps of solar

radiation (sunlight availability) based on location and solar mounting type (fixed tilt or tracking)  (Fig.

8):  http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old data/nsrdb/redbook/atlas/.  Keep in mind that this website gives the

actual total solar radiation hitting earth's surface.  Solar modules are 10-15 percent efficient at

capturing this energy.
    Hawaii
                  ._  5.76
                   Rfc,
    Ha',",'aji, Puerto Rico, and
    ^u^n are not £ haded.
    San Juan. PR
                                            Average Daily Solar Radiation Per Month

                                                            ANNUAL
                                   Flat Plate Tilted South at Latitude
        Collector Orientation
      Flat-plate collector facing south at
      fixed tilt equal to the latitude of the
      site: Capturing the maximum amount
      of solar radiation throughout the year
      can be achieved using a tilt angle
      approximately equal to the site's
      latitude.
This map shows the general trends in the amount of solar radiation received in the
United States and its territories. It is a s patial interpolation of solar radiation values
derived from The 1961-1990 NationaJ Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The dots
on the map represent The 239 sites of the NSRDB.

Maps of average values are produced by averaging all 30 years of data for each site.
Maps of maximum and minimum value.;: w* com po sites of s pedfic months and years
for which each site achieved its maximum or minimum amounts of solar radiation.

Though useful for identifying genera) trends, this map should be used wifli caution for
site-specific re source evaluations- beo:iu-;e vtf/ianons in solar radiation nol reflected in
Ihe maps can exist, introducing uncertainty into resource estimates.

Maps are not drawn to scale.
                                             National Renewable Energy Laboratory
                                             Resource Assessment Program
                                                   kWh/mVday

                                                   • 10 to 14
                                                       8 to 10
                                                       7 to  8
                                                       6 to
                                                       5 to
                                                       4 to
                                                       3 to
                                                       2 to
                                                       0 to
                                                      none
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
                                                                                             FUTM3-208
                             Figure 8 Solar radiation map.  Image courtesy NREL4
PV panels can provide power to cleanup site remediation systems (1) that are off-grid; (2) that utilize

low-flow pump systems; and (3) to augment grid-power for sites with  high electricity demand.  In

general, PV systems will be most suitable for sites with an expected long-term need for power to

operate equipment.
                                                                                              43
Completely shading just one cell can reduce efficiency by 75 percent for crystalline systems.   On

moderately cloudy days, arrays can produce 80 percent of electricity compared to a bright sunny

day, and on highly overcast days they can produce 20 percent.44 For sites in the northern

hemisphere,  PV panels should be south-facing for maximum sunlight exposure.  East or west facing
panels may also be acceptable.

ground.
                                45
Panels can be mounted on roofs or poles or directly on the
Chapter 3:  Solar Power
                                                                 17
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A PV system can be sized to meet all or a portion of your site's energy consumption. The size of the
PV system needed fora site depends on the energy demands of the remediation system and
available solar energy at a particular site.  PV modules have two efficiency ratings. One measure is
the Standard Test Conditions Rating set by the manufacturer which represents the maximum power
output in laboratory conditions. A more accurate efficiency rating is the PV-USA Test Conditions
rating which reflects the output under day-to-day conditions. A PV system rated for 1-kW in Region
9 sites will typically produce between 135 and 150 kWh per month. See EERE's A Consumer's
Guide: Get Your Power from the Sun page 9 for a map of estimated site-specific annual solar energy
production (www.nrel.gov/docs/fv04osti/35297.pdf).  Rated kW is the maximum output capacity of
the PV system.  The actual energy produced depends on the solar resource at the site and efficiency
of the PV equipment. Use the following
equation (Box 1) to estimate the size of a
PV system needed.  To estimate your
energy needs per month for a remediation
system that is already operating, look at the
site's energy bill for the number of kWh
used per month.  See Section 10.5 (page
114) for calculators to help size a solar PV
system for the needs of your site.
             Box 1 Size Calculation for a Simple PV System
       S = PV System Rated Power Output (kW)
       E = Site Energy Needs per Month (kWh per month)
       O = Average PV Energy Output (kWh per kW per month);
         Estimate 135 kWh/kW/month
3.4   GRID-TIED OR STAND-ALONE SYSTEMS

As previously discussed, grid-tied systems are connected to a utility grid.  Stand-alone systems are
not connected to a grid and may need battery backup or another source of power (e.g., clean diesel
generator or wind turbine hybrid system) if a constant source of energy is  necessary. Batteries add
a substantial cost to a PV system but may be economical considering the  cost of extending power
lines.  Evaluate the available electricity infrastructure in addition to solar energy availability.
Stand-Alone Day Use with DC Load
These systems are the simplest and least expensive. This
configuration is applicable for remote sites that do not
require a steady supply of power, especially at night.
Examples include solar powered remote water pumps and
solar powered fans used to circulate air in the daytime.
Remediation equipment, devices or appliances that
operate on DC power can  directly use the electricity
produced from the solar panels (Fig. 9).

Stand-Alone DC Load with Batteries
47
                           Jilt'
                                            DCLnd
                      Figure 9 Day use DC load. "PV Array"
                         image courtesy Solar On-Line46
In many cases, electricity is needed in the day as well as at night and during cloudy weather.
Excess energy produced during the day is stored in a battery to be used when the solar resource is
not available. Battery power can also be used to provide high surge currents for short amounts of
Chapter 3:  Solar Power
                                                    18
 image: 








time which may be useful to
start large motors.  To
prevent the battery, or
batteries, from being
overcharged or overly
discharged, a device  called a
charge controller must be
installed (Fig. 10).49 See
Appendix  III (page  132) for
more information on charge
controllers. PV systems with
batteries cost about $15,000-$20,000 per kW.
                                                                                     DCLwd
                                 Figure 10 Stand-alone DC load with batteries. Separate images courtesy
                                                Solar On-Line except "DC Load"48
                                          so
Stand-Alone AC Load with Battery
When solar panels are used to power AC loads, an inverter is installed to convert solar DC power to
AC power (Fig. 11). Though inverters add complexity and cost, their use usually cannot be avoided.
AC appliances are mass produced and more reliable than DC appliances. To see if your load is AC
or DC, check manufacturer specifications.51
            ill.
          mm
         mm
                                                                                ACLnd
       HftHf
     Figure 11 Stand alone AC load with battery. Separate images courtesy Solar On-Line except "AC Load"
Grid-Tied AC Load

Grid-tied systems are
interconnected with the utility grid
(Fig. 12).  When energy
consumption exceeds energy
production, the grid provides the
remaining electricity needed. At
times when electricity production
is greater than consumption,
excess energy is sent to the utility
grid. Utilities may have a net-
metering program that gives
credits for electricity sent to the
grid. See Appendix XII (page 176)
                                                       it .j_0:
                                        .
                                     mm
                                                                            UHjMd
                                                     ACLMd
                                    Figure 12 Grid-tied AC load without battery. Image courtesy Solar On-
                                                     Line except for "AC Load'03
Chapter 3:  Solar Power
                                                                                          19
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for net metering rules in your area. Also, without a battery, if the grid goes down, the site will not be
able to get electricity from your solar PV system. They are disconnected at these times so utility
                                                   54
                                                      Contact the local utility for more
employees are not at risk from an unexpected "live" wire.
information on connecting to the grid.

Grid-Tied AC Load With Battery
Grid-tied systems can still have battery backup to help reduce demand from the grid. Excess energy
generated will charge the battery, or batteries.  If there is more energy left over, it will run back to the
grid. In case the PV and battery system cannot meet the demand, the grid will provide necessary
electricity. Also, these systems can operate when grid electricity is unavailable.

 3.5   CAPITAL COST, O&M, INSTALLERS AND WARRANTIES
                                                Box 2 Capital Cost Calculation for a Simple PV System
                                                                 C = S* P

                                               C = Capital Cost of PV System ($)
                                               S = PV System Rated Power Output (kW)
                                               P = Price per kW of PV System ($ per kW);  Estimate
                                               $10,000/kW
Estimate Capital Cost
The capital costs of a PV system with battery
backup is $15,000-$20,000 per rated kW($15-
$20 per watt).  PV systems without batteries cost
$8,000-$10,000 per rated kW($8-$10 per watt)
(Box2).55  See Section 10.5 (page 114) for
calculators to estimate initial costs, cash flow,
and energy production.
Operations and Maintenance

Panels should be cleaned once a year if the cleanup site receives little rain and/or wind or has
substantial bird populations. The PV equipment manual should provide more information on
maintenance of the system and its components. Inverters should be stored in a cool and dry
location out of direct sunlight if possible. Dust and cobwebs on the inverter unit inhibit it from cooling
properly. Inverters usually need replacement after about 15 years of operation. Cost for inverter
replacement is about $700 per rated kW.56 If your system has batteries, they need to be replaced
every 5-10 years.57 It is important to allow air flow under and over the modules to remove heat and
avoid high cell temperatures. A module will lose approximately 0.5 percent efficiency per degree
centigrade temperature rise between 80°C and 90°C.
about 0.5 percent per year.59 Annual
operations and maintenance costs are
around 0.25-1.5 percent of the initial
capital cost.60 Estimate total operations
and maintenance costs for the life of
the solar system with the equation  in
Box 3.
                                                58
                                                  The output of a PV module degrades by
                                             Box 3  Lifecycle Operation and Maintenance Costs
                                                          O&M = P * C * Y
                                       O&M = Total Lifecycle O&M Costs ($)
                                       P = 0.0025 for low estimate; 0.015 for high estimate
                                       C = Capital Cost of PV System ($)
                                       Y = Years of operation (years); Estimate 25 years
Chapter 3:  Solar Power
                                                                                        20
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Solar Installers
Setting up a PV system on a cleanup site is usually done through a solar installer or contractor.
They will design and size the PV system, and acquire and install the appropriate panels, inverters,
wiring, batteries, mounting, and any other equipment for a full running system.  Here are a few
websites that provide information  on solar installers:
n   Findsolar.com: Pre-screened, customer reviewed installers,  www.findsolar.com Select "Find a
    Solar Pro."
n   Solar Energy Industries Association Members: National solar trade association, www.seia.org
n   General Services Administration Contracts Schedule:  www.gsaelibrary.gsa.gov Search "206 3"
    for solar businesses.
n   Source Guides: Renewable energy businesses and organizations directory.
    www.sourceguides.com
Start with contractors local to the site since they would be familiar with the weather, sun availability,
and permitting processes for the area.  Make sure that they are licensed (Section 10.4 page 114).
Research or interview the companies with some of the following questions.61  For a more extensive
list  of questions for your potential  installer, see Appendix III (page 133).
    .   How many projects like yours have they completed in the past year? In the past three
       years?
    .   Can they provide a list of references for those projects?
    .   What PV training or certification do they have?
       Do they offer adequate warranties?
    .   Can you communicate effectively with the contractor?

Warranties62
More expensive solar panels may include a 20-25 year warranty. However, this warranty will not
likely apply to all system components.  The parts and labor warranty will usually cover two years, in
addition to the regular manufacturer's warranty. Batteries typically have limited warranties ranging
from 8-10 years. Inverters will usually have a two year warranty.
Be  sure of the following:
    .   Is your warranty included in the cost of the bid, or do you know its cost?
       Does the warranty cover all aspects of the removal, shipping, repair and reinstallation of
       components?
       Who is responsible for all  aspects of the system-is it the installer, the manufacturer, the
       dealer?
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3.6   PERMITS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
Permits
Installers are usually responsible for garnering permits from city and/or county offices and will pass
on these costs to the customer.63 Among these are building permits and electrical permits. Permit
fees may cost up to $1,500 although some cities have eliminated the fee for solar installations.64
Sometimes, additional drawings or calculations must be provided to the permitting agency. Be sure
the permitting costs and responsibilities are addressed with your PV contractor before installation
begins.

Environmental Concerns
The following addresses some PV system environmental concerns.

How long does it take for a PV system to recover the energy that went into producing it?
DOE estimates that today's multi-crystalline silicon PV systems have about a four year energy
payback period while it takes three years for current thin-film modules, two years for future multi-
crystalline modules, and one year for anticipated thin-film modules.
             65
What happens to panels after their useful life?
PV systems have about a 25-30 year useful life so there currently is little issue with its disposal.  PV
products are generally safe for landfills because PV materials are usually encased in glass or plastic,
and many are insoluble. Some modules, however, may be classified as hazardous waste due to
small amounts of lead solder, selenium and cadmium.66 This is prompting the PV industry to
develop recycling processes for modules.  Recycling processes may even allow some PV
components to be recovered intact. This in turn would allow companies to produce recycled PV
modules at a lower cost and with lower energy use.67
3.7   SUCCESS STORIES
The following are three success stories
of Region 9 Superfund sites that are
using solar PV systems.

Pemaco Superfund Site, Maywood,
CA, Region 9
Pemaco is a fund-lead Superfund site
located in southern California in the city
of Maywood. It is a former chemical
mixing plant and EPA determined that
the soil and groundwater on site were
contaminated with volatile organic
Figure 13 3-kW solar PV system at Pemaco.
       Image courtesy Caraway68
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                                        22
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compounds (VOCs) including perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), trichloroethane
(TCA), dichloroethane (DCA), and vinyl chloride.  A 3-kW solar system was installed on the roof of
the building that houses remediation equipment (Fig. 13). It will provide some of the electricity
demanded for the site.  The PV panels were installed and operational as of June 29, 2007, and
power was being directed back into the utility grid. The PV system will produce an estimated 375
kilowatt hours per month (4,506 kilowatt hours per year) and will avoid 4,311 pounds of CO2 per
year, four pounds of NOX per year, and three pounds of sulfur dioxide (SO2) per year.
   Site Contact:
   Rose Marie Caraway
   RPM, EPA Region 9
   Phone: (415)972-3158
   E-mail: caraway.rosemarie@epa.gov

Apache Powder Company Superfund  Site, St. David, AZ, Region 9
The Apache Powder Company Superfund site is a former industrial chemicals and explosives
manufacturing plant. Contaminants identified on-site include high concentrations of heavy metals in
ponds, arsenic, fluoride and nitrate in perched groundwater, dinitrotoluene  in a drum disposal area,
and nitrate in shallow wells. The perched groundwater zone is pumped and treated by forced
evaporation (brine concentrator).  The shallow aquifer is pumped and treated with the  use of
constructed wetlands. The treated water is then pumped back into the aquifer. Solar  power is used
on site to power a pump that recirculates water through the wetlands when the water cannot be
discharged to the aquifer (when water exceeds nitrate discharge limit of 30 parts per million [ppm]).
The PV system consists of twelve PV panels with a 1,440 watt total capacity and one solar powered
centrifugal pump. The system is capable of pumping five gallons per minute through 100 feet of two
inch fire hose with an elevation rise of about 10 feet. The system is only used when sunlight is
available.
   Site Contacts:
   Andria Benner
   RPM, EPA Region 9
   Phone: (415)972-3189
   E-mail: benner.andria@epa.gov

   Greg Hall
   Apache Nitrogen Products, Inc.
   E-mail: ghall@apachenitro.com

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 Superfund Site, Eastern Altamont Hills near
Livermore, CA, Region 9
The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 is an 11 square mile facility operated by the
University of California System for DOE  as a high explosives and materials testing site for nuclear
weapons research, established in 1955.  Groundwater contaminants  released from various on-site
activities include solvents,  VOCs, tritium, uranium-238, highly explosive compounds, nitrate, and
perchlorate.  Sources of contamination include spills, leaking pipes, leaching from underground
landfills and pits, high explosives testing and disposal of waste liquids in lagoons and dry wells. A
Chapters: Solar Power                                                                 23
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groundwater P&T system is operating to treat contaminated groundwater at four locations. Solar
power is used to pump water through four granulated activated carbon (GAC) systems.  The
systems were installed between June 1999 and September 2005. The low flow systems pump
groundwater at about 5 gallons per minute from depths of 75-100 feet. Each system has a capacity
of 800 watts (for a total of 3.2 kW) and costs about $2,000. These systems are not grid connected
but they are equipped with  batteries to store excess power to allow for some operation during non-
daylight hours.

   Site Contacts:
   Kathy Setian
   RPM, EPA Region 9
   Phone: (415)972-3180
   E-mail: setian.kathv@epa.gov

   Ed  Folsom
   Lawrence Livermore  National Laboratory
   Phone: (510)422-0389
   E-mail: folsom1@llnl.gov
Chapters: Solar Power                                                               24
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                                                                  CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                         DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
CHAPTER 4:    WIND POWER
Wind is a renewable energy resource that can be
captured to produce electricity.  Wind turbines
convert kinetic energy from wind into mechanical
energy (Fig. 15). Generators then convert this
mechanical energy into electrical energy that can be
used anywhere, including on a cleanup site. An
average wind speed of at least 10 miles-per-hour
(mph) at 33 feet above the ground is typically
necessary to run a wind turbine.  An example of a
Superfund site utilizing wind power is the Nebraska
Ordnance Plant Superfund Site.  It currently has a
10-kWwind turbine powering its groundwater
circulation wells (see Section 4.7).
        Chapter 4 Table of Contents
4.1  Wind Power Terminology
4.2  Wind Power Technology Basics
4.3  Assessing Wind Power Potential and
    Sizing a Wind Turbine
4.4  Grid-Tied or Stand-Alone Systems
4.5  Capital Costs, O&M, Permits, Insurance
    and Environmental Concerns
4.6  Finding Wind Turbine Vendors and
    Installers
4.7  Success Story
4.1   WIND POWER TERMINOLOGY69

The following are some wind power terms and definitions (Fig. 14).

Anemometer Device on a wind turbine that measures wind speed and transmits wind speed data to
   the controller.
Blades Most turbines have either two or three blades. Wind blowing over the blades causes the
   blades to "lift" and rotate.
Controller Component of a wind
   turbine that starts up the rotor
   in 8-16 mph wind and shuts it
   off when wind speeds exceed
   about 65 mph.  Usually,
   turbines cannot operate in
   such high wind speeds
   because their generators
   could overheat.
Cut-in Speed Minimum wind
   speed needed to turn a wind
   turbine and produce electricity.
   Varies from turbine to turbine.
                                     Figure 14 Parts of a wind turbine. Image courtesy DOE, EERE
Chapter 4:  Wind Power
                                      25
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                                                                  CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                         DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
Cut-out Speed Maximum wind speed that a turbine can
   handle. Turbines automatically stop spinning at winds
   speeds greater than the cut-out speed to prevent
   damage to the turbine.  Varies from turbine to turbine.
Generator Device that converts mechanical energy into
   electrical energy.
High-speed Shafts  Drive the generator at 1,000-1,800
   revolutions per minute (rpm).
Inverter Small wind turbines (20 W-100 kW) usually
   produce DC power. Inverters convert DC power to AC
   power so it can be used to power AC equipment.
   Appendix III (page 132) for more details.
                                               72
                                                  See


                                                              Figure 15 A 5-kW wind turbine.
                                                                 Image courtesy ISET71
Low-speed Shafts Drive the generator at 30-60 rpm.
Nacelle The nacelle sits atop the tower and encloses the
    gear box, low- and high-speed shafts, generator,
    controller, and brake.  A cover protects the components
    inside the nacelle.  Some nacelles are large enough for a
    technician to stand inside while working.
Power Curve Graph showing the power output of a wind
    turbine at various wind speeds.
Swept Area  Space that turbine blades travel through. Larger swept areas capture more wind
    energy.73 Swept Area = TT x r2 (r= length of one blade; TT = 3.14)
Tower Vertical structure made from tubular steel or steel lattice. Because wind speed increases
    with height, taller towers enable turbines to capture more energy and generate more electricity
    than turbines mounted on shorter towers. See Appendix IV (page 135).
Wind  Power Class NREL wind speed and corresponding wind power classification system (Table 2).
Wind  Power Density Available power usually measured in watts per square meter (Table 2).
Wind  Direction Figure 14 illustrates an "upwind turbine", so-called because it operates with the
    blades facing into the wind. Other turbines are designed to run downwind, with the blades facing
    away from the wind.
Wind  Map Map showing average annual wind speeds at a specified elevation (Fig. 20 page 30).
Wind Vane Component of a turbine that measures wind direction and communicates with the yaw
drive to orient the turbine properly with respect to the wind. Also known as the tail.
Yaw Drive Component of a turbine that keeps the  rotor facing into the wind as wind direction
changes.
Chapter 4: Wind Power
                                                                                        26
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                                                                  CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                         DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
4.2   WIND POWER TECHNOLOGY BASICS
Kinetic energy in wind can be captured by wind
turbines and converted to mechanical energy.
Generators produce electricity from the
mechanical energy.  Simply, wind turbines work
like a fan operating backwards. Instead of
electricity making the blades turn to blow wind
from a fan, wind turns the blades in a turbine to
create electricity (Fig. 16). Remediation systems
used to pump groundwater may consider
windmills that directly draw water, rather than
turbines for producing electricity. Windmills are
commonly used on farms and have been utilized
for hundreds of years.
                    76
                                                             Basic Parts of a Small
                                                             Wind Electric System
                                                      Figure 16 Main parts of a wind turbine.
Wind turbines range in size from a few hundred
watts to as large as several megawatts (Fig.
17).77 The amount of power produced from a wind turbine
depends on the length of the blades and the speed of the wind.
The faster the wind speed, the more kinetic energy it has.  See
Appendix IV (page 135) for more information on energy in wind.
There is a cubic relationship between wind speed and power
which means that  a small  change in wind speed will have a
large effect on the power produced. Wind speeds vary with
height and are generally weaker near the ground due to friction
between earth's surface and air flow. To reduce turbulence and
capture a greater amount  of wind energy, turbines are mounted
on towers (Appendix IV page 135). A common tower height is
about 150 feet though  it will depend on the length of the blades.
A 10-kW turbine is usually mounted on a tower of 80-120 feet.
                                                            Image courtesy EERE
                                                                             74
                                                       78
                                                              Figure 17  3.6 MW turbine.  Image
                                                                     courtesy EERE
                                                                                 75
NREL divides wind speeds into wind power classes designated
Class 1 (lowest) through Class 7 (highest) (Table 2).  Class 2 and above wind speeds (at least 10
mph at 33 feet above ground) can provide sufficient energy to drive a small wind turbine. Utility
sized turbines usually need at least Class 3 wind conditions to operate.
Chapter 4:  Wind Power
                                                                                        27
 image: 








         Figure 18 Darrieus style wind
           turbine. Image courtesy
              Solcomhouse
                         80
Table 2 Wind Power Classes at 10 m (33 ft) Elevation*79
Power Class
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Wind Speed
mph
0-9.8
9.8-11.5
11.5-12.5
12.5-13.4
13.4-14.3
14.3-15.7
15.7-21.1
Wind Speed
m/s
0-4.4
4.4-5.1
5.1-5.6
5.6-6.0
6.0-6.4
6.4-7.0
7.0-9.4
Power Density
W/m2
0-100
100-150
150-200
200-250
250-300
300-400
400-1,000
There are two basic groups of wind turbines.  Horizontal axis turbines (propeller style) have two
blades that face downwind or three blades that face upwind. Vertical axis turbines, such as the
eggbeater-style Darrieus model, are less commonly used (Fig. 18).  Blades for both types of turbines
are made from fiberglass, carbon fiber, hybrid composites, or wood and will not interfere with
television or radio waves.
81
Wind turbines can be used in a wide variety of applications, from charging batteries to pumping
water to powering a significant portion of a site. Large turbines are considered to be those rated
greater than 100 kWand small turbines are considered to be 100 kW or less.
DC or AC power, depending on the generator.83
Small turbines usually generate DC power.84
Generators that produce DC power need an inverter
to change the power to AC for use in most
equipment.  See Appendix III (page 132) for
information on inverters. While variable speed
turbines do not produce electricity at the voltage and
frequency used in most equipment, these turbines
are usually equipped with features to produce
                                                                        82
                                                   Turbines produce
' 1  meter per second (m/s) = 2.237 miles per hour (mph)
                                   Estimating Wind Power Emissions
                                 Reductions Using EPA's Power Profiler
                              www.epa.qov/cleanenerqy/powerprofiler.htm
                              Consider the 10-kW wind turbine at the
                              Nebraska Ordnance Plant Superfund site. It is
                              estimated to produce about 817 kWh per
                              month. Go to the Power Profiler and enter the
                              required information. Under "Make a
                              Difference," select "My Emissions."  Enter 817
                              kWh into the "Average Monthly Use" option.
                              The Profiler estimates that about 19,000
                              pounds of CO2 are released annually from
                              producing 817 kWh of conventional energy
                              each month. This means that the 10-kWwind
                              turbine prevents approximately 19,000 pounds
                              of CC>2 from being released into the atmosphere
                              every year.
Chapter 4: Wind Power
                                                                    28
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correct voltage and constant frequency compatible with the loads.
                                                          85
Wind power will present an advantage for locations that are not easily accessible to local utility
lines.86 The expected wind turbine lifetime is about 20-30 years.87  See Appendix IV (page 136) for
a calculation of power output.
Wind Turbine Power Curve
A wind turbine power curve shows the power output of a turbine at corresponding wind speeds.
Power curves are specific to different wind turbines. A wind turbine with the power curve shown in
Figure 19 may be rated for a maximum output of 500 kW.  What may not be stated upfront is that
wind speeds of 14-24 m/s are necessary to reach a 500 kW output.  Be sure to determine the power
output of a turbine for wind speeds specific to your site. Wind turbine developers can properly install
a turbine that is well-suited for each site.  Higher altitudes usually have faster wind speeds because
winds are more turbulent closer to the ground.  Though it is more expensive to install a taller tower, it
is often a good investment because of the greater return in energy production.

4.3   ASSESSING WIND  POWER POTENTIAL AND SIZING A WIND TURBINE
Does My Site Have Wind Power Potential?
             Wind Turbine Power Curve
  600 00 -
g 40000 -
j:
| 300 00 -
o
O. 20000 -

  10000 -
    0 00
                                      -+-
                                         -+-
       0
There is a space minimum as well as
wind speed minimum for a wind power
project to be feasible for your site. The
potential site should be located on or
near at least one acre of open, rural
land.  More importantly, it is necessary
to have consistent wind at speeds of at
least 10 mph (4.5 m/s) at an elevation
of 33 feet (10 m) (Fig. 20). A common
height for wind turbines is about 150
feet (45.7 m), where wind speeds are
approximately 25 percent greater than
at 30 feet.
The turbine manufacturer can provide
the expected annual energy output of a
turbine as a function of annual average wind speed. A wind energy system, including rotor,
transmission, generator, storage and other devices, will deliver approximately 10-30 percent of the
energy available in the wind, depending on the manufacturer.89  A 1.5-kWwind turbine will produce
about 300 kWh per month in a location with a 14 mile-per-hour (mph) or 6.26 meters-per-second
(m/s) annual average wind speed. A 10-kW turbine typically has a blade diameter of about 20-25
feet and would typically be mounted  on a tower roughly 100 feet tall.  If placed at a site with wind
speeds of 10-15 mph,  it will produce between 10,000 and 18,000 kWh per year.90
                      -0  '2  14  16
                     Wind Speed m/s
 Figure 19 Sample wind Turbine Power Curve. Courtesy De
                Montfort University88
Chapter 4: Wind Power
                                               29
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                                                           Y
                              CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                    DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
Wind speeds at a site can vary based on local topography and structural interference.  Localized
areas of good wind power potential such as a ridge-top may not show up on a wind map, so site-
specific evaluations should be conducted to determine wind availability. Wind turbines should be
sited in an area where obstructions or future obstructions, such as new buildings, will have minimal
effect on the wind resource.  Keep in mind that, depending on the manufacturer and/or model, some
turbines run more efficiently at lower wind speeds and others are more efficient at higher speeds.
Consult vendors to determine which turbines will  operate efficiently with wind speeds available at
your site.

To view average wind speed maps,  visit:

n   EERE:  Provides annual average wind speed maps for individual states.
    www.eere.energv.gov/windandhydro/windpoweringamerica/wind  maps.asp

n   NREL:  Provides annual average and seasonal wind speed maps for individual states and U.S.
    territories, http://rredc.nrel.gov/wind/pubs/atlas/maps.html

n   Bergey Windpower:  Provides wind maps for  individual states and U.S. territories.
    www.bergey.com/wind maps.htm
                                    United States - Wind Resource Map
                          Yearly Electricity Production Estimated per m2 of Rotor Swept Area
                                          for a Small Wind Turbine
                                                                            Source: "Wind Enemy Resource
                                                                            ABas 01 the United SMles". 1987
                                          Small Wind Turbine Productivity Estimates'
                                        Wind
                                        Power
                                        Class
Productivity Wind Power Density
porrr.'o!   at33fl(10m)
swept area"
         (W/m8)
         <100
        100- 160
        150- 200
        200- 250
        260- 300
        300- 400
        400-1000
  Wind Speed
  at 3311(10 m)

 (mpnj  (m»)
 <9.6  <4.4
9.8 11.5 4.4.5.1
11.5-12.5 5.1-5.6
1? 5-1:1.1 53-60
13.4-14.3 8.0-6.4
14.3-tS7 6.4-7.0
157-21.1 7.0-9,4
• Estimates are based on different models and sizes
at wind turbines assuming a tower height of SO ft (24 m}.

•' For systems 01 dMerem sties, multiply the estimated
produclWlty by Ibe total sweet area or trie turbine.

     U.S. Department of Energy
     National Renewable Energy Laboratory
                                                                                    Qnm.
                                                                                        91
          Figure 20 Wind resource map. NREL provides national wind maps and state-by-state maps.


Location-specific wind speed data can be obtained using a recording anemometer, which generally

costs $500-$1,500. Your local utility may provide services that lend  assessment tools for renewable

energy projects (See Section 10.6 page 115). The most accurate readings are taken at "hub height"
Chapter 4:  Wind Power
                                                      30
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(i.e., the elevation at the top of a potential wind turbine tower).  This requires placing the
anemometer high enough to avoid turbulence created by trees, buildings, and other obstructions.

Determining Size of Wind Power System
                                               Box 4 Estimate Turbine Rated Power Output (kW)
                                                                                       92
                                                            P = E - CF - 8,760

                                           P = Turbine Rated Power Output (kW)
                                           E = Site Energy Needs per Year (kWh)
                                           CF = Capacity Factor; Small Turbine Estimate -0.25; Large
                                            Turbine Estimate -0.30
                                           8,760 = Hours in One Year
                                                   Box 5 Estimate Turbine Energy Production
                                                            G = p * CF * 8,760

                                           G = Annual Energy Production (kWh)
                                           P = Turbine Rated Power Output (kW)
                                           CF = Capacity Factor; Small Turbine Estimate -0.25; Large
                                            Turbine Estimate -0.30
                                           8,760 = Hours in One Year
While solar panels are rated at an industry
standard, there are no standards that apply
to wind turbines. The electricity produced
by a wind turbine depends on the following
factors:
    .   Average wind speed of your site
    .   Length of blades (corresponds to
       swept area)
       Tower height
    .   Efficiency of system components
Use the equation in Box 4 for a rough
estimate of the turbine size, in terms of
rated power output (kW), needed to
completely or partially provide electricity for
your site.

Consider a site  that has an average wind
speed of 7 m/s (15.6 mph) and consumes
87,000 kWh a year.  Enter 87,000 kWh into
the equation to find that your site would
need about a 40-kW turbine to meet all the
site's electricity needs, based on average
electricity demand. You would need a wind
turbine that outputs about 40 kWat 7 m/s
wind speeds. To get a  rough estimate of
how much energy would be produced by this turbine at a certain speed, use the equation in Box 5.
You can also use the equation in Box 6 to estimate the lengths of the blades your turbine would
need to meet your site's energy demand.
These equations help to provide very rough estimates. Wind turbine manufacturers can help you
more precisely size your system based a cleanup site's electricity needs and the specifics of local
wind patterns.94  They can factor in the particular wind turbine power curve, the average annual wind
speed at the site, the height of the tower that you plan to use, and the frequency distribution of the
wind (i.e., estimated number of hours that the wind will blow at each speed during an average year).
They may also adjust this calculation for the elevation of your site.
                                                      Box 6 Estimate Length of Blades
                                                                                 93
                                                          AEO = 0.01328 xD2xV3

                                           AEO = Annual Energy Output (kWh per year)
                                           D = Diameter of rotors (feet)
                                           V = Average wind speed (mph)
Chapter 4:  Wind Power
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                                                                  CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                         DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
4.4   GRID-TIED OR STAND-ALONE SYSTEMS
                                                          Grid-connected Systems

                                                                                  Load
                                       Figure 21  Grid-connected wind turbine.  Image courtesy EERE!
                                                                                        95
Grid-tied systems have access to
electricity supplied by a utility.  Sites
that are interconnected can receive
energy both from the utility and from a
local wind turbine (Fig. 21). When the
turbine produces more electricity than
is consumed, excess electricity is sent
to the grid.  Net metering programs
allow grid-tied utility customers who
generate electricity in excess of their
consumption to credit that amount for
later use.97  When wind power is
unavailable, the site can use the
energy credits from the utility. Some
utilities may purchase excess power
generated from wind turbines.  For
more information on utilities that have
net metering programs, see Appendix
XII (page 176).
Wind power will be an even better
investment if your site is not easily
accessible to local utility lines.98  The
cost  of extending utility lines to a
remote location can cost as much as
$20,000-$30,000 per quarter mile.99
Stand-alone sites do not have access
to grid-electricity. They must
completely rely on wind power or a hybrid system with another renewable energy technology and/or
a clean diesel generator (Fig. 22). If it is important to have a reliable, constant source of electricity,
battery backup may be necessary.  Battery systems can store power for use when the wind is not
blowing.  See Appendix III (page 130) for more information on batteries. Grid-tied systems can also
consider a hybrid system to further reduce dependence on the grid.
                                                                Battery bank

                                       Figure 22 Stand-alone hybrid system of wind power, solar power,
                                      battery backup and clean diesel generator. Image courtesy EERE9f
4.5   CAPITAL COSTS, O&M,  PERMITS, INSURANCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL
      CONCERNS
This section includes information on estimating wind turbine capital costs and payback times.  It also
discusses O&M costs and labor. Information on potential permit and zoning issues are also
included. This section also addresses some insurance and environmental concerns.
Chapter 4: Wind Power
                                                                                        32
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Capital Costs
The Windfarmers Network estimates that the capital cost for a wind turbine is about $1,000 per kW
of generation capacity, usually for utility-size turbines.100 The American Wind Energy Association
estimates that capital costs range from $3,000 to $5,000 per kW for smaller systems.101 Costs may
vary from project to project depending upon the size of the turbine(s), interconnection costs,
permitting costs, installation and transportation costs, generator model, the type of tower and other
components in your system such as batteries, inverters, and controllers. According to the American
Wind Energy Association, a typical 10-kWwind turbine system will cost $25,000-$35,000. A 3-kW
turbine mounted on a 60-80-ft tower costs about $15,000, including accessory components and
batteries. Systems smaller than 1-kWare often used in stand-alone applications,  or as  part of a
hybrid system with solar PV cells. A 400-watt system can be installed for $1,500.102
Used turbines will be much less expensive but should undergo remanufacturing by a qualified
mechanic.  Many parts should be replaced even if they are still functioning.
                                                103
Well-sited small wind turbines usually have a simple payback time of 15 years, about half of their
serviceable lifetimes, if federal and state incentives are applied.105 Installing a wind turbine is usually
cost effective if electricity rates are more than 10-15 cents per kWh and there are sufficient wind
resources. See Section  10.3 (page 111) for economic analysis calculations and Section 10.6 (page
115) for wind power calculators.

Operation and Maintenance
Annual operating and maintenance costs for a wind
turbine are estimated to be about one percent of
the capital cost. Alternator bearings need
replacement after several years of operation. The
same is true for yaw bearings given their significant
loading. Check that bolts remain tight. Dust,
debris, and insects will eventually erode the most
durable blade materials,  and leading edge tapes.
Paint coatings, subjected to sunlight, moisture, and
temperature extremes will eventually deteriorate.
Also, the lubricant in the  gear box, like oil in a car
engine, will degrade over time. Maintain the
turbine as recommended by the manufacturer to
ensure that it will continue to operate properly for
many years (Fig. 23).
                                   Figure 23 Repairing a wind turbine. Image
                                      courtesy Argonne National Lab
                                                              104
106
Permits
Permitting requirements, procedures, and fees for wind turbines vary by county. Consider zoning
issues in advance since local zoning codes or covenants may not allow wind turbines. You can find
out about the zoning restrictions in your area by calling the local building inspector, board of
Chapter 4:  Wind Power
                                                                      33
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supervisors, or planning board.  They should be able to tell you if you will need to obtain a building
permit and provide you with a list of requirements.107
Costs for building permits, zoning permits, and use permits may range from $100 to $1,600.  Contact
your county permitting agency or planning department for information on permitting issues.  Find out
if small wind energy systems (under 100 kW) are addressed by your local ordinance. Review the
applicable standards and restrictions. They may include minimum land size, tower height
restrictions, minimum distance from the edge of the property, and maximum noise levels. The
turbine must comply with the Uniform Building Code and National Electric Code.  Federal Aviation
Administration approval may be necessary if your site is within 20,000 feet of a runway and your
tower is taller than 200 feet.  Wind turbines may be subject to local restrictions if they are near
coastal regions, scenic highways or other specially designated areas.108 In many cases, a building
permit for a wind turbine tower will require that the zoning board grant you a conditional use permit
or a variance from the existing code.109  Also consult neighbors before installing a turbine on your
site.  This is recommended and  sometimes required by county planners. You  may need to appear at
a public hearing for a  conditional use permit or variance. For grid-tied systems, contact your local
utility for more information on interconnection requirements and net metering programs if
applicable.110  Consultants can also help with permitting issues.
Contact the local municipality for more information on permitting requirements. For more information
on permitting issues, go to www.awea.org/smallwind/toolbox/INSTALL/building permits.asp.

Insurance
For grid-tied systems, some utilities require small wind turbine owners to maintain liability insurance
in amounts  of $1 million or more. Laws or regulatory authorities in some states, including California
and Nevada, prohibit utilities from imposing any insurance requirements on small wind turbines that
qualify for net metering.111

Environmental Concerns
There has been concern over the risk that wind turbines pose to birds and bats.  While wind turbines
may  pose a danger to wildlife if not carefully sited, fatalities from turbines are minimal compared to
deaths due  to buildings, windows, power lines and  radio towers. Tower design changes and careful
siting of the turbine will mitigate  this problem.112 Consideration of migration patterns is  an important
step  in the process. Look into legal and environmental  limitations for your site's city and county and
contact your local Audubon Society.

4.6   FINDING WIND TURBINE VENDORS  AND INSTALLERS
Wind power companies may provide services from designing a wind energy system to acquiring
equipment to system installation. Check the following websites for databases of wind energy
professionals.
n  American  Wind Energy Association: Searchable member directory provides list of wind energy
   professionals,  www.awea.org,  http://web.memberclicks.com/mc/page.do?orgld=awea
Chapter 4: Wind Power                                                                  34
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n   General Services Administration Contracts Schedule: www.gsaelibrary.gsa.gov Search "206 3"
    for wind power businesses.
n   California Energy Commission (CEC): California registered wind turbine retailers.
    www.consumerenergycenter.org/erprebate/database/index.html
n   Source Guides: Worldwide renewable energy directory,  www.energy.sourceguides.com

Tips to choose among wind turbine manufacturers and installers113
       Obtain and review the product literature from several manufacturers.
    .   Ask the turbine manufacturer to suggest turbines that run most efficiently at speeds
       comparable to wind speeds at your site.
    .   Ask for references of past customers with installations similar to the one you are considering.
    .   Ask current system owners about performance, reliability, and maintenance and repair
       requirements, and whether the system is meeting their expectations.
    .   Find out how long the warranty lasts and what it includes.
    .   Find out if the installer is a licensed electrician (Section 10.4 page 114).
    .   A credible installer will help with permitting issues.
       Consider contacting the Better Business Bureau (www.bbb.org) to check the company's
       integrity.
4.7   SUCCESS STORY

Nebraska Ordnance Plant Superfund Site, near Mead, NE,
Region 7
The Nebraska Army Ordnance Plant operated from 1942 to
1956 as a munitions production plant.  The groundwater is
contaminated with VOCs and explosives and soils are
contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. P&T technology
is utilized to address groundwater cleanup. A grid-tied 10-kW
wind turbine powers a single relatively low energy groundwater
circulation well (GCW), operating at a flow rate of 50 gallons
per minute (Fig. 24).  The GCW is equipped with air strippers
used to treat TCE contaminated groundwater. The site has an
average wind speed of 14.3 mph (6.4 m/s). The average
monthly electricity demand by principal components of the
GCW is 767 kWh. On average, the wind turbine generates
817 kWh each month; the excess electricity is sent to the grid.
Over the initial five months of the project, the system treated
more than 4 million gallons of water and an estimated 63
kilograms  (kg) of TCE were removed from groundwater. This
Figure 24  Installation of 10-kW turbine
at Nebraska Ordnance Plant Dec 2003.
      Image courtesy EPA114
Chapter 4: Wind Power
                            35
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project was funded by the EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response through a grant
program of the Innovation Work Group, with additional support from University of Missouri-Rolla, the
Kansas City District Corps of Engineers, Bergey Wind Systems, and Ohio Semitronics. Researchers
estimate that the use of wind power, coupled with a well designed climate control system, may result
in a present-worth energy cost savings of more than $40,000 over the 20 years of groundwater
treatment anticipated at this site.  Similarly-sized off-grid wind turbine systems, including installation,
cost approximately $45,000.  The wind turbine saved an estimated total of 17,882 pounds of CO2
emissions over a period of 19 months.

For details, see www.clu-in.org/products/newsltrs/tnandt/view.cfm?issue=0904.cfm and
www.epa.gov/oswer/docs/iwg/groundwaterFactSheet  final.pdf.

    Site Contacts:
    Scott Marquess
    RPM, EPA Region 7
    Phone: (913)551-7131
    E-mail: marquess.scott@epa.gov

    Dave Drake
    RPM, EPA Region 7
    E-mail: drake.dave@epa.gov

    Curt Elmore, Ph.D., P.E.,
    Assistant Professor of Geological Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla
    Phone: (573)341-6784
    E-mail: elmoreac@umr.edu
Chapter 4: Wind Power                                                                 36
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CHAPTER 5:   LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY
Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills can provide a
source of energy.  MSW landfills consist of
everyday garbage generated from residences,
businesses, and institutions. The decomposition of
MSW creates landfill gas (LFG). This gas is
primarily composed of CO2 and methane (CH4).
CH4, a GHG with high energy content, can be
captured to produce electricity through the use of
microturbines, boilers, or engines. As an example,
Operations Industries Inc. Landfill Superfund Site in
Southern California is currently powering about 80
percent of its operations buildings with landfill gas
(See Section 5.7).
        Chapter 5 Table of Contents
5.1  Landfill Gas-to-Energy Terminology
5.2  Landfill Gas-to-Energy Technology
    Basics
5.3  Assessing Landfill Gas-to-Energy
    Project Potential and System
    Components
5.4  How Much Energy Can a Landfill
    Produce?
5.5  Capital Cost and Possible Business
    Models
5.6  Landfill Gas Environmental and Safety
    Concerns and Permits
5.7  Success Stories
5.1   LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY TERMINOLOGY
The following are some landfill gas-to-energy terms and definitions.
Boiler / Steam Turbine A boiler produces thermal energy from burning LFG.  This heat is used in a
   steam turbine and generator to produce electricity. This configuration is best suited for landfills
   with gas production of greater than five million cubic feet per day.115  It is the least used among
   LFG projects because it is more expensive than other gas power conversion technologies for the
   typical size of landfill projects.116 See Appendix V (page 142).
Co-disposal landfill Landfill that may contain MSW as well as some hazardous wastes.
Collection Wells Wells strategically dug into a landfill to collect LFG. Gas collection system
   transports the gas to be treated and used to generate electricity or as a direct fuel.
Combustion (Gas) Turbine (CT) Energy generation equipment typically used in medium to large
   LFG projects, where LFG production is approximately two million cubic feet per day.  This
   technology is competitive in larger LFG electric generation projects because of significant
   economies of scale. The electricity generation efficiency generally improves as size
   increases.117 See Appendix V (page 139).
Compressor A device that changes the density of LFG to be compatible for use in an internal
   combustion engine, combustion turbine, ormicroturbine to generate electricity.
Condensate Liquid formed from water and/or other vapors in the LFG that condense as  the gas
   travels through the collection pipes.  Proper disposal of condensate is necessary.
Chapter 5:  Landfill Gas-to-Energy
                                      37
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                                                     .
                                                                 CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                        DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
Internal Combustion (1C) Engine / Reciprocating Engine Engine in which the combustion of fuel and
   air in a chamber produce expanding gas that can run a electricity generator.  1C engines are the
   most widely used electricity generation technology for LFG.118 They are typically used for
   generation projects greater than 800 kW.119 See Appendix V (page 1 38).
Landfill gas (LFG) Gas generated when landfill waste decomposes. It is approximately 50 percent
   CO2 and 50 percent CH4.
Methane (CH4) Highly combustible GHG that makes up about 50 percent of gas produced from a
   landfill.  This gas can be used directly to generate heat or as a fuel to produce electricity.
   Methane makes up more than 90 percent of typical natural gas.

