tinted Statat       ' dUr and
              EnvtoraiMntafPreuctton    Radiation
              A0*ncy          (ANFV44S)
              Conservation And Recycling
              Practices For CFG-1i3 And
              Methyl Chloroform
                           i.'   £
                                          PrintKl on R*cyd«d Paper


                       FOR CFC-113 AND METHYL CHLOROFORM

                                    ICOLP Technical Committee*
                                           John Thome (Chairman)
                                                  Ray Alien
                                               Jonathan Andell
                                               Kenneth Bench
                                                  David Hey
                                                Stewart Holm
                                                 Jim LaiKtoirs
                                               Dara O'Rourke
                                               Robert Ramsey
                                               Bill Rtehard»on
                                                 Farzan Riza
                                            Richard Szymanowski
                                              Peter Thoratenaen
                                            Stephen O. Andersen
                                    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
        • ICOLP n the IndusuyCoopentive for Ozooe Layer ProuctkMt ICOLP corporate member compute include AT&T, Boeing Company,
        British Aerospace, Compaq Computer Corporation, Digital Equipment Corporation, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Hitachi
        Limited, Honeywell, IBM,, Matsushita Electric Industrial Company, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Motorola, Northern Telecom,
        Sundstrand, Tens Instruments, and Toshiba Corporation.  Industry association «fnii«t»« include American Electronics 'Association,
        Electronic Industries Association, Japan Electrical Manufacturers AseocJaiiion, and the Hatogenated Solvents Industry Alliance (US.).
        Government organization affiliates include the City of Irvine, California, the State Institute of Applied Chemistry (ILS.S.R.), the Swedish
        National Environmental Protection Agency, UJ5. Air Force, and US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

        John Thome, Ray Alten, Jonathon Andell, and Jim Landers are employed bjr Motorola; Kenneth Beach it employed by Honeywell; David
        Hey is employed by ICI (UK); Stewan Holm is employed by the Halogenatel Solvents Industry Alliance; Dan O'Rourke and Farzan Riza
        are employed by ICF Incorporated; Bill Richardson is employed by Digital Equipment Corporation; Robert Ramsey is employed by
        DuPont de Nemours & Qx; Richard Szymanowski is employed by Northern Telecom; and Peter Thorstensen is employed by Manchester
        Corporation. We would like to **|»n*r the many individuaht and companies tiiat provided """gt" and infomatibn that hflpr^l produce »*»«
               This -manual was funded by the US. EPA and ICOLP.        j                                  •




The US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Industry Cooperative for Ozone Layer
Protection (ICOLP), the ICOLP committee members, and the companies that employ the
ICOLP committee members do not endorse the cleaning performance, worker safety, or
environmental acceptability of any of the technical options discussed.  Every cleaning
operation requires consideration of worker safety and proper disposal of contaminants and
waste products generated from cleaning processes. Moreover, as work continues, including
additional toricity testing and evaluation under Section 612 (Safe Alternatives Policy) of the
Clean  Air Act Amendments of 1900 and elsewhere, more information on the health,
environmental and safety effects of alternatives will become available for use in selecting
among alternatives discussed in this document  ;

EPA and ICOLP, in furnishing or distributing this information, do not make any warranty
or representation, either express or implied, with respect to its accuracy, completeness or
utility; nor do EPA and ICOLP assume any MabiJity of any kind whatsoever resulting from
the use of, or reliance upon, any information, material, or procedure contained herein,
including but not limited to any claims regarding health, safety, environmental effects or fate,
efficacy, or performance, made by the source of the information.

Mention of any company or product in this document is for informational purposes only, and
does not constitute a recommendation of any such company or product, either express or
implied by EPA, ICOLP, ICOLP committee members, or the companies that employ the
ICOLP committee members.


                           Table of Contents

List of Exhibits	
                                        ................. . .... . .... . vjj

     Cooperative Efforts
     Economic Benefits	• '•  ..

     U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments	
      Excise Tax ..	        • • • -... ?.................
     Other International Phaseout Schedules ..............	...'.'.'. " "   6
 Structure of the Manual	
          -          ••    •         •      - t-        - - - - - - -. ,-••'«..,.......... y

 Conservation and Recycling Advantages .....,..	........	.....        11

                                                           ........... 13

 Process Characterization		                                     i<
• "• ~ '   •   : /         •  '  .   .    '         •«•••'«,........»...	 ID

      Sources of Potential Savings	!....'	               15
      Extent of Usage		.; ..'.'..!*! i ] i'i i °	*"" *      15
      Solvent Loss Mechanisms	:'...<.....'.'.'.'.]'.'.'.'.'.]	" 20
      Measurement and Monitoring  	•..........!!.!!..].]          22

Recap on Program to this Point	•.........;.............              23

Conservation Practices and Strategies  ..........	.......                25

      Best Practices in Operation	.;.	    -    26
           Operator Training Curriculum ...,	.'!]""""  26
           Handling Practices for CFC-113 and MCF .......  ......           26
           Pumping Practices	'..... „.    29
           Equipment Strategies .....	.'.....'	'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'"'29'

     Batch aeaning Operating Practices	    30
           Process Description		......;[:]! i i *'" ];.! {. 1 30
           Convection	 ..i................;!!" °'" * °' *"" 30
           Superheated Vapor Drying  .	\.	.."!'!:!!!!!!;!!!!!   30
           Dragout 	-'.	......!! ][  !!!!!;'*"* " 32
           Maintenance	.....'.'.''"" 32
           Piston Effect	 >	."'."...... „ *.....   32
           Vapor Blanket Collapse  ...	^ ............ 1  !!*]!]]*!]]    33
           Programmable Hoists		...... '....... °...... 33
           Start-Up and Shut-Down Procedures	!!" * 34
           Idle Time Management >....,'..'.	.'	;..	'..'..,'   34


                      Table olf Contents (Continued)
      In-Une Cleaning Practices ....... , ................... ....... ..... 35
            Process Description ......... ---- • ..... ..... ....... • • ...... 35
            Convection  .............. : ...... • ..... • ......... • • ...... *J
            Dragout  ...... . ......... • ........... ........ ---- ....... 37
            Maintenance ........... ? ............... • • • • ...... • • • • • • • fj
            Superheated Vapor Drying . * ............. ...... • ....... '"••":*'
            Start-Up and Shut-Down Procedures ------- ...... ........ ---- . . 38
            Idle Time Management .... ...... « . • • .......... ...... ---- . . 38
      Cold Cleaning  ............... • .......... • • • ••-. ..... • ...... • .....  ;"
            Process Description ........ • ............. • • • • ..... '•"'"•'"  Z
            Qeaning Methods and Emission Reduction .......... . . ----- • .....  3*

      Reclamation ........... • • • .................. .••*••.. ....... '""
            On-site Recycling
            Off-site Recycling
      Other Control Technologies ......... ............ ...... ....... ---- 45
             Carbon Adsorption .......... . . . . * ............ ............. 45
             MCF and Carbon Adsorption  . . ---- ..... ........ ---- • • • ..... 4^
             Air Stripping ............ ...... .............. i ----- ... ........ 45
             Thermal Destruction . . ....... . . ..... ---- ....... ....... ---- ««

 Recap of the Manual ............ • ........ ................. ....... ... 49

 Case Studies  of Industrial Practices ......... . ......... . ....... ---- • ...... 53

      Case Study #1 - CFC Reduction/EKmination in Electronics Qeaning ...... . . 55
      Case Study #2 - Using Industrial Hygiene Techniques to Monitor
      and Reduce Solvent Losses ......................... « ............ 59
      Case Study #3 - Solvent Equipment Selection - A Case Study of Errors ..... 60
      Case Study #4 - Emissions Monitoring and Reduction  . . ........ ........ 62
      Case Study #5 - History of Equipment Upgrades ...................... 63
      Case Study #6 - Solvent Conservation and Recycling  ...-.......•.......,.'»

                                        1 ' '       '               •  '     '   67
 References .................................. ........... ....... ....

 List of Solvent Recyclers and Equipment Manufacturers ............ ----- ---- . 69

 Glossary  ........................... • • ; • •  •••; •;••••' ..... ° ' ••«••• — • 75

 Appendix A - Industry Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection . . . ; . ..... ... : ---- 77

                              List of Exhibits
 Exhibit 1     Montreal Protocol Participants		 1
 Exhibit 2     Corporate Policies on CFC-113 Reduction Schedule		. 2
 Exhibits     Phaseout Dates for CFC-113 and Methyl Chloroform Under the
             US. Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocol ..	...	.....'. „. 4
 Exhibit 4     Relative  Solvent Emissions From  Representative Industrial
             Situations 		........		 12
 Exhibit 5,    CFC-113 and Methyl Chloroform Usage Profile  .......	.....•* 17
 Exhibit 6(a)  An Example of a Printed Circuit Hoard Cleaning Equipment
             Profile ....		:.	:.........	ig
 Exhibit 6(b)  An Example of a Metal Cleaning Equipment Profile  .......	.. 19
 Exhibit 7     Solvent Losses in a Typical  Printed Wiring Assembly Plant	...... 21
 Exhibit 8     Training Curriculum for Solvent Reduction Program  .	 .'•. 27
 Exhibit 9     Solvent Refill Procedure  ....... 1..	. ....-,.•............ 29
 Exhibit 10    Basic Vapor Degreaser-Batch Cleaning  ..	.	......... 31
 Exhibit 11    Schematic of Piston Effect	 ] ]'; [ 33
 Exhibit 12    Schematic of Vapor Blanket Collapse	 33
 Exhibit 13    In-Line Solvent Cleaning System	 36
 Exhibit 14    Orientation of Parts for Maximum Drainage  .	.....	..... 37
 Exhibit 15    Factors Influencing the Decision to Recycle Solvent Wastes On-
             Site ................................	. .....;	 41
 Exhibit 16    Continuous Steam Stripping ..........	."	...		 43
 Exhibit 17    Facility Considerations in Choosing an Off-Site Recycler	 44
 Exhibit 18    Point-Of-Use Carbon Adsorption Process Schematic	46
 Exhibit 19    Rotary Carbon Adsorption System .....'.,	 47
Exhibit 20    Thermal Destruction FlowTDiagram	 1 »-..*	 48
Exhibit 21    Emissions Reductions:  Problems and Solutions Checklist .........]] 50
Exhibit 22    Solvent Usage Reduction Program 1,	57
Exhibit 23    Solvent Usage Profile  for a  Conveyor Degreaser ......	....... 62