Microturbine Small combustion turbine with  rated power outputs that range from 30-250 kW and can
   be combined with each other.  They are  better-suited to landfills where gas production is low (low
   concentrations of CH4  and/or low flow) to economically use a larger engine and for sites with on-
   site energy use. Microturbine heat rates are generally 14,000-16,000 BTU per kWh. The total
   installed cost for a LFG microturbine project is estimated to be $4,000-$5,000 per kWfor smaller
   systems (30 kW), decreasing to $2,000-$2,500 per kWfor larger systems (200 kW and above).
   Operation and maintenance costs are about 1 .5-2 cents per kWh.121  The addition of a heat
   recovery system adds  $75-$350 per
   kW.122 The CA Energy Commission
   estimates annual maintenance costs
   to be 0.5-1 .6 cents per kWh, which
   would be comparable to costs for
   small reciprocating engine
            1 71
   systems.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)  Everyday
   garbage generated from residences
   and institutions.

5.2  LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY
   TECHNOLOGY BASICS
Landfill gas is composed of about 50
percent CO2, 50 percent CH4, and traces
of non-methane organic compounds
(NMOC). In the U.S., landfills are one of
the largest sources of anthropogenic
(human-made) CH4 released into the
atmosphere.124  One kilogram of CH4
gas in the atmosphere creates 23 times
the global warming effect as one
kilogram of CO2 over a 1 00 year
period.125  For more information on GHG
              Landfill Gas
 MSW, other
organic waste,
  moisture
Peculate i matter,
odor' llqLlld waste
                                                                         liquid waste
                              sulfur,
                              dioxide, solid
                                wastes
                 mechanical energy,
                  heat, electricity
        Figure 25 LFGE processes.
Image courtesy Oregon Department of Energy1
Chapter 5:  Landfill Gas-to-Energy
                                         38
 image: 








global warming potentials, go to www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/gwp.html.  Methane is a high energy
gas that is used to provide energy for homes, businesses and industries.  Instead of wasting a
valuable energy source by flaring LFG, it can be collected from landfills and used directly for heating
and/or to generate electricity by implementing a landfill gas-to-energy (LFGE) project (Fig. 25).  A
series of wells drilled into the landfill can collect the gas and transport it through a system of pipes to
be cleaned (Fig. 26) and then (a) used directly as a boiler fuel to produce hot water or steam to run a
steam turbine or for other processes; (b) used as a fuel to power internal combustion engines or
turbines to generate electricity;  or (c) treated to become pipeline quality gas.126 Landfill gas may
also be sold as pipeline quality  gas for direct use in heating applications such as for greenhouses,
dryers, boilers, and many other industrial purposes.
                                Figure 26 Landfill gas wells and collection piping.  Image courtesy LMOP
Co-disposal landfills usually
produce less CH4 because they
are generally older and the
LFG has already escaped to
the atmosphere. They may
also have more inert materials
buried that do not produce CH4.
Co-disposal landfills tend to
produce higher concentrations
of NMOC and air toxics than
MSW landfills and may be less
suitable for renewable energy
generation without engineering
and waste disposal practices
and controls. To help evaluate potential emissions
from hazardous waste landfills, use EPA's Guidance
for Evaluating Landfill Gas Emissions From Closed or
Abandoned Facilities
(www.epa.gov/nrmrl/pubs/600r05123/600r05123.pdf).
While burning LFG also generates CO2, using LFG is
considered to contribute a net zero effect to climate
change because the gas came from recently living
organisms that would have released the same amount
of CO2 from naturally decomposing.128  However, note
that all combustion devices, including LFGE systems,
generate some  NOX emissions which are attributed to ground-level ozone and smog formation.
Overall,  the environmental benefit from landfill gas electricity generation projects is significant
because of the large reductions in CH4 emissions, hazardous air pollutants, and use of limited
nonrenewable resources such as coal and oil.129 Go to Section 10.7 (page 117) for the LFGE
Benefits Calculator by EPA's Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP).
                                                       Estimating Emissions Reductions from a
                                                          LFGE Project Using LMOP's LFGE
                                                                Benefits Calculator
                                                           www.epa.gov/lmop/res/calc.htm
                                                      The Benefits Calculator estimates methane
                                                      and CO2 emissions reductions from a LFGE
                                                      project. For example, a 3-MW LFGE project
                                                      reduces about 6 tons of methane emissions
                                                      per year and avoids  17 tons of CC>2
                                                      emissions due to fossil fuel energy generation
                                                      per year. A project this size could power
                                                      about 2,000 homes.
Chapter 5:  Landfill Gas-to-Energy
                                                                                         39
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5.3  ASSESSING LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY PROJECT POTENTIAL AND
     SYSTEM COMPONENTS130

This section details the factors to consider when determining whether a landfill gas-to-energy system
is appropriate for your site.  Information on the components of a LFGE system is also included.

Assessing LFGE Project Potential
LMOP created a database of landfills in the country that have potential for LFGE projects
(http://epa.gov/lmop/proi/index.htm). Arizona has 13 potential candidates, California has 40, Hawaii
has eight, and Nevada has 5.  LMOP can also help locate landfills within 20-25 miles of your site
using their Locator Tool. Contact LMOP (www.epa.gov/lmop/contact) for assistance.
As a guide, 432,000 ft3 of LFG is produced per day for every million tons of MSW in a landfill.131
This is equivalent to 800 kW of power that could be generated.  See Section 10.7 (page 117) to
calculate LFG production. Site measurements are highly recommended, especially for co-disposal
landfills, to more accurately  quantify CH4 flow rates. A flare  may be installed to assess LFG flow
before sizing energy recovery equipment.132
There are many factors to consider that effect the amount of gas produced at each landfill. Some of
the most important factors are:133
    Depth of landfill—a depth of  at least 40 feet best-suits anaerobic conditions for producing LFG.
    However, LFGE projects have  been successfully implemented in shallower landfills.
    Amount of waste—a landfill with at least one million tons of MSW is optimal, although smaller
    ones may be applicable as well. Small landfills are good candidates if the gas will be used on-
    site or near by.
    Type of waste—organic wastes such as paper and food  scraps produce the most LFG.  Landfills
    with a lot of construction and demolition, industrial, or hazardous wastes,  such as co-disposal
    landfills, may not be as productive.
    Age of landfill—as a landfill ages, the  rate of CH4 production decreases. Landfills that are still
    open or have recently closed have the best potential  for  a LFGE project.
    Rainfall—the bacteria that break down the waste and produce LFG thrive best in moisture. An
    optimal site will have at  least 25 inches of rainfall a year.  Landfills in arid  climates may have
    lower rates of LFG flow  but are expected to produce  LFG for a longer period of time.
Fora LFGE project preliminary evaluation worksheet, go to Appendix V (page 137).
Chapter 5: Landfill Gas-to-Energy                                                        40
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LFGE System Components
The following are components of a landfill gas-to-energy system.

1.  Gas Collection and Backup Flare:
Gas collection typically begins after a portion of a landfill (called a cell) is closed.  A collection well is
drilled into the landfill to collect the gas. Each LFG wellhead is connected to lateral piping, which
transports the gas to a main collection header. An  aqueous condensate forms when warm gas from
the landfill cools as it travels through the collection  system.  If the condensate is not removed, it can
block the pipes and disrupt the energy recovery process.  Sloping pipes and headers in the field
collection system are used to drain condensate into collecting  ("knockout") tanks or traps.
Condensate could be recirculated to the landfill, treated on-site, or discharged to the public sewer
system. Most landfills with energy recovery systems have a flare for combusting excess gas and for
use during equipment downtimes (Fig. 27).

2.  Gas Treatment:
The collected LFG must be treated to remove any condensate that is not captured in the knockout
tanks.  NMOC and air toxics must be properly treated. Removal of particles and other impurities
depend on the end-use application.  For example, minimal treatment is required for direct use of gas
in boilers, while extensive treatment is necessary to remove CO2 and other trace organic compounds
for injection into a natural gas pipeline.  Electricity production systems typically include a series of
filters to remove impurities that could damage engine components and reduce system efficiency.
3.  Energy Recovery:
Prime movers such as internal
combustion (1C) engines,
combustion turbines (CT), and
boiler/steam turbines combined
with generator systems can
convert energy in LFG into
electricity. The 1C engine is the
most commonly used
conversion technology in LFG
applications.  1C engine projects
typically have higher rates of
NOX emissions than other
conversion technologies which may cause a permitting issue.  NOX controls can usually be installed
to meet local requirements.  CTs are typically used in medium to large landfill gas projects, where
landfill gas volumes are sufficient to generate a minimum of 3-4 MW. One of the primary
disadvantages of CTs is that they require  high gas  compression levels. More energy is required to
run the compression system, as compared to other generator options. However, CTs are much
more resistant to corrosion damage than 1C  engines and have lower NOX emission rates. They are
also relatively compact and have low operations and maintenance costs in comparison to 1C
Figure 27 LFGE treatment/blower/flare station. Image courtesy LMOP
Chapter 5:  Landfill Gas-to-Energy
                                                       41
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engines.  The boiler/steam turbine configuration is less often used as a LFG conversion technology
compared to 1C or CT. It is applicable mainly in very large landfill gas projects, where LFG flow rates
support systems of at least 8-9 MW.  The boiler/steam turbine consists of a conventional gas or
liquid fuel boiler, and a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This technology usually
requires a complete water treatment and cooling cycle, plus an ample source of process and cooling
water.  Other technologies include microturbines and fuel cells. See Appendix V (pages 138-142)
for details on electricity generation technologies.  Use combined heat and power (CHP) applications
along with these prime movers (heat  engine135) to capture the thermal energy output which will
improve energy efficiency.  Go to Appendix V (page 138) for CHP resources. Lastly, note that LFG
may be corrosive to LFG collection and electricity generation parts and equipment so proper
maintenance is necessary to keep the system running safely and efficiently.

5.4   HOW MUCH ENERGY CAN A LANDFILL PRODUCE?136

Use the following equation to estimate the potential energy production from a landfill each year with
more site specific information (Box 7). Keep in mind this is a rough estimate that does not account
for losses in gas capture and transport
and any efficiency losses from
conversion to electricity.
See LMOP's A Landfill Gas to Energy
Project Development Handbook,
Section 2.2.1 "Methods for Estimating
Gas Flow"
.pdf) for more precise methods of
estimating landfill gas production.

                                      cfd = cubic feet per day
                                              Box 7  Estimating Landfill Energy Production
                                                         G = F * EC * 365

                                      G = Potential energy production from a landfill in one year (BTU
                                       per year)
                                      F = LFG Flow per day (cfd); 1 million tons MSW = 432,000 cfd
                                        LFG
(www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/handbook    _.   _        ...  .__.__..     „ _ ..  .  ..,„,„,,,,
v	K—a	K	K	    EC = Energy content in LFG (BTU per cf); Estimate 500 BTU/cf
                                      365 = Days in one year
Consider the following example:          BTU = British Thermal Unitv <1 kwh = 3<414 BTU>
Landfill gas typically contains about      ^-r,,,f          ,  ,     ,.•  * , *
                                      BTU/cf = energy content per cubic foot of gas
500 BTUs per cubic foot. This can be
used as a default if the BTU value of landfill gas at a specific site is not known. For a 5 million ton
landfill with a gas flow of about 3 million cubic feet per day, the energy content would therefore be
calculated as follows:

                548 billion BTU per year = 3 million cfd x 500 BTU per cf x 365 days  per year


5.5   CAPITAL COST AND POSSIBLE BUSINESS MODELS

Estimating Cost
Cost of a LFGE project varies depending on a variety of factors including size of the landfill, type of
electricity generation technology, and site specific characteristics.  Site preparation and installation
costs vary significantly among locations though in general, electric generation equipment accounts
Chapter 5:  Landfill Gas-to-Energy                                                         42
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for about 30-70 percent of the capital cost. Total capital includes the engine, auxiliary equipment,
interconnections, gas compressor, construction, and engineering. Some landfills may already have
a gas collection system in place.
137
The California Energy Commission (CEC) estimated the following costs for LFGE projects in
California in a report published in 2002 (Table 3).
Table 3 Estimated LFGE Project Costs138

Construction
Cost
O&M
LFG Collection
System
$10,000 -$20,000
per acre of landfill
$400 -$900 per
acre per year
Blower / Flare
Station
$350 - $450
per scfm*
$20 - $30 per
scfm per year
Reciprocating
Engine
$1,100-$1,300
per kW
(> 800 kW)
1.60-2.00
per kWh
Combustion
Turbine
$1,000 -$1,200
perkW
(> 3.5 MW)
1.40-1.80
per kWh
Boiler /Steam
Turbine
$2,500 -$1,500
perkW
(> 10MW)
1.00-1.40
per kWh
 Scfm: standard cubic feet per minute
In a 2005 draft document, the California Climate Action Team estimated total installed costs to range
between $1,100 and $4,000 per kW of generating capacity.139  Use software and documents listed in
Section 10.7 (page 117) to estimate LFG production and costs for a MSW landfill gas project.

Possible Business Models
The following are examples of business models that outline LFGE operations and maintenance
roles:
   .   Landfill owner owns and manages all LFGE equipment and sells electricity to the utility or
       directly to an end user.
       Landfill owner owns LFG collection system.  Electricity generation equipment owned and
       operated by utility; the utility purchases LFG from landfill owner.
       Landfill owner provides LFG. Third party owns and operates LFG collection system and
       electricity generation equipment
Review LMOP's A Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development Handbook, Section 7 "Selecting a
Project Development Partner" (www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/handbook.pdf) for more information.
Though the target audience of this document is the landfill owner, it may provide some insight on
partnering with other stakeholders.  Find a list potential clean energy investors at
www.nrel.gov/technologvtransfer/entrepreneurs/directory.html.

5.6   LANDFILL GAS ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY CONCERNS AND
      PERMITS140
This section provides information  on LFGE environmental and safety concerns and potential permits
required for developing a LFGE project.
Chapter 5: Landfill Gas-to-Energy
                                                         43
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Environmental and Safety Concerns
Dioxins and furans are a group of toxic chemical compounds known as persistent organic pollutants.
Combustion processes, such as incinerating municipal waste, burning fuels (e.g., wood, coal, or oil),
and some industrial processes, can release dioxins and furans into the atmosphere. Relative to
many of these combustion processes, landfill gas combustion is less conducive to dioxin/furan
formation.
Batteries, fluorescent light bulbs, electrical switches, thermometers and paints are some sources of
mercury in a MSW landfill. Mercury may be present in landfill gas but combusting the gas converts
the organic mercury compounds to less toxic inorganic compounds.
LFG is potentially explosive, may pose an asphyxiation hazard, and may cause headaches and
nausea due to odors. LFG collection systems minimize exposure. Always take precautions when
handling LFG.  For more information, see the following document by the Agency for Toxic
Substances and Disease Registry: Landfill Gas Primer: An Overview for Environmental Health
Professionals (www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HAC/landfill/html/toc.html).

LFGE Permits
LFGE projects must follow federal regulations related  to both the control of LFG and air emissions
from the electricity generation equipment.  Emissions  need to comply with the federal  Clean Air Act
and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. States may have more stringent requirements.
Permits can take more than a year to attain.  No construction should begin until permitting issues are
resolved since permits may affect the design of the project.  Permits in the following areas may be
required:
   .  Air Quality                                   •    Wastewater
   .   Building Permit                               •    Condensate
       Land use Permit                              •    Water
       Noise                                       .    Stack height
See LMOP's A Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development Handbook, Section 9 "Securing Project
Permits and Approvals" for details (www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/handbook.pdf).  Contact LMOP for
more information on permitting issues.

5.7   SUCCESS STORIES
Three examples of successful LFGE projects are presented below. Go to LMOP's website for more
success stories (www.epa.gov/lmop/res/index.htmM).

Operating Industries Inc.141 (ON) Superfund Site, Monterey Park, CA, Region  9
ON is a Superfund site located in southern California.  It was a 190-acre landfill that operated from
1948 to 1984. It accepted 38 million cubic yards of MSW and 330 million gallons of liquid industrial
waste.  Methane production at this landfill is about 2,500 ft3 per minute.  A LFGE project was
constructed in 2002 (Fig. 28). The construction of the project cost $1.05 million and utility
Chapter 5:  Landfill Gas-to-Energy                                                         44
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connection cost $105,000.  It produces electricity from microturbines to save an estimated $400,000
annually by providing 80 percent of electricity needs for the operations and maintenance of the site.

For RPMs who are considering a LFGE project, ON project managers recommend briefing
stakeholders early in the planning process, including local utilities, land use contacts, and federal,
state and local environmental agencies. It is important to obtain a "power interconnection"
application from the utility in the early stages of
planning to sell power back to the grid. If using
microturbines, ensure that the microturbine
system can accept the LFG specific to your site.
Research the microturbine vendor for experience
and support for a LFGE project. An ideal
situation would be to contract a turnkey system
which provides a  completely operational product
upon delivery.  It  is also recommended to get a
service contract for the microturbine system that
includes details of the costs and time frame for
implementation of the system.
                                               Figure 28  LFG flares at ON.  Image courtesy Chern
                                                                                      142
   Site Contacts:
   S.J. Chern
   RPM, EPA Region 9
   Phone: (415)972-3268
   E-mail: chern.shiann-iang@epa.gov

   Pankaj Arora
   RPM, EPA Region 9
   Phone: (415)972-3040
   E-mail: arora.pankai@epa.gov

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Goddard Space Flight Center
(GSFC), Greenbelt, MD
143
GSFC in Maryland is the first federal facility in the country to implement a LFGE project. Two of the
five boilers at GSFC were modified in 2003 to run on LFG, and can use natural gas or fuel oil as
backup. The LFG is supplied from the nearby county-owned Sandy Hill Landfill and fuels boilers to
make steam that heats 31 GSFC buildings. The  project illustrates a successful public-private
partnership between Prince George's County, MD., Waste Management, Toro Energy, NASA and
LMOP in pursuing the economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas energy.  LMOP worked
with NASA to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using gas from the Sandy Hill Landfill
to fuel boilers at GSFC. This LFGE project will reduce 160,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalents from
being emitted over ten years.  These emissions reductions are equivalent to taking  35,000 cars off
the road per year or planting 47,000 acres of trees. NASA will save taxpayers more than $3.5
million over the next decade in fuel costs.  Landfill gas provides 95 percent of all of  the center's
Chapter 5:  Landfill Gas-to-Energy
                                                                 45
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heating needs, with natural gas serving as the backup. Go to
www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/0508landfill.html for details.

BMW,  Green, South Carolina144
The BMW plant in Greer, South Carolina has a landfill cogeneration project. Landfill gas is
transported through a 9.5-mile pipeline and provides 53 percent of the plant's energy needs by
generating electricity with the use of gas turbines and direct use in heating water. The landfill is
expected to be able to provide LFG for at least 20 years.  For more information, go to
www.bmwusfactorv.eom//communitv/environment/gastoenergy.asp.
Chapter 5:  Landfill Gas-to-Energy                                                         46
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 CHAPTER 6:    ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
                                                          Chapter 6 Table of Contents
                                                   6.1  Anaerobic Digester Terminology
                                                   6.2  Anaerobic Digester Technology Basics
                                                   6.2  Basic Digester Components, Types of
                                                       Digesters and Assessing Anaerobic
                                                       Digester Potential
                                                   6.3  Anaerobic Digester Energy Production
                                                   6.5  Capital Cost, O&M, Developers and
                                                       Possible Business Models
                                                   6.6  Environmental Benefits and Concerns,
                                                       Safety and Permits
                                                   6.7 Success Stories
Anaerobic digestion is the natural process of
decomposing organic materials by bacteria in an
oxygen-free environment. Anaerobic digestion
produces biogas, which is mainly CO2 and CH4. It
can be used to produce heat and/or electricity.
Anaerobic digestion can be manipulated in a
controlled environment, such as inside an anaerobic
digester, where biogas can  be collected and
utilized.145 Digesters may be designed as plastic or
rubber covered lagoons, troughs, or as steel or
concrete tanks.146 Organic  material such as manure,
wastewater treatment sewage sludge, agricultural
wastes or food processing wastes are appropriate
feedstock for anaerobic digesters.  Regular
maintenance is required to restock  biomass as well as dispose of digester byproducts, which may be
used as fertilizers. Cleanup sites that have biomass sources nearby may consider using an
anaerobic digester to generate electricity and gas.

6.1   ANAEROBIC DIGESTER TERMINOLOGY147

The following are some anaerobic digester terms and definitions.
Anaerobic Absence of oxygen.
Anaerobic Digester Sealed container in which anaerobic bacteria break down organic matter and
   create biogas.
Biogas The gas produced from decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions consisting
   of 60-80 percent CH4, 30-40 percent CO2, and other trace gases such as hydrogen sulfide,
   ammonia and H2.
Effluent Organic liquid and  solid material leaving a digester.
Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) The average length of time the influent remains in the digester for
   decomposition.
Influent, or Feedstock  Liquid and solid material fed to the digester.
Methane  (CHa) A combustible gas  produced by anaerobic digestion and also the principle
   component of natural gas.
Mesophilic Range Temperature range between 95°F and 105°F in which certain methane-producing
   microbes thrive.
Chapter6: Anaerobic Digester
                                                                                       47
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Thermophilic Range Temperature range between 125°F and 135°F where certain methane-
    producing bacteria are most active. In digesters, the greatest pathogen destruction occurs in this
    temperature range.
Slurry The mixture of biomass and water processed in the digester.

6.2   ANAEROBIC  DIGESTER TECHNOLOGY BASICS
Anaerobic digestion is the
natural process of
decomposing organic
materials by bacteria in an
oxygen-free environment.
One of the products of
anaerobic digestion is biogas,
which consists of 60-80
percent CH4, 30-40 percent
CO2, and trace amounts of
other gases. It typically has
an energy value of about
600-800 BTU/ft3.149 This
natural process can be
manipulated in a controlled environment, such as in an anaerobic digester, where the biogas can be
collected and used for heating and/or electricity production (Fig. 29).
Figure 29 Plug-flow digester.  Image courtesy Penn State University
                             150
Organic material such as manure, wastewater treatment sewage sludge, agricultural wastes or food
processing wastes are used in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas.  Cleanup sites that have
these sources nearby may consider using an anaerobic digester to generate electricity.  Digesters
are designed as plastic or rubber covered lagoons, troughs, or as steel or concrete tanks.151
Carefully controlled nutrient feed, moisture, temperature, and pH in the digester make a habitable
environment for the anaerobic bacteria, which are naturally occurring in manure (Fig. 30).
Digesters work best with biomass that is greater than 85 percent moisture by mass.  Digesters
operate at two ideal temperature ranges: mesophilic temperatures (95°F-105°F) which best host
mesophile bacteria, and thermophilic temperatures (125°F-135°F) which best hostthermophile
bacteria.152 See Appendix VI (page 145) for more information on digester biology. Thermophilic
conditions decrease the hydraulic retention time, reducing the size of the digester needed compared
to digesters operating under mesophilic temperatures.153  However, thermophilic bacteria are also
much more sensitive to changes in their environment, so digester conditions must be closely
monitored and maintained. Digesters operating at thermophilic temperatures also need more energy
to heat them. Excess heat from operating the electricity generators or direct combustion of the
produced biogas may be able to provide enough thermal output to heat the  digester. There is little
change in the volume of the organic matter after it goes through the digester. The digested solids
and liquids can be used as high-quality fertilizer (See Appendix VI page 146). The effluent can be
spread on fields as a liquid fertilizer or liquids and solids can be separated to be sold individually.
Chapter 6:  Anaerobic Digester
                                                       48
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                                                                  CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                         DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
The fiber in digested dairy manure can be used on farms as bedding or recovered for sale as a high-
quality potting soil ingredient or mulch.  Because anaerobic digestion reduces ammonia losses,
digested manure contain more valuable nitrogen for crop production. The nutrient content of
digested manure is the same as in raw manure.  Some liquid content can be re-fed into the digester
in the case that the moisture content needs to be increased.
Benefits of an anaerobic
digester include:
   .   Green energy
       production.
   .   In the case of manure
       digesters, reduced
       odor compared to
       conventionally stored
       liquid manure,
       reducing potential
       nuisance complaints.
       Digested material can
       be pumped long
                         How ft works.
                             Complex Organic
                             Material {Manure)
                                                   Air-tight digester vessel
                                                            Bkxjas Production
Simple Orga
                                             Acid-Forming
                                               Bacteria
            MfHh.inc>Forming
              Bacteria
                                               5-20 Days. Temperature dependent

                               Figure 30  Bacterial processes within an anaerobic digester.
                                       Image courtesy Penn State University
                                                                    154
6.3
 distances for use as fertilizer.
 Reduction of pathogens and weed seeds in digested material.
 Reduced fly propagation.
 Use of digested material as fertilizer, potting soil, or mulch.

BASIC DIGESTER COMPONENTS,  TYPES OF DIGESTERS AND ASSESSING
ANAEROBIC DIGESTER POTENTIAL
There are many types of digesters but all share similar components.  This section discusses the
various components of a digester system and various anaerobic digester types.  Information on
assessing the potential of a digester project for a site is also provided.

Basic Components of All Digesters155

The following are descriptions of the components of an  anaerobic digester biogas recovery system.
The digester system components include (Fig. 31):
Nutrient Source Organic material including animal manure, wastewater treatment sewage sludge,
   food waste, food processing wastes. It is possible to combine different sources of organic matter
   to feed into the digester.
Chapter 6: Anaerobic Digester
                                                                                  49
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                                                     Effluent
                                                                           Electric
                                                                           Generation
                                                                           System
              Manure Sour:e
            and Collection Svsterr
  Gas
Handling
 System
I                                                                     Flare or
                                                                     heat Soiree
            Figure 31 Components of an digester biogas recovery system. Image courtesy AgStar
Transport System  Most digesters are constructed on-site near the nutrient source. The organic
    matter must be collected and fed into the digester.
Pre-treatment Tank  A pre-treatment tank is sometimes recommended. This tank is used to preheat
    the influent as well as settle out sand, grit, and other contaminants from the organic feedstock
    before transporting into the digester.
Digester Choose a digester that suits your site-specific characteristics.
Gas Handling System Biogas is collected and processed to remove moisture and contaminants to
    the degree necessary for end use.
Electricity Generation System Reciprocating engines, boilers/steam engines, or microturbines and
    generators can produce electricity from the biogas. See Appendix V (pages 138-142).  The
    waste heat can be captured and recycled to heat the  digester.
Flare or Heat Source Excess CH4 is flared. Methane can also be used directly for heating the
    digester or other  processes.
Effluent Storage Digested material is stored for later use. It can be spread on  fields as a liquid
    fertilizer.  Solids can also be separated for use as a solid fertilizer.

Types of Digesters
Choosing the most suitable digester depends on the moisture content of the influent and, in the case
for covered lagoon, climate at the site. The digesters detailed  below are conventional designs
including complete-mix,  plug-flow, and covered lagoon digesters. This  section also includes
information on where a digester project may be applicable.
Chapter6:  Anaerobic Digester
                                     50
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                                                                    CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                          DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
Complete-Mix Digester
The complete-mix digester is a
vertical concrete or steel circular
container that can be installed
above or below ground (Fig. 32).
It can handle organic wastes
with total solid concentration of
3-10 percent, such as manure or
food waste collected from a
flush system. Complete-mix
digesters can be operated at
either the mesophilic or
thermophilic temperature range
with a HRT of 10-20 days. A
mixer keeps the solids in
suspension. For manure feedstock, cost estimates range from $200-$400 per 1,000 pounds of
animal mass that contribute to the digester influent.158

Plug-Flow Digester
Figure 32 Schematic of a complete-mix digester.
    Image courtesy Ohio State University157
The basic plug-flow digester
design is a rectangular trough,
often built below ground level,
with an impermeable, flexible
cover (Fig. 29 page 48). Organic
material is added to one end of
the trough and decomposes as it
moves through the digester. Each
day a new "plug" of organic waste
is added, pushing the feedstock
down the trough  (Fig. 33).  Plug-
flow digesters are suitable for biomass with a solids concentration of 11-13 percent and have a HRT
of about 20-30 days.  Suspended heating pipes of hot water stir the slurry through convection.  This
type of digester has few moving parts and requires little maintenance.  For manure feedstock, cost
estimates range from $200-$400 per 1,000 pounds of animal mass that contribute to the digester
influent.160"
  33 Schematic of a plug-flow digester.
    Image courtesy Ohio State University
159
Chapter 6:  Anaerobic Digester
                                              51
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                                                                    CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                          DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
                                      Incoming
                                       Manure
                                                            Biogas Storage
                                                                                   Biogas
                                                         Manure St
Covered Lagoon Digesters

A covered lagoon digester is a
lagoon fitted with a floating,
impermeable cover that collects
biogas as it is released from the
organic wastes (Fig. 34).  An
anaerobic lagoon is best suited for
liquid organic wastes with a total
solid concentration of 0.5-3 percent.
Covered  lagoon digesters are
generally not externally heated so
they must be located in warmer
climates for them to produce enough biogas for energy production. This type is the least expensive
of the three mentioned here. For manure feedstocks, cost estimates range from $150-$400 per
1,000 pounds of live animal mass that contribute to the digester influent.
                                                  Figure 34 Covered lagoon digester.
                                                 Image courtesy Ohio State University16
                                                                  162
Other digester designs include advanced integrated pond systems, up-flow solids reactors, fixed-film
(Fig. 35), temperature-phased, and anaerobic filter reactors.
                                                       163
Siting Anaerobic Digesters

A suitable location for anaerobic digester energy project should
It may be possible to collect organic wastes from a community,
processing facilities that have a need to dispose biomass.
To consider a manure digester project for energy production,
the manure influent supply should generally have at least
300 head of dairy cows or steers, 2,000 swine in
confinement, or 50,000 caged layers or broilers (types of
fowl) from which manure is collected regularly.165  The
influent source should be available year-round for a constant
supply of biogas and energy production. Anaerobic
digesters need material with  high moisture  content.  The
influent should be collected as a liquid, slurry, or semi-solid
from a single point daily or every other day. Alternatively,
water may be added after collection. Manure feedstock
should have as little bedding materials  as possible.  It may
be necessary to have at least one person who can manage
the digester for daily and long-term  maintenance.  Consider
uses for the digested material, both liquid and solid
components, such as for fertilizers.  See Appendix VI (page
143) for a  preliminary evaluation checklist for manure
feedstock.
                                                          be close to an organic waste source.
                                                          such as local farms and food
                                                             Figure 35 Fixed-film digester. Image
                                                               courtesy University of Florida
                                                                                      164
Chapter 6:  Anaerobic Digester
                                                                                          52
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6.4   ANAEROBIC DIGESTER ENERGY PRODUCTION
Producing biogas is just one step to harnessing energy from organic wastes. Once the gas has
been collected, engines or boilers coupled with generators are utilized to convert the energy
contained in the biogas to heat and/or electricity to be used on the cleanup site. The term "prime
mover" is often used to refer to heat engines which generate mechanical energy that can drive
electricity generation equipment. See Appendix V (pages 138-142) for more details.

Energy Generation Options
Internal Combustion Engine / Reciprocating Engine  An internal combustion engine is the most
   commonly used technology for utilizing biogas. Natural gas or propane engines can be modified
   to burn biogas.  In general, a biogas-fueled engine generator is 18-25 percent efficient at
   converting energy in biogas to electricity.166 Optimize efficiency by using the co-generated heat
   energy for space heating, water heating, and/or heating the digester.  When a reciprocating
   engine is used, the biogas must have condensate and particulates removed. 167
Boiler / Steam Turbine A boiler can produce thermal energy from burning biogas.  The heat is used
   in a steam turbine to generate electricity.  This configuration is best suited for gas production that
   can generate 8-9 MW, which is very large for a digester project.168 At smaller scales, it is
   generally more expensive than other gas power conversion technologies.
Combustion (Gas) Turbine  Combustion turbines (CTs) are typically used in medium to large biogas
   projects rated from 3-4 MW. This technology is competitive in larger biogas electric generation
   projects because of significant economies of scale.  The biogas must have most of the  visible
   moisture and any particles removed and then  must be compressed in order to be utilized in a
   gas turbine combustion chamber.
Microturbines Microturbines range in power rating from 30-250 kW and can be combined with each
   other.  They are better-suited for digester projects for which low CH4 concentrations or low flow
   rates prohibit the applicability of larger engines.  Microturbines cost from $700 per kWto $1,100
   per kW of generation capacity.  The addition of a heat recovery system, which captures the
   otherwise wasted heat, adds between $75 and $350 per kW.169  Microturbines require very clean
   biogas fuel, increasing the cost for biogas cleanup.

Potential  Energy Production
The amount of energy a digester can produce depends upon the type of feedstock, type of digester,
environment inside the digester, loading rate, and type of energy recovery technology.  Table 4
includes electricity production rates compiled by the California Energy Commission (CEC) which
provides a general estimate of the energy production potential of different manure feedstocks. Other
influent sources including cheese whey (about twice as much biogas production as manure), animal
and vegetable fats and oils (about 20 times as much biogas production as manure), crop and green
wastes, and food processing waste, yield even greater amounts of biogas. Different feedstocks can
be combined to increase biogas production.170 If you are considering dairy manure as a feedstock
for a digester, use the CEC Dairy Power Production Program's worksheet for estimating energy
production (Appendix VI page 144). The heat generated from the engine or turbine generator is also
Chapter6: Anaerobic Digester                                                           53
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a useful resource that can be harnessed instead of being released as waste heat.  See Appendix V
(page 138) for combined heat and power application information.
Table 4 Energy Potential of Various Animal Manures171
Anaerobic Digestion Feedstock
Dairy Cows
Swine
Layer Poultry
Broiler Poultry
Turkey
Sheep and Lamb
Volatile Solids per animal per
day (Ibs/day)
6.2
1.64
0.048
0.034
0.091
0.92
Energy Potential
(kWh/animal/day)
1.24
0.328
0.0096
0.0068
0.0182
0.184
6.5   CAPITAL COST, O&M, DEVELOPERS AND POSSIBLE BUSINESS MODELS
This section includes information on estimating the capital cost for an anaerobic digester, associated
operations and maintenance, resources to find digester developers and possible business models
for an anaerobic digester project.

Estimating Cost
Fora manure digester, the joint EPA, USDA, and DOE AgStar Program estimates the installed
capital cost of a covered lagoon, complete mix, and plug flow digester to range between $200 and
$450 per 1,000 pounds of animal mass that provide feedstock to the digester (Table 5).  AgStar
estimates a 3-7 year payback period when energy recovery is employed.172  Contact digester
developers for cost estimates for other feedstocks.
Table 5 Cost Estimates for Various Manure Management Options
(per 1 ,000 pounds of animal mass that contribute feedstock)*173
Aerated lagoons with open storage ponds (for comparison)*
Covered lagoon digesters with open storage ponds
Heated digesters (e.g., complete mix and plug flow) with open storage tanks
Separate treatment lagoons and storage ponds (2-cell systems)
Combined treatment lagoons and storage ponds
Storage ponds and tanks
$2004450
$1504400
$2004400
$2004400
$2004400
$504500
 Cost estimates are from a 2002 publication. Cost ranges do not include annual operation and maintenance costs.
* Aerated lagoon energy requirements add an additional $35-50 per 1,000 live animal Ibs/year.
Download FarmWare from www.epa.gov/agstar/resources/handbook.html to get preliminary
feasibility and economic analyses of manure digesters.
Chapter6: Anaerobic Digester
54
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Operations and Maintenance
Anaerobic digesters require daily maintenance checks and longer term maintenance.  Daily
maintenance includes checking proper digester and engine function (e.g., gas leaks in digester
cover or piping, oil level in the engine, film buildup in the digester).  Daily maintenance takes from 10
minutes to one hour per day.  Oil in the engine may need changing every few months. Digesters
may need to be cleaned out after several years of operation.

Finding a Developer
The following links provide listings of anaerobic digester consultants, developers, and equipment
suppliers. Select businesses based on their previous biogas project experience, successful project
track record, and in-house resources such as  engineering, financing, operations and experience with
environmental  permitting and community issues.174
n  The AgSTAR Industry Directory:  Listing of consultants, project developers,  energy services,
   equipment manufacturers and distributors, and commodity organizations.
   www.epa.qov/aqstar/tech/consultants.html
n  The California Integrated  Waste Management Board: Listing of anaerobic digester vendors.
   www.ciwmb.ca.gov/Qrganics/Conversion/Vendors
n  Penn State Department of Agriculture and Biological Engineering:  Listing of digester
   consultants, designers, and vendors, www.biogas.psu.edu/listdigandeguip.html

Partners and Possible Business Models
Purchasing and operating an  anaerobic digester may involve many different parties.  Consider the
following:
   .   Appropriate level of involvement with the local utility if the digester is expected to produce a
       large excess amount  of energy that  can be net metered or sold to the utility.
       The need for a formal agreement with  feedstock provider(s).
   .   Which  party will own,  operate and manage the digester.
   .   County, community, union organization involvement.
The following are possible business models that outline digester operations and maintenance  roles:
       Producer of organic matter owns and manages digester and electricity generation
       equipment.
   .   Producer of organic matter owns and manages digester.  Electricity generation equipment
       owned  and operated by utility; the utility purchases the biogas from digester owner.
   .   Producer of organic matter provides influent. Third party owns and operates digester and
       electricity generation equipment.
Find a list potential clean energy investors at
www.nrel.qov/technoloqvtransfer/entrepreneurs/directory.html.
Chapter6:  Anaerobic Digester                                                            55
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6.6   ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS AND CONCERNS, SAFETY AND PERMITS
This section includes information on the environmental benefits of a digester project, mainly
emission reductions. It also highlights some environmental concerns and safety issues. Information
on possible permit requirements is also included.

Emissions Reductions175                 .	,
                                           Estimating Digester Emissions Reductions with EPA's
                                                            Power Profiler
                                               www.epa.qov/cleanenerqy/powerprofiler.htm
                                           Consider Gordondale Farms (Section 6.7) which has a
                                           digester fueled with manure from their 860 cows. Their
                                           digester system produces about one million kWh per year.
                                           Go to the Power Profiler and enter the required  information.
                                           Under "Make a Difference," select "My Emissions." Enter
                                           83,000 kWh into the "Average Monthly Use" option. The
                                           Profiler estimates that about two million pounds of CC>2 are
                                           released from producing one million kWh of conventional
                                           electricity a year. This means that use of the digester gas
                                           prevents an estimated two million pounds of CC>2 from
                                           being released into the atmosphere every year.
Use AgStar's A Protocol for Quantifying
and Reporting the Performance of
Anaerobic Digestion Systems for Livestock
Manures
(www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/protocol.pdf) to
estimate GHG reductions from the use of a
manure digester.  Utilizing anaerobic
digesters,  rather than conventional manure
management practices, can reduce CH4
and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, two
highly potent GHGs.  CO2 emissions from
livestock are not estimated because
annual net CO2 emissions are assumed to
be zero - the CO2 photosynthesized by plants is returned to the atmosphere as respired CO2. A
portion of the carbon  is emitted as CH4 and for this reason CH4 requires separate consideration.176
Methane emission reductions should not be based on CH4 production from the digester. Methane
generated from conventional manure practices often differ from the amount produced in an
anaerobic digester. To estimate baseline emissions,  calculate the CH4 emissions from a
conventional manure management method, or the method that would have been in place if a
digester was not installed.  The methodology described in the EPA Climate Leaders "Draft Manure
Offset Protocol" is found at
www.epa.gov/stateply/documents/resources/ClimateLeaders DraftManureQffsetProtocol.pdf.
While CO2 emissions from manure management are usually not counted towards a carbon footprint
as mentioned above, there is carbon savings if the biogas is used to  produce electricity. Instead of
using fossil fuel electricity, carbon is offset by using renewable biogas.
FarmWare may be used to help estimate the emissions from anaerobic lagoons with secondary
storage and combined storage and treatment lagoons
(www.epa.gov/agstar/resources/handbook.html).

Environmental and Safety Issues
NOX emissions from combusting biogas may be of concern for a digester project.  Naturally aspirated
reciprocating internal combustion  engines emit relatively high levels of NOX.  Fuel injected  lean-burn
reciprocating internal combustion  engines provide greater engine power output and lower NOX
emissions compared to a naturally aspirated engine.  Gas turbines emit even lower levels of NOX.
Chapter6: Anaerobic Digester
                                                                                        56
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Sulfur oxides (SOX) may be produced from swine manure digesters and may necessitate the use of
scrubbers.  SOX emissions are generally not a concern for other types of influent.
Since biogas is flammable and displaces breathable oxygen within the space it occupies, it is
potentially dangerous and it is necessary to take safety precautions including, but not limited to,
installing and monitoring gas detectors, eliminating ignition sources, posting warning signs and never
entering an empty digester without extensive venting and a confined space entry permit in
accordance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations.  Developers should
train the owner to properly maintain and operate the system to ensure efficiency and safety. Go to
http://www.biogas.psu.edu/Safety.html for more on digester safety.

Permits
It is essential to garner appropriate permits early in the digester design process as the design may
need adjustment to comply with federal, state, and local rules. Anaerobic digester construction and
operation may need permits in the following areas:
       Land use                                      •   Wastewater
       Confined Animal Facility Operation               •   Water
       Permit                                         .   Storm-water management
    .   Noise                                         .   Air
See AgStar Handbook,  Chapter 8 "Permitting and Other Regulatory Issues" for more details
(www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/handbook/chapter8.pdf).

6.7   SUCCESS STORIES

Dairy Manure: Gordondale Farms, Nelsonville, Wl177
Gordondale Farms is a  3,200 acre dairy farm located in Nelsonville, Wisconsin with a milking herd of
about 860 Holstein-Friesian cows. They use a two-stage modified plug-flow mesophilic digester with
vertical gas mixing.  The captured biogas is used to fuel a modified  150-kW engine generator set.
While the farm owns the digester, the local utility, Alliant Energy, owns and operates the electricity
generation equipment and owns the electricity generated.  Alliant Energy pays Gordondale Farms at
the rate of $0.015 per kWh delivered and all electricity used by Gordondale Farms is purchased from
the utility at retail rates.  Biogas production was estimated to be 93,501  ft3 per day with  860 cows.
For each 1,000 ft3 of biogas utilized, about 30 kWh are generated. Liquid and solid residuals are
separated.  Liquids are  used as fertilizer and the solid portion  is used on-site and sold  as bedding for
dairy farms.  Cost for design,  materials, and construction was  estimated to total $650,000
(completed March 2002).  The owners of this system partially  constructed the digester themselves,
reducing the capital cost.  The installed cost of the engine-generator set was $198,000. The engine-
generator itself and interconnection fees totaled $160,000 while the remaining $38,000 was the cost
of generator installation, including labor and materials.
Chapter 6:  Anaerobic Digester                                                            57
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Dairy Manure: California Dairy Power Production Program, various locations, CA
The Dairy Power Production Program was funded by the CEC and contracted to the Western United
Resource Development Corporation (WURD).  The purpose of the Dairy Power Production Program
was to encourage the development of biological-based anaerobic digestion and gasification
electricity generation projects on California dairies. The overall goal of this effort was to develop
commercially proven biogas electricity systems that can help California dairies offset the purchase of
electricity, and may provide environmental benefits by potentially reducing air and ground water
pollutants associated with storage and treatment of livestock wastes. Total funds allocated for this
project was $9,640,000.178  All funds have been granted and future funding for this program is
uncertain. The following is  a summary of many of the projects that were completed through this
program (Table 6).  From the data below, a covered lagoon and generator set costs about $3,500
per kW and plug-flow digesters and generator set costs an average of about $3,000 per kW of
generating capacity.
Table 6 California Dairy Power Production Program Digester Projects179
Dairy Name
Hilarides Dairy
Gallo Cattle
Company
Blakes Landing
Dairy
Castelanelli Bros.
Dairy
Koetsier Dairy
Van Ommering
Dairy
Meadowbrook Dairy
CA Polytechnic
State University
Dairy
Lourenco Dairy
Inland Empire
Utilities Agency
Eden-Vale Dairy
Cows
6,000 heifers
5081
237
1600
1500
600
1900
175
1258
4700
770
Type of System
Covered Lagoon
Covered Lagoon
Covered Lagoon
Covered Lagoon
Plug Flow
Plug Flow
Plug Flow
Covered Lagoon
Covered Lagoon
Plug Flow
Plug Flow
kW
250
300
75
160
260
130
160
30
150
563
150
Total Cost
$1,500,000
$1,289520
$135,800
$772,925
$381,850
$489,284
$524,898
$75,000
$229,557
$1,546,350
$661,923
See the CEC (www.energv.ca.gov/pier/renewable/biomass/anaerobic  digestion/projects.html) and
WURD (www.wurdco.com/') websites for more information on the CA Dairy Power Production
Program.
                                                              1180
Food Processing: Valley Fig Growers Biogas Project, Fresno, CA
Valley Fig Growers is a grower-owned marketing cooperative with 35 growers. They installed an
anaerobic digester at their processing facilities in Fresno, California to help mitigate their wastewater
Chapter6: Anaerobic Digester
58
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issues and to produce electricity.  The digester and microturbine system began operations in May
2005.
The Fig Growers installed a covered lagoon and a 70-kW Ingersoll Rand microturbine. The lagoon
is 26,500 ft2 (0.6 acres) with a 1.8 million gallon capacity. The retention time is 45 days with gas
production of 2,000-2,500 ft3  per hour. In 2002, the CEC Public Interest Energy Research (PIER)
Program awarded the Valley Fig Growers $476,000.  Biogas from the digested fig processing
wastewater is used to generate electricity and heat.  The Fig Growers use a total  of 40,000 gallons
of fresh water daily for processing, seven days a week. With high levels of organic matter in their
wastewater, the Valley Fig Growers were charged $100,000 a year to discharge their wastewater
into city sewers.

Benefits
The digester reduced biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids by 70-80 percent.  The
estimated cost savings from this reduction  is $115,000 per year.  They save $90,000 each year from
reduced wastewater discharge fees. Electricity produced from the digester saves the Fig Growers
$25,000 each year in energy costs.

Costs181
The digester system cost a total of about $1.1 million.  See the breakdown of the  costs below.
     Digester
     Engineering and project management          $478,000
     Earthwork                               $210,000
     Lagoon liner and cover                     $219,000
     Digester and aeration                       $229,000
     Gas collection, heating                     $270,000
     Microturbine
     70-kW microturbine                        $163,000
     Engineering and commissioning              $13,000
     Freight and sales tax                       $8,000
     3-year maintenance contract                 $38,000
     Utility rebate                             ($70,000)
     Other Costs
     Road surface, fencing, landscaping           $65,000
     Interest                                 $65,000
     Total                                   $1,676,000
     PIER grant and utility rebate                 ($546,000)
     Net total cost                             $1,142,000
Chapter 6: Anaerobic Digester                                                              59
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Permitting182
       San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District—permit to operate, emissions requirements
   .   City of Fresno Building Permit—city inspectors may not be familiar with microturbines and
       may be unsure of the inspection process for microturbines
   .   CA Regional Water Quality Control Board—submit groundwater monitoring network plan and
       waste discharge permit
       CA State Water Resources Board—general permit to discharge storm water

Valley Fig Recommendations™3
       Test biogas quality to ensure compatibility with engine/turbine.
       Ensure that all correct O rings are used.
   .   Ensure that gas line regulators are properly installed to prevent potential fires.
       Negotiate equipment maintenance in the early stages of contracting.
       For bacteria to start producing biogas quicker during early stages of digester use, find similar
       digester material from other digesters as seed material.
       Contact local  utilities early to resolve any interconnection issues and net metering rules.
   .   Plan for alternative uses of excess biogas.
   .   Investigate the underground characteristics of the planned digester site before construction.
       Be warned that if the  project receives a state grant of more than $1,000, prevailing wages
       must be paid, increasing construction costs. Be sure contractors are aware of these grants.
   .   Utilize  heat produced by the microturbine to heat the digester.
       Look for simple solutions to minimize the complexity of operations and maintenance. Budget
       for automation only when needed.
   .   Address water quality, air quality and other permitting issues early in design phase and
       negotiate annual fees ahead of time.
       Find a  project manager with experience in both construction and operation of anaerobic
       digesters.
Chapter6:  Anaerobic Digester                                                              60
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CHAPTER 7:    BIOMASS GASIFICATION
Biomass such as manure, crop residue, and other
agricultural wastes may be gasified to produce
electricity. Instead of relying on biological
processes as in anaerobic digestion, gasification is
the process of heating material in a chamber at
carefully controlled temperature,  pressure, and
moisture levels to produce high energy syngas.
Syngas consists of CO and H2, which can be used
to generate electricity. Cleanup sites that have
access to biomass may consider gasification to
provide power.  Gasifier projects require high capital
costs as well as regular maintenance to restock biomass and dispose byproducts. While biomass
gasification is not strongly established, many companies are emerging to develop this technology.
        Chapter 7 Table of Contents
7.1  Gasifier Terminology
7.2  Gasifier Technology Basics
7.3  Gasifier System and Energy Generation
7.4  Assessing Biomass Gasifier Project
    Potential
7.5  Emissions Reductions, Capital Cost,
    Permits, Involved Parties and
    Partnerships
7.6  Success Story
7.1   GASIFIER TERMINOLOGY185

The following are some gasifier terms and definitions.
Char  A combustible residue of carbonaceous feedstock.
Feedstock A raw material used in the manufacture of a
   product.  In the case of gasification, biomass feedstock
   could include agricultural residues or manure.
Gasification  Conversion of low-value carboniferous
   feedstocks to higher-value gaseous fuels.
Gasifier Main component of a gasification system, which
   converts a solid or liquid into a gas by means of heat and
   pressure in the presence of low levels of oxygen.
Methane (CHa) The primary constituent of natural gas.
Oxidation A chemical reaction in which oxygen is added to
   an element or compound.
Slurry A liquid mixture of water and an insoluble solid, such
   as coal.
Syngas A gaseous fuel produced from gasification composed of CO and H2 gas.
Town gas  Coal-based syngas provided by municipalities for heating and lighting, primarily in the
   19th century.
         Figure 36 Coaltec Energy USA's small-
          scale gasifier.  Image courtesy Coal
                Research Center184
Chapter 7:  Biomass Gasification
                                      61
 image: 








                                                        Y
                                         CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                               DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
Water - gas shift reaction  An inorganic chemical reaction in which water and CO react to form CO2
and H2 (water splitting). CO + Water (H2O) + catalyst + heat = CO2 + H2.
7.2   GASIFIER TECHNOLOGY BASICS
Gasifiers extract energy
from biomass to generate
electricity (Fig. 36).
Although coal can be
gasified to produce
energy, only when
biomass is used is it
considered renewable
energy. Gasification uses
heat, pressure, and steam
to convert carboniferous
matter (i.e., biomass and
coal) into synthesis gas
(Fig. 37).  Synthesis gas
or "syngas" is composed
primarily of CO and H2.188
CO and H2 are colorless,
odorless, and highly flammable gases
that can be used to generate
electricity.  Gasification is not the
same as combustion. Gasification
utilizes only about one-third of the
oxygen needed for efficient
combustion.  The syngas that is
produced from gasification  can be
used to produce steam or to fuel gas
turbines.189 Gasification can be
applied to a wide variety of organic
feedstocks including waste material
from agriculture, forestry operations,
food processing, and pulp and paper
mills. (Fig. 38).190  Cleanup sites that
have these sources nearby may
consider using gasification  to
generate electricity.  See Appendix
VII  (page  147) for more information
on the gasification process.
       Cter
                                      Extrem e Conditions:
                                      * up lo 1,000 piig
                                      •2,600°F
                                      • Corrosive slag (molten rock)
   Products (syngas)
   CO -Carbon Monoxide)
   Hz (Hydrog*n.i
	\ [CO/Hj raiio can be adjust sd]

  '' By-products
   HjS i.Hydrog*n Sulfide.i
   CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)
   Slag (Minerals from Coal)
   Mercury, arsenic, cadmium.
   selenium...
Figure 37  Gasification inputs and outputs.  Adapted from image courtesy NETL
           Figure 38 Gasifier fueled with poultry litter in West Virginia. Image
                         courtesy Coaltec Energy USA
                                                 187
Chapter 7: Biomass Gasification
                                                               62
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                                                     .
                                                                  CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                         DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
While coal gasifier technology had been used in the early 1800's to produce syngas for lighting and
cooking, applications for biomass gasification for the purpose of full scale energy generation have
not been fully established. Gasification is a complex technology and feasibility and applicability
depend on many site-specific and feedstock variables. Some challenges with biomass gasification
compared to coal gasification include its heterogeneous properties, low bulk density, and fibrous
nature of herbaceous feedstock. These differences require specialized design and operation as
compared to coal gasification.1S|

7.3   GASIFIER SYSTEM AND ENERGY GENERATION
This section includes information on the components of a gasifier system and details electricity
generation equipment that can utilize syngas.

Gasifier System
The following image depicts the different components of a gasifier system (Fig. 39):
Exhaust gas
to Chimney
A

C £

^ V x Process Automation

_._,.....
Gas
Cooling
Gasifier •
Heat
1 Inl Demand
Condensates
1
1 	 I
• ~i r - - -
Ash
to Disposal
Figure 39 Biomass Combined Heat and Power
i
T" T
Gas L!
Cleaning VT
\ v !
Dusts
T '
Waste Water
& --
Condensates
1 fc,
W
~ ££,

Gas
Utilization
Flare

Gas fired
Boilers

| Gas Engine |
Generator


Waste
Water
Treatment

I te- Heat
| ^ to District Heating
k. Power L
^ to Local Grid ?
^ Waste Water
_^L. to Canalisation or
Dusts/Ash Sludge
to Disposal to Disposal
Gasification Plant. Image courtesy "Gasification Guide"192
Energy Generation193
Different sources of feedstock have varied energy content. Lab tests are necessary to determine the
potential energy content in a fuel.  Discuss with your gasifier consultant the amount of energy a
gasifier is expected to produce with the type and amount of biomass available at your site.
Combustion (gas) turbines and steam turbine-generators can use syngas and waste heat to
generate electricity (see Appendix V pages 139-142). To produce electricity, the syngas leaves the
Chapter 7:  Biomass Gasification
63
 image: 








gasifierand first must be cleansed of impurities such as alkalis, ammonia, chlorides, sulfides and
particulates with the use of scrubbers.  The syngas is then ignited to drive a combustion turbine and
create electrical power through the use of a generator. Waste heat from the turbine can be used to
boil water and create steam to drive  a steam turbine with its own generator set. This combined heat
and power operation increases energy efficiency by 33 percent compared with using a combustion
turbine alone (see Appendix V page  138).
Alternatively, the CO and water in syngas may be converted to H2 and CO2 via a water-gas shift
reaction.  Hydrogen is a very clean burning fuel that can be used in fuel cells. Water may be added
to the syngas prior to the water-gas shift reaction to increase the production of H2.  The syngas may
also be turned into a clean burning diesel-like fuel using the Fischer-Tropsch process (a catalyzed
chemical reaction).194 Go to www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/pdfs/epa fischer.pdf for an EPA factsheet
on Fischer-Tropsch fuels.

Biomass /
1 r i
Gasifier
850°C
-1/3 amount of air
needed for comb
I
Char & Ash
Mr
r
or 62
ustion


w byngas
^ r
Power Generation
       Figure 40 Small modular gasifier process (5 kW- 5 MW). Adapted from image courtesy EERE

7.4   ASSESSING BIOMASS GASIFIER PROJECT POTENTIAL

Gasification can be done on a large utility scale or a smaller scale. Cleanup sites most likely can be
powered with small scale gasification systems which are rated between 5 kWand 5 MW(Fig. 40).196
If there is a large source of biomass  in the surrounding area, you may consider a larger facility to
supply electricity to remediation equipment and to the utility grid. See Appendix XII (page 176) for
net metering programs available in Region  9 states.  There should be a source of biomass nearby
and transportation costs should be taken into consideration when planning a gasifier.
After establishing that there is a potential source of biomass in the cleanup site area, you may need
to consult the owner of the  biomass resource for a potential partnership.  You may then want to
contact a biomass energy consultant for further assessment (see Section 10.9 page 119).  Samples
of biomass should be analyzed for energy,  moisture, sulfur, and ash content to ensure compatibility
with gasification. While each  source of biomass may have different properties, there are a few
databases that can provide a  general sense of the composition of various types of biomass.  See
Chapter 7:  Biomass Gasification
64
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NREL's "Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database"
(wwwl .eere.energy.gov/biomass/feedstock  databases.html).
"Phyllis" (www.ecn.nl/phyllis/') is another database of energy content and composition of various
feedstocks compiled by the Energy Research Center of the Netherlands that may provide general
estimates.

7.5 EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS, CAPITAL COST, PERMITS, INVOLVED PARTIES
   AND PARTNERSHIPS
This section includes information on emissions and emissions reductions associated with gasifiers,
estimating capital costs, potential permit needs, potential parties that are involved in a digester
project, and resources to develop partnerships.

Emissions Reductions197
Gasification systems emit very low emissions of SO2, PM, and toxic compounds such as mercury,
arsenic, selenium, and cadmium. The gasification process releases CO2 but for non-fossil fuel
feedstock, the net emissions are considered to be zero because it came from recently living things
including grasses, trees, and agricultural crops that are continually being renewed. In other words, if
forest residue was used in a gasifier, the same amount of CO2 released from gasification should be
taken up by new forest growth, assuming the biomass will be replanted. When syngas is then used
to generate electricity, net emissions are negative since this offsets the emissions that otherwise
would have been emitted from fossil fuel-powered utilities.  Go to the EPA Power Profiler listed on
page 112 to help determine emissions reductions from using syngas to generate electricity.

Capital Cost
According to the Bioenergy Feedstock Information Network, a large scale gasifier is estimated to
cost about $1,000 per rated kW.198 A 2000 NREL "Small Modular Biopower Initiative" document
estimated that 25 kW—5 MW gasifiers have capital costs between $1,600 and $3,000 per rated
kW.199 At a per kWh basis, estimates range from 4.9-8.2 cents per kWh.

Permits
It is essential to garner appropriate permits early in the gasifier planning process as the design may
need adjustment to comply with federal, state, and local rules.  Gasifier construction and operation
may need permits in the following areas:
   .   Land use                                   •   Hazardous waste (ash)
   .   Air                                         .   Water
   .   Wastewater                                 •   Storm-water management
Gasifier consultants should be able to help with permitting issues.
Chapter 7: Biomass Gasification                                                         65
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Involved Parties
Many sectors may be involved in planning, designing, operating, and managing a gasification
project.  Involved parties may include:
   .   Gasifier design companies                    •   Permitting officers
       Biomass suppliers                            •   Local agriculture/farming association
   .   Local utility                                      or organization
   .   US Department of Agriculture (USDA)           •   Investors

Finding Gasifier Partners
n  California Integrated Waste Management Board: List of gasifier vendors.
   www.ciwmb.ca.gov/organics/conversionA/endors/
n  NREL: List of potential clean energy investors.
   www.nrel.gov/technologvtransfer/entrepreneurs/directory.html

7.6  SUCCESS STORY

Mount Wachusett Community College,  Gardner, Massachusetts200
Mount Wachusett Community College partnered with Community Power Corporation, NREL, and
USDA Forrest Service to install a $1.2 million 50-kW woody biomass gasifier.  The gasifier is fed 1.5
tons of wood chips per day and provides electricity to help power the school. Excess thermal energy
is used for space heating and for cooling.
For more information, go to www.mwcc.edu/renewable/BiomassGasificationatMWCC.htm and
www.delaware-energv.com/Download/BIQ-MASS-CQNF/Rob%20Rizzo.pdf.
Chapter 7: Biomass Gasification                                                         66
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CHAPTER 8:    CLEANER DIESEL
                                                          Chapter 8 Table of Contents
                                                   8.1 Importance of Reducing Diesel
                                                      Emissions
                                                   8.2 Approaches to Reduce Diesel Emissions
                                                   8.3 Clean Diesel Sample Language and
                                                      Relevant Laws and Regulations
                                                   8.4 Success Stories
On cleanup and redevelopment sites, diesel
engines are commonly used in soil removals and
construction.  Common construction equipment
includes wheel loaders, skid steer loaders, wheel
dozers, landfill compactors, excavators, backhoes,
drill rigs, scrapers, and trucks.  Diesel engines are
highly durable and can last for about 30 years.
While stringent diesel emissions rules are reducing
emissions from newly manufactured engines, in-
use older engines can continue to operate for
many years.  Diesel emissions, especially PM, are highly toxic, potentially exposing site workers and
surrounding communities to increased health risks. Clean diesel technologies and alternative fuels
can reduce harmful emissions from older, higher polluting engines.  Clean diesel technologies
include replacing, repowering, or retrofitting older engines with advanced emission control devices
that significantly reduce harmful pollutants.  The two most widely used retrofit technologies are
diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Cleaner fuels like ultra-low-
sulfur diesel (ULSD), and alternative  fuels such as biodiesel, also reduce emissions. In addition,
simple measures like idle reduction and engine maintenance can be practiced as fundamental
components of reducing diesel pollution.

8.1   IMPORTANCE OF REDUCING DIESEL EMISSIONS
                              Table 7  Human and Environmental Health Risks from Diesel Pollutants
                                Particulate Matter (PM)
                                                                   Nitrogen Oxides (NOX
Reducing emissions
from diesel engines is
one of the most
important air quality
challenges facing the
country. Diesel engines
emit a complex mixture
of air pollutants including
both solid and gaseous
materials that have
serious human and
environmental impacts
(Table?).  EPA has
deemed diesel exhaust as a "likely human carcinogen."202  California has also classified over 40
diesel exhaust pollutants as "toxic air contaminants."203 Diesel activities occurring at cleanup sites
may expose workers and  surrounding communities to diesel pollution. The diesel pollutants that
cause the  most public health concerns are PM and NOX.
                             • Irritation of airways
                             • Coughing
                             • Difficulty breathing
                             • Aggravated asthma
                             • Decreased lung function
                             • Lung and heart disease
                             • Acute and chronic bronchitis
                             • Irregular heartbeat
                             • Heart attacks
                                                               • Acid Rain
                                                               • Global warming
                                                               • Water quality deterioration
                                                               • Visibility impairments
                                                               • Smog/precursor to ground-level
                                                                 ozone
                                                               • Formation of toxic chemicals
                                                               • Asthma in children
                                                               • Increases lung susceptibility to
                                                                 toxins and microorganisms
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                                                                  CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                         DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
Diesel pollution is a serious public health problem facing our country. The following are a few
statistics that show the nationwide impacts of diesel emissions.
   .   In 2002, off-road diesel construction equipment emitted roughly 71,000 short tons of PM10.
       About 95 percent of it was PM 2.s.204
   .   PM causes about 15,000 premature deaths a year.  This is comparable to the number of
       deaths from 2nd-hand smoke and traffic accidents in California.205
   .   Diesel emissions result in approximately 6,000 children's asthma-related emergency room
                      206
       visits every year.
       PM causes about 15,000 heart attacks per year.
                              207
       In 2002, off-road diesel construction vehicles emitted about 764,000 tons of NOX into our
       air.
          208
       EPA estimates that every $1 invested in diesel emissions reductions generates up to $13 in
       health-related benefits.
       209
For more information on EPA engine emissions standards, see the document Reducing Air Pollution
from Non-Road Engines published in May 2003 by the EPA Office of Air and Radiation
(www.epa.gov/QMS/cleaner-nonroad/f03011 .pdf).

Key Diesel Pollutants
Particulate matter is the general term for a mixture of
solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air.211
Diesel engines emit particles smaller than 10
micrometers (iim) (PM10) in diameter and nearly all
are under 2.5 LUTI (PM2.s) (Fig. 41). Human exposure
to PM2.sis especially dangerous because these
particles can penetrate deep into the lungs and cause
serious problems including asthma, heart attacks, and
even premature death.
212
                                         Hair Dross sectbn (70 \im)
                                                    Figure 41 Size of diesel PM compared to a cross
                                                    section of a human hair. Image courtesy EPA'
                                                                   210
Nitrogen oxides (NOX) is the term for a group of highly
reactive gases that contain nitrogen and oxygen in
varying amounts.  NOX form when fuel is burned at
high temperatures, such as in a diesel engine.  NOX
contribute to human health and environmental
problems including asthma, smog, and acid rain (Table 7).
CO and SOX pollutants are present in lower amounts in diesel exhaust compared to PM and NOX but
may also pose a risk to human health. CO can cause fatigue in healthy people and chest pain in
people with heart disease.  Exposure to moderate concentrations may cause angina, impaired
vision, and reduced brain function.  Higher concentrations can cause headaches, dizziness,
confusion, nausea, and even death. SOX can cause breathing problems for people with asthma.
SOX can also aggravate heart disease and induce respiratory illness and is a major component of
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ambient PM. In addition, this pollutant is a major component in acid rain formation, which harms
ecosystems and degrades buildings and statues. Hydrocarbons (HC) are a precursor to ground-
level ozone.
Go to the American Lung Association of California's website for more technical information on the
health effects of diesel pollution (www.californialung.org/spotlight/cleanair03  research.html).

8.2  APPROACHES TO REDUCE DIESEL EMISSIONS
There are many technologies and practices that reduce diesel emissions. The following are some
examples. More details on retrofits and  cleaner fuels follow. See Section 10.10 (page 121) to
calculate emissions and emissions reductions.
Retrofit  engines with EPA or California Air Resources Board (CARB) verified diesel emission control
   technologies. Alternatively, try to select contractors or rental companies  that have retrofitted or
   newer engines.
Maintain engines in accordance with engine manual (e.g., change air filters, check engine timing,
   fuel  injectors and pumps) and keep engines well tuned.
Refuel with biodiesel, other alternative fuels,  or with cleaner fuels such as ULSD.  See page 74.
Modify Operations by reducing operating and  idle time. A mid-sized off-road tractor may consume
   as much as one gallon of diesel fuel per hour of idling.213 Reducing just one hour of idling from a
   typical back hoe loader can avoid about 13 grams of PM emissions, 155  grams of NOX
   emissions,  65 grams of CO emissions, and 65 grams of CO2 emissions.214 For more details, go
   towww.epa.gov/otaq/smartwav/idlingtechnologies.htm.
Replace/Repower existing engines with  new cleaner diesel engines, hybrid engines,  or engines
   compatible with alternative fuels.
See EPA's March 2007 publication, Cleaner Diesels: Low Cost Ways to Reduce Emissions from
Construction Equipment (www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/emission 0307.pdf) for more information on
methods of reducing diesel pollution.

Diesel Engine Retrofits
Engines can be retrofitted with many kinds of  emissions control devices. This section describes the
most widely used technologies (Table 8). See Appendix VIII (page 150) to see which verified retrofit
technologies may be applicable for off-road equipment used at your site.
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                                                                   CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                         DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs)
DPFs use ceramic filters to collect
diesel PM from engine exhaust
(Fig. 42, Fig. 43).  Overtime, PM
builds up on the filters and they
must be cleaned or
"regenerated."217  For some DPFs,
high enough engine exhaust
temperatures can  clean the filters
by oxidizing (breaking down) the
PM into less harmful components
of CO2 and water vapor.218 These
DPFs are called passive DPFs.
Active DPFs require more
maintenance  because they must
be removed for regeneration.
DPFs require ULSD since sulfur
reduces the effectiveness of
DPFs.

Diesel Oxidation  Catalysts
(DOCs)

DOCs have been installed in off-
road engines  for over 30 years to
reduce PM emissions. DOCs
usually consist of a stainless steel
container that holds a
honeycomb structure  (Fig. 44,
Fig. 45).  The interior  surfaces
are coated with catalytic metals
such as platinum or palladium.
Chemical oxidation reactions
convert exhaust gas pollutants
into less harmful gases.  While
many older engines are not
compatible with passive DPFs,
DOCs are able to work with
these higher polluting engines.
         Trapped PM
   PM
   CO
   HCs
   PAHs
   S02
   NO
                                                  Plugged
                                                  Cells
        Figure 42 Schematic of DPF. Image courtesy MECA
      Figure 43 Dozer installed with DPF. Image courtesy EPA,
                                                  216
CO
HCs
PAHs
SO2
NO
       Figure 44 Schematic of DOC.  Image courtesy MECA'
                                                219
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                                                   Figure 45 Dozer with DOC retrofit.
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)221
While DOCs and DPFs concentrate on
reducing PM emissions, SCRs are best at
reducing NOX emissions and reduce PM and
HC as well.  NOX are converted to molecular
nitrogen and oxygen in the SCR.  A stream
of ammonia or urea added to the exhaust
gases pass over an SCR catalyst and cause
chemical reactions that reduce NOX
emissions. SCRs greatly reduce odor
caused by diesel engines and diesel smoke.
SCR catalysts may also be combined with
DOCs or DPFs for additional PM emissions
reductions.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
Diesel engines may be equipped with  EGR devices to lower NOX formation. Engine combustion
chambers can reach temperatures greater than 2,SOOT. At these temperatures, nitrogen and
oxygen react to form NOX which contribute to smog. An EGR device recirculates exhaust into the air
intake stream. These gases displace some of the normal intake, lowering the peak temperature of
the combustion process by hundreds of degrees and reduce the amount of oxygen available to form
NOX.222 However, EGR increases PM emissions and are not compatible with many verified DOCs
and DPFs for off-road engines.223
                                                     Image courtesy Schattanek'
                                                                        .220
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                                     Table 8  Diesel Engine Retrofit Options
                      Diesel Particulate Filter
                              (DPF)
                                    Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
                                             (DOC)
                                    Selective Catalytic
                                     Reduction (SCR)
  Technology
  Description
Wall-flow type filter installed in the
exhaust system, much like a
muffler, in which PM emissions are
trapped. Active DPFs require
regular maintenance to regenerate
or burn off accumulated PM, when
the engine is not in use.  Passive
DPFs regenerate during engine
operation if exhaust temperature
requirements are met.
Canister-like device containing a
honeycomb structure that is
installed in the exhaust system.
A catalyst oxidizes CO and HC
as the exhaust flows through,
which breaks them down into
less harmful components.
Device that injects urea, or
some form of ammonia, into
the exhaust stream and reacts
over a catalyst to reduce NOX
emissions.
   Cost per
    retrofit
$7,000—$10,000
               224
$500—$2,000:
                                             ,225
                                                                $12,000 with DOC
                                                                                  $20,000 with DPF:
                                                                                                 •226
  Emissions
  Reductions
PM reduced 60%-90%'
HC reduced 60%-90%2;
CO reduced 60%-90%2
                    227
                                                  PM reduced 40%-50%
                                                                      230
                               SCR without DOC or DPF
                               PM reduced 30%-50%231
                               NOX reduced 75%-90%
                               HC reduced 50%-90%
   Benefits
Can be coupled with an exhaust
  gas recirculation system (page
  71) to further reduce NOX (up to
  40%) and PM (up  to 85%) though
  may not be compatible with
  currently verified DPFs232
Can also be coupled with a SCR to
  reduce NOX and PM
Should not decrease fuel
  economy, shorten engine life,
  nor adversely affect drivability
Less restrictive than DPF
  because DOCs are less
  affected  by exhaust buildup in
  the filter
Works well with older,  higher
  emitting engines
Use of ULSD increases
  efficiency
Commonly used in stationary
  applications.
Often used with a DOC or
  catalyzed DPF to achieve
  greater PM reductions
Considerations
Annual maintenance costs
  approximately $150-$310233
Active DPFs require maintenance
  to keep filters clean.  Passive
  DPFs oxidize PM via catalysts or
  high exhaust temperatures
Off-road engines may require
  active DPFs
Diesel equipment needs to meet
  minimum temperature
  requirements specific to
  individual filter technologies
Slight fuel economy penalty from
  pressure buildup in the exhaust
  system, pressure and
  temperature monitors are
  necessary
Requires ULSD
1995 and older engines may
  overload passive filters but may
  be compatible with active
  regeneration systems
May suffer thermal degradation
  when exposed to temperatures
  above 650°C for prolonged
  periods of time but these are
  unlikely conditions during
  normal operation234
Requires  normal exhaust
  maintenance
Requires periodic refilling of
  an ammonia or urea tank
Requires low-sulfur diesel or
  ULSD
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Retrofitting a Fleet
The following steps provide an approach to retrofitting a fleet.

Stepl
   Inventory the fleet for each engine and determine the following:
            Type of equipment (backhoe, generator, etc.)
            Engine year, make, model, horsepower, displacement
        .   Engine family name (See Appendix VIII page 152)
        .   If a diesel emissions reduction device is already in place.  New engines may have one
            installed.
        .   Turbocharged or naturally aspirated
            Mechanically or electrically controlled
            If it employs exhaust gas recirculation (page 71)

Step 2
   Visit the EPA (www.epa.gov/otaq/retrofit/verif-list.htm) and CARB
   (www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/verdev/vt/cvt.htm) verification websites to determine compatible retrofit
   devices. See Appendix VIII (page 150) for verified retrofit technologies for off-road mobile
   engines.

Step 3
   Work with vendors to assess the compatibility of your diesel equipment with a retrofit. They may
   need additional information such as: location for mounting retrofit device (on the muffler or on the
   side of the vehicle), size of the exhaust system, and if any changes will be made to the exhaust
   system (sometimes the retrofit device does not replace the muffler).

Step 4
   Typically, datalogging is required before installing a DPF to determine if the exhaust
   temperatures are sufficient for passive DPF systems. Passive filters require high exhaust
   temperatures to oxidize the soot that accumulates on the filter. Vendors will datalog temperature
   information for a few days on each engine to see if required temperature minimums are met.
   Datalogging may cost about $200-$300 for two to three days of monitoring. Active DPF systems
   do not require high exhaust temperatures but do require maintenance.

Important Notes on Retrofitting
       Equipment retrofitted with DPFs should always include  a device to monitor the increased
       pressure buildup in the exhaust system.  These devices, called back-pressure monitoring
       systems, may also be installed with DOCs. A warning light in the cab will notify the
       equipment operator if the pressure becomes too high and maintenance is necessary.
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       Retrofits may take place on-site or at the dealership, depending on the contract with the
       dealer.
       It is generally not recommended to remove a retrofit device from an engine for which it was
       designed and use it on another engine. Though this is possible if the engines are similar, it
       may not be in proper verified use, and  may result in damage to the engine or retrofit device.
       DPFs may take from 1.5 hours to a full day to install.  DOCs usually take 1.5-4 hours to
       install. Installations cost from $170 to $500 for each engine for both DOCs and DPFs.235
       SCRs require installation of a tank for ammonia (or other reagent), as well as the necessary
       catalyst and associated piping and controls. These retrofits can be much more involved
       compared to DPFs or DOCs.  A dependable source of ammonia or urea supply is also
       required.
Cleaner and Alternative Fuels
Using cleaner and alternative fuels also helps to minimize diesel pollution. Most retrofit technologies
require the use of low- or ultra-low-sulfur diesel.  Many retrofits are also compatible with low blends
of biodiesel.  The following are commonly used cleaner and alternative fuels (Table 9). For
information on where these fuels are available, go to www.eere.energv.gov/afdc/fuels/stations.html.

Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel (ULSD)

 EPA's Clean Air Highway Diesel rule, finalized in 2001, requires a 97 percent reduction in the sulfur
content of highway diesel fuel,  from 500 ppm in low-sulfur diesel (LSD), to 15 ppm in ULSD (Fig. 46).
While on-road diesel vehicles are already required to fuel with ULSD, off-road equipment ULSD
fueling requirements begin in 2010. Highway model year 2007 and later engines must use ULSD to
function properly.  California's stricter rules already require ULSD in both off- and on-road
engines.237 Use ULSD in both on-road and off-road equipment used in site cleanup and
redevelopment activities to reduce  PM emissions by about 13 percent compared to LSD.238 ULSD
costs about 4-5 cents more per gallon to produce
and distribute.239 Some diesel fuel may be
colored red.  The red dye is added  to non-taxed
off-road diesel to distinguish it from clear, or
"white," taxed on-road  diesel.240
Biodiesel
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel made from
agricultural products such as vegetable oils.
While most biodiesel is made from soybean oil in
the United States, biodiesel made with canola oil
and sunflower oil are also available. Biodiesel
can also be produced from recycled cooking oils
and animal fats, which is less energy-intensive
than biofuel made from virgin crops. Biodiesel is
   Required for use in ah model year
     2007 and later highway diesel
         vehicles and engines.

   Recommended for  use ir, all close
         veh.cles and engines.
Figure 46 ULSD pump label. Image courtesy EPA
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not pure vegetable oil or animal fats.  The oil must be refined through a process called esterification
in which an industrial alcohol and a catalyst convert the oil into biodiesel.241  Use biodiesel that
conforms to ASTM standards to ensure that it performs properly.*
Biodiesel is often blended with conventional diesel in varying amounts. Biodiesel labeled "B20" is
composed of 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent conventional diesel and "B5" biodiesel is 5 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent conventional diesel, etc.  Biodiesel blends with ULSD will yield greater
emission reductions.  Most engines are compatible with biodiesel blends up to B20.  Check with the
manufacturer or rental company for recommendations and/or warranty issues. Biodiesel may
release accumulated deposits from fuel tank walls and pipes, potentially causing clogs in the fuel
filter.  The fuel filter should be changed after the first tank of biodiesel. Some rubber fuel system
components may also  need to be replaced with biodiesel-compatible rubber, especially in older
engines.
Compared to petrodiesel,  biodiesel reduces PM, GHGs, sulfates, and HC.  Go to Section 10.10
(page 121) to calculate your emissions reductions.  Some DPFs may be compatible with biodiesel
and may provide additional reductions compared with using ULSD.242 As a consideration, some
studies have shown  a slight increase in NOX while others  show a slight decrease NOX emissions
from using biodiesel compared with conventional diesel.  Further investigation is planned to yield
more conclusive results.243 Also, using B20 may result in a slight fuel economy loss of around one
to two percent compared to fueling with petrodiesel.244
Go to www.epa.gov/smartwav/growandgo/documents/factsheet-biodiesel.htm for more information
on benefits of biodiesel and how it is produced.
Find biodiesel fueling stations at the National Biodiesel Board website
(www.biodiesel.org/buyingbiodiesel/distributors/).

Natural Gas
Natural gas burns cleaner than gasoline or diesel but must be used in vehicles with specially-
designed engines.  It emits 90 percent less PM and CO compared to diesel. However, natural gas is
mostly CH4, a GHG. Some studies show that there are no GHG reductions from using natural gas—
the CO2 reductions are offset by escaping CH4.245 It is important to ensure that there are no leaks in
the tanks. Natural gas can be used in vehicles as compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied
natural gas (LNG). CNG is natural gas pressurized to 3,600 pounds per square inch and LNG is
natural gas condensed to  its liquid state by cooling it to -260°F.246

A wide range of light-duty vehicles that run on CNG are available.  While natural gas engines are not
available for off-road heavy-duty equipment, there are natural gas options for hauling-trucks. Search
 ASTM International is an international organization that develops standards for a wide variety of
materials and products. Biodiesel should comply with ASTM D6751 standards.
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for natural gas vehicles at the EERE Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center website
(www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/afv/afdc vehicle  search.php).
CNG is a cleaner burning fuel which reduces maintenance costs compared with conventional diesel
engines.247 Note that CNG cylinders must be inspected every 36 months or 36,000 miles. Go to the
Clean Vehicle Education Foundation website for more information on natural gas vehicles
(www.cleanvehicle.org/technologv/cylinder.shtml).
Go to www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/natural gas.html for more information on natural gas.

Emulsified Diesel Fuel
Emulsified diesel is a mixture of diesel fuel, water, and other additives which lowers combustion
temperatures to reduce PM and NOX emissions.248 The water content in emulsified fuels  is between
5 and 30 percent.  This fuel can be used in any diesel engine though some power and fuel economy
losses may be expected. While emulsified diesel stays well mixed for a fairly long time, the water
may settle out after a few months of dormancy.249
Find verified emulsified fuels at the following websites:
n   EPA Verified Diesel Retrofit Technology www.epa.gov/otaq/retrofit/verif-list.htm
n   CARB Verified Diesel Retrofit Technology www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/verdev/vt/cvt.htm
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Table 9 Cleaner and Alternative Fuels

Fuel
Description








Emissions
Reductions
(compared to
low-sulfur
diesel)






Cost



Considerations
























Ultra-Low-Sulfur
Diesel
Ultra-low-sulfur
diesel (ULSD) has
less than 15 ppm
sulfur content. Low-
sulfur diesel (LSD)
contains less than
500 ppm sulfur
content.




PM 13%250
NOX 3%251

CO 6%252

HC 13%253


$0.04 -$0.05 more
per gallon than
low-sulfur
diesel269
Most verified retrofit
technologies
require the use of
LSD or ULSD. In
June 2006,
CARB mandated
the use of ULSD
in both on- and
off-road vehicles
in California.
Nationwide
mandates for
ULSD use in on-
road engines
came into effect
in 2006 and
mandates for
LSD use in off-
road vehicles
came into effect
in 2007.




Biodiesel
Renewable fuel made
from animal or
vegetable fats. Can be
blended with
conventional diesel.
Usually found in 2%
(B2), 20% (B20), and
1 00% (B1 00) blends.


B20

PM 10%254
NOX* -2%255

CO 10%256

HC21%257

Sulfates 20%258
CO215%259
As of July '07, B20 was
the same price as
conventional diesel270

Biodiesel blends lower
than B20 experience
insignificant difference
in torque, horsepower,
and fuel economy
compared to
conventional diesel.
Using higher biodiesel
blends may require
changing fuel filters
and replacement of
rubber compound fuel
system components
with compatible
rubber.

Use biodiesel that
meets the ASTM
D6751 standard.
Monitor performance in
cold weather
operation and ensure
proper additives are
used to prevent
gelling.
Natural Gas
Gas consisting mainly
of methane. In the
forms of compressed
natural gas and
liquefied natural gas.







PM 90%260
NOX 50%261

CO 90%262

HC 50 to 75%263

CO2 25%264

-15 to 40% less than
gasoline per
gallon271

Needs more frequent
fueling.
Natural gas vehicles
cost about $3,500
to $6,000 more than
gasoline
273
equivalents.


















Emulsified Fuel
Fuel that is mixed
with water and
additives to lower
combustion
temperatures which
reduces NOxand PM.
Refer to the CARB
verified list for
qualified emulsified
fuels.


PM 16to58%265
NOX 9 to 20%266

CO13%267

HC -30 to -99%268


~$0.20 more per
gallon than
conventional
diesel272
May affect
horsepower in
some applications.
Can be used in any
diesel engine.




















*NREL and EPA are conducting further evaluations to determine potential NOX increase.
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8.3   CLEAN DIESEL SAMPLE LANGUAGE AND RELEVANT LAWS AND
      REGULATIONS274

This section includes information on sample language used in contracts that may be useful when
writing task orders.  Some current state laws and regulations that address diesel emissions are also
listed.

Sample Cleaner Diesel Language
Many areas of the country are placing clean diesel language in contracts, codes, laws, rules and
other measures to reduce emissions from construction equipment and other diesel sources. Go to
www.epa.gov/cleandiesel/construction/contract-lang.htm for examples of language that address air
quality issues, particularly diesel emissions, from construction equipment and other diesel sources.

Laws and Regulations
The following are some state incentives and laws concerning alternative fuels and clean diesel
practices.  As of the writing of this document, no relevant laws were found for Hawaii, Nevada, or the
Pacific Islands. Go to www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/laws/incen laws.html for a more comprehensive
list of state and local incentives and rules.

Arizona
n  Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption:  The Arizona Use-Tax does
   not apply to the following: natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas used in motor vehicles; AFVs if
   the AFV was manufactured as a diesel fuel vehicle and converted to operate on an alternative
   fuel; and equipment that is installed in a conventional diesel fuel motor vehicle to convert the
   vehicle to operate on an alternative fuel.
n  Alternative Fuel Vehicle License Tax: The initial annual vehicle license tax on an AFV is lower
   than the license tax on conventional  vehicles. The vehicle license tax on an AFV is $4 for every
   $100 in assessed  value.  The assessed value of the AFV is determined as follows: during the
   first year after initial registration, the value of the AFV is one percent of the manufacturer's base
   retail price (as compared to 60 percent for conventional vehicles); during each succeeding year,
   the value of the AFV is reduced by 15 percent. The minimum amount of the  license tax is $5 per
   year for each  motor vehicle subject to the tax.
n  Alternative Fuel Vehicle Special License Plate: AFVs must display an AFV license plate. State
   or agency directors who conduct activities of a confidential nature and have a vehicle powered
   by an alternative fuel are exempt from the requirement of displaying an AFV special license
   plate.  The Arizona Department of Transportation has the authority to issue regular plates to
   AFVs that are used by law enforcement and the federal government.
n  Clean  Fuel Diesel for Heavy-Duty  Eguipment: Any state agency that contracts for the use of on-
   or off-road heavy-duty diesel equipment in Maricopa County, Pima County, and Pinal County
   must construct its  Requests for Proposals in a manner that gives incentives to bidders that use:
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    equipment retrofitted with diesel retrofit kits; newer clean diesel technologies and fuels; or
    biodiesel or other cleaner petroleum diesel alternatives.
n   Idle Reduction Requirement: Heavy-duty diesel vehicles operated in Maricopa County with a
    gross vehicle weight rating of more than 14,000 pounds must limit idling time to no more than 5
    minutes. Exemptions apply for emergency vehicles, certain traffic or weather conditions, certain
    driver accommodations, and idling necessary for refrigeration equipment.

California
n   Idle Reduction Requirement-Trucks: The new engine requirements call for 2008 and newer
    model year heavy duty diesel engines to be equipped with a non-programmable engine
    shutdown system that automatically shuts down the engine after 5 minutes of idling or optionally
    meets a 30 gram per hour NOX idling emission standard. The in-use truck rules require
    operators of sleeper berth-equipped trucks to manually shut down their engine  when idling more
    than 5 minutes at any location within California  beginning in 2008. The penalty for violating this
    measure is $100 per violation.
n   In-Use Off-Road Diesel Vehicle Regulation: This regulation establishes fleet average emission
    rates for PM and NOX that decline over time.  Each year, the regulation requires each fleet to
    meet the fleet average emission rate targets for PM or apply the highest level verified diesel
    emission control system to 20 percent of its total horsepower. In addition, large and medium
    fleets are required each year to meet the fleet average emission rate targets for NOX or to "turn
    over" a  certain percent of their horsepower.  "Turn over" means repowering with a cleaner
    engine,  retiring a vehicle,  replacing a vehicle with a new or used piece, or designating a dirty
    vehicle  as a  low-use vehicle. If retrofits that reduce NOX emissions become available, they may
    be used in lieu of turnover as long as they achieve the same emission benefits.
        .   Large fleet (>5,000 hp) first average compliance date: 2010
            Medium fleet (2,501 hp - 5,000 hp) first average compliance date: 2013
        .   Small fleet (<2,500 hp) first average compliance date: 2015
    For more information on this regulation, go to www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/ordiesel/ordiesel.htm.

8.4   SUCCESS STORIES

AMCO Super-fund Site, Oakland, CA, Region 9
The AMCO Superfund site was owned and operated by AMCO Chemical as a chemical distribution
facility from the 1960s to 1989.  Removal of lead soil in residential neighborhoods occurred in the
summer of 2007. The mini-excavator and skid-steer used on the site were fueled with a B10
biodiesel blend.  The biodiesel was picked up from  a biodiesel distributor about 6 miles away from
the site. The rental company allowed a  maximum of 10 percent biodiesel blend fuel to be used in
their equipment, although there are usually no technological barriers to using  a higher blend.  In
total, this removal used  150 gallons of B10.  No issues were encountered with the use of B10 in the
equipment used at the AMCO removal.  The use of biodiesel avoided 45 grams of  PM emissions.
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   Site Contact:
   Harry L. Allen
   OSC, EPA Region 9
   Phone: (415)972-3063
   E-mail: alien.harryl@epa.gov

Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base, Superfund Site, about 40 miles north of San Diego, CA,
Region 9

Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base has nine areas of soil and groundwater contamination due to
past disposal practices.  From late 2007 to early 2008, 120,000 ft3 of soil were excavated and
removed. Camp Pendleton made efforts to use newer engines, biodiesel, and to retrofit engines
with DPFs for the excavation.  Two pieces  of equipment had the latest (Tier 3f) technology and were
retrofitted with DPFs.  Four pieces of equipment had the latest (Tier 3) technology and were fueled
with B20. Two pieces of equipment were fueled with B5. The retrofits and DPFs reduced PM
emissions by 27 percent.  Compared to Tier 1 engines, Tier 3 engines emit 63 percent less PM.