The  1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that
Deplete the Ozone Layer, and subsequent 1990
amendments  and  adjustments,  restricts  the
production  and consumption of ozone-depicting
chemicals.   Two such chemicals, chlorofluoro-
carbon  l,l,2-trichloro-l,2,2-trifluoroethane
(commonly referred to as CFC-113) and 1,1,1-
trichloroethane (commonly referred to as methyl
chloroform or MCF),  will be completely phased
out in developed countries by years 2000 and 2005
respectively, and ten  years  later in  developing

Exhibit 1 lists the countries that are Panics to the
Montreal Protocol as of April 1991.  In addition,
many companies worldwide have corporate policies
to expedite the phaseout  of  ozone depleting
chemicals.   Exhibit  2 presents the corporate
policies on  CFC-113 reduction for some of these

In addition to providing regulatory schedules for
the phaseout of ozone-depleting chemicals, the
Montreal Protocol established  a fund that will
finance the incremental  costs  of  phasing out
ozone-depleting substances by developing countries
that are Party to the Protocol
U.S.  Clean  Air Act

The ILS. Clean Air Act (CAA) was amended in
1990, and contains several provisions pertaining to
stratospheric ozone protection. Section 602 of the
CAA presents a list of ozone-depleting substances
that are restricted under the CAA. These ozone-
depleting substances are defined as  Class I and
Class II substances. Class I substances include all
fully  halogenated  chlorbfluorocarbons  (CFCs)
including CFC-113. three batons, MCF, and carbon
tetrachloride.  Class  II substances are defined to
include 33  hydrochlorofiuorocarbons  (HCFCs).
The sections of the CAA that are of importance to
users of this manual are discussed below.

 Burkina Faso
 New Zealand
 South Anica
 Sri Lanka
 Switzerland  .
 Syrian Arab Rep.
 The Gambia
 Trinidad and
 USSR (includes
  Byelorussia and
 United Arab
 United Kingdom
 United States
• Venezuela
 Non-Ratifying Signatories:  Congo, Indonesia,
 Israel, Morocco, Philippines, Senegal, Togo

                       Date:  April, 1991

                              Exhibit 2
   American Electronics Association Member
   Companies, U.S.
   AT&T, U5.
   Canon, Japan
   Digital Equipment Corporation, U.S.
   Hitachi Corporation, Japan
   HoneyweU, U.S.
   IBM, US.
   Intel Corporation, U.S.
   Matsushita, Japan
   Motorola, Inc., U.S.
   Nissan Motor Corp., Japan
   Northern Telecom, Canada
   Seiko-Epson, Japan
   Sharp Corporation, Japan
   Texas Instruments, ILS.
   Toshiba Corporation, Japan
   Volvo, Sweden
Reduction Schedule
 Phaseout 1994
 Phascout 1994
 Phaseout 1995
 Phaseout 1993
 Phaseout 1997
 Phaseout 1993
 Phaseout 1992
 Phaseout 1995
 Phaseout 1992
 Phaseout 1993
 Phaseout 1991
 Phaseout 1993
 Phaseout 1995
 Phaseout 1994
 Phaseout 1995
 Phaseout 1994

 Section 604 and Sect/on 605:
 Phasmout of Production and
 Consumption of Class I and Class II

 These provisions of the CAA present phaseout
 schedules for Class I & Class II substances. The
 phaseout dates  for ozone-depleting  substances
 listed in the CAA are more  stringent than the
 Montreal Protocol.    Exhibit 3 presents the
 phaseout schedule for CFC-113 and MCF.  Other
 substances with ozone-deleting potential are also
 regulated under the Montreal Protocol and the
 CAA. While they are not used in solvent cleaning
 applications, these substances are used in other
 applications.  Section 605 of the CAA presents
 provisions for the phaseout of HCFCs.  The CAA
 freezes  the  production of HCFCs in 2015 and
 phases them out by 2030. Since these restrictions
 focus on production limitations, to the extent that
 these chemicals can be recovered, recycled, and
 reused, they may continue in commerce past the
 applicable phase-out dates.
  Sect/on 608;  National Emissions
* Reduction Program

  This  section  calls  for  EPA  to  promulgate
  regulations by July 1992 requiring emissions from
  all  refrigeration  sectors  (except  mobile  air
  conditioners that are covered in Section 609) to be
  reduced to their "lowest achievable  levels."
  Regulations affecting emissions from all other uses
  plClass I and Class II substances including solvent
  cleaning are to take  effect lay November  1995.
  This  section  also prohibits any  person  from
  knowingly venting any of the controlled substances,
  including HCFCs, during servicing of refrigeration
  or air  conditioning  equipment (except  cars)
  beginning July  1,  1992, and  requires the safe
  disposal of these compounds by that date.
  Section €10:  Nonessentlal Products
  Containing Chlorofluorooarbons

  this  provision  directs  EPA  to  promulgate
  regulations that prohibit the sale or distribution of
  certain "nonessential" products that release Class I
  & Class  II substances during manufacture, use,
  storage, or disposal. In the CAA, Co- £-
                                 Exhibits       ' ,                      .

                  UNDER THE U.S. CLEAN AIR ACT

   Clean Air Act

    Reduce from 1986
    levels by:
      1991 -15%
      1994 - 35%
      1997 - 85%
                             Montreal Protocol
                             Freeze at 1986 production and consumption levels by July
                             20% reduction from 1986 levels by January 1993
                             50% reduction from, 1986 levels by. January 1995
                             85% reduction from 1986 levels by January 1997
                             100% reduction from 1986 levels by January 2000

                             Also call for future assessment to determine if an earlier
                             complete pbaseout by January 1997 is achievable
                             Montreal Protocol
                             Freeze at 1989 production and consumption levels by
                             January 1993           •               '
                             30% reduction from 1989 levels by January 1995
                             70% reduction from 1989 levels by January 2000
                             100% reduction from 1989 levels by January 2005

    Freeze at 1989 levels
    by 1991
    Freeze at 1989 levels
    continues in 1992
    Reduce from 1989
    levels by:
     1995 - 30%
     2001-80%    '
     2005 - 100%                                               \

* New authority would be given to EPA to authorize, to the extent consistent with the Protocol, the
production of methyl chloroform in an amount not to exceed 10% of baseline per year in 2002,2003.
and 2004 for use in essential applications for which no safe substitutes are available.

environment, and (c) are currently or potentially
available.  If EPA temporarily exempts products
manufactured with  Class I substances from the
labeling  tequirement  based  on  the  lack  of
substitutes,  the products must be labeled  by
January 1,2015; and

•  No  later than  January  1,  2015, products
   containing or  manufactured with  j Class  II
   substance must be labeled.  EPA may require
   such products to be labeled as early as May 15,
   1993  if   it  determines,  after notice  and
   opportunity for public comment, that there are
   substitute products or manufacturing process
   available.                   .

The CAA allows for petitions to be submitted to
EPA to apply the requirements of Section 611 to
products  containing  Class  II substances or  a
product manufactured with Class I or II substances
which  are not  otherwise   subject   to   the
requirements.  This petition process will operate
between May 15, 1993 and January 1. 2015. For
products manufactured with Class I substances, a
successful petition would result in, the labeling of
a product previously determined  by  EPA to  be
exempt  For products containing or manufactured
with Class II substances, the petition process could
lead to labeling  of a product that had been left
unlabeled by default
 Sect/on 612: Safe Alternatives Policy

 Section 612 establishes a framework for evaluating
 the environmental impact of current and future
 potential alternatives.   Such regulation ensures
 that the substitutes for ozone-depleting substances
 will not create environmental problems themselves.
 The key provisions of Section 612 require EPA to:

 •  Issue rules by November 15,1992 which make
    it unlawful to replace any Class I and Class H
    substances with a substitute that may present
    adverse  effects  to  human  health  and  the
    environment where  EPA  has  identified an
    available or potentially available alternative that
    reduces the  overall risk to human health and
    the environment

  •  Publish  a   list  of  prohibited  substitutes,
    organized by use sector,  and  a list of the
    corresponding alternatives;
•  Accept petitions to add or delete a substance
'   previously listed as a prohibited substitute or an
   acceptable alternative;

•  Require  any  company which  produces  a
   chemical substitute for a Class  I substance t<*
   notify EPA 90 days before any new or existing
   chemical is  introduced into commerce as  a
   significant new  use  of that chemical    In
   addition.  EPA must  be provided with  the
   unpublished health and safety studies/data on
   the substitute.