   Site Contact:
   Martin Hausladen
   RPM, EPA Region 9
   Phone: (415)972-3007
   E-mail: hausladen.martin@epa.gov
T Tiers are levels of federal emissions standards that vary depending on vehicle type, size, and year of
manufacture. Higher tiers are stricter than lower tiers. For more information, go to
www.dieselnet.com/standards/.
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CHAPTER 9:    FUNDING  RESOURCES AND OPPORTUNITIES
This chapter includes resources that provide
information on funding opportunities for energy
efficiency, renewable energy technologies, and
diesel emissions reductions efforts. Details are
provided for some national, regional, and state-wide
incentives that are applicable in Region 9 (local
incentives are not included). See Table  10 for a
chart that summarizes these opportunities.  This
chart provides a quick overview on the type of
funding and technology, sector, and geographic
applicability.  Details such as funding amounts,
requirements, and contact information on the funding
opportunities listed are included following the chart.
        Chapter 9 Table of Contents
9.1  Resources for Finding Funding
    Opportunities and Funding Opportunities
    Chart
9.2  National Funding
9.3  Arizona Funding
9.4  California Funding
9.5  Hawaii Funding
9.6  Nevada Funding
9.1   RESOURCES FOR FINDING FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES AND FUNDING
      OPPORTUNITIES CHART
Below is a list of resources for finding funding opportunities for energy efficiency, renewable energy,
and diesel emissions reduction efforts.  Check these resources for national, regional, state, county,
and local funding opportunities. See Table 10 fora  chart summarizing some national, regional, and
state-wide incentives found through these resources.
   .   Clean Diesel Technology Forum: Funding resources for diesel emissions reductions efforts.
       www.dieselforum.org/retrofit-tool-kit-homepage/retrofit-grants/
   .   Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency by North Carolina State
       University: Includes national, regional, state and local funding opportunities.
       www.dsireusa.org
   .   DOE E-Center Business and Financial Opportunities with Energy: Energy efficiency and
       renewable energy funding resources, http://e-center.doe.gov/
   .   EERE Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP): Incentives database for energy
       efficiency improvements.
       www1.eere.energv.gov/femp/program/utilitv/utilityman energymanage.html
   .   Emission Reduction Incentives for Off-Road Diesel Equipment Used in the Port and
       Construction Sectors:  Report of diesel emissions reduction funding opportunities prepared
       for EPA by ICF Consulting published in May 2005.
       www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/emission 20050519.pdf
   .   Federal grants: Search for energy efficiency, renewable energy, and cleaner diesel federal
       grants, http://grants.gov
Chapter 9: Funding Resources and Opportunities
                                     81
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       Funding On-Farm Biogas Recovery Systems: A Guide to Federal and State Resources:
       Funding opportunities for anaerobic digesters published by the AgStar Program.
       www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/ag fund doc.pdf
       Funding Opportunities: A Directory of Enemy Efficiency, Renewable Enemy and
       Environmental Assistance Programs: Document by the EPA State and Local Capacity
       Building Branch published September 2006.
       www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/pollprev/PDF/FundingQpportunities.pdf
       LMQP Funding Guide: Funding opportunities for landfill gas-to-energy projects.
       www.epa.gov/lmop/res/guide/index.htm
       NREL Solicitations and Reguest for Proposals: Renewable energy funding opportunities.
       www.nrel.gov/business opportunities/solicitations rfps.html
       Tax Incentives Assistance Project: Service provided by a coalition of public interest nonprofit
       groups, government agencies, and other organizations in the energy efficiency field for
       information on energy efficiency and renewable energy tax incentives.
       www.energytaxincentives.org/
       West Coast Diesel Collaborative: List of funding opportunities for diesel emissions
       reductions efforts, www.westcoastcollaborative.org/grants and
       http://westcoastcollaborative.org/fed-funding.htm
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Table 1 0 Summary of National, Regional, and State Funding Opportunities for Cleaner Energy and Diesel



Funding Program

Air Pollution Control Program
Support EPA p. 88
Biodiesel Tax Credit IRS p. 88

Clean Renewable Energy Bonds
(CREBs) IRS p. 88
Congestion Mitigation Air Quality
(CMAQ) Improvement Program
U. S. Department of
Transportation (DOT) p QQ

Conservation Innovation Grants
(CIG) USDA Natural Resources
Conservation Service p. 89




Consolidated Research/Training
Grants EPA Office of Research
and Development p 39
Environmental Quality Incentives
Program (EQIP) USDA Natural
Resources Conservation Service
p. 90
Farm Pilot Project Coordination
(FPPC), Inc. p. 91



Applicability


National
National


National



National



National






National



National

National



Type of Funding


Grant
Tax Credit

"Interest-Free"
Loan



Various



Grant






Grant



Cost-Share

Grant



Applicable Sector
State, tribal, municipal,
intermunicipal, and interstate
agencies
Biodiesel producers
Governmental bodies and
mutual or cooperative electric
companies

State DOTs, metropolitan
planning organizations, and
transit agencies
Non-federal governmental and
non-governmental
organizations, tribes, and
individuals
State, territory and possession
of the U.S., District of
Columbia, universities and
colleges, hospitals,
laboratories, local government,
tribes, and nonprofit
institutions



Agricultural producers

Agricultural producers
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Funding Program
Federal Tax Credit (Business
Energy Tax Credit) IRS p. 91
Modified Accelerated Cost-
Recovery System (MACRS) IRS
p. 92
National Clean Diesel Campaign
(NCDC) EPA p. 92



Pollution Prevention (P2) Grants
Program EPA Office of Pollution
Prevention and Toxics p. 93
Public Interest Energy Research
(PIER) Program
California Energy Commission p.
93
Renewable Electricity Production
Tax Credit (REPC) IRS p. 94
Renewable Energy Systems and
Energy Efficiency Improvements
Program U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA) p. 95


Applicability

National


National

National





National



National

National



National


Type of Funding

Tax Credit

Depreciation
Deduction

Various





Grant



Various

Tax Credit



Various


Applicable Sector

Commercial and residential


Commercial and industrial

Various
States, the District of
Columbia, any territory or
possession of the U.S., any
agency or instrumentality of a
state including state colleges,
universities, and Indian tribes



Commercial

Various


Agricultural producers or rural
small businesses
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Funding Program



Renewable Energy Production
Incentive (REPI) IRS p. 96






Renewable Energy Grants and
Loans Programs USDA Rural
Development p. 97
Sustainable Agriculture
Research and Education (SARE)
Grants USDA Cooperative State
Research, Education, and
Extension Service p. 97


West Coast Collaborative EPA p.
98
Commercial/Industrial Solar &
Wind Tax Credit (Corporate) AZ
Dept. of Commerce p. 98
California Emerging Renewables
Program (ERP) California
Energy Commission p. 99


Applicability




National








National




National
CA, OR, WA,
AL, AZ, ID, NV,
HI, Canada,
Mexico


AZ


CA


Type of Funding




Payment Incentive








Various




Grant



Grants


Tax Credit


Rebate


Applicable Sector
Not-for-profit electrical
cooperatives, public utilities,
state governments,
commonwealths, U.S.
territories, tribal governments
Corporations, states,
territories, and subdivisions
and agencies thereof,
municipalities, people's utility
districts, and cooperative, non-
profit, limited-dividend or
mutual associations that
provide retail or power supply
service needs in rural areas


Researchers, agricultural
educators, farmers and
ranchers, and students

Public institutions, non-profit
organizations, universities, and
tribes


Businesses

Customers of PG&E, SCE,
SDG&E, or BVE
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Chapter 9: Funding Resources and Opportunities
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Funding Program
California Solar Initiative (CSI)
California Public Utilities
Commission p. 100
Carl Moyer Memorial Air Quality
Standards Attainment Program
CARBp. 103
Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Generation
Emerging Technologies,
Agriculture and Food Industries
Loan Program California Energy
Commission p. 103
Self Generation Incentive
Program (SGIP) California Public
Utilities Commission p. 104
Hawaii Renewable Energy Tax
Credits OR Capital Goods
Excise Tax State of Hawaii,
Department of Business,
Economic Development and
Tourism p. 106
Renewable Energy Producers
Property Tax Abatement Nevada
Commission on Economic
Development p. 107
Renewable Energy Systems
Property Tax Exemption Nevada
Department of Taxation p. 1 07


Applicability


CA


CA





CA


CA





HI



NV


NV


Type of Funding


Payment Incentive


Grant





Loan


Rebate





Tax Credit



Tax Abatement


Tax Exemption


Applicable Sector

Governmental bodies, non-
profits, residential, business


Any public or private entity




Agricultural and food
processing industries

Customer of PG&E, SCE,
SDG&E, orSCGC





Commercial and residential


New or expanded commercial
businesses


Commercial and industrial
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Chapter 9: Funding Resources and Opportunities
86
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Funding Program

Solar Generations PV Rebate
Program Sierra Pacific & Nevada
Power Companies p. 108



Applicability



NV



Type of Funding



Rebate



Applicable Sector
Commercial, residential,
schools, local government,
state government, other public
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Chapter 9: Funding Resources and Opportunities
87
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9.2   NATIONAL FUNDING

n  Air Pollution Control Program Support, EPA
   This program assists state, tribal, municipal, intermunicipal, and interstate agencies in
   implementation of national primary and secondary air quality standards.  It is also a resource that
   can assist in planning, developing, establishing, improving, and maintaining adequate programs
   for prevention and air pollution control.
   Go to the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance listing for details:
   http://12.46.245.173/pls/portal30/CATALQG.PRQGRAM TEXT RPT.SHQW?p  arg names=pro
   q  nbr&p arq values=66.001.
   William Houck
   National Air Grant Coordinator
   Phone: (202)564-1234
   E-mail: houck.william@epa.qov

n  Biodiesel Tax Credit, IRS
   In 2005, Congress granted federal tax credits for biodiesel producers.  The tax credit is 500 per
   gallon of biodiesel (recycled cooking oil) and $1 per gallon for "agri-biodiesel" (virgin vegetable
   oil). Biodiesel producers claim the credit by filling out IRS Form 8864 (www.irs.gov/pub/irs-
   Pdf/f8864.pdf).
   Go to www.biodiesel.org/news/taxincentive/ for more information.

n  Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs), IRS
   CREBs offer a source of funding for renewable energy projects by providing essentially an
   interest free loan for a renewable energy project. The IRS allocates bonds to qualified lending
   authorities. Governmental bodies and mutual or cooperative electric companies are eligible to
   apply for the bonds as a funding source for renewable energy projects. These bonds are
   designed to be "interest free" because the holder is given a tax credit for the interest. The Tax
   Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 extended issuance of CREBs until  December 31, 2008.
   Check the IRS website for future extensions.
   For more details, go to www.irs.gov/irb/2007-14 IRB/ar17.html and
   www.elpc.org/energy/farm/crebs.php.
   For more information on CREBs, call the IRS Office of Associate Chief Counsel (Tax Exempt &
   Government Entities) at (202) 622-3980.

n  Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program,  U.S. Department of
   Transportation (DOT)
   The CMAQ Improvement Program provides financial assistance to areas striving to attain federal
   air quality standards. State DOTs, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), and transit
   agencies can invest more than $1.6 billion annually until 2009  in projects that reduce criteria air
Chapter 9:  Funding Resources and Opportunities                                           88
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   pollutants regulated from transportation-related sources.  Clean diesel retrofit projects are
   eligible for CMAQ consideration.
   CMAQ funds are available only to National Ambient Air Quality Standards non-attainment and
   maintenance areas .
   While $1.6 billion are available on a nationwide basis, areas should consult the CMAQ program
   and their state DOT and MPOs to determine how much CMAQ funding is available (funds are
   allocated to areas according to  population and severity of non-attainment designation).
   Under the 2005 re-authorization of the CMAQ program, diesel engine retrofits were given high
   priority for CMAQ funding.
   For more information, go to www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/cmaqpgs/.
   Michael Koontz
   CMAQ Coordinator
   Federal Highway Administration
   Phone: (202) 366-2076
   E-mail: michael.koontz@fhwa.dot.gov

   Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG), USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
   The CIG program is a voluntary program intended to stimulate the development and adoption of
   innovative conservation approaches and technologies while leveraging federal investment in
   environmental enhancement and protection, in conjunction with agricultural production.
   Biomass-to-energy projects may qualify.
            Eligible applicants include: non-federal governmental  or non-governmental
            organizations, Tribes,  or individuals.
            CIG usually has two competitions—National and State.
        .   National categories for potential projects change year to year.  FY 2007 offered a
            National Technology Category that included methane recovery as a subtopic.
   For details, go to www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/cig/.
   For Region 9, only California (www.ca.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/cig/) and Hawaii
   (www.hi.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/cig/index.html) are  participating.
   Tessa Chadwick
   US Department of Agriculture
   Phone: (202) 720-2335
   E-mail: tessa.chadwick@wdc.usda.gov

   Consolidated Research/Training Grant, EPA QRD
   The Consolidated Research/Training Grant supports research and development to determine the
   environmental effects of air quality, drinking water, water quality, hazardous waste, toxic
   substances, and pesticides. It is available for each state, territory and possession, and tribal
   nation of the U.S., including the District of Columbia, for public and private state universities and
   colleges, hospitals, laboratories, state and local government departments, other public or private
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   nonprofit institutions, and in some cases, individuals who have demonstrated unusually high
   scientific ability.
   Go to the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance listing for details:
   http://12.46.245.173/pls/portal30/CATALQG.PROGRAM TEXT  RPT.SHQW?p  arg  names=pro
   g  nbr&p arg values=66.511.
   Mark Thomas
   EPAHQ
   Phone: (202) 564-4763
   E-mail: thomas.mark@epa.gov

   Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), USDA Natural Resources Conservation
   Service
   EQIP is a voluntary program that provides assistance to farmers and ranchers who face threats
   to soil, water, air, and related natural resources on their land. EQIP was reauthorized in the
   Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Farm Bill).  Persons who are engaged in
   livestock or agricultural production on eligible land may participate in the EQIP program.
   EQIP may cost-share up to 75 percent of the costs of certain conservation practices. Incentive
   payments may be provided for up to three years to encourage producers to carry out
   management practices they may not otherwise use without the incentive.  However, limited
   resource producers and beginning farmers and ranchers may be eligible for cost-shares up  to 90
   percent. Farmers and ranchers may elect to use a certified third-party provider for technical
   assistance.  An individual or entity may not receive, directly or indirectly, cost-share or incentive
   payments that, in the aggregate, exceed $450,000 for all EQIP contracts entered during the term
   of the Farm  Bill.
   Some EQIP Requirements:
        .   Only land that has been irrigated for two of the last 5 years prior to application for
            assistance will be eligible for cost-share or incentive payments for irrigation related
            structural and land management practices.
            Funding  may be used towards improving land management practices, such as nutrient
            management, manure management, integrated pest management, irrigation water
            management, wildlife habitat enhancement, and developing comprehensive nutrient
            management plans.
            Producers who are engaged  in crop or livestock production on eligible land are eligible
            for the program.  Eligible land includes cropland, rangeland, pasture, private non-
            industrial forestland, and other farm or ranch lands, as  determined by the Secretary of
            Agriculture.
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    For more information, go to www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/eqip/.
   Arizona
   www.az.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/egip
   Sherman Reed
   Farm Bill Specialist
   Phone: (602) 280-8829
   E-mail: sherman.reed@az.usda.gov

   California
   www.ca.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/egip/
   Alan Forkey
   Program Manager
   Phone: (530) 792-5653
   E-mail: alan.forkey@ca.usda.gov

   Farm Pilot Project Coordination, Inc. (FPPC)
Nevada
www.nv.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/egip200
6.html
Peggy  Hughes
Assistant State Conservationist, Programs
(Phone: (775) 857-8500, ext 103
E-mail: peggy.hughes@nv.usda.gov

Rodney Dahl
Resource Conservationist, Programs
Phone: (775) 857-8500, ext. 146
E-mail: Rod.Dahl@nv.usda.gov
    FPPC, a non-profit organization, was designated by Congress (Public Law 107-76) to assist in
    implementing innovative treatment technologies to address the growing waste issues associated
    with animal feeding operations (AFO). FPPC's objective is to foster the conservation,
    development and wise use of land, water, and related resources, while providing AFOs with
    opportunities for profitable operation. Funding for approved pilot projects comes from monies
    appropriated by Congress and overseen by the Natural Resource Conservation Service, a
    division of the USDA.  Requests for proposals are issued about twice a year. FPPC grants
    approximately $2-$3 million per RFP round. The main goal of this program is to encourage pilot
    projects that reduce nutrient content in waste streams generated from animal feeding operations.

    To apply and for more information, go to www.fppcinc.org.

    Farm Pilot Project Coordination, Inc.
    Phone: (800)829-8212
    E-mail: info@fppcinc.org
    Fax: (813)222-3298

    Federal Investment Tax Credit (Business Energy Tax Credit), IRS

    The Federal Investment Tax Credit is a corporate tax credit for solar PV, solar water heat, solar
    space heat,  solar thermal electric, solar thermal process heat, geothermal electric, fuel cells,
    solar hybrid  lighting, direct use geothermal, and microturbines.

         .   Solar:  Businesses and residents are eligible for a tax credit of 30 percent of the capital
            costs of a solar PV system. For solar, there is no  cap for commercial installations.
            Credit drops to 10 percent of the capital cost if the system is installed  after January 1,
            2009.

         .   Microturbine:  Businesses  and residents are eligible for a tax credit of 10 percent of the
            capital costs for microturbines. The maximum microturbine credit is $200 per kW of
            rated capacity. For microturbines, the credit expires January 1, 2009.
Chapter 9:  Funding Resources and Opportunities
                                    91
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            Fuel cell:  Businesses and residents are eligible for a tax credit of 30 percent of the
            capital costs of a fuel cell system.  The credit for fuel cells is capped at $500 per 0.5 kW
            of capacity. For fuel cells, the credit expires January 1, 2009.
        .   To apply,  fill out IRS Form 3468 (www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/f3468.pdf).
    For more information, go to
    http://dsireusa.org/library/includes/incentive2.cfm7lncentive Code=US02F&State=federal&curre
    ntpageid=1&ee=0&re=1 and  http://www.seia.org/getpdf.php?iid=21.
    Information Specialist - IRS
    1111 Constitution Avenue, N.W.
    Washington, DC 20224
    Phone: (800)829-1040
    www.irs.gov

    Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS), IRS
    Commercial and industrial sectors are eligible for recovering investments in certain property
    through depreciation deductions.
    Microturbine, fuel cell, solar PV, solar water heat, solar space heat, solar thermal electric, solar
    thermal process  heat, solar hybrid lighting, wind, geothermal electric and direct use geothermal
    properties are eligible.
            Solar power, wind power, fuel cell and microturbine property are eligible for five year
            accelerated depreciation.
        .   Fill out  IRS Form 4562 (www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/f4562.pdf).
    For information on  how to estimate accelerated depreciation, go to
    www.sdenergv.org/uploads/PV-Federal%20Tax%20Credits%20Summary%206-01-
    04%20FINAL.pdf.
    For more information, go to
    www.dsireusa.org/library/includes/incentive2.cfm7lncentive Code=US06F&State=Federal&curre
    ntpageid=1.
    Information Specialist - IRS
    1111 Constitution Avenue, N.W.
    Washington, DC 20224
    Phone: (800)829-1040
    www.irs.gov

    National Clean Diesel Campaign (NCDC), EPA
    The NCDC is an EPA program that works to reduce pollution resulting from existing diesel
    vehicles  and equipment.  Fleet owners are encouraged to install pollution-reducing devices on
    the vehicles and to use cleaner-burning diesel fuel.
    For a listing of potential funding resources, go to www.epa.gov/cleandiesel/grantfund.htm.
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    Pollution Prevention (P2) Grants Program, EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
    The goal of the P2 Grants Program is to assist businesses and industries to better identify
    environmental strategies and solutions for reducing or eliminating waste at the source. Funds
    awarded through this grant program support businesses and industries to reduce the release of
    potentially harmful pollutants across all environmental media: air, water, and land. EPA is
    interested in supporting  projects that reflect comprehensive and coordinated pollution prevention
    planning and implementation efforts within the state or tribe.
    Eligible applicants include the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the
    Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory of or possession of the U.S., any agency or
    instrumentality of a state including state colleges, universities, and Indian Tribes that meet the
    requirement for treatment in a manner similar to a state in 40 CFR 35.663 (Code of Federal
    Regulations) and intertribal consortia that meet the requirements in 40 CFR 35.504.  Local
    governments, private universities,  private nonprofit organizations, private businesses, and
    individuals are not eligible for funding.
        .   Grant recipients must provide at least a 50 percent match of the total allowable project
            cost by the time of award to be considered eligible to receive funding.
            For purposes of this grant announcement, pollution prevention/source reduction is
            defined as any practice which:
             . Reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering
                any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive
                emissions) prior to recycling, treatment or disposal;
             . Reduces the hazards to public health and the environment associated with the
                release of such substances, pollutants, or contaminants; and
             . Reduces or eliminates the creation of pollutants through increased efficiency in the
                use of raw materials, energy, water, or other resources; or protection of natural
                resources by conservation.
            $4.5 million in total program funding were available for FY 2007.
            P2 Grants is an annual program. Go to the  link below to check for RFPs.
    For more information,  go to www.epa.qov/oppt/p2home/pubs/qrants/ppis/ppis.htm.
    EPA, Region 9
    Eileen Sheehan
    Pollution Prevention Coordinator
    Waste Division
    75 Hawthorne St.
    San Francisco, CA 94105
    Phone: (415)972-3287
    E-mail: sheehan.eileen@epa.gov

    Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, California Energy Commission (CEC)
    The PIER Program supports energy research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects
    that will help improve the quality of life in California by bringing environmentally safe, affordable
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   and reliable energy services and products to the marketplace.  Applicants need not be a
   California business.
   The PIER Program annually awards up to $62 million to conduct public interest energy research
   by partnering with RD&D organizations including individuals, businesses, utilities, and public or
   private research institutions.
   PIER funding efforts are focused on the following RD&D program areas:
            Renewable Energy Technologies
            Energy Innovations Small Grant Program
        .   Energy-Related Environmental Research
            Energy Systems Integration
            Buildings End-Use Energy Efficiency
        .   Climate Change Program
        .   Environmentally-Preferred Advanced Generation
            Industrial/Agricultural/Water End-Use Energy Efficiency
        .   Natural Gas Research
        .   Transportation Research
   For more information, go to www.energy.ca.gov/pier.
   For current solicitations, go to www.energy.ca.gov/contracts/pier.html.
   Martha Krebs
   Deputy Director
   PIER Program
   Phone: (916)654-4878
   E-mail: mkrebs@energy.state.ca.us
   Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit (REPC), IRS
   This incentive applies to biomass, landfill gas, wind power, hydroelectric, geothermal electric,
   municipal solid waste, refined coal, and Indian coal.  First enacted under the Energy Policy Act of
   1992, it has subsequently been renewed, most recently by the Tax Relief and Health Care act of
   2006 which extends it to December 31, 2008. Commercial and industrial entities may apply for
   this tax credit.
        .   Indexed for inflation, wind power currently receives 1.90 per kWh produced.
            Indexed for inflation, landfill gas currently receives 1.00 per kWh produced for the first
            10 years of operation.
            Indexed for inflation, "open-loop biomass" currently receives 1.00 per kWh produced for
            the first 10 years of operation.
            . "Open-loop  biomass" is residual biomass that otherwise may be considered "waste"
                materials, e.g., livestock manure, forestry residues.
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            Indexed for inflation, "closed-loop biomass" currently receives 1.90 per kWh produced
            for the first 10 years of operation.
            . "Closed-loop biomass" is biomass that was produced specifically for fuel generation.
            To apply for the credit, a business must complete Form 8835, "Renewable Electricity
            Production Credit" (www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/f8835.pdf), and Form 3800, "General
            Business Credit" (www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/f3800.pdf).
    For more information, go to
    http://dsireusa.org/library/includes/incentive2.cfm7lncentive Code=US13F&State=federal&curre
    ntpageid=1&ee=1&re=1.
    Information Specialist - IRS
    1111 Constitution Avenue, N.W.
    Washington, DC 20224
    Phone: (800)829-1040
    www.irs.gov

    Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program, USDA
    The 2002 Farm Bill established the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency
    Improvements Program under Title IX, Section 9006.  This section directs the Secretary of
    Agriculture to make loans, loan  guarantees, and grants to farmers, ranchers and rural small
    businesses to purchase renewable energy systems and make energy efficiency improvements.
    Congress provided nearly $23 million to fund the program in each fiscal year from 2003-2006.
    For FY 2007 there were approximately $11.4 million in funding for competitive grants and $176.5
    million in authority for guaranteed loans. Funds are expected to be available in the future.
    Applicants may qualify for a grant,  a guaranteed loan, or a combination of both.
        .   Eligible renewable energy projects include systems that generate energy from wind,
            solar, biomass, orgeothermal source or that produce hydrogen derived from biomass
            or water using a renewable energy source.
            Energy efficiency projects typically involve installing or upgrading equipment that
            results in a significant  reduction in energy use from current operations.
            Eligible applicants are agricultural producers and rural small businesses demonstrating
            financial need.
        .   The renewable energy or energy efficiency project must be located in a rural area.
            The project must be for a pre-commercial or commercially available and replicable
            technology.
            Grant request must not exceed 25 percent of the eligible project costs. Renewable
            energy grants can range from $2,500 to $500,000. Energy efficiency grants can range
            from $1,500 to $250,000.
        .   Loan guarantees can be for up to 50 percent of total eligible project costs. Guarantees
            can range from $5,000 to $10,000,000 per project.
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            Eligible project costs include: Post-application purchase and installation of equipment,
            except agricultural tillage equipment and vehicles; Post-application construction or
            project improvements, except residential; Energy audits or assessments; Permit fees;
            Professional service fees, except for application  preparation; Feasibility studies;
            Business plans; Retrofitting; and Construction of a new facility only when the facility is
            used for the same purpose, is approximately the same size, and based on the energy
            audit will provide more energy savings than improving an existing facility. Only costs
            identified in the energy audit for energy efficiency projects are allowed.

    For more information go to www.rurdev.usda.gov/rbs/farmbill/.

    To apply, contact your State Office Rural Energy Coordinators:
   Arizona
   Alan Watt
   USDA RD
   230 N. 1st. Avenue, Suite 206
   Phoenix, AZ 85003-1706
   Phone: (602) 280-8769
   E-mail: alan.watt@az.usda.gov

   California
   Charles M. Clendenin
   USDA RD
   430 G Street, #4169
   Davis, CA 95616-4169
   Phone: (530) 792-5825
   E-mail: chuck.clendenin@ca.usda.gov
Hawaii
Tim O'Connell
USDA RD
Federal  Building, Room 311
154 Waianuenue Avenue
Hilo, HI 96720
Phone: (808)933-8313
E-mail: tim.oconnell@hi.usda.gov

Nevada
Dan Johnson
USDA RD
555 West Silver Street, Suite 101
Elko, NV 89801
Phone: (775) 738-8468, ext. 112
E-mail: dan.iohnson@nv.usda.gov
    Renewable Energy Production Incentive (REPI), IRS

    The REPI provides payments for electricity produced and sold by new qualifying renewable
    energy generation facilities. This incentive applies to solar PV, wind, geothermal, biomass,
    landfill gas, livestock methane, ocean technologies, and fuel cells using renewable fuels. The
    REPI program was created by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide financial incentives for
    renewable energy electricity produced and sold by qualified renewable energy generation
    facilities.

    Eligible electric production facilities that may be considered to  receive REPI payments include
    not-for-profit electrical cooperatives, public utilities, state  governments, commonwealths,
    territories of the United States, District of Columbia, Indian  tribal governments, and political
    subdivision thereof, and native corporations that sell the facility's electricity.

        .   Qualifying facilities are eligible for annual incentive payments of 1.50 per kWh
            produced and sold (1993 dollars  and indexed for inflation) for the first 10-year period of
            their operation, subject to the availability of annual appropriations in each federal fiscal
            year of operation.
        .   Applicants must meet qualified technology and facility location requirements.
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   To apply and for more information go to www.eere.energy.gov/repi/.
   Christine Carter                                  Information Specialist - REPI
   DOE                                           DOE
   1617 Cole Boulevard                             Weatherization and Intergovernmental
   Golden, Colorado 80401                          Program
   Phone: (303) 275-4755                           Washington, DC
   E-mail: Christine.carter@go.doe.gov                E-mail: repi@ee.doe.gov

   Renewable Energy Grants and Loans Programs, USDA Rural Development
   Under the authority of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936, USDA Electric Programs make direct
   loans and loan guarantees to electric utilities to serve customers in rural areas.
       High Energy Cost Grants (CFDA 10.859):  These grants are available for communities with
       average home energy costs exceeding 275 percent of the national average.  Funds may be
       used for improving and providing energy generation, transmission and distribution facilities.
       Grant funds may be used for on-grid and off-grid renewable energy projects, energy
       efficiency and energy conservation projects serving eligible communities. For more details,
       go to www.usda.gov/rus/electric/hecgp/overview.htm.
   .   Treasury Loans:  These loans are available for distribution, subtransmission, and renewable
       generation facilities that provide retail or power supply service needs in rural areas. For
       more details, go to www.usda.gov/rus/electric/loans.htm.
   Karen Larsen
   Rural Development Electric  Programs
   USDA
   1400 Independence Avenue, SWStop 1560, Room 5165-South
   Washington, DC 20250-1560
   Phone: (202) 720-9545
   E-mail: energy.grants@wdc.usda.gov.
   Fax: (202)690-0717

   Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE)  Grants, USDA Cooperative State
   Research, Education, and Extension Service
   The SARE program is part of USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension
   Service, first funded by Congress in 1988.  SARE is a competitive grants program providing
   grants to researchers, agricultural educators, farmers and ranchers, and students in the United
   States.  The SARE program is divided into  four regions, with each region announcing its own
   calls for proposals.
            Research and Education Grants:  Ranging from $30,000 to $150,000 or more, these
            grants fund projects that usually involve scientists, producers, and others in an
            interdisciplinary approach.
        .   Professional Development Grants: To spread the knowledge about sustainable
            concepts and practices, these projects educate Cooperative Extension Service staff
            and other agriculture professionals.
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            Producer Grants: Producers apply for grants that typically run between $1,000 and
            $15,000 to conduct research, marketing and demonstration projects and to share
            results with other farmers and ranchers.
    For more information on the Western Region, go to http://wsare.usu.edu/.
    Western Region SARE
    Utah State University
    Phone: (435) 797-2257
    E-mail: wsare@mendel.usu.edu

n   West Coast Diesel Collaborative Grants, NCDC
    The National Clean Diesel Campaign provides monies for regional collaboratives to award as
    grants for projects that reduce diesel emissions from existing diesel engine operations. States,
    Federally Recognized Indian Tribes and Tribal Consortia, local governments, international
    organizations, public and private universities and colleges, hospitals, laboratories, and other
    public  or private nonprofit institutions are eligible to apply.  Applicable technologies, fuels, and
    practices include emissions control technologies, idling reduction strategies, cleaner burning
    fuels, and alternative and biofuels production, distribution, and use.  All projects must
    demonstrate applications, technologies, methods or approaches that are new, innovative or
    experimental.
    Go to www.epa.gov/region09/funding/cleandiesel.html and www.epa.gov/diesel/grantfund.htm
    for more information.
    Wayne Elson
    West Coast Diesel Collaborative Construction Sector Lead
    EPA Region 10
    1200 Sixth Avenue
    Seattle, WA 98101
    Phone: (206)553-1463
    E-mail: elson.wayne@epa.gov

9.3   ARIZONA FUNDING

n   Commercial/Industrial Solar & Wind Tax Credit (Corporate)
    This tax credit was established by the Arizona legislature in 2006 to stimulate the production and
    use of solar energy in  commercial and industrial applications by subsidizing the initial cost of
    solar energy devices.  It is applicable towards solar PV, wind power, passive solar space heat,
    solar water heat, solar thermal electric, solar thermal process heat, solar cooling, solar pool
    heating, and daylighting.
            Businesses are eligible for a tax credit equal to 10 percent of the installed cost of the
            PV or wind power system.
        .   Tax credit applies to taxable years from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2012.
            The maximum credit per taxpayer is $25,000 for any one building in the same year and
            $50,000 in total credits in any year.
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           To qualify for the tax credits, a business must submit an application to the Arizona
           Department of Commerce.  The Department of Commerce may certify tax credits up to
           a total of $1 million each calendar year.
   For more information,  go to:
        .   Arizona Department of Commerce
          www.azcommerce.com/BusAsst/lncentives/Solar+Energy+Tax+lncentives+Program.htm
           Commercial Solar Energy Tax Incentives Program Summary
          www.azcommerce.com/doclib/finance/solar%20program%20summary.pdf
        .   Commercial Solar Energy Tax Credit Program: Program Guidelines
          www.azcommerce.com/doclib/finance/solar%20guidelines.pdf
   Arizona Department of Commerce
   1700 W. Washington St., Suite 600
   Phoenix, AZ 85007
   Phone: (602)771-1100
   www. azco m me rce. co m
Arizona Department of Revenue
1600 W. Monroe
Phoenix, AZ 85007-2650
Phone: (602) 255-2060
www.azdor.gov
9.4   CALIFORNIA FUNDING

n  California Emerging Renewables Program (ERP), California Energy Commission (CEC)
   The ERP provides incentives for wind turbines and fuel cells. The ERP is an element of the
   Renewable Energy Program pursuant to Senate Bill 10381, Senate Bill 1832, Senate Bill 12503,
   and Senate Bill 107.4.
        .   Wind power: First 7.5 kW receives $2.50 per watt, then increments between 7.5-kW
           and 30-kW receives $1.50 per watt.  Wind turbines must be rated 50 kW or less.
        .   Fuel cell: $3.00 per kW. Incentive available for up to 30 kW.
   Requirements:
        .   Must be customer of Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison
           (SCE), San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E), or Southern California Water Company
           (Bear Valley Electric Service).
           Must use new components that are approved by the California Energy Commission.
           Find a list of eligible equipment at
           www.consumerenergycenter.org/erprebate/eguipment.html.
        .   System must have a five-year warranty.
        .   System must be sized to produce electricity primarily to offset part or all of the
           customer's needs at the site of installation. The expected production of electricity by
           the system may not be more than the historical or expected electrical needs of the
           electricity consumer at the site of installation.
        .   All systems must be  installed with a performance meter.
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   For more information and to apply, go to
   www.consumerenergycenter.org/erprebate/program.html.
   See the Emerging Renewables Program Final Guidebook, Eighth Edition, December 2006,
   (www.energv.ca.gov/2006publications/CEC-300-2006-001/CEC-300-2006-001 -ED8F.PDF) for
   more details.
   California Energy Commission
   Emerging Renewables Program
   1516 Ninth  Street MS-45
   Sacramento, CA 95814
   Phone: (800) 555-7794 in CA or (916) 654-4058 outside CA
   E-mail: renewable@energy.state.ca.us

   California Solar Initiative  (CSI), California Public Utilities Commission
   The California Solar Initiative is made up of two components. The California Public Utilities
   Commission (CPUC) will provide over $2 billion in incentives over the next decade for existing
   residential homes and existing and new business, industrial, non-taxable (government and non-
   profit) and agricultural properties.  The CSI also includes an  additional $350 million from the
   California Energy Commission (CEC) for the New Solar Homes Partnership. Find the California
   Solar Initiative Program Handbook at www.gosolarcalifornia.ca.gov/documents/index.html.
   The CSI includes two incentives types (customers can only participate in one):
       Performance Based Incentive (PBI)
       For this incentive type, all customers that install systems greater than 100 kWCEC-AC* will
       receive a monthly payment based on the actual energy produced, for a period of 5 years.
       Systems less than  100 kWCEC-AC may opt for PBI. PBI is required for Building Integrated
       PV (BIPV) Systems.  Once the PBI incentive rate has been determined and a confirmed
       reservation issued, the incentive rate perkWh will remain constant for the 5-year term (Fig.
       47). Program Administrators will make monthly payments to applicants based on actual
       electricity generated in kWh per the  monthly reading of the meter after commissioning of the
       system.
   .   Expected Performance Base Buydown (EPBB)
       Under this incentive,  all systems less than  100 kWwill be paid a one-time, up-front incentive
       based on expected system performance, which considers factors such as equipment ratings,
       geographic location, tilt,  and shading (Fig. 47). Residential and small projects can also
       choose to opt-in to the PBI payment approach. On January 1, 2008, PBI will apply to
 * CEC-AC is California Energy Commission Rated AC output of the PV system that takes into
consideration real-world conditions and inverter efficiency.
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       systems equal to or greater than 50 kW CEC-AC. Starting in 2010, all systems greater than
       30 kWwill be under the PBI.

MW
Slap
!
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3
4
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6
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              Figure 47 PBI and EPBB incentive amounts by step. Step increases based on participation. Go
                                                                            275
                      to www.csi-triqqer.com to see current step level. Image courtesy CPUC
   Requirements to qualify for PBI or EPBB:
        .   Must be customer of PG&E, SCE, or SDG&E.
            System equipment and retailers must be certified by CEC.
            (www.consumerenerqycenter.orq/erprebate/equipment.html)
        .   PV systems must be at least 1 kW to be eligible.  The maximum limit for an eligible
            system is 5,000 kW though the incentive can only apply up to 1,000 kW.
            System output (kW) are calculated using CEC-AC standards. See the CSI Program
            Handbook, Section 2.2.5 "System Size" for details
            (www.gosolarcalifornia.ca.gov/documents/CSI  HANDBOQK.PDF).  EPBB applicants
            go to www.csi-epbb.com/ for the EPBB calculator.
        .   All existing residential and commercial customers are required to have an energy
            efficiency audit conducted on their home or building. See Section 2.3 "Energy-
            Efficiency Requirements" of the CSI Handbook for details
            (www.gosolarcalifornia.ca.gov/documents/CSI  HANDBOQK.PDF').
        .   All systems must have a minimum 10-year warranty provided both by the manufacturer
            and installer to protect the purchaser against defective workmanship,  system or
            component breakdown,  or degradation in electrical  output of more than 15 percent from
            their originally rated electrical output during the ten-year period.  The warranty must
            cover the solar generating system and provide for no-cost repair or replacement of the
            system or system components, including any associated labor during  the warranty
            period.
            Meters must have a one-year warranty to protect against defective workmanship,
            system or component breakdown, or degradation in electrical output of more than 15
Chapter 9: Funding Resources and Opportunities
101
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            percent from their originally rated electrical output during the warranty period. On or
            before January 1, 2008, the warranty requirements will be increased to a minimum of 5
            years for meters, unless the CEC establishes alternate requirements.

            Equipment installed under the CSI program is intended to be in place for the duration of
            its useful life. Only permanently installed systems are eligible for incentives.

            The Host Customer, or designate, must also submit an application and enter into an
            interconnection agreement with their local electric utility for connection to the electrical
            distribution grid. Proof of interconnection and parallel operation is required prior to
            receiving an incentive payment.

        .   The CSI program requires accurate solar production meters for all projects that receive
            CSI program incentives. For systems with a system rating of less than 10 kW, a  basic
            meter with accuracy of ± 5 percent is required. For systems with  a system rating of 10
            kWand greater, an interval data meter with accuracy of ± 2 percent is required.

   When to apply for CSI incentives:

        .   Select a solar installer

            Determine that the cleanup site is eligible for CSI Incentives

        .   Apply for and reserve your incentives

           PG&E customers visit: www.pge.com/csi
           SCE customers visit: www.sce.com/rebatesandsavings/CaliforniaSolarlnitiative/
           SDG&E customers visit:
           www.sdenergy.org/ContentPage.asp?ContentlD=377&SectionlD=406&SectionTarget=370

        .   Install the PV system

        .   Collect the rebate or payments

   For details on the application process, refer to Chapter 4 of the CSI Handbook
   (www.gosolarcalifornia.ca.gov/documents/CSI  HANDBQQK.PDF').

   Pacific Gas & Electric
   Program Manager, California Solar Initiative Program
   Attn: California Solar Initiative
   P.O. Box 7265
   San Francisco, CA 94120-7265
   Phone:  Business Customers: 1-800-468-4743; Solar Hotline: 1-415-973-3480
   Fax:415-973-2510
   E-mail:  solar@pge.com
   www.pge.com/solar

   San Diego Area: California Center for Sustainable Energy (formerly the San Diego Regional
   Energy  Office)
   John Supp, Program Manager
   California Center for Sustainable Energy
   Attn: CSI Program Manager
   8690 Balboa Avenue Suite 100
   San Diego, CA 92123
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   Phone: (858) 244-1177; (866)-SDENERGY
   Fax:858-244-1178
   E-mail: csi@energycenter.org
   www.energycenter.org

   Southern California Edison
   California Solar Initiative Administrator
   6042A Irwindale Avenue
   Irwindale, CA91702
   Phone: (800)799-4177
   Fax: (626) 302-6253
   E-mail: greenh@sce.com
   www.sce.com/rebatesandsavings/CaliforniaSolarlnitiative/

   Carl Mover Memorial Air Quality Standards Attainment Program (CMP), GARB

   CMP is administered by CARB in partnership with local air guality districts throughout the state.
   CMP funds may only be used to generate surplus emission reductions such as to reduce
   emissions beyond what is reguired by applicable standards or regulations, not to be used to
   comply with any applicable emission standards or regulations. Both public agencies and private
   entities that own and operate eligible diesel eguipment can apply for CMP grant funds. Eligible
   projects may include the repowering or retrofitting of existing engines and vehicles, as well as
   the purchase of new low-emission engines or vehicles.

   For more information, go to www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/mover/moyer.htm.

   To apply, contact your local air district: www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/moyer/contacts.htm.

   California Air Resources Board
   Phone: (916)323-6169

   Energy Efficiency and Renewable Generation Emerging Technologies, Agriculture and Food
   Industries Loan Program (Loan Program), California Energy Commission

   The Loan Program offers 3.2 percent interest loan funds for the purchase of proven cost-
   effective energy efficient and renewable generation emerging technologies applicable to the
   agricultural and food processing industries.

   Applicable technologies include:

           Food and animal waste bio-energy generation

        .   Solar PV and solar thermal systems

           Thermal heat pumps

           Electrodialysis membrane systems

        .   Enterprise energy management systems

        .   Heating and cooling topping cycle systems

           Ultra-low NOX controlled energy efficient burners

   An energy efficient emerging technology is defined as a technology that is commercially
   available, is proven through an independent evaluation to reach new efficiency performance
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    benchmarks when compared to current technologies, and has yet to be adopted by no more
    than 10 percent of the agricultural and food industries in California.
    Available Funding
    The Loan Program has approximately $3 million available for project financing. The maximum
    loan amount for any applicant is $500,000 to finance a single project or multiple projects. The
    minimum loan amount for any applicant is $50,000.  Funds are available for the design,
    purchase and installation of the eligible emerging technology.  The interest rate is 3.2 percent.
    Interest will be calculated as simple interest and the rate will remain fixed during the life of the
    loan. The maximum repayment term cannot exceed 7 years.  Interest accrues starting from the
    date funds are disbursed to the loan recipient.
    Only the following types of facilities are eligible to apply for funding under this program:
        .   Food and Fiber Processing
        .   Animal Feeding and  Processing
            Breweries, Wineries, Creameries
        .   Irrigation Districts
        .   Agricultural Production
    Application Process
    Securing the  loans will require one of the following types of collateral:
            Standby Letter of Credit (a letter of credit is the preferred security)
        .   Certificate of Deposit (a CD will be considered if applicant  is unable to obtain a letter of
            credit on terms acceptable to the Commission)
    Applications are continuously accepted on a first come first served basis as long as funds are
    available. The program began in April of 2007.
    For more information and applications, go to
    www.energv.ca.gov/process/agriculture/loansolicitation/index.html.
    Ricardo Amon
    California Energy Commission
    Grants and Loans Office
    Attn: Emerging Energy Efficient Technologies Loan  Demonstration Program
    1516 Ninth Street, MS-1
    Sacramento,  CA 95814-5512
    Phone:  (916)654-4019
    E-mail:  ramon@energy.state.ca.us

    Self Generation Incentive Program (SGIP), California Public Utilities Commission
    California's Assembly Bill 970,  enacted in September 2000, ordered the establishment of
    additional energy supply and programs in the state.  In March 2001, the California Public Utilities
    Commission introduced  the SGIP. Eligible technologies include wind turbines, gas turbines,
    internal combustion engines, microturbines, and fuel cells using renewable fuels (Fig. 48).
    Approximately $500 million was made available for 2003 to 2008.
Chapter 9:  Funding Resources and Opportunities                                           104
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Incentive
Levels
Level 2
Renewable
Non-Solar
Level 3
Non-
Renewable
Non-Solar
Eligible Technologies
Wind turbines
Renewable fuel cells
Renewable fuel
nicroturbines and snail
gas :urbines
Renewable fuel internal
combustion engines and
large gas turbines
Non-Renewable fuel cells
Non-Renewable & Waste
Gas fuel microturbines
and small gas turbines
Non-Renewable & Waste
Gas fuel internal
combustion engines and
large gas turbines
Incentive
Offered (S.Watt)
S1.5D/W
S4.5Q/W
S1.3D.W
S1.0Q.W
S2.50.W
SO.SuYW
$0.6 0,W
Minimum
System
Size
30 h'vV
None
None
None
Maximum
System
Size
5 MW
5 MW
Maximum
Incentive
Size
1 MW
1 MW
        Large gas turbines are £ 1 MW in capacity. Small gas turbines and micro:urbines are <1 MW in capacity.
                    Figure 48 Self-Generation Incentive Program incentive rates.276

   Minimum Requirements:

        .   Must be customer of Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison
            (SCE), San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E), or Southern California Gas Company.

            May not use more than 25 percent fossil fuel annually.

        .   All self-generation equipment must be connected to the electricity grid and installed on
            the customer's side  of the utility meter.

        .   Self-generation equipment must be new and permanent; demonstration units are not
            eligible.

        .   A portion of the facility's electric load  must be offset by the equipment.

   The 2007 Self-Generation Incentive Program Handbook is available at
   www.socalgas.com/business/selfgen/docs2007/2007 SGIP Handook.pdf.

   For more information, go to www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUC/energy/051005 sgip.htm and contact local
   utilities to apply.
   Pacific Gas & Electric Co.
   Self-Generation Incentive Program
   P.O. Box 770000
   Mail Code B29R
   San Francisco, CA 94177
   Phone: (415)973-6436
   Fax: (415)973-2510
   E-mail: selfgen@pge.com
   http://www.pge.com/selfgen/

   San Diego Regional Energy Office
   (Administrator for San  Diego Gas &
   Electric)
   401  B Street, Suite 800
San Diego, CA92101
Phone: (619)595-5630
Fax: (619)595-5305
E-mail: selfgen@sdenergy.org
http://www.sdenergy.org/ContentPage.asp
?ContentlD=35&SectionlD=24

Southern California Edison
Program Manager, Self Generation
Incentive Program
2131 Walnut Grove Avenue
3rd floor, MS B10
Rosemead, CA91770
Phone: (800) 736-4777
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                                  105
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    Fax: (626) 302-6253
    E-mail: greenh@sce.com
    www.sce.com/RebatesandSavings/SelfGe
    nerationlncentiveProgram/
    Southern California Gas Company
    Self-Generation Incentive Program
    Administrator

9.5   HAWAII FUNDING
555 West Fifth Street, GT15F4
Los Angeles, CA90013
Phone: (800) GAS-2000
Fax: (213)244-8384
E-mail: selfgeneration@socalgas.com
www.socalgas.com/business/selfgen
    Hawaii Renewable Energy Tax Credits OR Capital Goods Excise Tax

    These two incentives are tax credits and are essentially the same and one may not be used in
    conjunction with the other.  Businesses and residents are eligible to apply. Eligible technologies
    include solar PV, wind power, solar water heat, solar space heat, and solar thermal electric.

    For PV systems, the maximum allowable credits are as follows:

        .   Commercial property is eligible for a credit of 35 percent of the initial cost or $500,000,
            whichever is less.

            Single-family residential property is eligible for a credit of 35 percent of the initial cost or
            $5,000, whichever is less.

            Multi-family residential property is eligible for a credit of 35 percent of the initial cost or
            $350 per housing-unit, whichever is less.

    For wind power systems, the maximum allowable credits are as follows:

            Commercial property is eligible for a credit of 20 percent of the actual cost or $500,000,
            whichever is less.

            Single-family residential property is eligible for a credit of 20 percent of the actual cost
            or $1,500,  whichever is less.

        .   Multi-family residential property is eligible for a credit of 20 percent of the actual cost or
            $200 per unit, whichever is less.

    For more information, go to www.hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/energy/renewable/solar.

    Hawaii Department of Taxation
    Taxpayer Services Branch
    P.O. Box 259
    Honolulu, HI 96809
    Phone: (808) 587-4242
    www. state. h i. u s/tax
Chapter 9:  Funding Resources and Opportunities
                                   106
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9.6   NEVADA FUNDING

n  Renewable Energy Producers Property Tax Abatement
   This incentive is a tax abatement for new or expanded commercial businesses.  This incentive is
   applicable for solar PV, wind, solar thermal electric, landfill gas, biomass, municipal solid waste,
   and anaerobic digesters.  Expires June 30, 2009.
        .  The incentive is a 50 percent property tax abatement for 10 years for real and personal
           property used to generate  electricity from renewable energy resources or for a facility
           for the production of an energy storage device.
           The generation facility must have a capacity of at least 10 kW and use biomass, solar,
           or wind resources as its primary source of energy.
        .  The business must also meet capital expenditure, employee compensation, and other
           requirements to be eligible for the incentive.
   For more information, go to:
        .  Nevada Commission on Economic Development Tax Abatement Factsheet
           www.expand2nevada.com/whatwedo/pdfs/08renewableenergy.pdf
           Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency by North Carolina State
           University
           www.dsireusa.org/library/includes/incentive2.cfm7lncentive  Code=NV01F&state=NV&
           CurrentPagelD=1 &RE=1 &EE=0
   To apply, contact:
   Susan Combs
   Nevada Commission on Economic Development
   108 E. Proctor Street
   Carson City, NV 89701
   Phone: (775) 687-4325
   Phone 2: (800) 336-1600
   Fax: (775) 687-4450
   E-mail: scombs@bizopp.state.nv.us

n  Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption
   This incentive is a property tax exemption that applies to solar PV, passive solar space heat,
   solar water heat, and solar space heat. Commercial and industrial sectors may apply.  This
   exemption was enacted in 1997 and runs until January 2009. The renewable energy property
   tax exemption cannot be claimed if another state tax abatement or exemption is claimed by the
   same building.
           There is a 50 percent tax abatement for qualifying systems for 10 years.
        .  The generation facility must have a capacity of at least 10 kW.
Chapter 9: Funding Resources and Opportunities                                         107
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   For more information, go to
   http://www.dsireusa.org/library/includes/incentive2.cfm7lncentive Code=NV02F&state=NV&Curr
   entPagelD=1&RE=1&EE=0.
   Information Specialist- Dept. of Taxation
   NV Department of Taxation
   1550 E. College Parkway, Suite 115
   Carson City, NV 89706
   Phone: (775) 684-2000
   Fax: (775) 684-2020

   Solar Generations PV Rebate Program, Sierra Pacific Power and Nevada Power
   Solar Generations is a program administered by Sierra Pacific Power Company and Nevada
   Power Company to help these utilities meet their renewable portfolio standards. It provides a
   rebate on PV systems for businesses, residences, schools, local government, state government,
   and other public buildings serviced by Sierra Pacific Power or Nevada Power. The utilities will
   own the renewable energy credits from the electricity produced by the customer's PV system
   (See Section 2.5 page 11).
   Incentive amounts are:
        .   Schools: $5 per watt AC (up to a total capacity of 570 kWfor all school projects).
        .   Public Buildings: $5 per watt AC (up to a total capacity of 570 kW for all public building
           projects).
        .   Residences/Small Businesses:  $3 per watt AC (up to a total capacity of 760 kW each
           of the remaining program years).
   Eligibility requirements:
        .   Rebate applies to a maximum of 5 kW of rated AC output for residential systems and
           30 kW of rated AC output for small businesses, schools, or public buildings.
           The equipment installed must be on the list of certified PV modules and inverters
           provided by the California Energy Commission (CEC) Program found at
           www.consumerenerqvcenter.orq/erprebate/equipment.html.
        .   A Nevada-licensed electrical contractor must install the system.  The State of Nevada
           requires PV system installers in Nevada to hold an annually renewable PV license
           requirement.  A list of contractors who have participated in Solar Generations training is
           available at www.solargenerations.com/contractors.html though this does not
           guarantee that they are properly  licensed.
           Program participants must also sign a net metering agreement with the utility.
   For more information, go to www.solarqenerations.com.
   SolarGenerations Rebate Program
   6100 Neil Road
   Reno,  NV 89511
   Phone: (866) 786-3823
   E-mail: info@SolarGenerations.com
Chapter 9: Funding Resources and Opportunities                                         108
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CHAPTER 10:    TOOLS
                                                        Chapter 10 Table of Contents
                                                 10.1 Energy Efficiency Calculators, Technical
                                                     Assistance Resources and Informational
                                                     Resources
                                                 10.2 Purchasing Clean Energy Informational
                                                     Resources
                                                 10.3 General Renewable Energy Economic
                                                     Calculations
                                                 10.4 General Renewable Energy Calculators,
                                                     Technical Assistance, Informational
                                                     Resources and Contractor Licensing
                                                     Information
                                                 10.5 Solar Power Tools
                                                 10.6 Wind Power Tools
                                                 10.7 Landfill Gas-to-Energy Tools
                                                 10.8 Anaerobic Digestion Tools
                                                 10.9 Biomass Gasification Tools
                                                 10.10 Clean Diesel Tools
This chapter includes tools related to energy
efficiency, purchasing cleaner energy, renewable
energy, and cleaner diesel.  Energy efficiency tools
include calculators to assess efficiency of pumps,
potential federal technical assistance resources,
and a toolkit on greener cleanups. Tools to assist in
purchasing cleaner energy include resources of
further information on how to buy green energy,
where to find clean energy programs, and a
resource on clean energy technical assistance.
General renewable energy tools include calculators
to estimate emissions and emissions reductions,
software to help model the energy outputs and
benefits of a renewable energy system, map data
depicting  renewable energy resources  in the state,
potential technical assistance resources, and
resources on checking a renewable energy
contractor's licenses.  There is a tools section for
each of the renewable energy technologies detailed
in this guide with calculators and models, surveying
equipment, sources of further information and potential technical assistance resources.  The clean
diesel tools section includes calculators to  help quantify emissions and emissions reductions,
sources of further information, and potential technical assistance resources for cleaner diesel fuels,
practices, and technologies.

10.1   ENERGY EFFICIENCY CALCULATORS, TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
      RESOURCES, AND INFORMATIONAL RESOURCES
n  Agricultural Pumping Efficiency Program (California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) and
   California State University (CSU) Fresno):  The Agricultural Pumping Efficiency Program is a
   local resource for California. It is comprised of a partnership between the CPUC and CSU at
   Fresno's Center for Irrigation Technology.  PG&E and SCE customers are eligible.  This program
   provides free pump efficiency tests, educational seminars, and incentives for pump retrofits.
   Check with your local utility to see if similar programs are available for your cleanup site.
   www.pumpefficiency.org/
   For the Pumping Cost Analysis Calculator for electric pumps, go to
   http://www.pumpefficiencv.orq/Pumptestinq/costanalysis.asp.
   Agricultural Pumping Efficiency Program
   Center for Irrigation Technology
Chapter 10: Tools
                                                                                      109
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   6014 North Cedar Ave.
   Fresno, CA 93710
   Phone: (800) 845-603
n  Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (EERE): FEMP is a potential resource to help
   improve energy efficiency and implement renewable energy projects at your site. FEMP works
   to reduce costs and environmental impacts of the federal government by advancing energy
   efficiency and water conservation, promoting the use of distributed and renewable energy, and
   improving utility management decisions at federal sites. FEMP helps federal energy managers
   identify, design, and implement new construction and facility improvement projects. This service
   may be applicable for fund-lead sites,  wwwl .eere.energy.gov/femp/
   FEMP  Help Desk
   1000 Independence Ave., SW
   Washington, DC 20585-0121
   Phone: (202) 586-5772
   www1.eere.energv.gov/femp/about/contacts.html
n  Greener Practices for Business, Site Development and Site Cleanups:  A Toolkit (Minnesota
   Pollution Control Agency): Use this online toolkit of greener cleanup options, a decision tree,
   and success stories, to determine how to reduce the environmental footprint from remediation
   activities, www.pca.state.mn.us/programs/p2-s/toolkit/index.html
n  Pumping System Assessment Tool (EERE): The Pumping System Assessment Tool is an online
   calculator that helps industrial users assess the efficiency of pumping system operations.
   wwwl.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/software.html#psat
n  Technical Assistance Project (TAP) for State and Local Officials (EERE): TAP is available to
   provide state and local officials with quick, short-term access to experts at DOE national
   laboratories for assistance with their renewable energy and energy efficiency policies and
   programs. TAP projects are available on a first come, first served basis.  Project budgets are
   limited to $5,000 in staff time and travel.  Typically, this can provide a few days of on-site
   assistance or a week's worth of analysis and consultations via phone and e-mail.
   www.eere.energv.gov/wip/tap.cfm
   To apply, go to www.eere.energv.gov/wip/how  to apply.cfm.
   Julie Riel
   DOE Golden Field Office
   Golden, Colorado
   Phone: (303) 275-4866
   E-mail: iulie.riel(5)go.doe.gov

10.2   PURCHASING CLEAN ENERGY INFORMATIONAL RESOURCES
n  EERE Green Power Network: Find state-by-state clean energy purchasing options.
   www.eere.energv.gov/greenpower/buving/buying power.shtml
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n   The Guide to Purchasing Green Power (DOE, EPA, World Resources Institute, and Green-e,
    September 2004): Document detailing steps to purchasing clean energy.
    www.epa.gov/greenpower/buygp/guide.htm
n   Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (NREL March 2003):  Document
    detailing the status of green power marketing in the U.S.  www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/35119.pdf
n   EPA Green Power Partnership:  The EPA Green Power Partnership is a program that
    encourages U.S. organizations to voluntarily purchase green power as a way to reduce the risk
    of climate change and the environmental impacts associated with conventional electricity use.
    This program can assist in navigating the complexities of making a green power purchase. The
    Green Power Partnership is also available to help identify green power products.  To find state-
    by-state green  power products, go to http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/pubs/gplocator.htm.
    www.epa.gov/greenpower/
    James Critchfield
    EPAHQ
    Green Power Partnership
    Phone: (202) 343-9442
    E-mail: critchfield.iames@epa.gov

10.3   GENERAL RENEWABLE ENERGY ECONOMIC CALCULATIONS
There are many different ways to look at the economic benefits of installing a renewable energy
system. A few methods of analyzing the economics are: (1) rate of return, (2) payback time, and (3)
total lifecycle payback. An explanation of these analyses follows using solar PV as an example.

Simple Calculation of Monthly Electricity Bill Savings

The simple calculation in Box 8 estimates        I        I  0  ..  ,,. ._.   ,. ., D... „
       r                                            Box 8  Monthly Electricity Bill Savings
electricity bill savings from your site's renewable
energy system.  Enter the proposed rated power
output of the system and the average kWh
production each month per rated kW.  Using
solar PV as an example, 135-150 kWh per
month is the general estimate of monthly energy   u = utility price per kwh ($)
                B = S*O* U
B = Monthly Electricity Bill Savings ($)
S = Rated Power Output (kW)
O = Average Energy Output (kWh per kW per month);
production from a 1-kW system in Region 9 states. Look on your electricity bill for your cost of
electricity per kWh.  This simple calculation does not take into account that electricity prices are
steadily increasing.
Chapter 10: Tools                                                                     111
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Simple Payback Time277

Simple payback time is defined as the time it takes for a renewable energy system to save enough
money to pay for itself. This simplified calculation (Box 9) usually only takes into consideration the
capital cost of the system and monetary savings from a reduced or eliminated energy bill and does
not include operation and maintenance costs.  In this
model, reduced pollution levels and other non-
monetary valued benefits are also not included.
Another shortfall of simple payback time is that it does
not account for the savings accrued after the payback
time.  This equation may overestimate the payback
time since energy prices are expected to continue to
increase.
                                                          Box 9 Simple Payback Time
                                                  PB = Payback Time (years)
                                                  C = Capital Cost ($)
                                                  B = Annual Electricity Bill Savings ($ per year)
Total Lifecycle Payback
                      .278
                                                        Box 10 Total Lifecycle Payback
                                                              R=B-rC* Y

                                                R = Total Lifecycle Payback Ratio
                                                B = Annual Electricity Bill Savings ($ per year)
                                                C = Capital Cost ($)
                                                Y = Years of operation (years)
The total lifecycle payback accounts for savings
gained after the payback time until the end of the
useful life of a renewable energy system (Box 10).
Solar PV systems usually last 25-30 years,
resulting in savings 2-3 times greater than the initial
capital cost. The drawback of this calculation is
that it does not reflect the time value of money
(having a dollar today is worth more than having a dollar in the future).

10.4   GENERAL RENEWABLE ENERGY CALCULATORS, TECHNICAL
     ASSISTANCE, INFORMATIONAL RESOURCES AND CONTRACTOR
      LICENSING  INFORMATION
n  EPA's Power Profiler:  Use this online calculator to determine the emissions emitted from
   electricity use.  It can also be used to determine  the pollution avoidance from a renewable
   energy system.  Estimate CO2, NOX, and SO2 emissions avoidance from using renewable energy
   rather than conventional electricity. To calculate pollutants avoided, enter the estimated amount
   of renewable energy produced by your renewable energy system into the Profiler instead of
   entering total electricity consumed, www.epa.gov/cleanenergv/powerprofiler.htm
n  Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (EERE): FEMP is a potential resource to help
   improve energy efficiency and implement renewable energy projects at your site. FEMP works
   to reduce costs and environmental impacts of the federal government by advancing energy
   efficiency and water conservation, promoting the use of distributed and renewable energy, and
   improving utility management decisions at federal sites.  FEMP helps federal energy managers
   identify, design, and implement new construction and facility improvement projects. This service
   may be applicable for fund-lead sites, wwwl .eere.energy.gov/femp/
Chapter 10: Tools
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   FEMP Help Desk
   1000 Independence Ave., SW
   Washington, DC 20585-0121
   Phone: (202) 586-5772
   www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/about/contacts.html
   Greenhouse Gas Eguivalencies Calculator (EPA): Translate tons of CO2 and other pollutants
   into terms that are easier to conceptualize such as number of passenger cars driven, number of
   seedlings planted, and number of homes powered for a year.
   www.epa.gov/cleanenergv/energy-resources/calculator.html
   The  Guide to Purchasing Green Power (DOE, EPA, World Resources Institute, and Green-e,
   September 2004):  Document detailing steps to purchasing clean energy including developing a
   renewable energy project,  www.epa.gov/greenpower/buygp/guide.htm
   HOMER  (NREL): Optimization software model to analyze the technical and economic feasibility
   of distributed power including solar PV, wind power, microturbine, fuel cell, and generators.
   https://analysis.nrel.gov/homer/
   Renewable Energy Atlas of the West: Maps of solar, wind, geothermal and biomass resources
   created by the Western Resource Advocates, Northwest Sustainable Energy for Economic
   Development, Greenlnfo Network, and Integral GIS,  Inc. that can help assess renewable energy
   potential  in the area surrounding a cleanup site, www.energyatlas.org
      Arizona: www.energyatlas.org/PDFs/atlas state  AZ.pdf
      California: www.energyatlas.org/PDFs/atlas state  CA.pdf
      Hawaii: not yet available
      Nevada: www.energyatlas.org/PDFs/atlas state  NV.pdf
   RETScreen International (Natural Resources Canada):  This website provides green energy
   analysis tools developed by Natural Resources Canada in partnership with international
   organizations such as the United Nations Environmental Programme, NASA, and  the World
   Bank.  This MS Excel-based program requires detailed inputs of renewable energy equipment
   data. This tool can be used for solar, wind, and biomass renewable energy projects.
   www.retscreen.net
   Technical Assistance Project (TAP) for State  and  Local Officials (EERE):  TAP is available to
   provide state and local officials with quick, short-term access to experts at DOE national
   laboratories for assistance with their renewable energy and energy efficiency policies and
   programs. TAP projects are available on a first come, first served basis. Project budgets are
   limited to $5,000 in staff time and travel. Typically, this can provide a few days of on-site
   assistance or a week's worth of analysis and consultations via phone and e-mail.
   www.eere.energy.gov/wip/tap.cfm
   To apply, go to www.eere.energy.gov/wip/how to apply.cfm.
   Julie Riel
   DOE Golden Field Office
   Phone: (303) 275-4866
   E-mail: julie.riel@go.doe.gov
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Renewable Energy Contractors' Licenses
Below are websites that will help you to determine whether a prospective contractor is licensed in
that state.
n  Contractor's License Reference Site:  www.contractors-license.org/
n  North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners: www.nabcep.org
n  Arizona Registrar of Contractors: www.rc.state.az.us/
n  California Contractors State License Board:  www.cslb.ca.gov
n  Hawaii Department of Commerce: http://hbe.ehawaii.gov/cogs/search.html
n  Nevada State Contractors Board:  www.nvcontractorsboard.com

10.5   SOLAR POWER TOOLS

Solar Power Calculators
n  My Solar Estimator (FindSolar.com): Findsolar.com is created through a partnership among solar
   professional organizations and DOE.  This site provides information on solar incentives, a listing
   of qualified solar professionals, and a user-friendly PV sizing and economic analysis tool called
   "My Solar Estimator." This tool outputs solar availability, size of system (kW), space
   requirements, costs, rebates, loan considerations, savings and benefits including increased
   property value, return on investment, break even point, and monthly energy bill savings.
   www.findsolar.com
n  PV Watts (Renewable  Resource Data Center):  PV Watts is a tool hosted by the Renewable
   Resource Data Center which  is supported by the National Center for Photovoltaics and managed
   by EERE. Use PV Watts to estimate the energy output of your PV system and energy bill
   savings, www.pvwatts.org
n  Clean Power Estimator (Clean Power Research): Clean Power Research provides consulting
   and software that evaluates the  economics of clean energy investments.  Use the Clean  Power
   Estimator to estimate the energy output, emissions reductions, and financial benefits of a grid-
   connected PV system, www.consumerenergvcenter.org/renewables/estimator/index.html
n  Economic Analysis Tool (OnGrid Solar): OnGrid Solar is a private  company that provides
   financial payback analysis for solar PV installations. Visit the site for a free demo of the Excel
   tool.  Subscription starts at $100 per month, www.ongrid.net
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                                                            Figure 49 Solar Pathfinder. Image
                                                                                  279
                                                               courtesy Solar Pathfinder
Solar Power Surveying Equipment

n  Solar Pathfinder: This device can be used to evaluate
   annual sun/shading data and is useful for siting a PV
   system.  Its polished transparent dome reflects
   surrounding buildings, trees, and other obstructions that
   create shadows (Fig. 49). Included in the kit are "Sunpath
   Diagrams," which show the sun's average path through the
   sky specific to your site.  The device helps to determine
   year-round shadows made by surrounding obstructions.
   As of the writing of this guide, one Pathfinder set costs
   $259. www.solarpathfinder.com
   The Pacific Energy Center, run by PG&E, lends Solar
   Pathfinders and other surveying tools free of charge to
   customers working on energy efficiency and renewable
   energy projects in California. Tools may be loaned for about 2-4 weeks.
   http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/edusafetv/training/pec/toolbox/tll/.
   For other states and territories, check your local utility for similar services.

Solar Power Informational Resources
n  A Consumer's Guide: Get Your Power from the Sun (EERE, December 2003): A EERE
   document written for residents who are interested in installing a  PV system for their homes.
   www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/35297.pdf
n  EERE Solar PV Website: Website with technology information on solar PV.
   www1.eere.energv.gov/solar/photovoltaics.html

10.6  WIND POWER TOOLS

Wind Power Calculators
n  Wind Energy Payback Period Workbook (EERE):  Use this tool to estimate the payback period
   for your wind power system.
   www.eere.energv.gov/windandhydro/windpoweringamerica/filter detail.asp?itemid=1415
n  Wind Speed Calculator (Danish Wind Industry Association ):  Input a known wind speed at a
   certain height and this calculator outputs estimated wind speeds at other heights.  Enter wind
   speeds  in meters per second. This calculator also takes into account variation in terrain which
   would affect wind speed estimates, www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/calculat.htm

Wind Surveying Equipment
n  Pacific Energy Center (PG&E): The Pacific Energy Center, run by PG&E, lends anemometers
   and other surveying tools free of charge to customers working on energy efficiency and
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    renewable energy projects in California.  Tools may be loaned for about 2-4 weeks.
    http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/edusafetv/training/pec/toolbox/tll/.

    For other states and territories, check your local utility for similar services.

Wind Power Technical Support

n   California Wind Energy Collaborative (California Energy Commission and University of California
    at Davis): The California Wind Energy Collaborative is a partnership between the University of
    California at Davis and the California Energy Commission that supports the development of wind
    power in California.  They provide short training courses for the general public that provides
    practical information on selecting, installing, and owning a wind turbine, http://cwec.ucdavis.edu/
    California Wind Energy Collaborative
    E-mail: info@cwec.ucdavis.edu

    Dr. C.P. (Case) van Dam
    Department of Mechanical and
    Aeronautical Engineering
    University of California, Davis
    1 Shields Avenue
    Davis, CA95616
    Phone: (530) 752-7741
    E-mail: cpvandam@ucdavis.edu
Dr. Bruce R. White
Department of Mechanical and
Aeronautical Engineering
University of California, Davis
1 Shields Avenue
Davis, CA95616
Phone: (530) 752-6451
E-mail: brwhite@ucdavis.edu
Wind Power Informational Resources

n  American Wind Energy Association (AWEA): This website provides information on
   installers/contractors, state-specific wind power rules, interconnection issues, and wind power
   incentives (www.awea.org/smallwind/states.html).  Find general information on planning a wind
   project using the AWEA "Small Wind Toolbox" (www.awea.org/smallwind/toolbox).
   www.awea.org

n  British Wind Energy Association  Briefing Sheet:  Wind turbine technology factsheet.
   www.bwea.com/pdf/briefings/technology05  small.pdf

n  Danish Wind Industry Association: More information on how wind turbines work and wind
   turbine technology,  http://www.windpower.org/en/core.htm

n  Permitting Small Wind Turbines: A Handbook (American Wind Energy Association):  Guide on
   permitting information for wind turbines,  www.awea.org/smallwind/documents/permitting.pdf

n  Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S.  Consumer's Guide (EERE, March 2005):  An EERE
   document written mainly for residents who are interested in installing a wind turbine.
   www.eere.energv.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small  wind/small  wind guide.pdf

n  Small Wind Electric Systems: An Arizona Consumer's Guide (EERE, March 2005): An EERE
   document written mainly for residents who are interested in installing a wind turbine with
   information specific to Arizona.
   www.eere.energv.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind az.pdf
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n  EERE Wind Power Website: Information on wind power technology.
   wwwl .eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/wind technologies.html
n  NREL Wind Power Website: Information on wind power technology, www.nrel.gov/wind/
n  Wind Energy Manual (Iowa Energy Center, 2006):  Details on wind power history, technology,
   and considerations. www.energy.iastate.edu/Renewable/wind/wem-index.htm

10.7   LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY TOOLS

LFGE Calculators
n  LFGE Benefits Calculator (LMOP): The LFGE Benefits Calculator can be used to estimate
   direct, avoided, and total GHG reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits from a
   landfill gas-to-energy project, www.epa.gov/landfill/res/calc.htm
n  LFGE Potential Project Locator Tool (LMQP):  This LMOP tool can help developers determine
   potential LFGE project sites within a 20-25 mile radius of a particular address. Contact LMOP
   for assistance, www.epa.gov/lmop/contact/index.htm
n  Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) (EPA Technology Transfer Network): This model can
   be used to estimate total LFG and methane generation, as well as emissions of CO2, NMOCs,
   and other air pollutants from MSW landfills. It is not intended to characterize emissions from co-
   disposal landfills, www.epa.gov/ttncatc1 /products.html#software
n  Landfill Gas Energy Cost Model (EPA, LMQP): Use this tool to estimate the economic feasibility
   of your MSW LFGE project,  http://www.epa.gov/lmop/res/#5

LFGE Informational Resources
n  A  Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development Handbook  (EPA LMQP, September 1996):  This
   LMOP handbook includes information on the major aspects  of LFG project development,
   including economic analysis, financing, choosing project partners, environmental permitting, and
   contracting for services, http://epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/handbook.pdf
   See Appendix A: Calculations of Landfill Gas Energy Recovery Project Costs for an overview of
   costs. Though the cost estimates are outdated, it may be useful to better understand the
   services and equipment that must be included and their relative costs.
   www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/hbookapp.pdf
n  Guidance for Evaluating Landfill Gas Emissions From Closed or Abandoned Facilities (EPA,
   September 2005): Use this guidance document for procedures on how to evaluate emissions
   from co-disposal landfills, www.epa.gov/nrmrl/pubs/600r05123/600r05123.pdf
n  Landfill Gas-To-Enemv Potential in California (California Energy Commission, September 2002):
   Document that provides information on landfills in California, their potential for generating
   electricity,  applicable technologies, and information on current LFGE projects in  California.
   www.energv.ca.gov/reports/2002-09-09 500-02-041V1 .PDF
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n   Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Enemy Project Development in California
    (California Energy Commission, April 2002):  Provides general information on LFGE technology
    and summarizes existing LFGE projects in California.
    www.energy.ca.gov/pier/final project reports/500-02-041 v1.html

LFGE Technical Resources
n   Landfill Methane Outreach Program, (EPA):  The  Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) is
    an  EPA assistance and partnership program that  promotes the use of landfill gas as a renewable
    energy source. LMOP provides technical, informational, and marketing services, such as:
        .   Technical assistance, guidance materials, and software to assess a potential project's
            economic feasibility;
        .   Assistance in creating partnerships and  locating financing for projects;
        .   Informational materials to help educate the community and the local media about the
            benefits of LFG; and
        .   Networking opportunities with peers and LFG experts to allow communities to share
            challenges and successes.
    www.epa.gov/lmop
    Contact LMOP for assistance on your landfill project (www.epa.gov/lmop/contact).
n   Methane to Markets Partnership:  The Methane to Markets Partnership is a voluntary, non-
    binding framework for international cooperation to advance the recovery and use of methane as
    a valuable clean energy source,  www.methanetomarkets.org

10.8   ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TOOLS

Anaerobic Digestion Calculators
n   Biomass Cost of Energy Calculator (California Biomass Collaborative): Use this calculator to
    estimate the cost of energy generated from an anaerobic digester. Requires input of detailed
    technical, financial, and economic assumptions.
    http://faculty.engineering.ucdavis.edu/ienkins/CBC/Calculator/index.html
n   FarmWare (AgStar):  Decision support software package that can be used to conduct pre-
    feasibility assessments for swine and dairy manure digesters.
    www.epa.gov/agstar/resources/handbook.html
n   Financial Analysis Model (New York Agriculture Innovation Center): This spreadsheet model  is
    useful for potential manure digester projects. It estimates financial projections for implementing
    anaerobic digestion, cogeneration, solids separation, composting, and liquid manure spreading
    for a farm.  Requires detailed inputs including capital costs, depreciation terms, projected
    construction schedule, and operating costs such as labor hours, fuel use, and insurance costs.
    This model can be used after initial consultation with vendors.
    http://hive.bee.cornell.edu/extension/manure/FinancialAnalysis.htm
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Anaerobic Digestion Informational Resources
n  Agricultural Biogas Casebook Update 2004,(Resource Strategies, Inc.): Collection of case
   studies of digesters in the Great Lakes region.
   www.rs-inc.com/downloads/Experiences with Agricultural  Biogas Systems-2004 Update.pdf
n  Cornell University Anaerobic Digester Website:  Technical papers and case studies on anaerobic
   digesters. www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu/HTMLs/AnaerobicDigestion.htm
n  Minnesota Department of Agriculture Anaerobic Digester Web Page: Collection of anaerobic
   digester studies, www.mda.state.mn.us/renewable/waste/digester-refs.htm
n  Penn State University Anaerobic Digester Website: General information on digester
   technologies, digester safety, case studies, and vendors.
   www.biogas.psu.edu/anaerobicdigestion.html
n  EERE Anaerobic Digester Web Pages: DOE website providing basic information on digesters.
   www.eere.energv.gov/consumer/your workplace/farms  ranches/index.cfm/mvtopic=30002

Anaerobic Digestion Technical Resources
n  AgStar Program: The AgSTAR Program is a voluntary effort jointly sponsored by the EPA, the
   USDA, and DOE. The program encourages the  use of biogas capture and utilization  at animal
   feeding operations  that manage manures as liquids and slurries,  www.epa.gov/agstar
   AgStar Handbook  This handbook is for livestock producers, developers, investors, and others in
   the agricultural and energy industry that may consider biogas technology as a livestock manure
   management option, www.epa.gov/agstar/resources/handbook.html
   Managing Manure with Biogas Recovery Systems Improved Performance at Competitive Costs
   This document provides a general overview on anaerobic digesters.
   www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/manage.pdf
n  Methane to Markets Partnership: Methane to Markets is a voluntary partnership among
   international corporations and organizations to advance the recovery and use of methane as a
   valuable  clean energy source,  www.methanetomarkets.org

10.9   BIOMASS GASIFIER TOOLS
The following is a list of state-specific information and biomass energy organizations that may be
able to provide assistance. Also provided are potential consulting resources that may be able to
help to plan a gasifier project.

Biomass Gasifier Informational Resources
n  Analysis  of Hawaii Biomass Energy Resources for Distributed Energy Applications (University of
   Hawaii at Manoa for the State of  Hawaii, December 2002): Research paper studying energy
   content and chemical composition of different biomass resources available in Hawaii.
   www.hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/energy/publications/biomass-der.pdf
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n  "Arizona Biomass Energy Opportunities" (Prepared by TSS Consultants for Greater Flagstaff
   Forests Partnership, March 2004):  Report discussing benefits of using biomass waste from
   Arizona forest management practices for energy production.
   www.cc.state.az.us/divisions/utilities/electric/EPS-TSSC.pdf
n  Bioenergy Feedstock Information Network: Database of biomass-to-energy documents from the
   DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE Idaho National Laboratory, NREL, and other research
   organizations, http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/main.aspx
n  "Biomass Energy Project Guide" (Oregon Department of Energy): List of steps to plan and
   implement a gasification project. www.oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Biomass/guide.shtml
n  California Biomass Collaborative:  Collaboration of government, industry, educational institutions
   supporting the growth of biomass energy administered by the University of California at Davis.
   http://biomass.ucdavis.edu/
n  California Biomass Energy Alliance: Association of biomass fueled power plants in California.
   www.calbiomass.org/
n  International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy: IEA Bioenergy is an organization set up in 1978
   by the  IEA with the aim of improving cooperation and information exchange between countries
   that have national programs in bioenergy research, development and deployment.  Go to their
   website for technical documents related to gasifiers. www.ieabioenergy.com/
   IEA Bioenergy's Task 33 has the goal of promoting biomass gasification. It is being conducted
   by experts from Austria, Canada, Denmark, European Commission, Finland, Germany, Italy, The
   Netherlands,  New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, and the U.S.
   www.gastechnologv.org/webroot/app/xn/xd.aspx?it=enweb&xd=iea/homepage.xml
n  www.TarWeb.net:  Information on tars and other contaminants in gasifier-produced syngas.
n  Gasification Technologies Council:  Organization of gasifier companies that focus mainly on
   fossil fuel gasification.  Find information on gasification technology, www.gasification.org
n  Intelligent Energy for Europe Programme Gasification Guide: "Guideline for Safe and Eco-
   friendly Biomass Gasification" project supported by the Intelligent Energy for Europe
   Programme.  The document is not yet completed but check the website for updates.
   www.gasification-guide.eu/

Potential Biomass Gasifier Technical Resources
n  Arizona Department of Commerce Energy Programs: www.azcommerce.com/Energy/
n  Biomass Energy Resource Center:  The Biomass Energy Resource Center is a non-profit
   organization that works on projects around the country to install systems that use biomass,
   focusing on woody biomass, to produce heat and/or electricity. They have partnered with
   schools, communities, colleges, businesses, utilities, and government agencies.  Services
   include:
           Providing information for potential projects;
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            Carrying out or coordinating project-related pre-feasibility studies, feasibility studies,
            and other reports;
            Carrying out, coordinating, or consulting on the development of biomass energy
            projects;
            Managing the operations of biomass energy projects; and
            Conducting assessments of working biomass systems.
   www.biomasscenter.org
   Biomass Energy Resource Center
   Montpelier, VT 05601
   Phone: (802) 223-7770
   E-mail: contacts@biomasscenter.org
n  Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (University of Hawaii at Manoa): www.hnei.hawaii.edu/
n  Nevada Biomass Working Group (Office of the Governor, Nevada State Office of Energy):
   http://energy.state.nv.us/renewable/biomass.htm
n  Nevada Renewable Energy & Energy Conservation Task Force:
   www.nevadarenewables.org/?section=biomass
n  Renewable Energy Center (University of Nevada at Reno):
   www.unr.edu/geothermal/UNRREC.htm
n  Western  Governors' Association Western  Regional Biomass Energy Program:
   www.westgov.org/wga/initiatives/biomass/index.htm

10.10   CLEAN DIESEL TOOLS

Clean Diesel Calculators
n  EPA Modeling and Inventories: Go to www.epa.gov/otag/models.htm for a list of EPA models to
   inventory emissions across a city, county,  or state.
n  The Quantifier (EPA): Calculate diesel emissions from your site and the reductions from using
   cleaner and alternative fuels, retrofits, and engine upgrades for both on-road and off-road
   engines using this EPA online tool. Emissions output units are in tons.
   http://cfpub.epa.gov/guantifier/
n  Biodiesel Emissions Reduction Calculator (QTAQ): Estimate the percent emissions reductions
   from different blends of biodiesel with this  OTAQ MS Excel calculator.  Follow the "biodiesel
   reduction spreadsheet" link found atwww.epa.gov/otag/retrofit/techlist-biodiesel.htm.
n  National  Biodiesel Board Emissions Calculator: Enter the amount of biodiesel used to calculate
   emissions reductions  in terms of percentage and pounds of pollutant.
   www.biodiesel.org/(X(1)S(ux4dpg55txmx5rini25h1k55))/tools/calculator/default.aspx?AspxAutoD
   etectCookieSupport=1
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n   Biodiesel Comprehensive Calculator (BioFleet): Estimate quantified emissions reductions from
    using biodiesel with the BioFleet calculator. BioFleet is a biodiesel market development program
    sponsored by the Canadian government. Note that input and output values are in metric units.
    http://biofleet.net/index.php?option=com wrapper&ltemid=58
n   Construction Mitigation Calculator (Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District):
    The purpose of this MS Excel tool is to calculate emissions from construction activities to see if
    the levels are below required thresholds. This tool can be used to estimate total PM and NOX
    emissions for a cleanup project. www.airquality.org/ceqa/index.shtml#construction
n   Idle Reduction Savings Calculator (Argonne National Laboratory'): While this tool was developed
    with a focus on on-road vehicles, it can provide approximate values for emissions savings from
    idle reduction of off-road vehicles. Follow the link in  the right side navigation bar.
    www.transportation.anl.gov/research/technology analysis/idling.html

Clean Diesel Informational and Technical Assistance Resources
n   Alternative Fuel Station Locater Website (EERE): Visit this website to find a biodiesel, natural
    gas, or ethanol fueling station,  www.eere.energv.gov/afdc/infrastructure/locator.html
n   Diesel Technology Forum: The Diesel Technology Forum is a non-profit educational organization
    that provides information on cleaner and alternative fuels and cleaner diesel technology.
    www.dieselforum.org
n   Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association (MEGA): Go to MECA's website for information
    on  diesel emission reduction technologies and manufacturers of diesel retrofits,  www.meca.org
n   National Biodiesel Board: The  National Biodiesel Board is the national trade association for the
    biodiesel industry. Visit their website for more information on biodiesel and locations of biodiesel
    distributors, www.biodiesel.org
n   Off-road Diesel Retrofit Guidance Document (Western Regional Air Partnership [WRAP],
    November 2005): The WRAP is a voluntary organization of western states,  tribes and federal
    agencies. It was  formed in 1997 as the successor to the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport
    Commission to help the region  comply with  EPA's regional haze regulations. Use this document
    to help guide you through retrofitting a fleet, www.wrapair.org/forums/msf/offroad diesel.html
n   EPA National Clean Diesel Campaign (NCDC): The  National Clean Diesel Campaign is an
    OTAQ program.  NCDC is a public-private partnership that collaborates with businesses,
    government and  community organizations, industry,  and others to reduce diesel emissions and
    protect human health and the environment,  www.epa.gov/cleandiesel
    Go to www.epa.gov/cleandiesel/publications.htm for informational publications.
n   EPA Office of Air and Radiation: Visit this website for more information on diesel PM.
    www.epa.gov/airtrends/pm.html
n   West Coast Collaborative: The  West Coast  Collaborative is the NCDC regional collaborative  that
    serves Alaska, Arizona, California, Canada, Hawaii,  Idaho, Mexico, Oregon, and Washington.
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   Contact the West Coast Collaborative for assistance in reducing diesel emissions.
   www.westcoastcollaborative.org
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APPENDIX I:  ERRS AND RAC CONTRACT LANGUAGE
ERRS Language

Region 9 Emergency and Rapid Response Service (ERRS) contracts include the following diesel
emissions reduction language.

       CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES
       The contractor will use clean technologies and/or fuels on all diesel equipment to the
       extent practicable and/or feasible. The preference is for clean diesel technologies,
       but alterative fuels, such as biodiesel or natural gas-powered vehicles are also
       acceptable. These alternative fuels will  be used where they are available and within
       a reasonable distance to sites.  For equipment retrofits, the contractor will  employ the
       Best Available Control Technology (BACT) on non-road and on-road diesel powered
       equipment used at a site.  Examples of clean diesel technologies include diesel
       particulate filters (DPFs), and diesel oxidation catalysis (DOCs). For alternative fuel
       usage, the contractor will use at least a B20 blend (e.g., 20 percent biodiesel and 80
       percent petrodiesel) or higher in the equipment engines that are used at a site.

RAC Language

Region 9 Response Action Contracts (RAC) include the following diesel emissions reduction and
renewable energy use language.

       Clean Air

       In the performance of all activities performed under this contract, the contractor shall
       where directed by EPA use cleaner engines, cleaner fuel and cleaner diesel control
       technology on diesel powered equipment with engines greater than 50 horsepower
       whether the equipment is owned or rented. Direction will be provided on a Task
       Order by Task Order basis. The contractor shall provide  a break-out cost for each
       task order in  accordance with the instruction in contract clause addressing
       submission of cost proposal.

       Cleaner engines include non-road engines meeting Tier I or cleaner standards and
       on-road engines meeting 2004 On-Highway Heavy Duty Engine Emissions
       Standards or cleaner, whether the equipment is  owned or rented.  Cleaner fuels
       include biodiesel blends or ultra low sulfur diesel. Cleaner diesel control technology
       includes EPA or California Air Resources Board ("CARB") verified diesel particulate
       filters ("DPFs") or diesel oxidation catalysts ("DOCs").  The contractor shall track
       emissions reduced (i.e., tons of diesel particulate matter reduced) associated with
       using cleaner diesel equipment and fuels.

       Renewable Energy

       The contractor shall evaluate all reasonably feasible renewable energy sources when
       conducting work related to selecting a cleanup remedy, constructing a cleanup
       remedy, and when optimizing an existing cleanup remedy.  Sources of renewable
       energy include solar, wind, and biomass and biogas.  Examples of renewable energy
       technologies include photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, digesters, gasifiers, and
       micro turbines. Part of evaluating renewable energy sources and technologies will
       involve a cost analysis, comparing the energy costs from renewable sources versus
Appendix I: ERRS and RAC Contract Language                                           124
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       traditional electricity sources provided by local utilities, over the expected life of the
       cleanup remedy. Similarly, an evaluation of the avoided emissions as a result of
       using renewable energy sources versus traditional energy sources provided by local
       utilities shall be performed.  The contractor shall also evaluate the cost of purchasing
       green power from organizations that offer green power within the appropriate state.
Appendix I:  ERRS and RAC Contract Language                                            125
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APPENDIX II:  FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND GOALS	


The following are some federal regulations and goals that pertain to reducing GHGs and diesel
emissions.
n  Diesel Emissions Reduction Act of 2005 (DERA): DERA authorizes $200 million per year over
   five years in grants and loans for states and organizations to clean up existing diesel fleets.
n  EPA Administrator's Action Plan:280 This plan aims to provide certainty for consumers and
   protect the environment by seeking passage of Clear Skies (www.epa.gov/clearskies')  legislation;
   expand the use of biofuels and promote diesel emissions reductions through retrofit and other
   technologies; promote clean air and energy security through voluntary conservation programs,
   such as Energy Star (www.energystar.gov) and SmartWay Transport (www.epa.gov/smartway);
   and make timely permitting decisions and foster technological innovations to support the clean
   development of domestic energy resources (oil, gas, nuclear, coal, wind, and solar).
n  EPA Region 9 Energy and Climate Change Strategy:281  Included in this strategy is the
   promotion of renewable energy production on contaminated sites by working with land owners
   and utilities to encourage the production/use of renewable energy on revitalized lands.
n  Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007:282 Signed into law by President George W.
   Bush on December 17, 2007, this act increases renewable fuel standards and raises fuel
   economy standards for cars, trucks, and SUVs.  It also aims to further develop carbon  capture
   technology.
n  Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005:283  The EPAct 2005 was passed by Congress on June 29,
   2005 and signed  into  law by President George W. Bush on August 8, 2005.  It addresses
   growing energy problems, provides tax incentives and loan guarantees for energy production of
   various types.  Each federal agency is required to increase renewable energy use and reduce
   energy intensity.  Federal agencies are also required to purchase products that are Energy Star-
   qualified (www.energystar.gov) or designated by the Federal Energy Management Program
   (FEMP) (www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/procurement/index.html).
n  Executive Order (EQ) 13134 "Developing and Promoting Bio-based Products and Bioenergy":284
   Issued August 12, 1999, EO 13134 develops a comprehensive national strategy, including
   research, development, and private sector incentives,  to stimulate the creation and early
   adoption of technologies needed to make bio-based products and bioenergy cost-competitive in
   large national and international markets.
n  Executive Order 13148 "Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental
   Management":285  Issued April 22, 2000, EO  13148 encourages integrating environmental
   accountability into agency day-to-day decision-making and long-term planning processes, across
   all agency missions, activities, and functions.  It stresses that environmental management
   considerations must be a fundamental and integral component of Federal Government policies,
   operations, planning,  and management.
Appendix II:  Federal Regulations and Goals                                               126
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    Executive Order 13221 "Energy-Efficient Standby Power Devices":286 Signed on July 31, 2001,
    EO 13221 calls for Federal agencies to purchase products that use minimal standby power when
    possible.
    Executive Order 13423 "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation
    Management":287  Signed on January 24, 2007, EO 13423 mandates new sustainability goals for
    the federal government that match or exceed previous statutory and EO requirements. It
    mandates an annual 3 percent reduction and cumulative 30 percent reduction in energy intensity
    by 2015 (compared to a fiscal year 2003 baseline) and requires that 50 percent of current
    renewable energy purchases come from new renewable sources—sources that have been
    developed after January  1,  1999. This requirement seeks to reduce GHG emissions and
    achieve in 10 years the same level of energy efficiency improvement that federal agencies
    achieved in the last 20 years. EO 13423 is 50 percent more stringent than the requirements of
    EPActof2005.
    Executive Order 13432 "Cooperation Among Agencies in Protecting the Environment With
    Respect to Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Motor Vehicles, Nonroad Vehicles, and Nonroad
    Engines": Signed on May 14, 2007, EO 13432 requires EPA to protect the environment with
    respect to GHG emissions from motor vehicles, non-road vehicles, and non-road engines. The
    Order calls for EPA to work in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)
    and the DOE in conducting research and developing policy.  Key considerations in developing
    policy include sound science, analysis of costs and benefits, public safety, and economic growth.
    Greening EPA:288 EPA continuously works to reduce the environmental impact of its facilities
    and operations, from building new, environmentally sustainable structures to improving the
    energy efficiency of older buildings. EPA is striving to significantly reduce its  reliance on energy
    sources that emit GHGs. For more information, go to www.epa.gov/greeningepa. The EPA
    purchases Green Tags to offset 100 percent of its energy use in EPA facilities nationwide. The
    EPA strives to  acquire alternative fuel vehicles, reduce its use of petroleum fuel, (improving its
    own fleet fuel efficiency by 3 percent annually) and encourage private sector organizations to
    follow its lead.  Go to www.epa.gov/greeningepa/greenfleet for more information.
    National Clean Diesel Campaign (NCDC): The NCDC is a public-private partnership that
    collaborates with businesses, government and community organizations, industry, and others to
    reduce diesel emissions. NCDC is a program within EPA's Office of Transportation and Air
    Quality (OTAQ); contacts are in each  EPA region. For more information, go  to
    www.epa.gov/cleandiesel.
Appendix II:  Federal Regulations and Goals                                              127
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APPENDIX III:  SOLAR POWER
MORE SOLAR PV TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Azimuth  Horizontal angle between a point in the sky and true north
    (Fig. 50).  To optimize annual energy production, solar arrays
    should be oriented to face true south,  i.e., with an azimuth of 180°.