To implement  Section 612 EPA will (1) conduct
environmental risk characterizations for substitutes
in each end use and (2) establish the Significant
New Alternatives Program (SNAP) to evaluate the
future  introduction  of substitutes  for  Class I
substances. EPA has also initiated discussions with
NIOSH,  OSHA,  and  other governmental  and
nongovernmental   associations  to   develop  a
consensus process for  establishing  occupational
 exposure limits for the  most significant substitute

 The environmental  risk characterizations for the
 substitutes will involve a comprehensive analysis
 based on the following criteria:  ozone-depleting
 potential, flammability, toricity, exposure effects,
 energy efficiency, degradation impacts, air, water
 and solid waste/hazardous waste pollution effects,
 and global-warminj; potential. Economic factors
 will also be considered. EPA will organize these
 assessments   by   use   sector   (Le.   solvents,
 refrigeration, etc). The risk characterizations will
 result  in  risk-management strategies for  each
 sector and substitute. EPA will then categorize a
 substance  as  unacceptable,  acceptable   with
 limitations on use or quantity, acceptable without
 comment,  or  delayed  pending  further  study.
 Petitions will  be allowed to change a substance's
 status with the burden  of proof on the petitioner.

 The SNAP program, effective November 15,1992,
 will review future substitutes not covered in the
  initial risk characterization process.  SNAP will
  evaluate  a substitute  based on   the  criteria
  established for the risk characterization and will
  classify it similarly.

Excise Tax

Congress has abo placed an excise tax on ozone-
depleting chemicals manufactured or imported for
me in the United States.  This tax provides a
further incentive to use alternatives and substitutes
to CFC-113 and MCF. The tax amounts are based
on each solvent's ozone depleting potential
   Calendar Year
  Tax Amount
    Per found
CFC-113    MCF
   The tec will increase by $0310 per pound
   for CFC-113 and $0.045 per pound  for
   MCF each year after 1995.
Other International Phaseout
European Community Directive

Under the Single European Act of 1987, the twelve
members of the European Community (EC) are
now subject to various environmental directives.
The members of the EC are Belgium, Denmark,
Germany, France, Greece, Great Britain, Ireland,
Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and
Spain.  Coundl  Regulation number 594/91 of
March 4,1991 provides regulatory provisions for
the  production of  substances  that deplete the
ozone layer. The EC phaseout schedule for CFC-
113  production  is  more  stringent  than  the
Montreal  Protocol  It calls for a 50 percent
reduction of CFC-113 by the end of 1993, a 67,5
percent reduction by  the end  of 1995, an 85
percent  reduction  by the  end of  1996,  and
complete phaseout by June 30,1997.  For MCF,
the production phaseout schedule is as follows: 30
                            percent reduction by the end of 1995, 70 percent
                            by the end of 2000. and a complete •phaseout by
                            the end of 2004. While all members must abide by
                            these dates. Council Regulation number 3322/88 of
                            October 31.1988 states that EC members may take
                            even more extensive measures to protect the ozone
                            layer.     ,                                 .
Other Legislation

Several other countries have adopted legislation
that  is more stringent  than  the terms of the
Montreal Protocol.  Environment Canada, the
federal environmental agency  responsible for
environmental protection in Canada, also has a
reduction program in place that is more stringent
than the Montreal Protocol All production and
import of CFCs.  for use in Canada, must be
eliminated by no later than 1997.  Environment
Canada has also announced a series of target dates
for the phaseout of CFCs in specific end uses. For
solvent cleaning applications,  such as metal and
precision cleaning, it mandates a phaseout of CFC-
113  by  the end of  1994.    Pending  final
consultations with end-users  and  producers of
MCF, the target date for the phaseout of MCF wfll
be 2000.

Japan has ratified the revised Montreal Protocol
The recent Ozone Layer Protection Act gives the
Ministry  of  International  Trade and  Industry
(MITI) the authorization to promulgate ordinances
governing the use of ozone-depleting compounds.
MTTI  and  the   Environmental  Agency  have
established   the   'Guidelines   for   Discharge
Reduction and Use Rationalization.' Based upon
these guidelines,  various government agencies
provide administrative guidance and advice to the
industries under  their  respective jurisdictions.
Specifically, MITI, the ministry overseeing several
aspects  of   Japanese  industry  including  the
production and trade of controlled substances,
prepares and distributes manuals, and encourages
industry  to  reduce ozone-depleting  compounds
consumption through economic measures such as
tax incentives to promote the use of equipment to
recover and  reuse solvents.

The EFTA  (European  Free  Trade Agreement)
countries  (i.e., Austria, Finland, Iceland, Norway,
Sweden, and Switzerland) have each adopted
measures to completely phaseout fully halogenated
ozone-depleting compounds.  Some of the EFTA

 countries have sector-specific interim  phaseout
 dates for certain solvent uses. Norway and Sweden.
 will  phaseout  their  use  of CFC-113 in  all
 applications except textile dry cleaning  by .Jury 1
 and January 1, 1991, respectively.  Furthermore,
 Austria will phaseout CFC-113 in some solvent
 cleaning applications by January 1,1992 and 1994.
 Austria, Finland, Norway,  and  Sweden  will
 completely phaseout their use of CFC-113 in  all
 applications by January 1,1995. Sweden also plans
 an aggressive phaseout date of 1995 for MCF.
Cooperative Efforts

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
has been working with industry to disseminate
information oh technically feasible, cost effective,
and environmentally sound alternatives for ozone-
depleting substances.  As part of this  effort, the
U.S. EPA is working with the Industry Cooperative
for Ozone Layer Protection (ICOLP*)  to prepare
.a series  of manuals to provide technical  infor-
mation on alternatives to CFC-113 and MCF. The
manuals are based on actual industrial experiences
that will serve as a guide to users of CFC-113 and
MCF worldwide.  These manuals will be updated
periodically as technical developments occur.
    first manuals in the series are:
   Conservation and Recycling Practices for CFC-
   113 and Methyl Chloroform.

   Aqueous  acid  Semi-Aqueous  Alternatives  to
   CFC-113  and  Methyl Chloroform Cleaning of
   Printed Circuit Board Assemblies.

   Inert Gas Soldering/Low  Residue Flux and
   Paste  Alternatives to CFC-113  and Methyl

   Alternatives for CFC-113 and Methyl Chloro-
   form in Metal Cleaning.

   Eliminating CFC-1 13 and Methyl Chloroform in
   Precision  Cleaning Operations.
 •  Riveting Without CFC-113 and Methyl Chloro-
;   form.            1  '.••'•'.    •

 This particular manual presents a simple structured
 program to help you reduce use and emissions of
 CFC-113 and/or MCE  The manual:

 «  Guides you through a characterization of your
   existing process;

 •  Helps you identify sources of emissions from
|   your process;

 •  Outlines the selection criteria  for appropriate
   conservation and recycling measures for your

 •  Introduces several conservation  and recycling

 •  Presents  detailed  case studies of solvent
   conservation and recycling measures.
! •'"''.'
The conservation measures for CFC-113 and MCF
cleaning will help to reduce losses from:

•  Convection and diffusion

 •  Dragout

«  Maintenance

;«  Miscellaneous sources.

This manual will be helpful to all users of CFC-
 113 and MCF in solvent cleaning.   However, the
success of your CFC-113 and MCF  reduction
'strategies will depend upon  how effectively you can
coordinate  your  conservation  and   recycling
programs. The reduction of CFC-113 and MCF in
solvent cleaning presents a demanding challenge
for your organization. The rewards for success are
the   contribution   to  global  environmental
protection and  the increase in your company's
industrial efficiency.
' Appendix A presents more detailed information
about ICOLP.


This manual is divided into four sections:

     This section outlines some of the advantages of conservation and recycling

     This section helps toc assess and understand the use of solvents in manufacturing
     processes.                    '  .  i

                                     '"                f
     In this section, conservation practices specific to batch cleaning, in-line cleaning,
     and cold cleaning are discussed with examples and ideas for reducing losses from
     these systems. Reclamation and recycling processes are also discussed.
                    -                • '            ',  '

                                     i              'i
     This section  presents case studies  of several  companies  that implemented
     conservation and recycling programs.


There are a number of compelling reasons  to
conserve and recycle CFC-113 and MCF solvents.
Controlling  solvent   emissions  from   vapor
degreasers  has  been  important  to  reducing
occupational exposure  and  minimizing  solvent
losses. With the added incentive of protecting the
stratospheric  ozone  layer and  mitigating  the
greenhouse effect, it is now imperative that your
company reduce emissions  of these  chemicals
through conservation and recycling.
       Solvent  conservation  and recycling
       protects worker health and protects
       the local environment.

       Solvent  conservation  and recycling
       improves operating practices.

       Understanding  and   controlling
       emissions   of  cleaning  solvents
       supports   the  optimization  of
       manufacturing processes.

       Reducing waste streams and chemical
       losses during operation saves money
       and can help your company comply
       with environmental requirements.
 In all  but the most  efficient systems, vapor
 degreasing  and  cold  cleaning  systems emit
 relatively high amounts of solvents when compared
 to solvent emissions  when  proper engineering
 controls are implemented. Exhibit 4 shows typical
 emission factors in industrial practices. The results
 are based on a standard load, keeping variables
 such as thermal mass constant for the different
 operating settings.

 In Exhibit 4, "base* represents the minimal amount
 of solvent emissions from a  process unit that is
idling with its cover on. The amount of solvent
loss during this idling period is arbitrarily given an
emission factor of 1.0.