Insolation Amount of solar energy received on a given area over time
                                                  2\ 290
                                                                           North 0°
                                                                            180°
                                                                    Figure 50 Azimuth.  Image
                                                                        courtesy CSI289
    measured in kilowatt-hours per square meter (kWh/m ).
Irradiance The direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation that strikes
    a surface. Usually expressed in kilowatts per square meter
    (kW/m2). Irradiance multiplied by time is insolation.291
Peak Sun Hours  Peak sun hours are the hours equivalent to the number of hours per day with solar
    irradiance equaling 1,000 W/m2. To determine peak sun hours, determine the energy from total
    sunlight throughout the day.  Next, determine how many hours with solar irradiance equaling
    1,000 W/m2 this equates to. This is equal to peak sun hours.  In other words, six peak sun hours
    means that the energy received during total daylight hours equals the energy that would have
    been received had the sun shone for six hours with an irradiance of 1,000 W/m .
                                                                         ,2 292
                                                       Tilt aiisle 15 measured from the horizontal
                                                Figure 51 Tilt angle. Image courtesy Solar On-Line
Tilt Angle Angle between the horizontal and the
   solar panel (Fig. 51). For maximum average
   annual insolation for a fixed-tilt PV system,
   the tilt angle should be equal to the latitude of
   the site.  For maximum average insolation in
   summer months, the tilt angle should be
   equal to the latitude minus 15°. For
   maximum average insolation in winter
   months, the tilt angle should be equal to the
   latitude plus 15°.

For more solar energy terms, go to EERE's Solar Glossary
(wwwl .eere.enerqv.gov/solar/solar qlossary.html).

SOLAR PV TECHNOLOGY
Solar Cell294
PV cells are composed of at least two layers of semiconductor material, commonly silicon.  Silicon
has a valence of four, meaning that there are four electrons in its outer orbital.  Each silicon atom
shares one of its valence electrons with each of its closest neighboring atom in a covalent bond.
Appendix III: Solar Power
                                                                                      128
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                                                                     CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                            DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
These electrons can be knocked loose by a photon,
creating an electron-hole pair. The "hole" refers to
the positive charge created by the  loss of the freed
electron. Electrons and holes can  migrate given an
electric field within the material. The strength of the
current depends on the concentration density of free
electrons and holes. A small fraction of the silicon
atoms can be substituted with a different element, a
process known as doping. An "n" type
semiconductor is doped with an element  having 5
valence electrons, usually phosphorus, making the
layer negatively charged (Fig. 52).

A "p" type semiconductor is doped with boron which
has three valence electrons to create holes.  A small
amount of these impurities in the silicon does not
alter the lattice  structure but allows
electrons on the n-type to  be more easily
freed and creates holes on the p-type
semiconductor.  Photons striking the cell
releases electrons from the negative layer
and they flow towards the positive  layer
(Fig. 53). A metal wire is placed
separately on the p and n  side to power a
load with the induced current.
                                                       Norfaal
                                                       bond
                                                                                  Phosphorus
                                                                                  atom
                                                                                     Extra
                                                                                     unbound
                                                                                     electron
                                                      Figure 52 Substituting a phosphorus atom (with
                                                     five valence electrons) for a silicon atom in a silicon
                                                      crystal leaves an extra, unbonded electron that is
                                                      relatively free to move around the crystal. Image
                                                                  courtesy EERE
                                                                               295
                                             n-h'pe
                                             p-typc
                                                                                 pn-j unction
                                                             back contact
                                            Figure 53  The pn-junction of a solar PV cell.  Image courtesy
                                                  Special Materials and Research Technology296
                                                         297
Series and Parallel Circuits
Each PV module is rated at a certain
voltage and amperage.  A 50-watt PV
module is nominally 12 volts (DC) and three amps in full sun/M' PV modules can be wired together
to obtain different volts and amps to better suit the electricity needs of the site (Fig. 54).  By wiring
modules or batteries in series, voltage additively increases while amps do not change. Wiring
modules or batteries in parallel will increase amps additively but voltage stays the same. To  obtain
required amps and voltages, modules and batteries may be wired with a combination of series and
parallel circuits.298
Appendix III: Solar Power
                                                                                           129
 image: 








                                                         :           CLEANUP - CLEAN AIR
                                                         !  DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
                                                     If
m



1 i: ! •
iiMDOG)
ill

                                    6 Amps
                                   at 12 Volts
                                                          Mi
                                                   IQIIMi
                                                      JilMB
                                              OOIIMII
                                                  HIHII
                                 ©
                               3 Amps
                              at 24 Volt:
                                 ©
       3 Amps
      at 12 Volts
 3 Amps
at 12 Volls
 3 Amps
at 12 Volts
 3 Amps
at 12 Volts
           Figure 54  Parallel circuit (left) and series circuit (right). Images courtesy Solar On-Line
Batteries
A battery is defined as two or more electrochemical cells enclosed in a container and electrically
interconnected in an appropriate series/parallel arrangement to provide the required operating
voltage and current levels. 30°  Batteries can be used with any renewable energy system to store
electricity for later use when the renewable energy system is not generating enough energy for a
cleanup site's  operations.  For sites that are not grid-tied, batteries should be included in the
renewable energy project if a  constant electricity source is necessary. In these cases, the
renewable energy system must be sized to provide enough electricity to power your site as well as
charge the battery. Sites that are grid-tied can still consider including a battery to reduce reliance on
the grid. There are many types of rechargeable batteries that can be used with your project. The
two main categories of battery technology are lead-acid and alkaline.  Lead-acid  batteries are used
with most renewable energy projects.301
Lead-Acid:  Lead-acid batteries are rechargeable, widely available, relatively inexpensive compared
    to alkaline batteries, easily maintained, and has comparable longevity for the price. Lead-acid
    batteries are distinguished between deep cycle and shallow cycle batteries.
                                                                         302
Deep cycle: Lead-acid deep cycle batteries may be discharged for an extended amount of time up
    to 80 percent of their rated capacity and are compatible with renewable energy projects.  Two
    types of deep cycle lead acid batteries are liquid electrolyte and captive electrolyte batteries.
Lead-acid deep cycle liquid electrolyte: Liquid electrolyte batteries are found on golf carts and
    forklifts. Most renewable energy systems use these batteries (Fig. 55). They vent hydrogen gas
    that is produced as the battery nears full charge. Some batteries may require  periodic filling as
    water is lost through the vent.  A properly sized and maintained deep-cycle liquid electrolyte
    lead-acid batter will last 3-10 years. The life of a battery depends on temperature and how
    deeply the batteries are discharged.  A battery cycle is one complete discharge and
Appendix III:  Solar Power
                                                                      130
 image: 








    charge.  Batteries that operate on a cycle
    that discharges to 50 percent of capacity will
    last about twice as long as batteries that are
    discharged to 80 percent.
                           304
                                                 Container
                                                          Sediment Space
                                                                                    tn\ elope
                                                                                    Scperalors
                                                                              Negative Plate
Lead-acid deep cycle captive electrolyte:
    Captive electrolyte batteries do not have a
    vent for electrolytes to escape. Therefore
    they require minimal maintenance though
    they are about twice as expensive as liquid
    electrolyte batteries.  Less power is
    available in cold temperatures and high
    temperatures decrease battery life.
Shallow Cycle: Shallow cycle batteries, like car
    batteries, are discharged for a very short
    duration and are  not recommended for
    renewable energy system use.
Alkaline Batteries: Alkaline batteries have higher voltages compared to lead acid batteries. They
    are  not as effected by temperatures, can be deeply discharged, and have a useful life of about
    30 years. They are significantly more  expensive than lead-acid batteries.  These are
    recommended for remote areas with extreme temperatures in cases where costs are not the
                                                                          Terminal Posts
                                                  Vent Plugs
  Coser


  Plate Lugs

Positive Plate
                                                 Figure 55 Liquid electrolyte lead-acid battery.  Image
                                                            courtesy Solar On-Line
                                                                               303
    most important issue.
                       305
To properly size a battery for a renewable energy system, one must consider the following:306
Days of autonomy This refers to the number of days a battery system will provide enough energy for
    a load without recharging
Battery capacity Battery capacity is rated in amp-hours (AH).  Theoretically, a "100 AH battery" will
    deliver one amp for 100 hours or roughly two amps for 50 hours before the battery is considered
    fully discharged.
Rate and depth of discharge The rate at which a battery is discharged directly affects its capacity.
    Discharging a battery over a shorter amount of time decreases its capacity.  The depth of
    discharge  refers to how much electricity is withdrawn from the battery.  Shallow depths of
    discharge, which is to draw  little energy from the battery compared to the battery capacity,
    prolongs battery life.
Life expectancy Life expectancy for batteries is measured in number of cycles (one discharge  and
    one charge).  Batteries lose capacity overtime and are considered to be at the end of their lives
    when 20 percent of their original capacity is lost.
Environmental conditions Battery capacity is reduced at extreme temperatures.
Appendix III:  Solar Power
                                                                                          131
 image: 








To estimate the number of batteries you would need, look at the specifications offered for a battery
and use the following equations (Fig. 56).
AC Average
Daily Load
[(
Average
Aniphours dav

DC System
Voltage

-=-
-:-
X
X
-r
-i.
Inverter
Efficiency
)
Davs of
Autonomv

Battery
Voltaee

Battery Specification
+
+
-=-
-I-
=
=
DC Average
Daily Load
]
Discharee
Limit

Batteries in
Series

-^
-^
-^
~
X
X
DC System
Voltaae

Batteiy Ah
Capacity

Batteries in
Parallel

Make:
—
=
=
=
=
=
Average Amphotirs
Day

Batteries m parallel

Total Batteries

Model:
              Figure 56 Estimate number of batteries needed.  Image courtesy Solar On-Line
                                                                              307
Controllers308
Controllers prevent batteries from being overcharged by the PV system and overly discharged by the
load.  The size of the controller is measured by its amps. Controllers can be wired in parallel if high
currents are necessary. There are four different types of PV controls:
       Shunt Controllers - Shunt controllers are designed for small systems and prevent
       overcharging by "shunting" or by-passing the batteries when they are fully charged.  Excess
       power is converted into heat.
    .   Single-stage Controllers - Single-stage controllers switch the current off when the battery
       voltage reaches a  certain pre-set value and reconnect the array and battery if the voltage
       falls below a certain value.
    .   Multi-stage Controllers - Multi-stage controllers establish different charging currents
       depending on the battery's state-of-charge.
    .   Pulse Controllers - Pulse controllers rapidly switch the full charging current on and off when
       the battery voltage reaches the pre-set charge termination point.

Inverters309
Inverters are necessary to change DC electricity produced by  PV modules and stored in batteries to
alternating current for use  in AC  loads. They are also needed to feed electricity into the utility grid.
For grid-tied PV systems, contact the utility for inverter requirements.
Optimal features of an  inverter:
       High efficiency  - converts 80 percent or more of direct current input into alternating current
       output
       Low standby losses - highly efficient when no loads are operating
       High surge capacity - able to provide high current often  required to start motors or run
       simultaneous loads
       Frequency regulation - maintains 60 Hertz output over a variety of input conditions
Appendix III:  Solar Power
132
 image: 








       Harmonic distortion - can "smooth out" unwanted output peaks to minimize harmful heating
       effects on appliances
       Serviceability - easily field-replaced modular circuitry
       Reliability - provide dependable long-term low maintenance service
   .   Automatic warning or shut-off- protective circuits which guard the system
       Power correction factor - maintains optimum balance between power source and load
       requirements
   .   Lightweight - to facilitate convenient installation and service
       Battery charging capability - allows the inverter to be used as a battery charger
   .   Low cost - inverters are about $700 per kW

Inverter Types
   Inverters can be sorted into two categories.  Synchronous (also known as line-tied) inverters are
   used with grid-tied PV systems.  Static inverters are used with non-grid-tied PV systems.
   Inverters also produce different wave forms:
            Square Wave Inverters - appropriate for small resistive heating loads, some small
            appliances and incandescent lights
        .   Modified Sine Wave Inverters - appropriate for operating motors, lights, and standard
            electronic equipment
        .   Sine Wave Inverters - appropriate for sensitive electronic hardware

MORE QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR POTENTIAL SOLAR  INSTALLER310
   .   Is the company a full service or specialty firm?
       How long has the company been in business?
   .   How many projects like yours have they completed in the past year? In the past three
       years?
       Can they provide a list  of references for those projects?
   .   What PV training or certification do they have?
       What can they tell you  about local, state and national incentives?
       How much do they know about zoning and electrical requirements and codes?
   .   Do they offer adequate warranties?
   .   Does the company carry workers' compensation and liability insurance?  Do their
       subcontractors, if applicable, carry liability insurance? Can they show you a copy of their
       policy?
       What permits are needed for this project? Who is going to obtain and pay for them?
   .   If applicable, will the city require a structural review of the roof by an architect or  professional
       engineer? Who will pay for this service?
Appendix III: Solar Power                                                               133
 image: 








       Will they provide written guarantees on all materials and workmanship?
       What is the exact schedule of payments to be made? Besides materials and labor, does the
       estimate include sales tax, permit fees, structural analysis fees, interconnection fees, and
       shipping costs?
       How soon can they respond to a service call if the PV system is not working properly? Would
       they be the one to repair the system?
       What service do they offer after installation? Do they offer updates of manuals and
       catalogues?
       Ask for a  cost estimate.  Do they include the type of mounting requested, type of solar PV,
       etc? Ask for peak and average kW output estimates for specific conditions and seasons
       (sunny, summer, etc.) to be included in the bid.  For battery systems, ask for specifications
       on battery capacity, recharging times, and the recharging cycle that will be used.  Less
       expensive estimates may not include a service or device or may have hidden costs.
CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER (CSP)312

Concentrated solar power technology can also convert
solar power into electricity. Mirrors are oriented to focus
heat from the sun to heat a liquid or gas in a tube to very
high temperatures (Fig. 57). Energy from the liquid or
gas can then be utilized in steam engine generators.
CSP technology is less expensive than PV.  However,
current concentrated solar power projects are usually
constructed at a large scale of greater than one MW, and
may exceed the electrical  needs of a cleanup.
Companies that tailor CSP projects for industrial sectors
are emerging. Go to www.nrel.gov/learning/re csp.html
for more information.
                                                        Figure 57 Parabolic-trough concentrating
                                                      solar power system.  Image courtesy NREL
 311
Appendix III: Solar Power
134
 image: 








                                                                  CLEANUP-CLEAN AIR
                                                         DIESEL EMISSIONS & GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS
APPENDIX IV: WIND POWER
WIND TECHNOLOGY

Extracting Energy from Wind
The theoretical maximum efficiency for a wind turbine is 59 percent (the Betz limit).  It is not possible
to extract all the energy from wind. If total kinetic (motion) energy were extracted, there would be no
wind passing through the turbine.  You would need a solid disk to trap all the wind.  But if this were
the case, the wind would blow around the solid disk and no energy would be captured. Thus, wind
blades can extract only a portion of the total wind energy.
313
When air passes over a wind turbine's blade, it travels faster over the top of the blade than it does
below. This makes the air pressure above the blade lower than it is underneath.  Due to the unequal
pressures the blade experiences a lifting force, causing the blades to spin. Since the wind turbine
captured some kinetic energy from the wind, wind blows more slowly downwind of the turbine.
                                 314
       315
Towers
A general rule of thumb is to install a wind turbine on a tower with the bottom of the rotor blades at
least 30 feet (9.1 meters) above any obstacle that is within 300 feet (91 meters) of the tower.
Relatively small investments in increased tower height can yield very high rates of return in power
production. For instance,  a 10-kW turbine on a 100-foot tower costs 10 percent more than a 10-kW
turbine on  a 60-foot tower, but it can produce 29 percent more power.
There are two basic types of towers: self-supporting (free
standing) and guyed.  Most small wind power systems use
a guyed tower. Guyed towers, which are the least
expensive, can consist of lattice sections, pipe, or tubing
(depending on the design), and supporting  guy wires (Fig.
58).  They are easier to install than self-supporting towers.
However, because the radius of the circle created by guy
wires must be one-half to three-quarters of the tower height,
guyed towers require enough space to accommodate them.
You may also opt to install tilt-down towers (Fig. 59), which
lower the system to the ground for maintenance or during
hazardous weather such as hurricanes. Although tilt-down
towers are more expensive, they offer the consumer an
easy way to perform maintenance on smaller light-weight
turbines, usually 5-kW or less.
                                                        Figure 58  A 10-kW wind turbine with guyed
                                                          lattice tower. Image courtesy NREL
                                   316
Appendix IV:  Wind Power
                                    135
 image: 








Aluminum towers are prone to
cracking and should be avoided.
Most turbine manufacturers
provide wind energy system
packages that include towers.
Mounting turbines on rooftops is
not recommended since
vibrations from the turbines may
damage buildings.  This can
lead to noise and structural
problems with the building.
Rooftops can also cause
excessive turbulence that can
shorten the  life of a turbine.
                Tilt-Down Tower
Tilt-up tower in the
lowered position for
maintenance or
hurricanes
Tilt-up tower
in the normal
operating
position
                                                    LT
                                              02979011m
Figure 59  Tilt-down tower schematic. Image courtesy EERE
                                                 317
CALCULATING WIND TURBINE OUTPUT POWER
See Box 11 for equations on estimating wind turbine output power with assumptions of blade length.
                                Box 11  Wind Turbine Output Power318
               Step 1: Calculate swept area
                                          A = 3.14* r2
               A = swept area
               r = radius, length of one blade, one-half of the diameter of the rotor
               Step 2'. Calculate power in the swept area
                                        P = 0.5 * p * A * V3

               P = power in watts (746 watts = 1 hp) (1,000 watts = 1 kilowatt)
               p = air density (about 1.225 kg/m3 at sea level, less higher up)
               A= swept area (m2)
               V = wind speed in meters/sec (20 mph  = 9 m/s) (2.24 mph = 1 m/s)
               Step 3:  Calculate wind turbine power
                                  P = 0.5 * p * A * Cp * V3 * Ng * Nb

               P = power in watts (746 watts = 1 hp) (1,000 watts = 1 kilowatt)
               p = air density (about 1.225 kg/m3 at sea level, less at higher altitudes)
               A= swept area (m2)
               Cp = Coefficient of performance (0.59 [Betz limit] is the maximum theoretically
                 possible, 0.35 for a good design)
               V = wind speed in m/s (20 mph = 9 m/s)
               Ng = generator efficiency (0.50 for car alternator, 0.80 or possibly more for a
                 permanent magnet generator or grid-connected induction generator)
               Nb = gearbox/bearings efficiency (depends, could be as high as 0.95)
Appendix IV: Wind Power
                                                    136
 image: 








APPENDIX V:   LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION WORKSHEET
Use the following worksheet to complete a preliminary feasibility evaluation of a LFGE project for an
MSW landfill.  (Worksheet created by LMOP)
                    Landfill Gas to Energy Project Preliminary Evaluation Worksheet319
A. Is your landfill a municipal solid waste landfill?
If not, you may encounter some additional issues in project development due to the presence of hazardous or non-
organic waste in the landfill.  Stop and consult an energy recovery expert.
B. Add your score for the next three questions:
    1. How much MSW is in your landfill?
        Tons                   Score
        Greater than 3 million     40
        1-3 million               30
        0.75-1 million            20
        Less than 0.75 million     10             +Score	
    2. Is your fill area at least 40 feet deep?
        Yes = 5
        No = 0                                 +Score
    3.  Is your landfill currently open? If yes, answer 3(a).  If no, answer 3(b).
      (a) How much waste will be received in the next 10 years? For each 500,000 tons, score 5 points.
      Total tons •*• 500,000 tons x 5 points =         +Score	
      (b) If closed for less than one year, enter 0. If closed for one year or more, multiply each year since the
      closure by 5, and subtract that amount from the total score
      Years since closure x 5 points =             -Score	
      Total your answers to questions 1-3:         Total Score	
C. If your score is:
> 30:  Your landfill is a good candidate for energy recovery (go to section D).
20-30: Your landfill may not be a good candidate for conventional energy recovery option. However, you may want to
consider on-site or alternative uses for the landfill gas.
D. If your landfill is a good candidate, answer the following two questions:
    1. Are you now collecting  gas at your landfill (other than from perimeter wells), or do you plan to do so soon for
    regulatory or other reasons? If yes, your landfill may be an excellent candidate for energy recovery.
    2.  (a)  Is annual rainfall less than or equal to 25 inches a year?
       (b)  Is construction and demolition waste  mixed into the municipal waste or is it a large portion of total waste?
If YES to questions D.2(a) or (b), your annual landfill gas production may be lower than otherwise expected.  Your
landfill may still be a strong candidate, but you may want to lower your estimated gas volumes slightly during project
design and evaluation.
Appendix V:  Landfill Gas-to-Energy                                                             137
 image: 








COMBINED HEAT AND POWER (CHP)320

Combined heat and power, also known as cogeneration, is an approach that increases efficiency
from prime movers by generating and utilizing both electricity and heat. In conventional electricity
generation, the electricity produced is utilized but the co-produced heat is often wasted.  About 75
percent of fuel energy input into an engine is output as heat.  In CHP applications, this waste heat is
captured for space heating, water heating, steam generation to run a steam turbine, and cooling.
Heat exchangers can recover up to 7,000 BTUs of heat per hour for each KW of the generator load.
Utilizing waste heat can  increase efficiency to 40-50 percent.
Go to EPA's Combined Heat and Power Partnership website (www.epa.gov/chp/') and see the
EPA's Combined Heat and Power Partnership Catalogue of CHP Technologies
(www.epa.gov/CHP/basic/catalog.html') for more information.

ELECTRICITY GENERATION
Details are provided below for the prime movers mentioned this guide.  These include reciprocating
engines, gas turbines, microturbines, boilers and steam engines, and fuel cells.
Reciprocating Engines / Internal Combustion (IC)Engine

Reciprocating engines, also called internal
combustion engines, are a widespread
and well-known technology. They require
fuel, air, compression, and a combustion
source to function. The two categories
they generally fall into are (1) spark-
ignited engines, typically fueled by
gasoline, natural gas or landfill gas, and
(2) compression-ignited engines, typically
fueled by diesel fuel.
                  322
                                                           V     -v"-/
                                              IT        tt        ff       ff
                                                         '4
    INTAKE   COMPRESSION   POWER    EXHAUST

Figure 60 Reciprocating engine cycle. Image courtesy EERE3
How Does a Reciprocating Engine Work?
Four-stroke spark-ignited reciprocating engine process (Fig. 60):323
Intake: As the piston moves downward in its cylinder, the intake valve opens and the upper portion
   of the cylinder fills with fuel and air.
Compression: When the piston returns upward in the compression cycle, the spark plug emits a
   spark to ignite the fuel/air mixture.
Power: The piston is forced down, thereby turning the crank shaft and producing power.
Exhaust:  The piston moves back up to its original position and the spent mixture is expelled through
   the open exhaust valve.
Appendix V:  Landfill Gas-to-Energy
                                                                                     138
 image: 








Applicability
Reciprocating engines can be used for landfill gas or biogas and are used in a wide variety of
applications because of their relatively small size, low unit costs, and useful thermal output. For
power generation, reciprocating engines are available in sizes ranging from a few kilowatts to over 5
MW.324  The main advantage of reciprocating engines as compared to other power generation
technologies is a better heat rate at lower capacities. Heat rate is the amount of gas needed to
generate one kWh of electricity, and is closely related to system efficiency.  The heat rate for a
typical reciprocating engine plant is 10,600 BTU/kWh.325 Another advantage of reciprocating
engines is that the units are available in different incremental capacities, which  makes it easy to
tailor the 1C engine size to the specific gas  production rates of a landfill or digester.
Reciprocating engines are the most widely  used prime movers for LFG-fired electric power
generation.326 Worldwide, there are more than 200 LFG-fired reciprocating engine power plants.327
Reciprocating engines with power output from 0.1 MWto 3.0 MWhave been proven suitable with
landfill gas.328

Disadvantages of Reciprocating Engines
An important disadvantage of reciprocating engines is that they produce higher emissions of NOX,
CO, and NMOCs than other electric power  generation technologies. However,  significant progress
has been made  in reducing NOX emissions  in recent years. A second disadvantage to reciprocating
engines is that their operation/maintenance costs on a per kWh basis are higher than for other
power generation technologies. In general, reciprocating engines require a relatively simple LFG or
biogas pretreatment process consisting of compression and removal of free moisture.329 Water
droplets are removed by the use of simple moisture separators (knockout drums), cooling of the
biogas in ambient air-to-gas  heat exchangers, and coalescing-type filters. Through compression
and cooling, some of the NMOCs in the LFG are removed. The reciprocating engines can require 3-
60 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) of  fuel pressure.330

Information Resources
n  EERE Distributed Energy Program Web Page:  More information on gas-fired reciprocating
   engines, www.eere.energy.gov/de/gas fired/
n  The California Energy Commission's Distributed Energy Resource Guide:  More information on
   performance, costs, strengths and weaknesses, and vendors of electricity generation equipment.
   www.enerqv.ca.qov/distqen/equipment/equipment.html

Combustion (Gas) Turbine (CT)
Landfill gas, digester biogas, and gasifier syngas can be used in gas turbines to produce heat and
electricity. Gas turbines are heat engines that use high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the fuel.
A portion of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work.
Appendix V: Landfill Gas-to-Energy                                                       139
 image: 








How Does a Gas Turbine Work?
High-temperature and high-pressure gas rushes out of the combustor and pushes against the
turbine blades, causing them to rotate.  Gas turbines are often referred to as "combustion" turbines
because in most cases, hot gas is produced by burning a fuel in air.  Gas turbines are used widely in
industry, universities and colleges, hospitals, and commercial buildings because they are compact,
lightweight, quick-starting, and simple to operate.331 Simple-cycle gas turbines convert a portion of
input energy from fuel to electricity. The remaining energy produces heat which is normally expelled
into the atmosphere.  Simple-cycle turbines have efficiencies of 21-40 percent.332  Combined-cycle
gas turbines utilize high-quality waste heat to generate steam to power another turbine.  The waste
heat can also be used for cooling (e.g., absorption chillers), space or water heating, and other power
applications. When taking advantage of the normally wasted heat, efficiencies increase to nearly 90
percent in some cases.333

Advantages and Disadvantages of a Gas Turbine
The main advantages of a CT as compared to a reciprocating engine are its lower air emissions and
lower operation/maintenance costs. The main drawback to the combustion turbine is its high net
heat rate.  Combustion turbine net heat rates vary from 12,200  BTU  per kWh to 16,400 BTU per
kWh.  Larger, new combustion turbines are more fuel efficient.  Combustion turbines require a higher
pressure fuel supply than reciprocating engines of 150-250 psig.  Two stages of LFG compression
are employed. Particles in the LFG have sometimes caused problems with the combustion turbine's
fuel injection nozzles. A small water wash  scrubber is normally provided in the pretreatment process
to prevent this problem.334
For more information performance, costs, strengths and weaknesses, and vendors of electricity
generation equipment, see The California Energy Commission's Distributed Energy Resource Guide
(www.energy.ca.gov/distgen/equipment/equipment.html').

Microturbines
Microturbines are a relatively new technology. They are small combustion turbines, approximately
the size of a refrigerator, with outputs of 30-250 kW.335 Microturbines are best suited for relatively
small applications that are less than 1  MW and for on-site electricity use or distribution to sites in
close proximity.336 They can be powered using landfill gas, digester  biogas, or natural gas.
Microturbines are ideal for LFGE or digester projects with low gas production or low methane
concentration. A 30-kW microturbine can power a 40-hp motor or supply energy to about 20
homes.337

How do Microturbines Work?
Landfill gas,  biogas,  or other fuel, is supplied to the combustor section of the microturbine at 70-80
psig of pressure. Air and fuel are burned in the combustor, releasing heat that causes the
combustion gas to expand. The expanding gas powers the gas turbine that in turn operates the
generator; the generator then produces electricity.  To increase overall efficiency, microturbines are
typically equipped with a recuperator that preheats the combustion air using turbine exhaust gas. A
Appendix V: Landfill Gas-to-Energy                                                       140
 image: 








microturbine can also be fitted with a waste heat recovery unit for auxiliary heating applications.
They are different from traditional combustion turbines because they spin at much faster speeds.338

Applicability339
Microturbines provide advantages over other electrical generation technologies for landfills in cases
where:
       LFG or biogas flow is low.
       LFG or biogas has low methane content.
    .   Air emissions, especially NOX, are of concern (i.e., in NOX nonattainment areas where the
       use of reciprocating engines might be precluded).
    .   Electricity produced will be used for on-site facilities rather than for export.
    .   Electricity supply is unreliable and electricity  prices are high.
       Hot water is needed on-site or nearby.

Advantages
Compared to other 1C engines, gas turbines and boiler steam-engine sets, microturbines have the
following advantages.
       Portable and easily sized.
    .   Compact and fewer moving parts.
       Require minimal operation and maintenance.
       Use of air bearings coupled with air-cooled generator eliminates the need for lubrication and
       liquid cooling systems.
       Lower pollutant emissions (e.g., NOX emissions levels from microturbines are typically less
       than one-tenth of those best-performing reciprocating engines and lower than those from
       LFG flares).
    .   Ability to generate heat and hot water.

Microturbine Concerns340
Microturbine long-term reliability and  operating costs are not yet confirmed. They also have  lower
efficiencies than reciprocating engines and other types of turbines, by as much as 55 percent.
Microturbines are more sensitive to siloxane contamination, so LFG needs more pretreatment
measures to be used in a microturbine than in conventional engines.

For More Information on Microturbines
n   EERE Distributed Energy Program Web Page : General information on microturbines.
    www.eere.enerqv.qov/de/microturbines/
n   "Powering Microturbines with  Landfill Gas" (EPA, LMOP): LFG-powered microturbine factsheet.
    www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/pwrng mcrtrbns.pdf
Appendix V: Landfill Gas-to-Energy                                                        141
 image: 








n   The California Enemy Commission's Distributed Enemy Resource Guide: More information on
    performance, costs, strengths and weaknesses, and vendors of electricity generation equipment.
    www.energy.ca.gov/distgen/equipment/equipment.html

Boilers and Steam Engines
Boilers and steam engines may use landfill gas, biogas, or syngas to produce electricity. They are
often most applicable for projects that can produce enough fuel for more than 10 MW of power.
Since the steam cycle power plant emit lower air emissions than either reciprocating engines or
combustion turbines, steam cycles have been  preferred in regions with stringent air quality
regulations, even when the size of the plant was relatively small.341  While landfills usually produce
less than 10 MW, more than 60 organizations  in the U.S.  are operating their boilers with LFG.342
The steam cycle is at an economic disadvantage when compared to reciprocating engines and
combustion turbines although the steam cycle power plant becomes more cost competitive as the
size of the plant increases.343 Net heat rates for the steam cycle are in the range of 11,000 BTU  per
kWh to 16,500 BTU perkWh. Steam cycles with higher temperature (1,000°F) and pressure (1,350
psig), air preheaters, and up to five stages of feedwater heating, increase efficiency. The least
efficient units operate at low temperature (650 °F) and pressure (750 psig), and are not equipped
with air preheaters or feedwater heaters.344
See LMOP's factsheet, "Adapting Boilers to Utilize Landfill Gas" for more information
(www.epa.qov/lmop/res/pdf/boilers.pdf).

Fuel Cells
Similar to a battery, fuel cells create electricity through the process of an electro-chemical  reaction.
This clean technology's byproducts are water and heat. The applicability of fuel cell use for is not
widely established for landfill gas, biogas, and syngas.  See the California Energy Commission
website on fuel cells for more information:
www.enerqv.ca.qov/distqen/equipment/fuel cells/fuel  cells.html.
Appendix V: Landfill Gas-to-Energy                                                       142
 image: 








APPENDIX VI:  ANAEROBIC  DIGESTION
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION CHECKLIST FOR MANURE FEEDSTOCK

                               Checklist to Assess Digester Potential345
1. Facility Characteristics
a. Do you have at least 500 cows/steer or 2,000 pigs at your facility?                   Yes n  No n
b. Are the animals confined year-round?                                           Yes n  No n
c. Is the animal population stable (varies less than 20% in a year)?                     Yes n  No n
If the answer is YES to all the above questions, your facility is in good shape. Proceed to the next section. If the
 answer is NO to one or more of the above questions, the production and utilization of biogas as a fuel may not be
 suitable for your facility.  For biogas production and utilization to succeed, a continuous and relatively consistent
 flow of biogas is required.

2. Manure  Management
a. Is manure  collected as a liquid (solids less than 4%), a slurry (solids less than 10%),
  or a semi-solid (solids less than 20%)?                                          Yes n  No n
b. Is the manure collected and delivered to one common point?                        Yes n  No n
c. Is manure collected daily or every other day?                                     Yes n  No n
d. Is the manure relatively free of clumps of bedding, rocks, stones, and straw?           Yes n  No n
If the answers are YES to all the above questions, manure management criterion is satisfied.  If the answer is NO to
 any of the questions, you may need to change your manure management routine.

3. Energy Use
a. Are there on-site uses for the energy recovered such as for heating, electricity,
  or refrigeration?                                                              Yes n  No n
b. Are there nearby facilities that could use the biogas?                              Yes n  No n
c. Are there electric utilities in your area that are willing to buy power from
  biogas projects?                                                             Yes n  No n
If the answer is YES to any of the above questions, the energy use criterion is satisfied for initial screening purposes.

4. Management
a. Is there a person available on the farm who can operate and maintain the
  technical equipment?                                                         Yes n  No n
b. If YES, can this person spend about 30 minutes a day to manage the system
  and 1-10 hours on occasional repair and maintenance?                            Yes n  No n
c. Will this  person be available to make repairs during high labor use
   events at the farm?                                                          Yes n  No n
d. Is technical support (access to repair parts and services) available?                  Yes n  No n
e. Will the owner be overseeing system operations?                                 Yes n  No n
If the answers are YES to all questions, there are promising options for gas recovery. Review the AgStar Handbook
 Chapter 3 (www.epa.gov/aqstar/pdf/handbookychapter3.pdf) to determine technical and economic feasibility of
 the project.  If the answer was NO to any of the questions, you may need to make some changes. Evaluate the
 cost of the required changes before proceeding.
Appendix VI:  Anaerobic Digestion                                                              143
 image: 








CALCULATING ENERGY POTENTIAL IN DAIRY MANURE346
                          How Much Power Can be Generated from 1,000 Dairy Cows?
     Step 1: How much biogas can be produced from a farm with 1,000 dairy cows?
     Assumptions:
             • One dairy cow weighing 1 ,000 pounds generates 1 0 pounds (dry weight) of volatile solids (VS) per
               day (Source: American Society of Agricultural Engineering Standard).
             • 60% of VS can be degraded during anaerobic digestion process.
             • 12 ft3 of biogas can be generated per pound of VS destroyed.
     Volume of biogas produced daily:

                     = 1,000^x10
                                    cow -day           lb(VS}         lb(VS)destroyed
                     = 72,000 ft3 biogas I day
     Step 2: What is the BTU content for the biogas produced from a farm with 1,000 cows?
     Assumptions:
             • Methane content in biogas is about 50%.
             • Energy content of methane is 1,000 Btu/ft3
     BTU content of the biogas produced:

                            = 72,000         x 5QQ/0           x 1,000
                                      day          ft3biogas    '    ft^methane
                           = 3 6,000,0005717/c/qy
     Step 3: How much power can be generated using the biogas produced from a farm with 1,000 cows?
     Assumption:
             • The efficiency of a biogas fueled engine is 24% (Engine-driven generator has a heat rate of-14,000
               BTU/kWh)
     Power production from 1,000 cows:

                                 = 36,000.000^x    lkWh   x  lday
                                              day   14,0005717  24hours
                                 = 107'kW
     Step 4: What is the estimated capital cost to install an anaerobic digestion to electricity system for a farm with
       1,000 cows?
     Assumption:
             • The capital cost for an anaerobic digestion to electricity system is: $2,500 per kW. Note: Does not
               account for economies of scale.
     Total estimated capital cost to build an anaerobic digestion system for a farm with 1,000 cows:

                                            =107^x^22
                                                       kW
                                            = $267,500
Appendix VI:  Anaerobic Digestion                                                             144
 image: 








DIGESTER BIOLOGY
Anaerobic digesters produce methane from anaerobic bacteria breaking down organic material.
Methane production in a digester is a three stage process (Fig. 61).  First, bacteria decompose the
organic matter into molecules such as sugar.  Second, another group of bacteria convert the
decomposed matter to organic acids.  Finally, the acids are converted to methane gas by methane-
forming bacteria.347
                 Step 1. Liquefaction |    Step 2. Acid Production  |
                     Liquefying
                     Bacteria
Acid-Forming
Bacteria
Step 3. Biogas Production  i End Products of Biogas
                    Production from Manure
       Methane-Formingl
      Complex organic
      matter (raw manure,
      milkhouse waste, fine
      bedding material)
Liquefied
soluble organic
compounds
                                                    Simple organic acids
                                                    (including odorous)
                                Insoluble compounds
                                (water, inorganic
                                material, insoluable
                               organic matter'
                        s
                      Biogas       \
                      (methane.CO2,  )
                      impurities)     /'
                                  Low-odor
                                  effluent
                                                   I
                                                                        I
                  Figure 61 Stages of biogas production. Courtesy Penn State University
Temperature is one of the most important factors in determining the rate of digestion and biogas
production.349 Anaerobic bacteria communities thrive best at temperatures of about 98°F (36.7°C)
(mesophilic) and 130°F (54.4°C) (thermophilic).350 Decomposition and biogas production occur
faster in thermophilic conditions than in the mesophilic range. However, thermophilic bacteria are
highly sensitive to  disturbances, such as changes in feed materials or temperature. Mesophilic
bacteria are less sensitive but the digester must be larger to accommodate for the longer HRT.
Also, while all anaerobic digesters reduce the viability of weed seeds  and pathogens, the higher
temperatures of thermophilic conditions result in more complete destruction.351  In most areas of the
United States, anaerobic digesters usually require some level of insulation and/or heating if outdoor
temperatures are too low. Digesters can be heated by circulating the coolant from the biogas-
powered engines in or around the digester.
Other digestion rate and  biogas production factors:
    pH: Optimum biogas production is achieved when the pH value of input mixture in the digester is
    between 6 and 7.352  In most digesters, the pH is self-regulating.  Bicarbonate of soda can be
    added to the digester to maintain a consistent pH.353
    Carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio: A C:N ratio ranging from 20:1 to 30:1 is considered optimum for
    anaerobic digestion.  Organic materials with high C:N ratio could be mixed with those with a low
    C:N ratio to bring the average ratio of the influent to a desirable level (Table 11).354
Appendix VI: Anaerobic Digestion
                                                  145
 image: 








Other factors that affect the rate and
amount of biogas output include the
liquid to solid ratio,  mixing of the
influent material, the particle size of
the feedstock, and  retention time.
Pre-sizing and mixing of the feed
material for a uniform consistency
allows the bacteria  to work more
quickly. It may be necessary to add
water to the feed material if it is too
dry or if the nitrogen content is very
high.  Occasional mixing of the
material inside the  digester can aid
the digestion process. Be aware that
antibiotics in livestock feed may kill
the anaerobic bacteria in digesters.
356
Table 11 Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio of Various Organic Materials355
Organic Material
Cow manure
Swine manure
Chicken manure
Duck manure
Goat manure
Sheep manure
Straw (maize)
Straw (rice)
Straw (wheat)
Sawdust
C:N Ratio
24:1
18:1
10:1
8:1
12:1
19:1
60:1
70:1
90:1
>200:1
SLUDGE OR EFFLUENT
The digested organic material from an anaerobic digester is called sludge or effluent.  It is rich in
nutrients such as ammonia, phosphorus, potassium, and more than a dozen other trace elements.357
Biomass digestion can also help reduce pathogens. For wastewater treatment sewage, operating
digesters at mesophilic temperatures around 98-99°F for 15 days results in 0.5-4.0 log reduction in
fecal coliform, 0.5-2.0 log reduction in enteric viruses, and about 0.5 log reduction in protozoa and
helminth ova. Operating digesters at thermophilic temperatures  may reduce pathogens to non-
detectable levels, depending on the solids-content and HRT (see 40 CFR 503.32(a) for
calculations).358 The digester sludge can then be used as a soil  conditioner. Effluent has also been
used as a livestock feed additive when  dried.  Be aware that toxic compounds (e.g., pesticides) that
are in the digester feedstock material may become concentrated in the  effluent. Therefore, it is
important to test the effluent before using it on a large scale.
                      359
Appendix VI:  Anaerobic Digestion
                                                        146
 image: 








APPENDIX VII:  BIOMASS GASIFICATION
HOW DOES GASIFICATION WORK?360
The gasification process includes: (a) pre-treating the feedstock; (b) feeding it into the gasifier; (c)
treating the generated syngas; (d) use of the syngas to produce electricity and heat; and (e) proper
disposal of other byproducts. Inside the gasifier itself, biomass is added in either a dry form or
mixed with water.  The feedstock then reacts with steam and air or oxygen (O2) at high temperatures
(up to 2,600°F) and pressure (up to 1,000 psig).  To heat the gasifier, the char byproduct of
gasification may be combusted.361 The feedstock undergoes three thermal and chemical processes
within the gasifier. There are a few types of gasifiers (updraft, downdraft, bubbling fluidized bed,
circulating fluidized bed) but the following processes occur in each type:

1.  Pyro lysis
   Pyrolysis is a chemical breakdown of complex compounds due to heat.  It occurs as the organic
   matter heats up. Volatile substances such as tar, H2, and CH4 are released and a combustible
   residue resembling charcoal, called char, is produced.

2.  Oxidation
   Then, volatile products and some char are burned in a  controlled manner to form CO2 and CO in
   a process called oxidation.

3.  Reduction
                                                                                Drying zone
                                                                                Oalillition lone
                                                                                Reduction zone
    Last, in the reduction stage, the char             Feed
    reacts with the CO2 and steam to produce
    CO and H2, with some CH4, which
    together make up syngas.  The high
    temperature in the gasifier converts the
    inorganic materials left behind by
    gasification and fuses them into a glassy
    material, generally referred to as slag.
    The slag has the consistency of coarse
    sand.  It is chemically inert and may have
    a variety of uses in the construction and
    building industries.

TYPES OF GASIFIERS363

Updraft Gasifier
The updraft gasifier is the oldest and simplest
type of gasifier (Fig. 62 ). It is also known as counter-current or counter-flow gasification. Biomass
                                             Air   	1    4
                                                         Figure 62 Updraft gasifier.
                                                      Image courtesy United Nations
362
Appendix VII: Biomass Gasification
                                                                                       147
 image: 








is introduced at the top of the gasifier while air intake is at the bottom. Syngas leaves at the top of
the gasifier.
Advantages:
    .   Proven technology, low cost process.
    .   Able to handle high moisture biomass and high inorganic content (e.g., municipal solid
       waste).
       Low gas exit temperatures and high equipment efficiency.
Disadvantages:
       Syngas contains 10-20 percent tar by weight, requiring extensive syngas cleanup before
       engine,  turbine, or synthesis applications.

Downdraft Gasifier
                                          Air
The downdraft gasifier is also known as
cocurrent-flow gasification (Fig. 63).  Like
the updraft gasifier, biomass is introduced
at the top but in this case air is introduced
at or above the oxidation zone in the
gasifier.  The syngas is removed from the
bottom. The high-temperature syngas
exiting the reactor requires a secondary
heat recovery system.
Advantages:
   .   Proven technology, low cost
       process.
   .   Up to 99.9 percent of tar is broken
       down.
       Lower level of organic
       components in the condensate,
       less  environmental objections than updraft gasifiers.
Disadvantages:
   .   Requires low moisture content feedstock (<20 percent) which necessitates a dryer.
       4-7 percent of the carbon remains unconverted.
       Low density feedstock materials may cause flow problems and excessive pressure drop and
       the fuel may require pelletizing before use.
       May suffer from the problems associated with high ash content fuels (slagging) to a larger
       extent than updraft gasifier.
                                                                                 Drying zone
                                                                                 Din illation zone
                                                                                 Hearth zone
                                                                                 Reduction zone
                                                                                 Grtte

                                                                                 Alhpit
                                                       Figure 63  Downdraft gasifier.
                                                      Image courtesy United Nations
364
Appendix VII:  Biomass Gasification
                                                                                         148
 image: 








       The necessity to maintain uniform high temperatures over a given cross-sectional area
       makes it impractical to use downdraught gasifiers in a power range above about 350 kW.

Fluidized Bed Gasifier
In a fluidized bed gasifier, air, oxygen,
or steam is blown through a bed of
solid particles, such as sand or
alumina, at a sufficient velocity to keep
them in a state of suspension (Fig. 64).
The "fluidized" particles can quickly
break up and heat the biomass.
Advantages:
   .    Feedstock flexibility due to
        easy control of temperature.
   .    Can handle low density, fine
        grained feedstock (e.g.,
        sawdust) without pre-
        processing.
   .    Yields  uniform product gas.
   .    Suitable for rapid reactions.
Disadvantages:
   .    Poor response to load changes.
                            GAS
           CYCIONE
   F1JJIDIZED BH>
     DISTRIBUTOR
     PLATE
       AIR,  QJffGEM
       OR STEAM
                                 RBCIRCULATION OF THE
                                 PINES

                                  BVEL
                                     ASH
Figure 64  Fluidized bed gasifier. Image courtesy United Nations
                                                   365
Appendix VII:  Biomass Gasification
                                                  149
 image: 








APPENDIX VIM:  CLEANER DIESEL
VERIFIED TECHNOLOGIES
Use Table 12 to help evaluate which verified retrofit technologies are compatible with your off-road
engines.  Go to EPA's Verified Technologies List (www.epa.gov/otaq/retrofit/verif-list.htm) and
CARB's Verified Diesel Emission Control Strategies List (www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/verdev/vt/cvt.htm')
for technologies foron-road engines and stationary engines (e.g., electricity generators).
The EPA's Diesel Retrofit Program signed a memorandum of agreement (MOA) with CARB for the
Coordination and Reciprocity in Diesel Retrofit Device Verification.  The MOA establishes reciprocity
in verifications of hardware or device-based retrofits, and further reinforces EPA's and CARB's
commitment to cooperate on the evaluation of retrofit technologies.
       Acronyms
       *DPF:  Diesel particulate filter
       *DOC: Diesel oxidation catalyst
       *EGR: Exhaust gas recirculation
       *LSD:  Low sulfur diesel.  Diesel fuel with less than 500 ppm sulfur content.
       *ULSD: Ultra-low-sulfur diesel.  Diesel fuel with  less than 15 ppm sulfur content.
Table 12 Non-Road Verified Retrofit Technology Options
Verified Technology for
NON-ROAD Engines
Caterpillar Inc.
Passive DPF
www.cat.com
EPA verified
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/retrofit/techli
st-cat.htm#dpf
Engine Control Systems
Combifilter
Active DPF
http://enqinecontrolsystems.com
CARB verified
httpV/www.arb.ca.qov/diesel/verdev/l
evel3/level3.htm
Minimum Engine Requirements
Model year 1996-2005
Turbocharged
130kW-225kW
Exhaust temperature of 260°C for 40% of
the cycle for NOX:PM ratios of less than or
equal to 20:1 and for NOX:PM ratios equal
to or greater than 25:1, only 200°C for
40% of the cycle is required
Fueled with LSD
Complete requirements:
httpV/www.epa.gov/otag/retrofit/documents/v
erif-letter-cat2.pdf

Model year 2007 or older
Engine displacement <12 liters
Must be able to return to regeneration panel
after 8-10 hours of operation
Fueled with LSD
Complete requirements:
http://www.arb.ca.goV/diesel/verdev/level3/e
o de04012 01.pdf

Potentially Applicable
Engines
Any engine that meets
"Engine Requirements"
Must NOT belong to engine
families found at
http://www.arb.ca.gov/diese
l/verdev/level3/ef eode040
12 01.pdf

Appendix VIII: Cleaner Diesel
150
 image: 








 HUSS Umwelttechnik GmbH

 FS-MK Series

 Active DPF

 http://vwvw.huss-umwelt.com/en/

 CARB verified

 httpV/www.arb.ca.qov/diesel/verdev/l
 evell/levell htm
Model year 2006 or older
Complete Requirements:
http://www.arb.ca.goV/diesel/verdev/level3/e
  o de06007  01.pdf
Must NOT belong to engine
families found at

http://www.arb.ca.gov/diese
l/verdev/leve!3/ef de06007
 01.pdf
 Paceco Corporation

 Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding
 DPF

 Passive DPF

 http://www.pacecocorp.com/

 CARB verified

 httpV/www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/verdev/l
 evel1/level1.htm
Must be a rubber-tired gantry crane
225 kW - 450 kW
Achieves exhaust temperature of 250°C or
  greater at least 50% of the time.
Maximum consecutive minutes operating
  below passive regeneration temperature:
  120 mins
Max exhaust temp: 550°C
Fueled with ULSD or <B20
Complete Requirements:
http://www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/verdev/ltrs/pac
  ecomesdpfeo.pdf
Any engine that meets
"Engine Requirements"
 Donaldson

 DCM DOC

 DOC

 http://www.donaldson.eom/en/index.h
 trn]

 CARB verified

 httpV/www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/verdev/l
 evel1/level1.htm
Yard tractor, large lift trucks, top picks, side
  picks or gantry crane
Model year 1996-2003
150hp-600hp
Complete Requirements:
http://www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/verdev/eodonal
  dsondocSS  90.pdf
Manufactured by the
following companies AND
listed in attachment below:

Case Corporation

Caterpillar

Cummins

Detroit Diesel

Komatsu

http://www.arb.ca.gov/diese
l/verdev/level1/ef donaldso
n offroad.pdf
 Engine Control Systems

 AZ Purifier and AZ Purimuffler

 DOC

 http://enginecontrolsystems.com/hom
 e.aspx

 CARB verified

 httpV/www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/verdev/l
 evel1/level1.htm
Port, railway, or other intermodal/freight
  handling applications
Model year 1996-2002
Tolerate 20% reduced peak engine power
No optical/conductive fuel sensors nor water
  absorbing fuel filters
Must not use Bosch fuel pump VP30 nor
  VP44
Certified at PM emissions between 0.01
  g/bhp-hrand  0.4 g/bhp-hr
Fueled with ULSD
Complete Requirements:
http://www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/verdev/ltrs/azp
  urifieandpurimuffleeo.pdf
Manufactured by the
following companies AND
listed in attachment below:

Case

Cummins

Navistar

Komatsu

http://www.arb.ca.gov/diese
l/verdev/ltrs/purifilterenginef
amilies.pdf
 Extengine Inc.

 Advanced Diesel Emission Control
Rubber tired excavators, loaders, dozers, or
  utility tractor rigs
Model year 1991-1995
Must be manufactured by
Cummins
Appendix VIII:  Cleaner Diesel
                                                               151
 image: 








 System
 DOC and SCR
 www.extenqine.com
 CARB verified
 httpV/www.arb.ca.qov/diesel/verdev/l
 evel1/level1.htm
  5.9 liter
  150hp-200hp
  Duty cycle w/average exhaust >180°C for at
   least 55% of operating cycle
  Turbocharged
  Mechanically controlled
  Requires pressurized anhydrous ammonia
  Fueled with  LSD
  May incur 1% fuel economy loss
  Complete Requirements:
  http://www.arb.ca.qov/diesel/verdev/eode05
   001.pdf
ENGINE FAMILY NAME

The engine family name is an alphanumerical code designated to engines by the EPA. It identifies
engines by make, year, displacement, and emissions characteristics. It is important to get the
engine family name for each engine as well as the individual specifications to facilitate the process of
finding the appropriate retrofit device.  EPA and CARB verify retrofit technologies for certain engines
and other requirements, such as minimum engine temperature.  The engine family name can be
found on a sticker on
the engine itself (Fig.
65).  If this code cannot
be found, retrofit
technology dealers
may be able to
determine the family
name from the other
engine information
provided. Off-road
engines manufactured
before 1996 typically
do not have an engine
family name.
2000
SOS
       IMPORTANT ENGINE INFORMATION
       THIS ENGINE CONFORMS TO U.S. EPA AND CALIFORNIA
       REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO 2000 MODEL YEAR NEW
       HEAVY DUTY DIESEL CYCLE ENGINES.  THIS ENGINE HAS
       A PRIMARY INTENDED SERVICE APPLICATIONS AS A
       HEAVY DUTY ENGINE.
 FUEL RATE AT ADV. HP 205. 6MM3/ STROKE   ADV. HP 200 AT 2100 RPM
 IISU,TJA!.FWd£eT«i©t^If?d»4a44J3EG. BTC       DISP. 12. 7 LITERS
 i.NG.INE FAMILY YDDXH12.7EGL I;          MIN. IDLE 600 RPM
 M CiD irrSERte3-83rt2r? f" " " ""             M F G . DATE F E B 2000
 UNIT 06R0577657          CONFORMS TO AUSTRALIAN DESIGN RULE
Figure 65 Sample engine emissions label with engine family name."
ESTIMATING EMISSIONS FROM ON-ROAD TRANSPORT TRUCKS
Use the equations in Box 12 for a general estimate of NOX, CO, and PM emissions from transport
trucks to determine the approximate baseline emissions without pollution reduction measures.
Assumptions:
            Gas mileage of 6 miles per gallon
            Steady state operation of the trucks on interstate type roads
Appendix VIII:  Cleaner Diesel
                                                         152
 image: 








            Urban highway heavy-duty truck emission factors cited from Assessing the Effects of
            Freight Movement on Air Quality at the National and Regional Level: Final Report, April
            2005 by the DOT, Federal Highway Administration.
Box 12 Estimating on-road trucking emissions
Miles per Round Trip Number of Trips Emissions per Mile (g) Total Emissions
[ ] x [ ] x 25.65 = [ ] Grams
[ ] x [ ] x 2.48 = [ ] Grams
[ ] x [ ] x 0.37 = [ ] Grams
NOX
CO
PM
Appendix VIII:  Cleaner Diesel
153
 image: 








APPENDIX IX:  REGION 9 SUPERFUND ELECTRICITY AND
DIESEL EMISSIONS INVENTORY
               Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory
                              US EPA Region 9
                                Superfund
                               Prepared by:
                         Ashley DeBoard MacKenzie
                  Environmental Protection Agency GRO Fellow
                              August 16, 2007
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory               154
 image: 








Background and Goals

       The Cleanup-Clean Air (CCA) initiative is a regional pilot program in US EPA Region 9.
It is demonstrating the feasibility of using cleaner diesel vehicles and reducing greenhouse gases
(GHG) in Superfund and developing tools to make it easier to do in the future. CCA is focused
on encouraging, facilitating and supporting implementation of diesel emissions and greenhouse
gas reductions technologies and practices at Superfund cleanup and redevelopment sites.
Furthermore, the initiative strives to measure and reduce Superfund's environmental footprint,
reduce exposure to Superfund communities, save energy costs in the long term, and serve as role
model for other programs.

       There were two specific goals set forth for this project within Cleanup-Clean Air.  First,
the project was designed to attain a rough estimate of the emissions footprint associated with
remediation activities at Superfund National Priorities List (NPL) sites in Region 9. The second
goal was to establish a baseline of  electricity and diesel emissions to which any future
measurable changes can be compared. Emissions associated with diesel equipment use and
electricity production evaluated in  this study include Carbon Dioxide (CC^), Nitrogen Oxides
(NOX), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM). However, other pollutants such as
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are also present in diesel
exhaust and combustion of fossil fuels for electricity production. Some of the associated health
effects are listed below (EPA 2007a).

             CO2 : High concentrations of this greenhouse gas (GHG) are most significantly
                    linked to global climate change.

             PM: 90% of PM is PM2 5. Exposure is  linked to premature mortality, chronic
                    bronchitis, chronic obstructive  pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma
                    aggravation, pneumonia, and heart attacks.

             NOX : Is a precursor causing ground level ozone (smog) through a series of
                    atmospheric chemical changes. It contributes to global warming, acid  rain,
                    low visibility, deteriorated water quality, and a myriad of respiratory
                    problems.

             CO: Exposure affects human health in several ways. Depending on the
                    concentration, CO can cause fatigue, flu-like symptoms, loss of brain
                    function and even fatality. It affects the ability of blood to absorb oxygen.
                    CO is also oxidized to form CO2 in the atmosphere.

             SO2: Contributes to and aggravates respiratory illnesses; contributes to formation
                    of acid rain; and it forms atmospheric particles that refract light and
                    decrease visibility.

             PAHs: Are highly carcinogenic compounds such as benzene and formaldehyde
                    that are found in diesel emissions.
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory                  155
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Methods

       Information collected centered on construction activities (past, present, and projected
future); specifications of treatment systems; past fuel and electricity use, and types of diesel
equipment used for remediation activities (models and hours operating). Surveys were developed
and distributed to Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) in two branches (Federal Facilities Branch
and Site Cleanup Branch) of EPA Region 9's Superfund division.  Data were collected through
use of the surveys and personal meetings with each RPM, review of their associated site design
documents, and contact with their contractors. See Appendix E.

       The response rate for the surveys was roughly 50%, and therefore, emissions were only
estimated for the sites that had completed surveys. Limited detail of information available for
past remediation activities necessitated a method for creating rough estimates of emissions for
sites with the incomplete information. Extrapolations and assumptions from the data were made
and recorded, and consistent methods were applied across the data set when not otherwise
specified. Assumptions involving site conditions, remedy design, construction  and operations
were made when the records were not available. A professional cost estimator from the Army
Corps of Engineers was used to provide industry averages of typical equipment and associated
operating times based upon the size and scope of the standard projects. See Appendices A for a
list of emissions assumptions regarding diesel and electricity, B for a list of assumptions that
estimate equipment use for construction activities, and Appendix Cfor list of assumptions that
encompass emissions estimates for diesel barges.

To calculate the total mass of pollutants emitted (in grams), the following formula was used:

Pollutants Emitted = hours x horsepower x EF (g/bhp-hr)

where,

Hours: Hours were determined by assuming the amount of time each piece of  equipment
operated
Horsepower (hp): Assumed to be an average of 330 hp for all  pieces of equipment unless
otherwise specified. 330 hp represents a midsized piece of equipment and should even out with
larger and smaller pieces of equipment used at each site.
Emissions Factors (EF):  Were provided by Sacramento Air Resources Board  for each standard
assumed piece of equipment that was used in their emissions inventory model,  Road
Construction Modeler. Ver5.2.xls (Christensen 2007). Units are measured in  grams/brake-
horsepower-hour (g/bhp-hr). EFs are also equipment specific (grader, off-highway truck,
excavator, etc), model year specific, and operating year specific.

       This formula was applied to each piece of equipment for individual construction activities
conducted on sites, and the total grams for each individual pollutant (NOX, CO, and PM) were
aggregated and converted to tons. When unavailable, a model year was assumed for each piece
of equipment to attain the EF. This was  done by using  the median use life of an equipment piece
and subtracting it from the year construction commenced. (See Appendix D). It was also
assumed that for the general estimating purposes of this project, bhp-hr and hp-hr were equal.
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory                  156
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There were also certain construction activities that were omitted because there were no EFs
available or because the information gaps in records regarding scale of projects made estimations
impossible. Future projections, beyond 2009, were also estimated for known projected
remediation activities.

       Estimations of emissions associated with electricity consumption were conducted by
gathering records of actual yearly kWh averages consumed at remediation sites. For sites without
available electricity records, specifications of treatment systems were gathered that summarized
the treatment facility type, number of extraction wells, flow rates, and dates of operation. These
specifications were then inputted into the independent cost estimation software, Remedial Action
Cost Engineering and Requirements (RACER), version 2006, developed by Earth Tech,  Inc. and
the Army Corps of Engineers (Earth Tech 2006.) Several assumptions about system conditions
were made that are listed in Appendix A. This software provided an estimated amount of kWh
needed to operate each specific treatment facility.  Electricity amounts from both site records and
RACER estimates were combined to get a total kWh consumed over time (1990-2009) for each
site.  Future projections were also established based on known treatment systems that will be
operational for decades beyond 2009. EPA's database Emissions and Generation Resource
Integrated Database (eGRID), released April 2007, was used to estimate tons of CC>2 associated
with electricity production from the utility companies in the area (EPA 2007b). The database
provided an average, "statewide" factor that was multiplied by kWh to attain CO2 emissions.

Results

See Appendix F for Results Tables and Charts

       Results pictured for emissions from both diesel exhaust and electricity production are
approximately 50% of all Region 9 NPL sites surveyed. Although this information is not
complete, data may be collected from the remaining sites in the future. Until that time, results
for the whole region can be roughly estimated by multiplying these results by a factor of 2  and
noting the assumption.

       Total diesel emissions from  1985-2009 were estimated to be 3,140 tons NOX, 848 tons
CO, and  105 tons PM. The highest period of NOX output was from 2000-2004 with 1,339 tons.
The highest period of CO output was 1995-1999 with 268 tons.  Lastly, the highest period for
PM output was 2000-2004 with 38 tons. The lowest period of output for all pollutants was  1985-
1989 with 186, 93, and 11 tons for NOX, CO and PM respectively. It should be noted however,
that although PM output was significantly lower in mass, the microscopic properties of the
particles make this pollutant especially dangerous to human health by bypassing the body's
natural defenses, such as cilia in the lungs.

       Total CO2 emissions associated with electricity consumption from 1990-2009 for Region
9 sites were estimated to be 428,174 tons. This is the equivalent of 84,000  cars on the road for
one year  or powering about 50,000 single family homes for one year. Future projections based
only on known treatment facilities on grid as of 2007, Superfund is expected to use an additional
113.2 million kWh per year, equating to about 44,600 tons of CO2.  This would be equivalent to
adding an additional 8700 cars or 5100 homes per year projected out for decades. (EPA 2005)
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory                  157
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 Discussion

       As stated previously, the level of detail sought for emissions estimates was not always
available from the RPMs when completing the surveys. This is because much of the information
was tracked on a sub-contractor level, far from RPM involvement. It was especially difficult to
obtain complete, detailed information of site remediation from the past, as many records were
not preserved at a level regarding detail of fuel and electricity consumption or equipment
associated with construction activities.

       It is recommended that this information be tracked in the future.  If specific information
associated with emissions (i.e., gallons used, type of equipment used, and kWh consumed) is
tracked throughout the life of the remediation activities, it is much easier to estimate the GHG
emissions associated with each activity.  Furthermore, the information gathered in this study,
combined with detailed future tracking may help to normalize our data. In the future, it could be
taken to the next step by putting it into a form that can be applied to all activities. For example,
to achieve a baseline at any given point, we could calculate the emissions for each pound of
contaminant removed during remediation.

       The initial steps of tracking this information for Region 9 have already begun through
inputting conditions into contract language. Regions 9 and 10 now have Emergency and Rapid
Response contracts, and Region 9  is soon to have Remedial Action contracts in place that are or
will soon require contractors to track use of cleaner diesel  equipment, energy efficiencies, and
renewable energy to power remediation on sites.

       It is important to note that although results for diesel emissions are pictured within 5 year
periods over the course of 25 years, the data is really a  historical snapshot of past emissions
rather than a trend. This is because the diesel work takes significantly less time in relation to
electricity use for remediation. Generally, using heavy diesel equipment to complete
construction activities on-site is accomplished on the time scale of several months to several
years. In contrast, remediation that is tied into the electricity "grid" is conducted for decades or
longer. It still may have fluctuations resulting from commencement or termination of treatment
systems, but it is expected that these treatment facilities remain more stable in their electricity
use and consequently the associated emissions. Therefore, fluctuations in diesel use over time
may be a reflection of the phase of remediation at the Superfund site rather than a trend-like
increase or decrease.

       This emissions inventory also has applications beyond regional remediation. The process
for collecting this data as well as the picture of our emissions footprint will help to inform larger
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) efforts to estimate emissions across
all regions. Furthermore, this data can likely be applied to EPA's COBRA model to quantify
health care costs (in dollar amounts) associated with human health exposure to pollutants
resulting from remediation activities.

       We have quantified measurable adverse impacts to air quality resulting from remediation
activities. While the estimates are rough, they provide  an idea of our emissions footprint and
clarified the need to track this information in the future for more accurate emissions inventories.
Appendix IX:  Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory                  158
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Possible mitigation of these impacts to air quality includes the use of cleaner diesel equipment,
energy efficiencies, and renewable energy technologies.  The Smart Energy Resource Guide
(SERG) is currently being developed as a "one stop shop" tool for RPMs to implement these
mitigation techniques and gain insight into reducing their emissions footprint at each of their
Superfund sites.
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory                  159
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Citations

1. Christensen, Peter. Sacramento Air Resources Board. Emissions Factors for Diesel
       Construction Equipment. Road Construction Modeler.Ver5.2.xls. Provided August 2007.

2a. Environmental Protection Agency. Air Pollutants. Updated May 2, 2007.
       http://www.epa.gov/air/airpollutants.html Accessed August 10, 2007.

2b. Environmental Protection Agency. eGRID (Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated
       Data Base). Released April 2007.

3. Environmental Protection Agency. Global Warming Calculators. "Equivalencies." Updated
       June 27, 2005.
       http://vosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/ResourceCenterToolsCalculators.
       html Accessed August 10, 2007.

4. Earth Tech Inc. RACER (Remedial Action Cost Engineering and Requirements). Version
       2006. http://talpart.earthtech.com/RACER.htm

5. McMindes, Daniel. US Army Corps of Engineers. Construction Estimates for Diesel
       Equipment. Provided July 2007.
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory                  160
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Appendix A
                                  List of Assumptions
 Diesel Estimates
    1.  Assumed standard pieces of equipment provided by Army  Corps of Engineers.  See
       Appendix B.
    2.  Assumed 330 horsepower for all pieces of equipment
    3.  Assumed 1999 EFs for all construction activities using equipment on or before 1999.
    4.  For all construction after 1999, used EFs that fell  closest to the year the EFs were
       available (1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2010).  For example, equipment used in 2001
       would use a 2002 emissions factor.
    5.  For all Heavy Trucks (20 yd, 15 yd, and other hauling trucks), used an Emissions Factor
       configuration from Sacramento Air Resources Board. EFs were done for 5 year intervals
       averaging models from 1965 to year of EF. Assumption made to round down to closest 5
       year interval from time the truck was used. For example, a truck used in 2002 would have
       a 2000 EF. These EFs assume 30 mph for all heavy trucks.
    6.  Assumed water trucks and hydro-seed trucks to be  "off-highway".  Assumed cement,
       slurry, 15-yd, and 20-yd trucks to be on-highway trucks.
    7.  Construction activities not accounted for because of incomplete information:  pumping
       hazardous liquids, helicopter flights, building demolitions, carbon regeneration.
Electricity Estimates
    1.  RACER assumption for groundwater extraction wells of unconsolidated, sandy-silt soil,
       50 ft to top of contamination, and 75 ft to base of contamination.
    2.  RACER assumptions for contamination levels are 500 ppb influent, 5 ppb effluent.
    3.  RACER assumptions for GAC treatment systems include dual capacity system for higher
       flow rate systems (above 200 gpm).
    4.  Assumed flow rate for  each extraction well is equal and adds up to total flow rate of
       treatment facility.
    5.  Assumed an average Emissions Factors by state where power production occurred. This
       factor provided by eGRID.
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory                  161
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Appendix B
CONVERSIONS
1 acre= 43,560 sf
1 cy= 27 cubic feet
1 cy=1 .35 tons or 1 ton=0.74
cy
1 US Gallon=0.00495 cy
Some unit
assumptions**unless
otherwise specified:
Excavation depth to get
sf:2'
Landfill depth to get sf:
15'
wells to get If: 50'
depth/well
Cap: Assume 4 feet fill (21
low perm and 2' veg layer-
->add inches that are
specified to total volume
if under 12" b/c it usually
means an additional
impermeable layer
Hauling trucks "nearby
import and haul with ~6mi
roundtrip for total of 75
mi per day.
Remediation Activity
Excavation and Backfill
assumptions
no benching
easy excavation no
rock/boulders
small sf to cy ratio



4 15cy trucks one day 15
minutes per round at
approx 30 miles per hour
would generate approx 75
miles per day per vehicle
soil aeration
8'widex1000'long6to12"
deep
Equipment
Estimates from
Dan McMindes
Activity
Components
clear and grub
excavation
offhaul near site
import fill
backfill and
recompact

rough grade site
fine grade site
12 rounds/day
holding 10 cy per
load assuming
6.25 mi round
trip=75 mi/day
rip soil 6 inches

Units
sf
cy
cy
cy
cy

sf
sf

sf

Units/day
128,000sf/day
480cy/day
1 20cy/day
120cy/day
480cy/day
with compactor
40000 sf/day
40000 sf/day

10000sf/day

Construction
Equipment
scraper
excavator
1 5 yard truck
1 5 yard truck
roller/sheepsfoot
compacter
water truck
scraper/grader
scraper/grader

dozer with rippers

Appendix IX:  Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory
162
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Landfill Capping
use clear and grub above
for grading operations
fill with 2 feet of low perm
fill with 2 feet of veg layer






revegetation

clay capping same as
landfill capping
dewatering same as
aeration
well installation

hauling is the same as
import or export
ust removal is like
excavation, but add cy for
backfill and add a crane for
4 hours per tank as well as
a truck for 4 hours to haul
the tank away
slurry walls under 12 feet
deep


J.H. Baxter-example from
Travis Cain
slurry walls over 1 2 feet use
same effort as drill rigs plus
effort for slurry and offhaul
above, * leave out the
excavate and stockpile

clear and grub
rough grade
import fill
backfill and
recompact

import fill
backfill and
recompact

fine grade
water truck
hydroseed
equipment/truck


push type rig
drill type rig


excavate and
stockpile
add slurry
offhaul excess
soils
Construction of a
slurry wall
(4377'x 2' width,
slurry wall depth
50 ft); and 2
bioventing
blowers at 500
cf/min;


sf
sf
cy
sf

cy
sf

sf
sf
sf


If
If


If

100*12*27
27=88.88
slurry=162
1 1 cy;
drilling:
218850 If;


1 28,000 sf/day
40000 sf/day
160cyd/day
480cy/day
with compactor
1 60cyd/day
480cy/day
with compactor
40000 sf/day
42000sf/day
42000sf/day


100lf/day
400 If/day


100lf per day
80cy/dy
1 20cyd/dy
hollow stem
auger: 547.1
days; sample rig:
2 188. 5 days;
slurry truck:
202.6 days; 15
cy truck: 135.1
days


grader/scraper
grader/scraper
20 cyd end dumps
roller/sheepsfoot
compacter
water truck
20 cyd end dumps
roller/sheepsfoot
compacter
water truck
grader/scraper




sampling rig
hollow stem auger


backhoe
slurry truck
1 5 cyd truck


Appendix IX:  Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory
163
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fencing
assume all bushes and
brush and trees gone
Pipeline


Dams treat as fill

Sediment ponds are same
as excavation
Removal of drums of Haz
Waste




15cy truck will hold between
8 and 1 0 cyds depending
on density and weight of
material. Assumed 10.
















36" diam-
>
60" diam-
-> 150
If/day

concrete
dam
earthen
dam

similar to
excavation
, but
double the
time it
takes to
remove.


backfill
and
recompact


SOOIf per day

300 If/day


1 0 cy/day
fill (cy to place
and compact)

240 cy/day
10 barrels per
truck
20 barrels/day
480 cy/day
same time

pickup (ignore
this)
backhoe with
auger attachment
Excavator to dig
Backhoe with
sheepsfoot
attachment to
backfill
Water truck for
same time as
backhoe
concrete truck
15 yd trucks,
sheepsfoot roller,
(see excavation)

excavator 330 hp
Hauling truck
(assume 200 hp)
forklift to put on
truck 330 hp
roller/sheepsfoot
compactor 330 hp
water truck

All equipment is assumed
to be 330 hp
Appendix IX:  Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory
164
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Appendix C
                         Emissions Estimates for Diesel Barges

Puget Sound Maritime Emissions Inventory: Used to estimate emissions from diesel barges
when capping sediments.

Horsepower ranges from 40-350 hp, with the average barge engine having 188 hp.
*Assumed 1 engine (propulsion)—some have more than one, auxiliary and propulsion
* Assumed a median use life, since unavailable, to be 7 years (2001 model year).
*Assumed this was a non-road model, not an ocean going vessel (OGV)
* Assumed 130 kW Tier 1 (2001) engine
       - Emissions from this engine are 9.8 g/kW-hr NOX, 1.5 g/kW-hr CO, and 0.4 g/kW-hr for
       PM.
*Formula is <XX g/kWh x Hours x kW engine>
* Assumed barges hold /^ ton of material for capping per load. Estimated area of cap and volume
needed to cover area to determine approximate miles vessel would travel.  Then assumed 5 mph
to estimate total hours in the water

See Table 4.7, page 273
http://www.maritimeairforum.org/emissions.shtml

Wayne El son
EPA, Region 10, AWT-107
Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics
1200 6th Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101
206-553-1463 (voice)
206-553-0110 (fax)
elson.wayne@epa.gov
www.westcoastdiesel.org
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory                 165
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Appendix D




                Median Use Life Provided by Road Construction Modeler




Backhoe: 1A use life= 8 yrs




Bore/Drill Rigs: '/2 use life= 2 yrs




Crane: !/2 use life= 5 yrs




Dozer: /^ use life= 8 yrs




Dredgers: Not available. Assume 5 yrs




Excavator: /^ use life= 4 yrs




Forklift: Vz use life= 4 yrs




Grader:  /^ use life= 5 yrs




Generator: not available. Assume 8 yrs




Loaders: /^ use life= 3 yrs




Off Highway Trucks (Water Truck and Hydro-seed Trucks): !/2 use life= 5 yrs




Pumps: l/2 use life= assume 5 yrs




Roller: 1A use life= 4 yrs
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory                 166
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Appendix E
                                      Site Survey
    Site Name:
    ID#:
    Location (county & state):
    RPM:

As part of the Cleanup-Clean Air initiative, the Superfund Program is trying to reduce our
emissions footprint at cleanup and redevelopment sites.  In order to implement greener cleanup
practices, we are first trying to gain insight into our energy use trends (past, present, and future),
and corresponding emissions produced.  The information you provide is invaluable in
ascertaining knowledge we can put forth into further greening our operations in Region 9, so
please be as specific as possible. If any information is already filled in for your site, please
confirm its  accuracy. If any projects are  missing on the tabs, please contact Ashley DeBoard (7-
4109) immediately so that she can help reformat your workbook. Furthermore, if more OUs are
listed for your site than you are responsible for, please answer only for YOUR OUs. For those
RPMs who may still be in "Pre RA" phase (see below), feel free to add any info you have
available in the "Present RA" questions, regardless if they are rough estimates. Thank you for
your time and effort; it is deeply appreciated.

    1.  What is the Lead type for your site?  (Fund, PRP, Federal) If more than one Lead applies
       to your site, please list who is directing the current phase by OU or area.

    2.  How many operable units are at this site?

    3.  What phase is each of the operable units in? Please specify if the stage is planned  or
       complete.
     a.  Pre Remedial Action? Circle One (RI/FS, ROD, RD)
     b.  Present Remedial Action? (RA, LTRA,  O&M)

    4.  (Pre RA only)
     a.  If  no   ROD, what  are  the  contaminated  media,  and  an  approximate  size  of
         contamination?  (i.e.  yd3 of soil,  volume/dimensions of groundwater plume) Can you
         predict a method, or range of methods of remediation?
     b.  If plan is in place, what are the estimated energy  needs and  an approximate length  of
         time the OU will be active? Please give  answers concerning energy needs in units  of
         kW hrs/year and gallons of diesel fuel/ appropriate time frame (years, months, weeks).
   5.  (Present RA) How long will each operable unit be actively remediated?
     a.  Diesel: (If applicable) How long will  use of a diesel fleet be required to remediate
        contamination?
     b.  Electricity: (If applicable) How long will  use of grid power be necessary to maintain
        remediation operations at site?
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory                 167
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   6.  (Present RA) DIESEL: (For each OU)
     a.  What are the types of diesel equipment being used in your fleet?
     b.  How many of each type are being used?
     c.  What is the time frame of their use?
     d.  What  was the previous fuel  consumption in the life of the RA unit?  How has it
        changed, and over what time periods?
     e.  What  is the  amount of  current  fuel  use?  (Please  specify  units)    ex:  1000
        gal/month/vehicle or OU
     f.  Will the fuel use on the site decrease or increase in the future and when? Please specify
        how rate of fuel consumption will change over different time periods, (ex: fuel use will
        drop from 1000 gal/mo to 500 gal/mo after 10 months, and to 250 gal/mo after 24
        months.  The project for OU-02 will be complete in 4 years.)

   7.  (Present RA) ELECTRICITY: (For each OU) **This info can be obtained from a utility
       bill.
     a.  What is the type of facility/equipment requiring grid power?
     b.  What is the time frame of its electricity use?
     c.  What was the previous level of electricity consumption in the life of the RA unit? How
        has it changed, and over what time periods?
     d.  What is the amount of current electricity use (kW hrs/year)?
     e.  Will the energy use on the site be decreased in the future and when? To what level? (ex:
        OU-04 will pump and treat groundwater  at 400 gal/min for the first 3 yrs, and will
        decrease then to 150 gal/min for the remaining 10 years,  after which the project will be
        complete. Corresponding kW hrs drop from 1200 to 600/mo during this time)

   8.  For previous "specs" questions regarding fuel and electricity use, if questions cannot be
       answered  completely by RPM,  may we have permission  to discuss such energy needs
       with your contractor for the site? If so, please list contact information.

   9.  Are there currently "Green Practices" taking  place at your site such as: cleaner equipment
       (DPFs, DOCs), cleaner fuels (ULSD), alternative fuels (biodiesel), "renewables" (solar,
       wind), or participation with utility companies to use their green energy options? Please
       specify.

   10. Can you list the utility being used at your site for electricity?
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory                  168
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Appendix F
                                      Charts and Tables
                                        Diesel
Diesel
1985-
1989
1990-
1994
1995-
1999
2000-
2004
2005-
2009
Future
(per year)
Nox(tons)
186
247
630
1339
740
325
CO
(tons)
93
104
268
262
120
119
PM
(tons)
11
12
27
38
18
14
NOx
1600 -i
c 1400
o
t 1200
o
% 1000 -
it emitted
ra
3 200 -
I 0



1—1
II II








^__^
























1985- 1990- 1995- 2000- 2005- Future
1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 (per




year)
Year
Appendix IX: Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory
169
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Appendix F, (cont.)
                                              Diesel
                                                CO
                                                              2005-  Future
                                                              2009   (per
                                                                     year)
                                                   Years
«r 40 -
I 35
o 30
«. 25
"S 20
I 15-
^ 10
5 5
£ °J
PM





|





















—




































1985- 1990- 1995- 2000- 2005- Future
1989 1994 1999 2004 2009
(per

year)


Year




Appendix IX:  Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory
170
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       Appendix F, (cont.)
                                           Electricity

1990-
1994
1995-
2009
2000-
2004
2005-
2009
Future
(per
year)
Total kWH
73,890,266
176,433,435
262,114,529
481,351,734
113,177,235
Total C02
(tons)
36,633
83,097
115,162
193,282
44,611
Cars
7,193
16,317
22,613
37,953
8,670
Homes
4,266
9,677
13,504
22,509
5,195
Appendix IX:  Region 9 Superfund Electricity and Diesel Emissions Inventory
171
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APPENDIX X:  UTILITY RATE SCHEDULES	

This section provides web addresses to rate schedules for various utilities in Region 9 states and
territories. Examine different rate schedules offered by your utility to determine which is optimal for
the electricity demands of your site.  Also consider demand response rate schedules for remedial
activities that do not require a continuous source of power to reduce energy bills. Customers
subscribing to this schedule take the risk of utilities shutting off their power during times of peak
demand in return for less expensive electricity.
Arizona

Arizona Public Service (APS)
    Business: www.aps.com/main/services/business/rates/BusRatePlans  9.html
    Residential: www.aps.com/aps  services/residential/rateplans/ResRatePlans 11 .html

Salt River Project (SRP)
    Business: www.srpnet.com/prices/business/default.aspx
    Residential: www.srpnet.com/prices/home/basic.aspx

Tucson Electric Power (TEP)
    www.tucsonelectric.com/Business/Programs/pricingplans/tariffs.asp

UniSource Energy Services
    http://uesaz.com/Customersvc/PaymentQptions/PricingPlans/tariffs.asp
California

Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E)
    http://pge.com/tariffs/ERS.SHTMIJEERS

Southern California Edison (SCE)
    General Service:
    www.sce.com/AboutSCE/Regulatory/tariffbooks/ratespricing/businessrates.htm
    Agricultural Pumping:
    www.sce.com/AboutSCE/Regulatory/tariffbooks/ratespricing/agriculturerates.htm

San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E)
    www.sdge.com/regulatory/tariff/current tariffs.shtml
Appendix X: Utility Rate Schedules                                                       172
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   Commercial and Industrial: www.sdge.com/regulatory/tariff/elec commercial.shtml
Guam

Guam Power Authority
   www.guampowerauthority.com/rates/schedules.html
Nevada

Sierra Pacific Power Company
   www.sierrapacific.com/rates/ca/schedules/

Nevada Power Company
   www.nevadapower.com/rates/tariffs/schedules/
Appendix X:  Utility Rate Schedules                                                     173
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                                                               f'-©-
APPENDIX XI:  GREEN PRICING PROGRAMS
367
Table 13 Utility Green Pricing Programs
State
AZ
AZ
AZ
AZ
CA
CA
CA
CA
Utility
Arizona Public Service
Salt River Project
Tucson Electric Power
Company
UniSource Energy Services
Anaheim Public Utilities
Los Angeles Department of
Water and Power
PacifiCorp: Pacific Power
Pacific Gas and Electric
(PG&E)
Green Pricing Program
Green Choice Program
http://www.aps.com/main/qr
een/choice/choice 7.html
EarthWise
www.srpnet.com/environme
nt/earthwise/business.aspx
GreenWatts
www.qreenwatts.com/
GreenWatts
www.qreenwatts.com/
Green Power
www. anaheim. net/utilities/a
dv svc prog/green power/
about qpower.htm

Green Power for Green LA
www. ladwp. com/lad wp/cms/
Iadwp000851.isp
Blue Sky
www. pacificpower. net/ArticI
e/Article35885.html
Climate Smart
www.pqe.com/mvhome/envi
ronment/whatvoucando/clim
atesmart/
Renewable Resource
Wind, Geothermal
Solar
Solar
Solar
Various
Wind, Landfill Gas
Wind, Solar, Landfill
Gas
Forest Conservation,
Biomass Projects
Price Premiums
$1.00 (plus tax) per 100-kWh block in addition to regular bill.
Minimum one year commitment.
$3.00 per 100-kWh block in addition to regular bill.
$2.00 for 20-kWh, $3.50 for 40-kWh, $5.00 for 60-kWh,
$6.50 for 80-kWh, $8.00 for 100-kWh block in addition to
regular bill.
$2.00 for 20-kWh, $3.50 for 40-kWh, $5.00 for 60-kWh,
$6.50 for 80-kWh, $8.00 for 100-kWh block in addition to
regular bill.
$1.50 per 100-kWh; $15.00 for 1,000-kWh, $30.00 per
2,000-kWh, or $45.00 per 3,000-kWh block per month.
Minimum six month commitment .
$0.03 per kWh. Minimum 12 month commitment.
$1.95 per 100-kWh increments.
$0.0025 per kWh used each month.
Appendix XI:  Green Pricing Programs
174
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 CA
          Palo Alto Utilities
                          Palo Alto Green
                           www.citvofpaloalto.orq/form
                           s/paqreenenrollment/
                            Wind, Solar
                       $0.015 perkWh.
 CA
Pasadena Water and
  Power
Green Power Program
 www. ci.pasadena.ca.us/wat
 erandpower/qreenpower/de
 fault.asp
Wind
$25.00 per 1,000-kWh block or All Green Program of $0.025
per kWh used each month.
 CA
          Roseville Electric
                          Green Roseville
                           www. roseville. ca. us/electric/
                           green  roseville
                            Wind, Solar
                       $0.015 extra perkWh used each month or $15.00 per
                       1,000-kWh block.
 CA
Sacramento Municipal
  Utility District
Greenergy
 www.smud.org/communitv-
 environment/qreenerqy/inde
 x.html
Wind, Biomass
$0.01 per kWh used each month or $10.00 per 1,000-kWh
block (one year commitment for later option).
 CA
Silicon Valley Power
  partnering with 3 Phases
Santa Clara Green Power
 www.siliconvalleypower.co
 m/qreen
Solar, Sind
$0.015 perkWh used each month or$15.00 per 1,000-kWh
block.
 HI
Hawaiian Electric
  Company, Inc.
Sun Power for Schools
 www.heco.com/portal/site/h
 eco/menuitem.508576f78ba
 a14340b4c061 Oc51 Ob1 ca/?
 vqnextoid=b9a85e658eOfcO
 10VqnVCM1000008119fea
 9RCRD&vqnextchannel=52
 9bf2b154da9010VqnVCM1
 0000053011 bacRCRD&vqn
 extfmt=default&vqnextrefres
 h=1 &level=0&ct=article
Solar
Monthly donation to support PV on Hawaii school buildings.
 NV
          Nevada Power
                          Green Power Program
                           www.nevadapower.com/co
                           menv/env/qreenpower/
                            Solar
                       Monthly tax-deductible donations will be invested in solar
                       education and the construction of solar electric generation
                       facilities at schools in Nevada.
Appendix XI: Green Pricing Programs
                                                                                                                             175
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APPENDIX XII:  NET METERING PROGRAMS
Net metering programs allow grid-tied utility customers who generate electricity in excess of their
consumption at a certain time to "bank" their energy and use it at another time.  This is also called
net excess generation (NEG). Net metering programs help reduce the payback time for a renewable
energy project. Not all utilities offer net metering. The following data on  net metering programs
were adapted from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency
(www.dsireusa.org') and Interstate Renewable Energy Council
(http://www.irecusa.org/fileadmin/user upload/ConnectDocs/NM table.pdf). Contact the local utility
for more information on your local net metering program.  For more information, see
www.eere.enerqv.gov/greenpower/markets/netmetering.shtml.