"Good" represents solvent loss rates for a property
operated  unit with a representative load.  The
general procedure is a 30-second vapor rinse, 30-
second ultrasonic immersion, 60-second vapor dry,
and a 30-second residence in the freeboard zone
(just above the  vapor  zone but still within the
cooling coils). This emission factor represents a
high level of conservation of emissions through
strict adherence  to proper procedure.

"Poor" represents solvent  loss rates when some
common shortcuts are taken in violation of "good"
procedure.   For example, when no  freeboard
residence is  used and  the vapor dry  is reduced
from 60  seconds to 30 seconds.  As  shown in
Exhibit 4, these seemingly minor violations in
procedure dramatically increase emissions by a
factor of five compared to the "Base" case.

"Industry* represent!) a value that is representative
of what is commonly found in industry. This value
incorporates losses associated with liquid dragout,
drafts, rapid entranos and exit speeds, uncontrolled
sprays, and other procedural violations. This case
represents an increase in emissions by a factor of
eight compared  to  the  "Base" „ case.    This
consumption level is  generally  found in high
production  situations  where  throughput  is
emphasized over soltvent savings.

Identifying the sources of emissions is the first step
in reducing emissions. In our discussions of the
various technologies, we examine specific sources
of emissions and elite actions which will help to
reduce these losses.

                        Exhibit 4









GOOD        POOR

  Industrial Practices
Source: Halogenated Solvents Industry Alliance

   The three main sources of emissions are:  .

   •   Diffusive  and  convective losses  of
       solvent vapor from the equipment;

   •   Leakage from the equipment and its
       associated piping;

   •   Liquid and vapor dragout on the work
       being processed.
Recent improvements in machine designs address
the main sources of emissions.  Solvent losses can
be reduced either by replacing old machines with
new equipment or retrofitting older machines with
improvements.   A  partial  list of vendors  of
equipment appears at the end of this manual

Occupational Safety and Health regulations which
are in place in the U.S. and Europe also motivate
companies to  reduce  emissions of  solvents.
Permissible exposure limits require companies to
monitor and control emission of certain solvents.
Economic Benefits

The U.S. tax on CFCs and  MCF, and product
shortages, will continue to improve the economics
of recycling and conservation. As production cuts
go  into  effect and prices continue to rise, the
efficient  use of  solvents  will  become  more

The  elimination   of  waste   streams   in  a
manufacturing process increases the efficiency of
the  process  and reduces costs associated with
complying  with state and local regulations on
hazardous  waste   minimization  and  auditing
requirements. Reclaiming and recycling solvents is
one way to reduce both  waste streams and the
virgin use of expensive ozone-depleting solvents.
It is important, however, to avoid mixing solvents
in the recovery process.  The quality of recovered
solvents  should be examined for suitability for
intended future uses.              -'••..,

Solvent recycling can occur both on-site and off-
site. While the magnitude of on-site recycling is
difficult  to quantify,  it  has been a  significant
component in the  increased solvent efficiencies
that have been achieved in recent years. Over 100
off-site solvent recycling organizations exist in the
U.S. and  Europe. Over the last several years these
companies  have   proven   that   recycling  is
economical for both themselves and those who use
solvents.    As more companies  perform  solvent
recovery, the recycling  organizations are  now
poised to  serve the needs of  the industry.   A
partial list  of solvent recyclers appears at  the end
of this manual.
Older  equipment is generally less  efficient and
more likely to emit  solvents than new equipment


 The first step in reducing use and  emission of
 ozone-depleting chemicals is identifying them in
 your processes.  CFC-113 and MCF are marketed
 as cleaning solvents under a variety of names and
 labels.  They are also found in smaller concen-
 trations in a variety of mixtures. The following is
 a partial list of these solvents by their trade names,
 and the companies that manufacture them:
    Trade Name
    Algofrane 113
:    ArkloneP
:    Asahifron 113
    Daiflon 113
    Daiflon S3
    Flugen 113
    Freon TMS (94%)
    Freon 113
    Freon TF
    Frigen 113
    Frigen 113A
    Frigen TR
    Genetron 113
 Asahi Glass
Allied Signal
Allied Signal
      Nomenclature/Chemical Names
   Methyl Chloroform
      Trade Name "
      Chlorothene SM
      Solvent 1,1,1
      Nomenclature/Chemical Names
                         Sources of Potential

                         There are five steps Involved in reducing emission
                         of solvents.  Incorporating these five steps in your
                         evaluation  process  will  significantly  reduce
                         emissions.  The savings associated with each step
                         can vary widely, a representative range is presented
                         in the discussion below.
                                                   These five steps can be summarized as the
                                                   following actions:

                                                   •   Eliminate

                                                   •   Isolate

                                                   •   Automate

                                                   •   Educate

                                                   •   Maintain.
                        Eliminate.  Eliminating solvents results in a  1 GO
                        percent reduction in emissions.  The first step in
                        reducing the use and emission of solvents is to
                        assess the need to employ solvent cleaning at each
                        existing ,stage  in the manufacturing  process.
                        Redundant or unnecessary cleaning of parts is
                        common in manufacturing systems.  Any stage in
                        a process where cleaning can be eliminated will
                        automatically reduce emission of the chemicals,
                        while saving money.
                                          i        •

                        If parts are cleaned a number of times before final
                        assembly,  consolidation  (or  centralizing)  of
                        cleaning processes and equipment will  reduce
                        unnecessary steps in the manufacturing process. It
                        also concentrates activities to fewer machines -an
                        advantage in both maintenance and operating

                        Isolate.  Isolating  open sources of emission and
                        enclosing them can reduce emissions from 50 to 80

percent   Open-top vapor  degreasers can  be
retrofitted easily to Include  a shroud  or  cover.
Sealed doors and covers should  be added  where
access is necessary  but where emissions  occur.
Dedicated vents that can account for  up to .75
oercent of emissions should be turned down or ofi,
if other measures can be taken to limit worker

At&malt.  Automating a vapor degreasing process
can reduce emissions by 40 to 60 percent Manual
operation of vapor degreasing  equipment often
leads to unwanted emissions.  Opening and dosing
covers, lids, and doois as well as moving the work
pieces  in  and  out of the solvent can  cause
emissions.   Employing  automatic hoists and
transport systems will reduce operation emissions.
 Automated operation also  minimizes operator
 error.  Manufacturers should  consider retiring
 older equipment and  replacing it with modem
 systems which have been designed with emission
 redactions features. It is important to note that
 retrofitting a  degreaser may require a  permit
 modification.  Replacing an old degreaser with a
 new one  wfll  likely  require  repermittrog.   A
 sifdScant cost savings can be achieved with such
 investments,  but  plan  ahead  by  purchasing
 equipment that can use the  new solvents that are
 replacing CFC-113 and MCF.   In many cases,
 faowsver,  different equipment designs  will be
 required to use alternative solvents.

  Fffo****     Education programs can  lead  to
  procedure changes,  which  in turn  can reduce
  emissions by 20 to 30 percent Training workers to
  be aware  of the need to  reduce, emissions wfll
  ensure that programs are instituted correctly and
  that accidental emissions are reduced.  Information
  sessions addressing emission issues of sun-up, shut
  down, and idle time procedures should be included
  in  basic  operator  training.    Incentives  for
  conservation  should also  be explained to  the
.  workers, including their own health and safety,
  environmental concerns, and company benefits.

  Jtfa&tfgfc- Improved maintenance procedures  can
  result  in 20 percent reduction  in emissions.
  Maintenance of vapor degreasing equipment is
  essential to preventing potential emissions. Leak
  testing and usage logs can be used to track the use
  and emissions of solvents.  Improving solvent
  change and boil down procedures will also reduce
  emissions.   General equipment maintenance is
  important for  proper operation.    A critical
 maintenance issue is the associated chiller package,
 .where failures can result in the toss.of excessive
 amounts of solvent overnight

 Extent of Usage

 An effective program to reduce CFC-113 and MCF
 use  requires  a good  knowledge of your plant
 operations, including quantities  of solvents used
 for each process and areas *toere losses occur.

 The following questions will help you understand
 your plant operations:

  . Who purchases CFC-113 and MCF?

  • Who takes delivery?

  • How is the CFC-113 or  MCF handled from
    arrival to ultimate use?

  . How is CFC-113 or MCF used?

' .• Where do losses take place?

  Have the manager of your solvents elimination
  program  start with  a  survey.    A copy  of
  questionnaires that can be'used are shown in
  Exhibits 5 and 6. This survey form should be sent
   to  individuals in each  plant location who are
   responsible  for Material  Safety Data Sheets
   (MSDS). All  MSDS should be checked for 1,1,2-
   trichloro-lA2-trinuoroethane  (CFC-113)   and
   11,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) to help
   identify the trade name.  The MSDS sheets should
   be cross-checked  with  the trade  names listed
   previously in this section. Identify the quantities
   bought in the previous calendar year and start
   reporting on a regular basis (monthly or quarterly).

   Some solvent losses wfll inevitably occur during
   operation. However, it is impossible to determine
   the  extent  of your  emissions  and  potential
   reductions until a process assessment is performed.
   Monitoring your operations is also the best way to
   determine  the  success of  your  conservation

   A. Identification
   Name of Product:     '   .'     •••'.-	     ':
   Purchase Number:
   CFC or MCF Components:
                         Chemical Name
       Percent or Concentration
  B.  Quaatyication of Usage Patterns
  Quantity Purchased: (specify units)
      1989:       "•.            1991:
                 *               1992:
  C. CFC and MCF Disposal Practices
  Annual quantity shipped as waste
  for disposal: (specify units)
  Annual disposal costs:
  Annual quantity shipped for
  reclamation: (specify units)
  Annual cost of reclamation:
  Annual quantity lost to the
  environment:  (specify units)
     Through leakage:
     Through spillage:
     Through testing:
     Through drag-out and
     By other means (specify)
  Source:  U.S. EPA 1990

                                 Exhibit 6(a)

 Equipment Name:

 Model Number _

 Manufacturer.  __
 Year Purchased: __________

 Tilde Name of
 Chemicals Used: __________

 Annual Quantity of CFC or MCF
 Purchased for use in this
 Equipment (specify units):      -
 Annual Quantity of CFC or MCF Waste
 Requiring Disposal or Off-site
 Recycling: 	.	
 & Equipment Usage Pattern
..is *
 Annual Board Production
 (specify units): 	
 Average Board Area:
 (specify units): 	
 Check appropriate blanks:
     Single sided
     Double sided
     Number of layers
 Average Number of Solder
 Connections per Board: 	
 C. Emission Controls

 Do you practice the following? If you do, briefly describe the procedures:

     Leak Testing:

     Alternate Testing Methods:

     On-site Recovery/Recycling:

     Improved Loss Control Procedures:

     Operator Awareness/Guidelines:

 Source:  US. EPA 1990



                               *"••'('-            :-    •

 A.  Identification                    '  -                      '
         *           *•                        ;                 •
 Equipment Name:    ''             	        •      '         !'  •  -       '

 Model Number                   •-•"'"''   •    •  '  '.   •.

 Manufacturer:  	    .	
 Year Purchased:

 Trade Name of
 Chemicals Used:
 Annual Quantity of CFC or MCF
 Purchased for Use in this
 Equipment (specify units):  	,
 Annual Quantity of CFC or MCF Waste
 Requiring Disposal or Off-site
 Recycling: 	     •	.
B. Equipment Usage Pattern

Annual Quantity of Parts Cleaned
(specify units):      "•  •
Type of Pan Cleaned: .	

TVpe of Cleaning Equipment:

    Cold cleaner/dip tank
    Open-top vapor degreaser
    In-line vapor degreaser
C Emission Controls

Do you practice the following? If you do, briefly describe the procedures:

    Leak Testing:
                                    • -  - .    |
    Alternate Testing Methods:

    On-site Recovery/Recycling:                 >

    Improved Loss Control Procedures:           j


Source: US. EPA 1990

   The  following  two  steps  should  be
   followed  for  printed   circuit   board

   «   Determine total production of boards
       in square meters of surface area for a
       given time  period   (year,  quarter,
       month).  Only  measure the  area of
       one side of the board  regardless of
       whether it is single sided, two sided,
       or multiple layer in configuration and
       regardless of whether any components
       are mounted on it

   ^   Divide total quantity of CFC-I13 or
       MCF purchased by total manufactured
       board area  for the same period to
       determine the ratio of pounds solvent
       used per square  feet of board
       produced, expressed as Ibs/fr.
 In North American industry, this ratio is on the
 ordsr of 0.41 lbs/ft2 (2.0 kg/m2> for a production,
 facility operated with today's technology and with
 minimal   attention   to   chemical   handling.
 Determine your use ratio before beginning your
 conservation and elimination programs.
    For  metal cleaning, this ratio  can be
    determined by the following step:

    «   Divide  total  quantity  of  solvent
        purchased by total units or weight of
        parts cleaned for a given time period.
 Repidless of the cleaning process used, calculate
 thii ratio  and report it  on a.regular  basis -•
 monthly is recommended.  This step is important
 because it enables you to monitor success as your
 conservation programs go  into effect. It will also
 stimulate your employees  to take an interest and
 participate in the drive to  reduce solvent use.

 Keep a log book for solvents used in each of your
 machines.  The log tracks the amount of solvent
used  and  product  cleaned  and  gives  you
information to compare machines. Log books will
add  incentive and a  feeling of  ownership  to
operators of the machines.

At this point, you have to make the following

• If you have already reduced use by 75 percent,
  you probably have good conservation practices
  in place and will be ready to focus more time
  and effort on exploring alternate processes and

• If your usage has  reduced by less than 75
  percent of original, you can  probably benefit
  from additional conservation programs.
                                           1 ,'
Next, do an assessment of where you  are losing
solvents.  Do this for the  whole plant beginning
with the delivery of solvent  You may wish  to
develop a simple flow diagram as in  Exhibit 7.
This  will give your project manager and your
technical staff an understanding of  the areas  to
focus on first If you have more than one cleaning
machine, you should do an analysis of each, since
solvent losses may vary significantly from machine
 to machine.

 With knowledge of solvent use and  where losses
 are occurring, you can now select the appropriate
 conservation  programs described in  the  next
 Solvent Loss Mechanisms

 Losses  from  convection,  diffusion,  dragout,
 maintenance, and spills occur  in  all  solvent
 cleaning systems.  Knowing which losses are the
 most significant in your operation and which can
 most easily be reduced  will help improve your

 In a vapor degreaser, there is a layer of relatively
 stagnant gas in the freeboard zone of the machine
 that  is sandwiched  between  the layer of 100
 percent solvent  vapor  at  the  bottom of the
 condenser and the layer of 100 percent air exiting
 at the top lip of the machine.

                     ASSEMBLY PLANT
                           Evaporallv* LOSMS, Drag Out  Evaporative LOSMS,
                           S«al«,«tB.   12%  40%     Seals,«tc,  2%
              Evaporative LOSMS
                                            15% Evaporative LOSMS
Source: Northern Telecom

Under these conditions, the solvent molecules tend
to migrate or diffuse from the region of high vapor
concentration at-the condenser to the region of
low  vapor  concentration  at  the  top  of  the
degreaser.  The rate of diffusion is a function of
the freeboar*1 depth (the deeper the depth, the
slower the diffusion rate)  and the condenser
temperature (the lower the temperature, the slower
the  diffusion  rate).    Auxiliary  refrigerated
condensers (-20*F/-29*C) located in the freeboard
zone help to reduce the diffusion rate.

Diffusion, however, is an. insignificant process of
solvent toes compared to other loss mechanisms.
Convection is the most significant  physical  loss
process.   Drafts or other  air  currents  blowing
across the top of the degreaser, referred to as
convective losses, can be eliminated by locating the
unit in a draft-free environment Consider  that
moving  a degreaser  or installing a hood  may
subject   some   operations   to   repermitting
requirements,  depending  on  the  regulatory
requirements. Where excessive air movement is a
problem, consider installing baffles or partitions on
the windward side to divert the air currents away
from the degreaser. Losses from drafts can also be
reduced by using hooded enclosures in conjunction
with automated work-handling facilities.

Insertion and withdrawal of the workload can lead
to losses due to disruption of the vapor blanket, as
well as  dragout losses.  Manual  insertion and
withdrawal tend to increase these losses.
Mechanical devices to insert and withdraw  the
Work load can result in significant savings.  Such
devices can range from inexpensive hoist motors to
sophisticated, programmable systems.

Emissions  during  maintenance  of a  solvent
cleaning machine are also  common and can be
reduced through increased training and awareness
on the pan of maintenance personnel.  Emissions
from spills will also be diminished through user
awareness and care.
Measurement and  Monitoring

Several  simple  measurement  and  monitoring
methods can  be used effectively  to determine
sources  of losses.    Leak detectors sold  as
refrigerant detectors wfll identify leaks of solvents.
Air currents which may cause diffusion should be
monitored with smoke generation tubes.

Operators or system analysts should be given the
•time to verify the  performance condition  and
calibration of solvent monitoring equipment To
be effective, the monitoring equipment must be
both accurate and responsive in the range in which
it is expected to perform. Below is a partial list of
instruments that can be used for leak detection and
vapor concentration  monitoring.  A partial list of
vendors for monitoring equipment appears at the
end of this manual
Flame lonization
Detector Tube
Thermal Printer
1-40,000 ppm
100-9900 ppm
1-10,000 ppm
50-1400 ppm

Concentration Monitoring
Leak Detection/Concentration Monitoring
Leak Detection/Concentration Monitoring
* . - '
Concentration Monitoring
i '
Leak Detection
Leak Detection

If the recommendations presented above are followed, the program will have laid the
groundwork for reducing solvent emissions, including:         ;
  «  Commitment by management and workers to reduce emissions;

  •  Better understanding of the costs and benefits of reducing emissions;

  •  Recognition of CFC-113 and MCF under their various trade names and chemical
     names;                           t

  •  Characterization of cleaning processes  to identify the extent of usage and the
     need for a conservation and recycling program;

  •  Identification of the primary sources of emissions and means of reducing them.


This section of the manual begins by discussing conservation practices in general and then
presents specifics of different cleaning operations (e.g., batch, in-line, and cold cleaning).
Finally, the section concludes with an overview of reclamation and recycling procedures.
The section is organized in the following manner:
  •  Best practices to operate solvent cleaning equipment;

  •  Causes of emissions and reduction strategies for batch cleaning operations;

  *, Emissions during in-line cleaning and techniques to reduce ithem;
                                     '        '     .  ,|     •
  •  Cold cleaning practices and emissions reductions;

  •  Reclamation and recycling practices;

  •  Other control technologies;

  » _ A summary of emission causes and solutions.