Arizona

Arizona Public Service (APS)
   Applicable Sectors: All customers
   Applicable Technologies: Solar, Wind, Biomass
   Maximum Customer System Size: 100 kW
   Maximum enrollment: 15 MW
Any customer NEG will be carried over to the customer's next bill at the utility's retail rate, as a kWh
credit.  For customers taking service under a time-of-use rate, off-peak generation will be credited
against off-peak consumption, and on-peak generation will be credited against on-peak
consumption. The customer's monthly bill is based on the net on-peak kWh and net off-peak kWh
amounts. Any monthly customer NEG will be carried over to the customer's next bill as an off-peak
or on-peak kWh credit. Any NEG remaining at the customer's last monthly bill in a calendar year or
at the time of a customer shut-off will be granted to the utility.
Though different from net metering, a July 1981 decision by the Arizona Corporation Commission
allows net billing at the utility's avoided-cost rate.  APS allows net billing.
   APS
   428 E. Thunderbird Road #749
   Phoenix, AZ 85022
   Phone: (602)216-0318
   www.aps.com

Salt River Project
   Applicable Sectors: Residential
   Applicable Technologies: PV
   Maximum Customer System Size: 10 kW
   Maximum enrollment: none
For each  billing cycle, the kWh delivered to SRP are subtracted from the kWh delivered from SRP
for each billing cycle.  If the kWh calculation is net positive for the billing cycle, SRP will bill the net
kWh to the customer under the applicable price plan, Standard Price Plan E-23 or E-26. If the kWh
AppendixXII: Net Metering Programs                                                    176
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calculation is net negative for the billing cycle, SRP will credit the net kWh from the customer at an
average market price.  Net negative kWh will not be transferred to subsequent months.

    Katie Herring
    SRP
    1521  N. Project Drive
    Tempe, AZ 85281 -2025
    Phone: (602)236-5816
    http://www.srpnet.com

Tucson Electric Power Company (TEP)

    Applicable Sectors:  Commercial, Residential
    Applicable Technologies:  PV, Wind
    Maximum Customer System Size:  10 kW
    Maximum enrollment: 500 kW

TEP credits NEG to the following month's bill. After each January billing cycle, any remaining credit
is granted to the utility. Installations must meet the IEEE-929 standard, local requirements and
National Electrical Code requirements. Installations must be completed within six months of pre-
installation approval. Time-of-use net metering is not permitted.

Though different from net metering, a July 1981  decision by the Arizona Corporation Commission
allows net billing at the utility's avoided-cost rate. TEP allows net billing.

    Steve Metzger
    Tucson Electric Power
    3950 E Irvington Road
    Mailstop RC 116
    Tucson, AZ 85702
    Phone: (520)745-3316
    E-mail: smetzger@tep.com
    www.tucsonelectric.com/

California

All Utilities

    Applicable Sectors:  All customers of all utilities
    Applicable Technologies:  PV, Wind;  Investor owned utilities: PV, Wind, Biogas and Fuel Cells
    Maximum Customer System Size:  1  MW
    Maximum enrollment: 2.5 percent of each utility's peak demand

NEG is carried  forward to a customer's next bill for up to 12 months. Any NEG remaining at the end
of each 12-month period is granted to the customer's utility. Customers subject to time-of-use rates
are entitled to deliver electricity back to the system for the same time-of-use price that they pay for
power purchases.  However, time-of-use customers who choose to net meter must pay for the
metering equipment capable of making such measurements. Customer-generators retain ownership
of all renewable-energy credits associated with the generation of electricity.
AppendixXII: Net Metering Programs                                                     177
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    Les Nelson
    Western Renewables Group
    30012 Aventura, Suite A
    Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688
    Phone:  (949)713-3500
    Fax: (949) 709-8044
    E-mail:  lnelson@westernrenewables.com
    www.westernrenewables.com

Hawaii

All Utilities

    Applicable Sectors: Residential, Small Commercial (including government)
    Applicable Technologies:  Solar, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric
    Maximum Customer System Size:  50 kW
    Maximum enrollment: 0.5 percent of each utility's peak demand

A customer whose system produces more electricity than the customer consumes during the month
may carry forward NEG in the form of a kWh credit that is applied to the next month's bill. Excess
credits can  be carried over for a maximum of 12 months.  At the end of the 12-month reconciliation
period, NEG credits will be granted to the utility without customer compensation unless the customer
enters into a purchase agreement with  the utility.

    Maria Tome
    Hawaii Department of Business, Economic  Development, and Tourism
    Strategic Industries Division
    P.O. Box2359
    Honolulu, HI 96804
    Phone:  (808) 587-3809
    Fax: (808) 587-3820
    E-mail:  mtome(5)dbedt.hawaii.gov
    http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/energy/

Nevada

Investor-Owned Utilities

    Applicable Sectors: Commercial, Industrial, Residential
    Applicable Technologies:  Solar, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal
    Maximum Customer System Size:  1 MW (utilities may impose fees on systems greater than 100
    kW)
    Maximum enrollment: 1  percent of each utility's peak capacity

For all net-metered systems, customer NEG is carried over to the following month as a kWh credit,
without expiration. If a customer is billed for electricity under a time-of-use schedule, any customer
NEG during a given month will be carried forward to the same time-of-use period as the time-of-use
period in which it was generated, unless the subsequent billing period lacks a corresponding time-of-
use period.  If there is no corresponding time-of-use  period, then the NEG carried forward must be
apportioned evenly among the available time-of-use periods. Excess generation fed to the grid is
AppendixXII: Net Metering Programs                                                    178
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considered electricity generated or acquired by the utility to comply with Nevada's energy portfolio
standard.

    Peter Konesky
    Office of the Governor
    Nevada State Office of Energy
    727 Fairview Drive, Suite F
    Carson City,  NV 89701
    Phone: (775) 687-9704
    Fax: (775)687-9714
    E-mail: pkoneskv@dbi.state.nv.us
    http://energy.state.nv.us
AppendixXII: Net Metering Programs                                                     179
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Citations
 DOE. http://eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/aarpt/carbon.html.
2 Dellens, Amanda, EPA National Network for Environmental Management Studies Fellow.  "Green Remediation and the Use of
  Renewable Energy Sources for Remediation Projects." http://cluin.0rg/s.focus/c/pub/i/1474/.
3 Olsen, Ken. Solar On-Line: Learning Center. PV 201 course materials, sol@solenergy.org. www.solenergy.org and
  Nondestructive Testing Resource Center.  www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/HighSchool/Electricitv/voltage.htm.
4 DOE, Energy Information Administration.
  http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/classactivities/MeasuringElectricitvlntermediateSecondarvJulv2003.pdf.
5 Ibid
6 Ibid
7 Olsen, Ken. Solar On-Line: Learning Center. PV 201 course materials, sol@solenergy.org. www.solenergy.org.
8 DOE, Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/glossarv/index.htmltfBtu.
9 EPA, CHP  Partnership. Catalogue of CHP Technologies. Page 1.
  http://www.epa.gov/chp/documents/catalog of %20chp  tech entire.pdf.
10 EPA. http://www.epa.gov/CHP/definitions.htmltfthree.
11 EPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Gill, Michael and Mahutova, K.  May 2004. Introduction to Energy
  Conservation and Production at Waste Cleanup Sites. EPA Engineering Forum Issue Paper. EPA 542-S-04-001.  Page 10.
  www.epa.gov/swertio1/tsp/download/epa542s04001.pdf
12 EERE. http://www.eere.energv.gov/greenpower/markets/netmetering.shtml.
13 Dellens, Amanda, EPA National Network for Environmental Management Studies Fellow. "Green Remediation and the Use of
  Renewable Energy Sources for Remediation Projects." Page 3. http://cluin.0rg/s.focus/c/pub/i/1474/.
                                                     human, htmltfcarbonseguest ration.
  NETL.  http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/carbon seg/FAQs/proiect-status.html#Terrestrial  Field.
  EPA. http://www.epa.gov/seguestration/local  scale.html.
  EPA. http://www.epa.gov/seguestration/fag.html.
        	phvsics.html.
22 Lawton Ltd. http://www.lawton-bes.co.uk/sun21/solar electricitv.html.
23 EERE. http://www1 .eere.energy.gov/solar/solar glossarv.html.
24 Ibid
25 NorCal Solar. 2006-2007. Solar Energy Resource Guide.  7th edition. Page 4.
26 NorCal Solar. 2006-2007. Solar Energy Resource Guide.  7th edition. Page 53 and EERE
  wwwl .eere.energy.gov/solar/solar glossarv.html.
27 NorCal Solar. 2006-2007. Solar Energy Resource Guide.  7th edition. Page 49.
28 Olsen, Ken. Solar On-Line: Learning Center.  PV 201 course materials, sol@solenergy.org. www.solenergy.org.
29 Ibid
30 EERE. http://www1 .eere.energy.gov/solar/solar glossarv.html.
31 Ibid
32 EERE. http://www.eere.energv.gov/greenpower/markets/netmetering.shtml.
33 EERE. http://www1 .eere.energy.gov/solar/pv  svstems.html.
34 EERE. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/solar cell materials.html.
3^ NorCal Solar. 2006-2007. Solar Energy Resource Guide.  7th edition. Page 3.
 ' Olsen, Ken. Solar On-Line: Learning Center.  PV 101 course materials, sol@solenergy.org. www.solenergy.org.
38 Kyocera International Inc. http://global.kvocera.com/news/2005/0201 .html.
  California Public Utilities Commission, CA Solar Initiative, http://www.gosolarcalifornia.ca.gov/solar101/orientation.html.
  Northern Arizona Wind and Sun. http://store.solar-electric.com/zomuttracmou4.html.
  NREL. http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old data/nsrdb/redbook/atlas/Table.html (select "Flat Plate Tilted South at Latitude.")
43 Olsen, Ken. Solar On-Line: Learning Center.  PV 201 course materials, sol@solenergy.org. www.solenergy.org.
44 Ibid
45 EERE. December 2003. A Consumer's Guide: Get Your Power from the Sun. Page 5. www.nrel.gov/docs/fv04osti/35297.pdf.
46 Olsen, Ken.  Solar On-Line: Learning Center, sol@solenergy.org. PV 201 course materials, www.solenergy.org.
47 Ibid
48 Ibid
49 Ibid
50 Olsen, Ken. Solar On-Line: Learning Center, sol@solenergy.org. PV 101 course materials, www.solenergy.org.
51 Ibid
Citations                                                                                                        180
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55 Olsen, Ken. Solar On-Line: Learning Center. sol(S)solenergv org. PV 201 course materials, www.solenergy.org.
56 NorCal Solar. 2006-2007. Solar Energy Resource Guide. 7  edition. Page 17.
57 Olsen, Ken. Solar On-Line: Learning Center, sol@solenergy.org. PV 201 course materials, www.solenergy.org.
58 Olsen, Ken. Solar On-Line: Learning Center. sol@solenergy org. PV 201 course materials, www.solenergy.org.
59 NorCal Solar. 2006-2007. Solar Energy Resource Guide. 7  edition. Page 17.
60 Gipe, Paul. "Rate of Return Calculator of Solar PV Using @IRATE Function." www.wind-
  works.org/Solar/RateofReturnCalculationofSolarPVUsinglRATEFunction.html.
61 The Solar Guide, www.thesolarguide.com/solar-energy-svstems/choosing-a-solar-provider.aspx. and Sustainable Development
  Fund Solar Photovoltaics Grant Program. "Solar PV Grant Program Tips on Choosing a PV Installer."
  http://www.trfund.com/sdf/solarpv  documents/PV Con Tips.pdf.
62 The Solar Guide, http://www.thesolarguide.com/solar-energy-svstems/warrantees.aspx.
63 EERE. December 2003. A Consumer's Guide: Get Your Power from the Sun. Page 14. www.nrel.gov/docs/fvQ4osti/35297.pdf.
64 San Francisco Sierra Club. Sept-Oct 2006. "Volunteers make solar power easier and more affordable for homeowners." Sierra
  Club Yodeler. http://sanfranciscobav.sierraclub.org/vodeler/html/2006/09/feature3.htm
65 EERE. January 2004. "PV FAQs." www.nrel.gov/docs/fv04osti/35489.pdf.
66Zweibel, Ken, NREL. Presentation "PV Module Recycling in the US."  March 2004.  Page 3.
  www.nrel.gov/pv/thin film/docs/pv  module recycling  in the us.ppt
  Caraway, Rosemarie, EPA Region 9, Remedial Project Manager. Carawav.RoseMarie@epa.gov.
71 Institut fur Solare Energieversorgungstechni. http://www.iset.uni-
  kassel.de/pls/w3isetdad/www iset page. show menu?p name=7261007&p lang=eng.
  EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 7.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind guide.pdf.
  EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 5.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind guide.pdf
  EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 5.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind guide.pdf.
  Aermotor Windmill.  http://www.aermotorwindmill.com/Links/Education/lndex.asp.
77 EERE. http://www1 .eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/wind  how.html.
78 American Wind Energy Association, http://www.awea.org/smallwind/toolbox2/factsheet what is  smallwind.html.
79 NREL. http://rredc.nrel.gov/wind/pubs/atlas/tables/A-8T.html.
80 Solcomhouse. www.solcomhouse.com/Darrieus-windmill.ipg.
81 American Wind Energy Association. Sept 2003. Permitting Small Turbines: A Handbook. Page 14.
  http://www.awea.org/smallwind/documents/permitting.pdf.
82 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 4.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind guide.pdf.
83 Iowa Energy Center. 2006. Wind Energy Manual. www.energy.iastate.edu/Renewable/wind/wem-index.htm.
84 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 7.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind guide.pdf.
85 Iowa Energy Center. 2006. Wind Energy Manual.  www.energy.iastate.edu/Renewable/wind/wem-index.htm.
86 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 3.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind guide.pdf.
87 Iowa Energy Center. 2006. Wind Energy Manual. http://www.energv.iastate.edu/Renewable/wind/wem/svstems.htmtfseven.
88 De Montfort University, www.dmu.ac.uk/.
89 Iowa Energy Center. 2006. Wind Energy Manual. http://www.energv.iastate.edu/Renewable/wind/wem/svstems.htmtfseven.
90 California Energy Commission, www.energv.ca.gov/distgen/eguipment/wind/cost.html.
91 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 12-13.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind guide.pdf.
92 American Wind Energy Association, http://www.awea.org/fag/basicen.html.
93 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 10.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind guide.pdf.
94 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 4.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind guide.pdf.
95 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 16.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind guide.pdf.
96 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 19.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind guide.pdf.
Citations                                                                                                    181
 image: 








  EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 3.
  www.eere.enerav.aov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind  guide.pdf.
99 American Wind Energy Association. www.awea.org/smallwind/toolbox/INSTALL/financina.asp.
100 Windustry's Wind Farmers Network. windfarmersnetwork.org/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/3840095483/m/9190067093.
101 American Wind Energy Association.  www.awea.org/smallwind/toolbox/INSTALL/financing.asp.
102 Ibid
103 American Wind Energy Association, http://www.awea.org/fag/sagrillo/ms used 0211.html.
104 Argonne National Laboratory, Wind Energy Development Programmatic EIS. http://windeis.anl.gov/guide/photos/photo2.html.
105 Ibid
106 American Wind Energy Association, www.awea.org/fag/sagrillo/ms OandM 0212.html.
107 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 3.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind  guide.pdf.
108 American Wind Energy Association. Sept 2003. Permitting Small Turbines: A Handbook. Page 20.
  www.awea.org/smallwind/documents/permitting.pdf and American Wind Energy Association.
  www.awea.org/fag/sagrillo/ms codesnov04.html.
109 American Wind Energy Association, http://www.awea.org/fag/sagrillo/ms zoning3.html.
110 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 15.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind  guide.pdf.
111 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 17.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind  guide.pdf.
11  American Wind Energy Association. Sept 2003. Permitting Small Turbines: A Handbook. Page 16.
  http://www.awea.org/smallwind/documents/permitting.pdf.
113 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 8.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind  guide.pdf.
114 EPA. Technology Innovation Program. Sept 2004. "Technology News and Trends."  http://www.clu-
  in.org/products/newsltrs/tnandt/view. cfm?issue=0904.cfm.
115 EPA, LMOP. September 1996. A Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development Handbook. Page 3-12,
  http://epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/handbook.pdf.
116 California Energy Commission. April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in
  California. Page 9. http://www.energv.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08 500-02-020F.PDF
117 Ibid
118 EPA, LMOP. http://epa.gov/lmop/overview.htmtfconverting.
119 EPA, LMOP. October 2002. Powering Microturbines with Landfill Gas. EPA430-F-02-012. Page  1.
  http://www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/pwrng  mcrtrbns.pdf.
120 Oregon Department of Energy. www.oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Biomass/docs/landfill.PDF.
121 EPA, LMOP. October 2002. Powering Microturbines with Landfill Gas. EPA430-F-02-012. Page  3.
  http://www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/pwrng  mcrtrbns.pdf.
12  CA Energy Commission, http://www.energv.ca.gov/distgen/eguipment/microturbines/cost.html.
125 DOE, Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/gwp.html.
126 EPA, LMOP. http://epa.gov/lmop/overview.htmtfmethane.
127 EPA, LMOP. http://epa.gov/lmop/over-photos.htmtf3.
128 EPA. http://www.epa.gov/landfill/benefits.htm.
129 Ibid
130 EPA, LMOP. September 1996. A Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development Handbook. Page 3-2 to 3-6,
  http://epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/handbook.pdf.
131 EPA, LMOP. May 2007. "An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States." Page 5.
  http://www.epa.gov/landfill/docs/overview.pdf.
132 EPA, LMOP. May 2007. "An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States." Page 7.
  http://www.epa.gov/landfill/docs/overview.pdf.
133 EPA, LMOP. September 1996. A Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development Handbook. Page 2-2,
  http://epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/handbook.pdf.
134 EPA. LMOP. http://epa.gov/lmop/over-photos.htmtf5.
135 EPA Combined Heat and Power Partnership. Catalogue ofCHP Technology. Page 1.
  http://www.epa.gov/CHP/basic/catalog.html.
136 EPA, LMOP. September 2006. A Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development Handbook. Page 9-13.
  http://epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/handbook.pdf.
137 EPA, LMOP. September 2006. A Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development Handbook. Page 3-16.
  http://epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/handbook.pdf.
138 California Energy Commission. April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in
  California. Pages 26-28. http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08 500-02-020F.PDF.
  } California Climate Action Team. December 2005. Draft State Agency Work Plans. Page 80.
  http://www.climatechange.ca.gov/climate action  team/reports/2006-02-06 AGENCY WORKPLANS.PDF.
Citations                                                                                                    182
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140 EPA, LMOP. www.epa.gov/lmop/fag-3.htm.
141 EPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Gill, Michael and Mahutova, K. May 2004. "Introduction to Energy
  Conservation and Production at Waste Cleanup Sites." EPA Engineering Forum Issue Paper. EPA 542-S-04-001 . Pages 5-6.
142 Chern, Shiann-Jang, RPM, EPA Region 9.  Chern.Shiann-Jang@epa.gov
143 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstorv/2003/0508landfill.html and
  EPA, LMOP. http://www.epa.gov/lmop/res/nasa.htm.
144 BMW. http://www.bmwusfactorv.eom//communitv/environment/gastoenergy.asp.
145 California  Energy Commission,  http://www.energv.ca.gov/pier/renewable/biomass/anaerobic digestion/index. html.
146 EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/vour workplace/farms ranches/index. cfm/mvtopic=30004.
147 Penn State University, www.biogas.psu.edu/terminology.html.
148 Penn State University, www.biogas.psu.edu/plugflow.html.
149 EPA, AgStar Program. 1997. AgStar Handbook.  Page i. www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/handbook/intro.pdf.
150 California  Energy Commission,  http://www.energv.ca.gov/pier/renewable/biomass/anaerobic digestion/index. html.
151 EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/vour workplace/farms ranches/index. cfm/mvtopic=30004.
152 California  Energy Commission,  http://www.energv.ca.gov/pier/renewable/biomass/anaerobic digestion/index. html and Penn
  State University, www.biogas.psu.edu/terminology.html.
153 California  Energy Commission,  http://www.energv.ca.gov/pier/renewable/biomass/anaerobic digestion/index. html.
154 Penn State University, www.biogas.psu.edu/basics.html.
155 EPA, AgStar Program. 1997. AgStar Handbook. Chapter 1 . http://epa.gov/agstar/pdf/handbook/chapter1 .pdf.
        AgStar Program. 2002. Managing Manure with Biogas Recovery Systems Improved Performance at Competitive Costs.
  Page 4. http://www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/manage.pdf.
157 Schanbacher, Floyd, Ohio State University, Dept. of Animal Sciences Ohio Agriculture R & D Center. January 31 , 2007.
  "Digester Basics." Powerpoint presented at Waste-to-Energy Workshop for the Ohio Livestock & Food Processing Industries.
  http://www.chpcentermw.org/pdfs/070131-Wooster-OH/2007  Jan31 WoosterOH Schanbacher.pdf.
158 EPA, AgStar Program. 2002. Managing Manure with Biogas Recovery Systems Improved Performance at Competitive Costs.
  Page 8. http://www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/manage.pdf.
159 Schanbacher, Floyd, Ohio State University, Dept. of Animal Sciences Ohio Agriculture R & D Center. January 31 , 2007.
  "Digester Basics." Powerpoint presented at Waste-to-Energy Workshop for the Ohio Livestock & Food Processing Industries.
  http://www.chpcentermw.org/pdfs/070131-Wooster-OH/2007  Jan31 WoosterOH Schanbacher.pdf.
160 EPA, AgStar Program. 2002. Managing Manure with Biogas Recovery Systems Improved Performance at Competitive Costs.
  Page 8. http://www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/manage.pdf.
161 Schanbacher, Floyd, Ohio State University, Dept. of Animal Sciences Ohio Agriculture R & D Center. January 31 , 2007.
  "Digester Basics." Powerpoint presented at Waste-to-Energy Workshop for the Ohio Livestock & Food Processing Industries.
  http://www.chpcentermw.org/pdfs/070131-Wooster-OH/2007  Jan31 WoosterOH Schanbacher.pdf.
162 EPA, AgStar Program. 2002. Managing Manure with Biogas Recovery Systems Improved Performance at Competitive Costs.
  Page 8. http://www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/manage.pdf.
163 California  Energy Commission, http://www.energv.ca.gov/pier/renewable/biomass/anaerobic digestion/index. html: The
  Minnesota  Project. Aug 2002. Final Report: Haubenschild Farms Anaerobic Digester. Pages 5-8.
  www.mnproiect.org/pdf/Haubvrptupdated.pdfand Penn State University, www.biogas.psu.edu.
164 Wilkie, Ann, University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Department. 2003. "Anaerobic Digestion of Flushed Dairy Manure."
  http://dairv.ifas.ufl.edu/files/WEF-June2003.pdf.
165 Ohio Biomass Energy Program. Turning Manure into Gold. Page 9.
  www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu/Docs/TurningManuretoGold.pdf.
16  EPA, AgStar Program. 1997. AgStar Handbook. Page 3-2. www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/handbook/chapter3.pdf.
167 California  Energy Commission.  April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to  Energy Project Development in
  California.  Page 6. http://www.energv.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08 500-02-020F.PDF.
168 EPA, LMOP. Sept 1 996. A Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development Handbook. Page 3-1 2.
  http://epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/handbook.pdf.
169 California  Energy Commission, http://www.energv.ca.gov/distgen/eguipment/microturbines/cost.html.
170 Schanbacher, Floyd, The Ohio State University, Dept. of Animal Sciences Ohio Agriculture R & D Center. January 31 , 2007.
  "Digester Basics." Powerpoint presented at Waste-to-Energy Workshop for the Ohio Livestock & Food Processing Industries.
  http://www.chpcentermw.org/pdfs/070131-Wooster-OH/2007  Jan31 WoosterOH Schanbacher.pdf.
171 California  Energy Commission, www.energv.ca.gov/pier/renewable/biomass/anaerobic digestion/index. html.
172 EPA, AgStar. 2002. Managing Manure with Biogas Recovery Systems Improved Performance at Competitive Costs. Page 8.
  http://www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/manage.pdf.
173~ibid
174 EPA, AgStar Program. 1997. AgStar Handbook. Pages 8-4 — 8.5.  www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/handbook/chapter8.pdf.
175 EPA, AgStar, ASERTTI, USDA. Jan 2007. A Protocol for Quantifying and Reporting the Performance of Anaerobic Digestion
  Systems for Livestock Manures. Pages 1 5-1 6. http://epa.gov/agstar/pdf/protocol.pdf.
176 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2006.  2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.  Page
  10.7. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.Jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4  Volume4/V4  10  Ch10  Livestock.pdf.
177 Eastern Research Group, Inc.  July 2005. An Evaluation of a Mesophilic, Modified Plug Flow Anaerobic Digester for Dairy Cattle
  Manure, http://www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/gordondale report final.pdf.
178 California  Energy Commission, http://www.energv.ca.gov/pier/renewable/biomass/anaerobic digestion/projects. html.
Citations                                                                                                      183
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179 Zhang, Zhiqin, California Energy Commission. Presentation at the Organic Residuals Symposium. July 12-14, 2006,
  Sacramento, California. "Recycling of Non-Hazardous Organic Residuals to Products and Energy." Page 1 7.
  www.enerav.ca.gov/2006publications/CEC-999-2006-013/CEC-999-2006-013.PDF.
180 Zhang, Zhiqin, California Energy Commission.  Presentation at the Organic Residuals Symposium. July 12-14, 2006,
  Sacramento, California. "Recycling of Non-Hazardous Organic Residuals to Products and Energy." Page 18.
  www.enerav.ca.aov/2006publications/CEC-999-2006-013/CEC-999-2006-013.PDF. and Emigh, Michael, Valley Fig Growers.
  Presentation at the Clean Fuels for California and the West Conference. January 1 8, 2006.
  http://www.eneraetics.com/napavallevCHPworkshop/pdfs/emigh.pdf. and Emigh, Michael, Valley Fig Growers. Presentation at the
  6  Annual Microturbine Applications Workshop. January 19, 2006.
  http://www.ms.ornl.aov/maw06/pdfs/presentations/Dav3/Emigh.pdf.
181 Emigh, Mike, Valley Fig Growers. Presentation at the Clean Fuels for California and the West Conference.  January 18, 2006.
  Page 14,  16, 34-35. http://www.eneraetics.com/napavallevCHPworkshop/pdfs/emigh.pdf: Emigh, Mike, Valley Fig Growers.
  Presentation at the 6th Annual Microturbine Applications Workshop. January 1 9, 2006. Page 21 ,  23-28.
  http://www.ms.ornl.gov/maw06/pdfs/presentations/Dav3/Emigh.pdf:
18  Emigh, Mike, Valley Fig Growers Association. Presentation at the  Clean Fuels for California and the West Conference. January
  18, 2006. Page 16. http://www.energetics.com/napavallevCHPworkshop/pdfs/emigh.pdf.
183 Emigh, Mike, Valley Fig Growers Association. Presentation at the  Clean Fuels for California and the West Conference. January
  18, 2006. Page 35-45. http://www.energetics.com/napavallevCHPworkshop/pdfs/emigh.pdfand  Emigh, Mike, Valley Fig Growers.
  Presentation at the 6th Annual Microturbine Applications Workshop. January 1 9, 2006. Pages 23-28.
  http://www.ms.ornl.gov/maw06/pdfs/presentations/Dav3/Emigh.pdf.
18  Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. http://www.siu.edu/~perspect/05 sp/coalsidebar2.html.
185 NETL. http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/coalpower/gasification/basics/glossarv.html.
186 NETL. http://www.netl.doe.goV/technologies/coalpower/gasification/basics/1.html.
187 Coaltec Energy USA. http://www.coaltecenergy.com/poultrvlitterproiect.html.
188 NETL. http://www.netl.doe.goV/technologies/coalpower/gasification/basics/1.html.
189 EERE. http://www1 .eere.energy.gov/biomass/gasification.html.
190 NETL. http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/coalpower/gasification/basics/index.html.
191 International Energy Agency, Task 33.  May 2005.  Observations on the Current Status of Biomass Gasification. Page 1 .
  http://media.godashboard.com/gti/IEA/58  BiomassGasification.pdf.
 2 Gasification Guide, http://www.gasification-guide.eu/index. php?id=10&r=6.
 3 NETL. http://www.netl.doe.goV/technologies/coalpower/gasification/basics/7.html.
197 NETL. http://www.netl.doe.goV/technologies/coalpower/gasification/basics/2.html.
198 Bioenergy Feedstock Information Network, http://bioenergv.ornl.gov/fags/index.htmltfeco3.
199 NREL. February 2000.  Small Modular Biopower Initiative Phase I Feasibility Studies Executive Summaries. NREL/TP-570-
  27592. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fvOOosti/27592.pdf.
200 Rizzo, Rob, Mt. Wachusett Community College. Presentation June 2007. http://www.delaware-energy.com/Download/BIO-
  MASS-CONF/Rob%20Rizzo.pdf.
201 EPA, www.epa.gov/oar/particlepollution/health.html and EPA. www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/nox/hlth.html.
202 EPA. May 2002. Health Assessment Document for Diesel Engine Exhaust. EPA/600/8-90/057F. Page 603.
  http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplav.cfm?deid=29060 and EPA Region 1.  http://www.epa.gov/ne/eco/diesel/.
20  California Air Resources Board. "Facts about California's Accomplishments in Reducing Diesel Particulate Matter Emissions."
  Page 1. http://www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/factsheets/dieselpmfs.pdf.
204 EPA. 2005.  National Emissions Inventory, www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends.
205 EPA, West Coast Collaborative. June 2005. "Public Health and Environmental Impacts of Diesel Emissions."  Page 1.
  http://westcoastcollaborative.org/files/outreach/Health-Enviro-Factsheet.pdf.
209 EPA, West Coast Collaborative. "West Coast Collaborative PowerPoint." Page 22.
  http://westcoastcollaborative.org/files/outreachAA/CCppt.pdf.
210 EPA, West Coast Collaborative. "West Coast Collaborative PowerPoint." Page 4.
  http://westcoastcollaborative.org/files/outreachAA/CCppt.pdf.
21  California Air Resources Board. "Facts about California's Accomplishments in Reducing Diesel Particulate Matter Emissions."
213 EPA. March 2007. Cleaner Diesels: Low Cost Ways to Reduce Emissions from Construction Equipment. Page 5.
  http://www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/emission 0307.pdf.
214 EPA. March 2007. Cleaner Diesels: Low Cost Ways to Reduce Emissions from Construction Equipment. Page 5-6.
  http://www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/emission 0307.pdf
21  Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association.
  http://www.meca.org/cs/root/diesel  retrofit subsite/what is retrofit/what is  retrofit.
Citations                                                                                                        184
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   EPA, West Coast Collaborative, www.westcoastcollaborative.org.
217 Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association.
  http://www.meca.org/cs/root/diesel retrofit subsite/what  is retrofit/what is  retrofit.
218ICF Consulting for EPA. May 2005. Emission Reduction Incentives for Off-Road Diesel Equipment Used in the Port and
  Construction Sectors. Page 17. http://www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/emission 20050519.pdf.
219 Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association.
  http://www.meca.org/cs/root/diesel retrofit subsite/what  is retrofit/what is  retrofit.
22  Schattanek, Guido. November 2004.  "The Greening of Construction: Implementing Clean Diesel Control  Programs on
  Transportation Projects." Sustainable Development, Issue 59.
  http://www.pbworld.com/news events/publications/network/issue 59/images/schattanek fig1  250.jpg.
221 Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association.
  http://www.meca.org/cs/root/diesel retrofit subsite/what  is retrofit/what is  retrofit.
222 Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, http://www.dea.virginia.gov/moblie7mobcomp.html
223 Lenox, Katey, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. June 18-22 2000.  "Extending Exhaust Gas Recirculation  Limits in Diesel
  Engines." Air and Waste Management Association 93rd Annual Conference presentation.  Salt Lake City, UT.  Page 15.
  http://www-chaos.engr.utk.edu/pap/crg-awma2000-slides.pdf: CA Air Resources Board.
  http://www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/verdev/vt/cvt.htm: and EPA. http://www.epa.gov/otag/retrofit/verif-list.htm.
224 Manufacturers of Emissions  Controls Association. April 2006. Retrofitting Emission Controls On Diesel-Powered Vehicles. Page
225 Manufacturers of Emissions Controls Association. April 2006. Retrofitting Emission Controls On Diesel-Powered Vehicles. Page
  9. https://vault.swri.edu/Retrofit/Documents/Tech Paper.pdf.
226 Manufacturers of Emissions Controls Association. April 2006. Retrofitting Emission Controls On Diesel-Powered Vehicles. Page
  18. https://vault.swri.edu/Retrofit/Documents/TechPaper.pdf.
227 EPA, West Coast Collaborative. "Diesel Emissions Mitigation Opportunities." Page 2.
        west Coast Collaborative. "Diesel Emissions Mitigation Opportunities." Page 1.
  http://westcoastcollaborative.org/files/outreach/Diesel%20Emission%20Mitigation.pdf.
231 EPA, West Coast Collaborative. "Diesel Emissions Mitigation Opportunities." Page 2.
  http://westcoastcollaborative.org/files/outreach/Diesel%20Emission%20Mitigation.pdf.
23  Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association. April 2006. Retrofitting Emission Controls On Diesel-Powered Vehicles. Page
  16. https://vault.swri.edu/Retrofit/Documents/TechPaper.pdf.
233 California Air Resources Board. October 2000.  "Appendix XI, Diesel PM Control Technologies." Page 40.
  http://www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/documents/rrpapp9.pdf.
234 Washington State University Extension Energy  Program. "Diesel Oxidation Catalyst." Page 3. www.energy.wsu.edu/ftp-
  ep/pubs/renewables/DieselOxidation.pdf.
23  Washington State University. "Diesel Oxidation  Catalyst." www.energy.wsu.edu/documents/renewables/DieselOxidation.pdf. And
  Washington State University.  "Diesel Particulate Filters."
  www.energv.wsu.edu/documents/renewables/Retrofitparticualtefilters.pdf.
236 EPA, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. December 2006. "Diesel Pump Labeling Requirements." Page 4.
  http://www.clean-diesel.org/images/DPLabelFacts121406.pdf.
237 EPA. OTAQ. http://www.epa.gov/otag/highwav-diesel/regs/420f06064.htm and http://www.epa.gov/nonroad-diesel/.
238 Clean Air Fleets, http://www.cleanairfleets.org/altfuels.html.
239 EPA, OTAQ. http://www.epa.gov/otag/highwav-diesel/regs/420f06064.htm.
240 EPA, OTAQ. http://epa.gov/otag/regs/fuels/diesel/diesel.htm.
241 EPA. http://www.epa.gov/smartwav/growandgo/documents/factsheet-biodiesel.htm.
242 NREL. Williams, A., R.L. McCormick, R. Hayes, and J. Ireland. March 2006. Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particulate Filter
  Performance. NREL/TP-540-39606. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fv06osti/39606.pdf.
244 NREL. April 2005. "Biodiesel Blends: Clean Cities Factsheet." DOE/GO-102005-2029.
  http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/npbf/pdfs/37136.pdf.
245 Clean Air Initiative, http://www.cleanairnet.org/infopool/1411/article-33906.html.
246 EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/natural gas cng Ing.html.
247 EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/natural gas benefits.html.
248 EPA. http://www.epa.gov/cleandiesel/construction/strategies.htmtffuels
249 EPA. http://www.epa.gov/cleanschoolbus/retrofit.htm.
250 Clean Air Fleets, http://www.cleanairfleets.org/altfuels.html.
251 Ibid
252 Ibid
253 Ibid
254 EPA, Region 9. http://www.epa.gov/region09/waste/biodiesel/guestions.html.
255 Ep^ OTAQ. http://www.epa.gov/otag/retrofit/documents/biodiesel calc.xls.
256      Regjon g http://www.epa.gov/region09/waste/biodiesel/guestions.html.
Citations                                                                                                         185
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257 EPA, OTAQ. http://www.epa.gov/otag/retrofit/documents/biodiesel  calc.xls.
258 EPA, Region 9. http://www.epa.gov/region09/waste/biodiesel/guestions.html.
259 EERE. http://www.epa.gov/region09/waste/biodiesel/benefits.html.
260 EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/natural gas benefits.html.
261 EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/natural gas benefits.html.
262 Ibid
263 EPA, OTAQ. "Clean Alternative Fuels: Compressed Natural Gas Fact Sheet." http://eerc.ra.utk.edu/etcfc/docs/EPAFactSheet-
  cng.pdf.
264lbid
265 EPA. http://www.epa.gov/otag/diesel/construction/strategies.htm.
266 Ibid
267 EPA. http://epa.gov/otag/retrofit/techlist-lubrizol.htm.
268 Ibid
269 EPA. http://www.epa.gov/otag/highwav-diesel/regs/420f06064.htm.
270 EERE. July 2007. "Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report." Page 3.  www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/pdfs/afpr iul 07.pdf.
271 EPA, OTAQ. "Clean Alternative Fuels: Compressed Natural Gas Fact Sheet." http://eerc.ra.utk.edu/etcfc/docs/EPAFactSheet-
  cng.pdf.
272 EPA, OTAQ. June 2003. Clean Fuel Options for Heavy-Duty Trucks and Buses. EPA420-F-03-015. Page 4.
  http://www.epa.gov/otag/retrofit/documents/f03015.pdf.
27  Clean Air Fleets, http://www.cleanairfleets.org/altfuels.html.
274 EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/progs/all  state summary.cgi?afdc/0.
275 California Public Utilities Commission. Sept 2007.  California Solar Initiative Program Handbook. Page 7.
  http://www.gosolarcalifornia.ca.gov/documents/CSI  HANDBOOK.PDF.
276 Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San  Diego Gas and Electric, San Diego Regional Energy Office, Southern California Edison,
  Southern California Gas Company. May 2007.  Self-Generation Incentive Program Handbook. Page 3.
  http://www.sce.eom/NR/rdonlvres/2FE187DO-3629-4201-A93F-AE7A827F5D03/0/2007 SGIP Handbookr3070508.pdf.
277 NorCal Solar. 2006-2007. Solar Energy Resource Guide.  7th edition. Page 17.
278 NorCal Solar. 2006-2007. Solar Energy Resource Guide.  7th edition. Page 18.
279 Solar Pathfinder, http://www.solarpathfinder.com/index2.html.
280 EPA. http://www.epa.gov/adminweb/administrator/actionplan.htm.
281 EPA Region 9.  Machol, Ben. Energy and Climate Change Strategy. December 2007.  Page 14.
282 White ho use.  http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/12/20071219-1.html.
283 EPA. http://www.epa.gov/greeningepa/energy/fedreg.htm and EERE. http://www1.eere.energv.gov/femp/about/legislation.html.
284 EPA, Energy Star Program. http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=pt  reps  purch  procu.pt reps exec  orders.
285 Ibid
286 EERE. http://www1.eere.energv.gov/femp/about/legislation.html.
287 EPA. http://www.epa.gov/greeningepa/energy/fedreg.htm.
291 EERE. http://www1 .eere.energy.gov/solar/solar glossarv.html.
292 EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/solar/cfm/fags/third  level.cfm/name=Photovoltaics/cat=The%20Basics.
293 Olsen, Ken, Solar On-Line: Learning Center, sol@solenergy.org. PV201 course materials, www.solenergy.org.
294 EERE. http://www1 .eere.energy.gov/solar/photoelectric effect.html.
295 EERE. http://www1 .eere.energy.gov/solar/printable versions/doping  silicon.html.
Special Materials and Research Technology. www.specmat.com/Overview%20of%20Solar%20Cells.htm.
Olse
Ibid
Ibid
297 Olsen, Ken, Solar On-Line: Learning Center, sol@solenergy.org. PV201 course materials, www.solenergy.org.
298 Ibid
302 Olsen, Ken, Solar On-Line: Learning Center, sol@solenergy.org. PV201 course materials, www.solenergy.org
303 Ibid
304 Ibid
305 Ibid
306 Ibid
310 The Solar Guide, http://www.thesolarguide.com/solar-energy-svstems/choosing-a-solar-provider.aspx and Sustainable
  Development Fund Solar Photovoltaics Grant Program. "Solar PV Grant Program Tips on Choosing a PV Installer."
  http://www.trfund.com/sdf/solarpv documents/PV Con Tips.pdf.
Citations                                                                                                        186
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313 British Wind Energy Association, http://www.bwea.com/edu/extract.html.
314 Ibid
315 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 6.
  www.eere.enerav.aov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind  guide.pdf.
316 NREL. Photographic Information Exchange. http://www.nrel.gov/data/pix/Jpegs/14676.jpg.
317 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 6.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind  guide.pdf.
318 EERE. March 2005. Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide. Page 22.
  www.eere.energy.gov/windandhvdro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/small wind/small wind  guide.pdf and American Wind Energy
  Association, http://www.awea.org/fag/windpower.html.
319 EPA, LMOP. September 1996. A Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development Handbook. Page 2-3,
  http://epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/handbook.pdf.
320 EPA, AgStar Program. 1997. AgStar Handbook. Page 3-3. www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/handbook/chapter3.pdf.
                                                  basics.html.
324 EPA, February 2002. A Brief Characterization of Reciprocating Engines in Combined Heat and Power Applications. Page 2.
  http://www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/chp recipengines.pdf.
325 California Energy Commission. April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in
  California. Page 6. http://www.energv.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08 500-02-020F.PDF.
326 California Energy Commission. April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in
  California. Page 5. http://www.energv.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08 500-02-020F.PDF.
327 California Energy Commission. April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in
  California. Page 6. http://www.energv.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08 500-02-020F.PDF.
328 California Energy Commission. April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in
  California. Page 5. http://www.energv.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08 500-02-020F.PDF.
329 Ibid
330 Ibid
331 EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/de/industrial  turbines/tech basics.html.
332 Ibid
333 Ibid
334 California Energy Commission. April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in
  California. Page 8. http://www.energv.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08 500-02-020F.PDF.
335 EERE. www.eere.energv.gov/de/microturbines/tech basics.html.
336 EPA, LMOP. October 2002. Powering Microturbines with Landfill Gas. EPA430-F-02-012. Page 1.
  http://www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/pwrng mcrtrbns.pdf.
337~ibid
338 EPA, LMOP. October 2002. Powering Microturbines with Landfill Gas. EPA430-F-02-012. Page 2.
  http://www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/pwrng mcrtrbns.pdf.
339 California Energy Commission. April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in
  California. Page 11-12. http://www.energv.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08  500-02-020F.PDF.
340 EPA, LMOP. October 2002. Powering Microturbines with Landfill Gas. EPA430-F-02-012. Page 3.
  http://www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/pwrng mcrtrbns.pdf.
34  California Energy Commission. April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in
  California. Page 9. http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08 500-02-020F.PDF.
342 EPA, LMOP. "Adapting Boilers to Utilize Landfill Gas." www.epa.gov/lmop/res/pdf/boilers.pdf.
343 California Energy Commission. April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in
  California. Page 9. http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08 500-02-020F.PDF.
344 California Energy Commission. April 2002. Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in
  California. Page 9. http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08 500-02-020F.PDF.
345 Adapted from EPA, AgStar Program. 1997. AgStar Handbook. Pages 2-2, 2-4,2-5,2-6,2-7.
  www.epa.gov/agstar/pdf/handbook/intro.pdf.
346 Dairy Power Production Program, http://www.energv.ca.gov/pier/renewable/biomass/anaerobic digestion/projects.html.
347 CA Energy Commission, http://www.energv.ca.gov/development/biomass/anaerobic.html.
348 Leggett, Jeannie, Graves, Robert, Lanyon, Les, Penn State University, College of Agricultural Sciences G77. "Anaerobic
  Digestion: Biogas Production and Odor Reduction from Manure." http://www.age.psu.edU/extension/factsheets/g/G77.pdf.
349 EERE. http://www.eere.energv.gov/consumer/vour workplace/farms  ranches/index.cfm/mvtopic=30003.
350 Ibid
351 Ibid
352 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United  Nations. http://www.fao.org/sd/EGdirect/EGre0022.htm.
353 EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/vour workplace/farms  ranches/index.cfm/mvtopic=30003.
354 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United  Nations. http://www.fao.org/sd/EGdirect/EGre0022.htm.
355 Ibid
356 EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/vour workplace/farms  ranches/index.cfm/mvtopic=30003.
Citations                                                                                                      187
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358 Fondahl, Lauren, EPA Region 9. Personal communication. Octobers, 2007 and 40 CFR 503.32(a).
  http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
  idx?c=ecfr&sid=fdf2e06805b14decOec66ed24d7b7e67&rgn=div8&view=text&node=40:29.0.1.2.40.4.13.3&idno=40.
359 EERE. http://www.eere.enerav.gov/consumer/vour workplace/farms ranches/index.cfm/mvtopic=30003.
360 NETL. http://www.netl.doe.goV/technoloaies/coalpower/aasification/basics/5.html and
  http://www.netl.doe.aov/technoloaies/coalpower/gasification/basics/4.html.
36  EPA. September 2006. Alternative Technologies/Uses for Manure Draft, www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/cafo  report.pdf.
362 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/T0512E/T0512eOa.htm.
363 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/T0512E/T0512eOa.htm and NETL. June
  2002. Benchmarking Biomass Gasification Technologies for Fuels, Chemicals, and Hydrogen Production. Pages 7-8.
  www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/coalpower/gasification/pubs/pdf/BMassGasFinal.pdf.
364~ibid
365 Ibid
366 Modified from image courtesy Dennis Johnson, EPA. Johnson.Dennis@epa.gov.
367 Adapted from EERE. http://www.eere.energy.gov/greenpower/markets/pricing.shtml?page=1.
Citations                                                                                                     188
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