Best Practices in Operation

Once current use of solvents is characterized, a
conservation strategy can be developed. An first,
choose  conservation options  that are easy  to
implement in the short-term.  These will offer
immediate results and will encourage employees to
continue  and accelerate  their  efforts.    The
following options for savings are typical for open-
top3wpor degreasers that do not have some of the
more'advanced control techniques, and that may
differ for conveyorized equipment

Operator Training Curriculum

Operator  training   is   the   second   largest
conservation opportunity, second only to control of
air currents.  Operating losses due  to dragout
average 40 percent of the total losses.   Other
practices such as basket overloading, vapor blanket
 racking habits,  and solvent  removal for hand
 cleaning can increase total losses from operating
 habits to over 80 percent

 Operator induced losses obviously are reduced with
 increased automation. Fully automated systems,
 including part  racking,  are controlled  by  the
 programmed  operation   of   the   equipment >
 Therefore, production programmers should also be
 trained in good  conservation practices.

 It has been found that  operators are generally
 unaware of the  financial and environmental costs
 associated  with  the use  of  ozone-depleting
 chemicals.   Increased operator awareness  can
 translate into a reduction in consumption, since
 operating practices and methods can usually be
 improved.                      .   .

' Operator awareness of the ozone-depletion issue
 and  training  in  the handling of solvents is
 recommended.    Operators  can change  their
 methods and practices, such as keeping lids and
 windows closed, turning off the cleaner when not
  in use,  conducting  maintenance regularly, and
  exercising care while working with machines and

  Access to CFC-113 and MCF can be restricted to
  strengthen management control
Part  basket  designers,  production  scheduling
managers, and equipment maintenance personnel
should also be involved in training programs.
Parts must move slowly through the cleaning cycle.
Racking and basket design are critical fectors in
preventing or minimizing vapor blanket collapse
and solvent dragout Maintenance practices can
contribute to losses  from poor  cleaning  and
handling techniques. On a warm day up to five
gallons of solvent  can  be lost from an open
< container due to evaporation.

A training curriculum  for most solvent vapor
decreasing processes is shown in Exhibit 8.  The
training is most effective if given over a four* to
six-week  period and  in at kast  four  separate
 meetings.  Any single training period should not
       one hour.
 Handling Practices for CFC-113 and

 With more stringent production  and emissions
 controls  on  ozone-depleting  chemicals,  it  is
 imperative that solvents containing CFC-113 and
 MCF be handled with  the utmost care.  These
 solvents  should  be  stored in secure drums  to
 prevent evaporation during storage and transfer
 and should be clearly marked.  You should also
 store drums with the bung end up to eliminate the
 possibility of solvent spillage through a leaking

  If large quantities of solvents are used, consider a
  bulk storage system and delivery of the solvent
  through a piping system to the batch cleaners.

  Solvent should be sampled periodically and tested
  for acidity, moisture content, azeotropic imbalance,
  and  other  signs  of  degradation.    Solvent
  degradation is often symptomatic of a flawed unit
  which in turn can generate excessive solvent waste.

  Follow  solvent manufacturer's instructions  for
  proper  testing  methods  and   guidelines  to
  determine acceptable conditions for continued use
  of the solvent If solvent cannot be used, be sure
  to follow  appropriate procedures for off-site
  reclamation and disposal.


     •   Encourage operator 'ownership' of environmental concerns

     •   Operator tracking mechanism
           -  Meter with calibrated'solvent dispensing pump
           -  Solvent log book               j
           -  Solvent usage graph
           -  Volume/area of work run
           -  Report usage to management

     •   Understanding degreasing process
           -  Condensing of solvent on cold part
           -  Evaporation of solvent from warm part

    •   Introduction to types of losses
           — Evaporative
           - Vapor blanket collapse
           - Dragout

    «  Demonstration of vapor degreaser in operation
           ~ Start up and shutdown procedures
           - Condensing coil/distillation
           - Vapor blanket smoke tube highlighting


   •  Training all operators

   •   Control of operators
          — Reduce number of operators
          - Reward mechanism
          - Monitor performance

   •   Provide sufficient equipment
          - Stills, filters
          - Hoists
          — Properly designed parts basket

   •   Degreaser placement

   •   Controlled ventilation

                                    Exhibit 8 (continued)
          Maintenance program
              -  Chiller package
              -  Leaks
              —  Cleaning

              —  Ventilation disturbances
              -  Basket design
              -  Insufficient cooling

       •   Pan racking
              — Pan cupping                                                               ,
              - Cohesion of solvents between parts                                           .
              — Part/basket mass — vapor blanket collapse

       •   Slow pan submersion and withdrawal
              - Piston effect
              - Vertical rate less than 10 ft/min
              — Drying in condensing zone

       •   Spraying techniques                            '
              — Low pressure
              — Below condenser area                 .
              — Fixed spraying zone

       •   Solvent addition/removal                               .
              — Utilization of open-top unit as a still                 .
              - Add below vapor and liquid levels
              - No removal for .hand or cold cleaning
              — Disposition of still bottoms, handling empty drums

       •   Demonstrations*                                                     '
              - Vapor blanket collapse due to mass
              — Piston effect
              — Insufficient drying time
              ~ Solvent addition

   *  Demonstrations are an important tool in training. Artificial smoke from smoke-generating tubes
   can provide an excellent media for observing air currents and vapor blankets. Dry ice can also be used
   in a container to provide a nonsolvent demonstration. To minimize exposures to trainees and to limit
   solvent emissions, dry ice may be preferred  Either method  provides a hands-on demonstration of
   operator control

 Pumping Practice*

 Carefully add solvent to the cleaner to minimize
 disturbing the vapor blanket  Solvent should be
 pumped into the cleaner through a submerged
 outlet Makeup solvent should be added to a rinse
 compartment  or better yet,  to  the cleaner's
 condensate collection  tank.   In either case, it
 should be added below the solvent surface. Cold
 solvent definitely should not be added to a boiling
 sump: it may stop the boiling and cause the vapor
 blanket to collapse (see Exhibit 9).

 Avoid pouring solvent with buckets or drums into
 an open-top degreaser  because:

 • Solvent foiling through air evaporates rapidly,
  causing significant losses  before entering  the

 • The pouring action creates turbulence in  the
  vapor blanket,  leading to  convection  losses.
  This effect will be exacerbated  if the cold
  solvent causes the vapor blanket to collapse;

• Spillage is increased; and

« Increased worker exposure may occur.
                  Exhibit 9

 Sauna: DuPont
 Equipment Strategies    ••

 System optimization will improve the efficiency of
 your  manufacturing process as well  as reduce
 unnecessary emissions.  Solvent cleaning units
 should be used to their maximum potential  C^e
 large  unit costs less than two small units and is
 much more efficient
 Vapor emissions can be reduced by consolidating
 operations of several open-top units into a single,
 enclosed unit designed for continuous  operation.
 Production   scheduling,   involving   linear
 programming  or  other   methods,   can  help
 streamline your process and reduce unnecessary
 steps as well as associated labor and process costs.

 Ideally, you should size a machine to your required
 capacity.   But if necessary, yon should  oversize
your system rather than buy two machines. It is
important to consider  the ability of the unit to
accept scale down.  System operation at 20-30
percent of maximum capacity can be important

Batch Cleaning Operating

P/oc*cs Description

Bitch cleaning systems (also called open-top vapor
decreasing) are used primarily-in metal working
operations, and defluxing operations.  They can
also be used for maintenance cleaning of electronic
components, small equipment parts, and aircraft
pans where a high degree of cleanliness is needed.

A bitch cleaner is a tank with a heat source to bofl
solvent and a cooling zone to condense the vapor
in  the  upper  section.   Hie soiled  pans are
suspended in an  air-free zone of solvent vapor.
The hot vapor condenses onto the cool  parts,
dissolving  oils  and  greases   and  providing
continuous rinsing with clean solvent This process
also warms the parts, thus decreasing the rate of

As the condensed solvent drains from the part,; it
carries off the soils and returns to the boiling
liquid  reservoir.  This vapor treatment is  often
augmented by mechanical action such as  liquid
immersion, ultrasonic agitation,  or spraying the
with liquid solvent beneath the vapor level (as
shown in Exhibit  10).

Because solvent losses result  from air currents,
batch cleaners should be placed .in an area that is
as draft-free as possible.  Turbulence caused by
drafts from adjacent windows, doors, fens,  unit
heaters, ventilators,  or spray booths will greatly
increase emissions of solvent vapor.

To  avoid  excessive air  movement,  consider
installing baffles or partitions on the windward side
to divert drafts away from the cleaning unit  You
can reduce the velocity of the air flow over the top
of  the  unit by  eliminating  dedicated exhaust
ventilation.  Air  velocity  over  the top of the
machine should not exceed 6  meters per minute
(20 ft/min). However, it should  be noted that in
order  to  minimize worker  exposure  to  high
concentrations   of  solvent  vapor,  sufficient
ventilation should exist around the vapor degreaser
work areas.
For open-top equipment, problems with drafts can
be  avoided  or  corrected  by* using  hooded
enclosures with automated work-handling facilities.

Hinged covers, if opened too quickly, tend to drag
some of the solvent vapor with them. Consider an
alternate design such as a cover that slides or rolls

Most machines have covers or lids to limit solvent
losses and contamination during downtime or idle
time. Control of the solvent is also provided by
the freeboard,  which  is pan of the  tank wall
extending from  the top of the vapor zone to the
tank lip. The freeboard ratio (FBR), or ratio of
freeboard height to machine width, usually ranges
from .75 to 1.0, depending on the manufacturer's

It is sometimes possible to dramatically reduce
convection losses by adding a supplemental water-
cooled or refrigerated  freeboard.   The  original
covers should  be abandoned and  replaced by
sliding covers on this new freeboard, which should
be as deep as practically possible.
Superheated Vapor Drying

Superheated  vapor drying is a relatively new
technology  that   can   be  quite  effective  in
minimizing or eliminating losses from dragout  la
this process, the parts  being cleaned  come  in
contact prior to their withdrawal into the unit's
freeboard  zone,  with  solvent  vapor  that  is
superheated to a temperature above  the normal
boiling point of the solvent  The superheated
vapor provides  the heat needed to evaporate the
equilibrium film  of liquid  and any additional
solvent trapped due to work configuration.

The savings  associated  with superheated  vapor
drying are on par with that of automation.  There
are two procedures for effecting the contact of the
work using superheated vapors. In one, the "static"
method, the vapor zone of die degreaser is
superheated using heat exchangers situated at an
elevation below the condenser.  In the other, the
"dynamic" method, solvent vapor is recycled by a
blower  through  a  heat  exchanger and  then
discharged through distributor nozzles  onto the
work prior to  its withdrawal into the freeboard

                            Exhibit 10

                                                   LIP VENT
          BOILING SUMP

                      WATER OUTLET

                    SOLVENT RETURN
                 SUMP THERMOSTAT
Source: PPG Industries



Dra'fout is primarily a function of the geometry of
the pan being cleaned and the type of basket being
uscdT You can reduce dragout losses if the work
being cleaned is always positioned in baskets or on
books, racks, or conveyor belts to permit maximum
liquid drainage. Solvent trapped in pockets and
recesses   results  in excessive  dragout losses.
Baskets containing a random fill of parts should be
routed during cleaning to facilitate drainage.

If possible, hold the workload in the-vapor zone
after the final cleaning step until its temperature
equals that of the vapor zone and vapor stops
condensing on the part. Work taken out earlier
wfll emerge wet with solvent condensate. Ten feet
per minute is an effective maximum speed for work
entering/leaving a degreaser in batch operations.

Dwell times - the time spent in the vapor zone -
that are too short are most often seen in open-top,
units where the work is manually moved in and out
 of the unit A freeboard dwell of the workpart just
 above the vapor line is suggested until all solvent
 on the workpart has flashed off.  Automatic hoists
 can  help  reduce  excessive  dragout  due  to
 insufficient dwell time. They can also reduce the
 piston  effect and free the operator to perform
 other tasks.
often occur around corners and joints, where two
seals meet.                   '   .   .

Equipment should be fabricated from  materials
that are chemically compatible with the solvent
employed.  Aluminum should never be  used as a
material of construction for storage  and  use
equipment with halogenated solvents.  Type 300
stainless steels are  the  preferred  materials of
construction for vapor degreasers and defluxers
employing CFC-113 and MCF. They are also the
preferred materials of construction for use with the
new HCFC solvents. It is difficult to obtain leak-
free joints  in threaded stainless  steel  piping.
Welded or soldered joint piping  with flanged
connections for removal of accessories (pumps,
filters, dryers; etc) is recommended to minimize

Without an effective cooling system, more solvent
would escape, and these systems would evaporate
dry. This is another maintenance area requirement

 When possible take advantage of services offered
 by  the  machine  manufacturers;  they  have
 experience in fine tuning the cleaner to minimize
 losses.   You  may wish  to supplement this
 assistance with services offered by solvent suppliers
 who often have programs and information that can
 help operators manage the process better.

 Solvent losses  during maintenance are common
 and can be remedied relatively easily.  Training
 maintenance personnel  is critical.  Although the
 design of vapor degreaser units can vary greatly,
 some problems are common to all systems.
 Leakage losses are primarily a reflection of the
 quality of construction of the cleaning unit and of
 the attention paid to its subsequent maintenance.

 Pump seals deteriorate when not in contact with
 solvent A "running dry" condition erodes the seal
 surface and  the seal prematurely  fails.  Systems
 should be equipped with gaskets that  are suitable
 for contact with the solvent and mechanical burden
  they face.   Note that CFC-113 and MCF  may
  require different materials.

  The design and maintenance of cleaners and stills
  requires special attention to the seals and gaskets
  on covers, lids, and panels.  High volume leaks
 Piston Effect

 The loss of solvent vapor can be decreased by
 avoiding the processing of workloads that exceed
 the cleaning system's design capacities.

 A workload that is too large in physical size can
 displace vapor from the vapor degreaser by the
 •piston effect." Such losses can be minimized by
 making sure that the workload area is not greater
 than 50 percent of the horizontal cross-sectional
 area of the sump into which it is being introduced.
  You should also use baskets which minimize the
  area of the workload perpendicular to the surface
  of the solvent baths (see Exhibit 11).

  Proper placement of baffles to contain the vapor as
  well as an increase in the freeboard ratio within
  the tank reduces losses from the piston effect


            PISTON EFFECT

  Sown: DuPont
 Vapor Blanket Collapse

 The rapid introduction of a workpiece with a large
 thermal mass will condense too moch of the vapor
 blanket This will cause air to infiltrate the cleaner
 and cause the vapor blanket to collapse. When the
 vapor blanket is  restored,  the infiltrated  air
 saturated with solvent vapors will be expelled from
 the vapor degreaser (see Exhibit 12).  If this occurs
 on a  regular basis,  contact  the equipment
 manufacturer to determine if  additional heating
 and condensing utilities can be incorporated into
 the vapor degreaser.

 Avoid spraying work pieces by spray lance or spray
 headers.  If you must spray in this way, spray deep
 within the vapor zone, to avoid excess disturbance
 of the vapor/air interlace.

 Avoid liquid solvent ricochet into the freeboard
 zone or out of the machine when lance spraying.
 Do not spray cold solvent because its vaporization
consumes heat  from  the  vapor blanket, which
       s the risk of collapsing the vapor blanket
                        .'   •       -. •'.  ...    .'	       33

                      Use of solvent at a (temperature near the solvent's
                      boiling point minimizes the potential for vapor
                      blanket collapse and the loss of solvent when the
                      vapor blanket is reestablished. Typically this is
                      pan of the machine design.
                         Vapor Blanket Collapse
                                              •V S.  Condmalanm
                                                   Waft Stop*
                                                6.  Vapor BtankM
                    Programmable Hoists

                    A recommended maximum speed for work entering
                    and leaving the cleaner is less than 3 meters/min
                    (10 ft/min).  Higher throughput rates can cause
                    disturbances at the vapor/air interface that result in
                    high  vapor  tosses.   Automatic  hoists  and
                    programmed work transporters are recommended
                    because controlled speeds are difficult to sustain

                    The inclusion of an integrated degreaser cover and
                    hoist  design is  effective  in reducing working
                    isolvent losses.  The presence  of a  motorized,
                    horizontal sliding, two-piece lid can be integrated
                    wth an automated programmable hoist  As the
                    iboist lowers the workload to the degreaser, the lid

slides open to allow .the product to enter into the
vapor zone. When the workload clears the lid on
its downward descent, the lid doses. Subsequent
losses  doe  to  the "piston effect"  or  sprayers
disturbing the vapor blanket are reduced.

Shortly  after  vipor   condensation  ceases,  or
spraying is terminated, the workload can be raised
into the cooling coil zone of the degreaser with the
lid  still  closed to minimize disturbance to the
vapor zone and workload dragout tosses. When
the solvent has vaporized and the product is free
ofliquid solvent (dry), the hoist raises the product
out of the degreaser.  The lid opens to allow the
product  to exit, and then closes.

Such designs can be purchased as an integral pan
of many, new  degreaser designs.  Retrofit kits
consisting of a lid, hoist, or a combination of the
two  are  abo available  to  convert  existing
degreasers.  Retrofitting degreasers may require
 Start-Up and Shut-Down Procedures

 Start-op always results in some loss of solvent
 vapor as air is purged from the system. When the
 cleaner is used on an intermittent basis, emissions
 caused by frequent start-ups and shut-downs can be
 minimized by deferring cleaning until there is a full
 day's worth of work to process.  Thus, there will
 only be one start-up of the cleaning equipment If
 such scheduling is impossible, the unit should be
 left on with the lid closed when not in use.

 Solvent   emissions  during  start-up  can  be
 minimized through the following steps in the order

 • Start up the condenser cooling system and make
   sure that it is operating property;

'• Start  up  any  auxiliary  emission  control

 • Check  and  adjust  solvent levels   in all

 • Torn on heaters;

 • Start up the spray, pumps once a stable vapor
   blanket is established; and
• Process work pieces only after the vapor blanket
  has been established.  In order to determine if
  the vapor blanket has been established you must
  look inside the unit.  Best practice is to do this
  only once.  Time how long the blanket takes to
  form,  and  incorporate  that  time into  the

When shutting down the system, use the following
steps in the sequence shown:

• Stop work processing and clear the machine of
  all work;

• Close the cover on open-top units;

• Turn off the heaterr,

• Activate sump cooling coils wiiere provided;
  water-cooled sump cooling coils can be easily
   installed in many cases;

• Allow the vapor blanket to collapse completely.
   As before, time  this step;

•  Turn off the  condenser cooling system where
   applicable.  However, some units do not have
   sump cooling coils. In this case, the condenser
   cooling  system  should  be kept  on,  on an
   intermittent basis.

Note:   If cooling  condenser is left running for
extended periods after shut-down, it could cause
moisture condensation on the coils from room air.
The moisture would. drip  into she sump  and
contaminate  the solvent  However,  this  can be
prevented with  the use of a water separator or
 desiccant dryer.
 Id/0 Time Management

 Simple procedures such as putting the unit  on
 "cool* mode or turning it off whenever it is not in
 use can  help reduce losses during  idle  time.
 However, start-up and shut-down losses must be
 factored  into  scheduling  decisions.     Each
 installation may warrant its own, customized plan.

 Using rigid covers with tight seals is essential when
 a machine is not operating. Make sure covers are
 not discarded or lost

In-Line Cleaning Practices

Process Description

In-line  cleaning  systems (also referred  to as
conveyorized cleaners) transport the work through
the machine on an automated  continuous basis.
Most of the in-line cleaners that use halogenated
solvents are vapor cleaners.  In-line cleaners are
used in many different industrial applications.
However, they are most common in  processes
where  production volumes are large enough to
justify the higher capital costs of such equipment

Except for the parts/conveyor inlet and exit opmi
ngs, in-line cleaners are usually enclosed. Althou
gh this  helps to control solvent losses from the s
ystem, it does  not eliminate them.  Most in-line s
ystems have significant emission. In-line cleaning
systems are usually custom made for ah applicati

There are five main types of in-line cleaning syst
ems that use CFC-113 and MCF: cross-rod,  mon
orail, belt, strip, and printed circuit board proces
sing equipment These systems differ in their met
hods of loading and unloading parts and in their
methods of transporting  materials  through the cl
eaning process.  Systems are chosen based on the
needs of the manufacturing process, including th
e type of part to be cleaned, type of cleaning req
uired, and speed and space requirements. Exhibit
13 shows one type of in-line cleaning system.
Convection               ,  ,

Excessive air currents  around  in-line  solvent
cleaners  disturb  the vapor blanket' within  the
equipment which  causes solvent losses.   When
excessive air movement is a problem, remove the
source or install baffles or  partitions  on  the
windward side to divert the draft away from the
cleaning unit

In applications in the electronics industry, solvent
cleaning  units  are often  placed  immediately
following wave solder machines.  This reduces the
cooling time before cleaning.   If the boards are
entering the cleaner at a temperature greater than
the vapor temperature, the heat will be transferred
to the vapor and liquid solvent. This results in ah
additional  heat  load  which  may  exceed  the
 condenser's heat adsorption capabilities, resulting
 in vapor discharge or machine shutdown by the
 vapor safety thermostat

 Mounting small fans above and below the conveyor
 to cool the boards before they enter the cleaning
, machine is one, solution to  the  problem.  To
 prevent  disturbing the vapor  blanket within the
 machine, which coultd result in increased solvent
 loss, fans  should  be directed away from  the
 openings of the equipment

 You may  wish  to  consider  a , number  of
 enhancements to the solvent cleaner.  These are
 hardware add-ons or  modifications that require
 capital  expenditures;  and are not  pan of  the
 machine optimization aspects previously described.
    System enhancements include:

    •   Increased freeboard height

    •   Increased cooling system compressor

    •   Additional cooling coils on inlets and
 Cleaner   manufacturers   and   experts   in
 chilling/refrigeration should be consulted for their
 expertise.   Consider  reviewing the  condensing
 effectiveness of your chiller/refrigeration  system
 with the assistance of a knowledgeable contractor.
 Improved condensing efficiency through additional
 cooling coils at the entrance and exit of the wash
 and perhaps through compressor resizing will
 reduce evaporative  and dragout solvent  losses.
 Keep in mind that refrigerant changes can result in
 losses of other CFCs.

 Use gas detectors to give accurate information on
 the location of emissions and to determine how
 effective your efforts, are.

                                Exhibit 13
                  IN • LINE CLEANING SYSTEM
              eLJgvaL.^._ I	
                    .«    I
                           "i m   Water
      Boiling Sump
V—-Solvent Spray
Source: Halogenated Solvents Industry Alliance


 Orientation of the pan and pan design plays a key
 role in the volume of solvent dragged out of the
 cleaners.  For example, in many instances in the
 electronics industry, it has been found that solvent
 adheres to  the  underside of  components and
 collects in pools in connectors.  This could  be
 minimized through reoriehtation (see Exhibit 14).
                  Exhibit 14

  Soum: OuPont
Reorientatioh can be as simple as changing the
method by which the pans are processed.  This
may require  an intelligent controller interfaced
with a turntable located after  the wave solder
machine. The turntable may require a faster cycle
time to reduce the adverse effects on production.
In a less sophisticated operation, the operator can
load the parts to optimize cleaning.

In optimizing the machine, examine the potential
for reducing the conveyor belt speed. This keeps
the board  in  the  vapor  zone longer for more
complete evaporation of solvent,  thus reducing
dragout to a minimum. A recommended maximum
speed for work entering and leaving an open-top
cleaner  is  3  meters/min  (10 ft/min).   For
conveybrized belt in-line systems, consider 3 to 5
                    ft/min conveyor spied.  Higher throughput rates
                    can cause disturbances at the vapor/air interface
                    that result in high vapor losses.

 A bulk solvent handling system reduces solvent
 losses due to drum handling, transferring to small
 containers, and  filling  the  cleaners.    With
 appropriate real time alarms, personnel are alened
 to  possible  leak conditions  by  monitoring
 consumption or toss in each cleaner as solvent is
 supplied.    Careful  visual  inspection should
 supplement the use of alarm systems.

 Solvent  is delivered by bulk tanker and is then
 pumped into a bulk storage tank where it is held
 until needed.  The tank is not  pressurized and is
 commonly placed within the plant Distribution to
 the cleaners is provided through a series of pumps
 and pipes.  These pipes, valves, etc, should be
 made  of appropriate  materials.  Therefore, the
 system eliminates all manual handling of solvents
 and minimizes losses. Control is provided by float
 switches within individual washer units.

 A microprocessor am be used to monitor solvent
 consumption. This provides consumption data and
 activates an alarm  in case consumption  levels
 become excessive in the case of a leak.

 Pump  seals deteriorate when not in contact with
 solvent  A "running dry* condition erodes the seal
 surface and the seals fail prematurely. Pumps and
 seals are typical sites for leaks.

 The design and maintenance of cleaners and stills
 require attention to the seals and gaskets on
 covers, lids, and panels. High volume leaks often
 occur around cornets and joints where two seals
 meet  Check that new and replacement materials
 are compatible with the solvents in use.

Take-advantage of services offered by the machine
 manufacturers; they liave experience in fine tuning
 the cleaner to minimize losses.   This can be a
supplement to  the  services offered by solvent
suppliers  who  often  have   programs   and
information that can help operators better manage
the process.  _

Check  all  temperature-measuring devices  and
controls.   Correctly calibrated  instruments will

optimize machine performance and reduce solvent

Under normal operating conditions, original filters
reach the limit  of their  usefulness relatively
qufckry.   Using more effective filters results in
fewer changes  over  time and less solvent  loss.
Consider adding filters to extend machine solvent
For example, the use of a common motor vehicle
oil inter  and a pump can filter out additional
impurities to the solvent distillation process.  This
filter can increase the time between preventative
maintenance requirements which In turn de
solvent losses.
 Do not use solvent appearance as the only tool for
 deStier drain and refill. Boil temperature should
 also be analyzed.  Solvent/oil specific gravity can
 also  be  an easy  method  to  determine  the
 contamination level of the solvent
 Superheated Vapor Drying

 Superheated vapor drying, as discussed under batch
 cleaning operations, can also be used with in-line
 cleaning operations.
  the unit Best practice is to do this, only pnce.
  Time how long the blanket takes to form, and
  incorporate that into the procedure.

When shutting down the system, use the following
steps in the sequence shown:

• Stop work processing and clear the machine of
  all work:

• Close the cover on open-top units;

• Turn off the heaters;

• Activate sump cooling cons where provided;

• Allow the vapor blanket to collapse completely;

• Turn off the  condenser cooling system where
   applicable. However, some units do not have
   sump cooling coils. In this case, the condenser
   cooling system should be kept on,  on an
   intermittent basis.    >

Note:  If cooling condenser is left running for
extended  periods after shut-down, it could cause
moisture condensation on the coils from room air.
The  moisture  would drip  into the sump and
contaminate the solvent
            and Shuf-Down Procedures
 Solvent  emissions  during  start-up  can   be
 minimized through the following steps in the order

 •  Stan up the condenser cooling system and make
    sure that it is operating property;

 •  Stan  up  any  auxiliary  emission  control

 •  Check  and  adjust  solvent  levels  in  all
 •  Turn on heaters;

 •  Start up the  spray pumps once a stable vapor
    blanket is established;

  •  Process work pieces only after the vapor blanket
    has been established. Determine if the vapor
    blanket has been established by looking inside
 Idle Time Management

 Consider using one vapor degreaser to handle the
 boards from two or more soldering machines.
 Permitting requirements should be verified. Large
 losses are seen in degreasers that are under utilized
 and have an extended idle mode or that cycle as a
 result of frequent start-ups and shut-downs.

 Idle time management could require reworking
 equipment placement conveyor lines, controllers,
 and other  features.  Benefits include not only
 reduction of losses of solvent but also removal of
 extra equipment with a reduction in operating and
 maintenance costsl Well designed in-line systems
 are provided with covers for controlling emissions
 during idle times.        .

 Cold  Cleaning

 Process Description

 Cold cleaners use solvents at room temperature for
 parts cleaning. CFC-113 and MCF have been used
 extensively in cold  cleaning  because  of their
 relatively low toxicity and resulting high workplace
 exposure limits.  Cold cleaners are usually small
 maintenance cleaners or pans washers.

 Cold cleaning operations can include brush or wipe
 cleaning, spraying, flushing, and immersion. Hie
 most common machines which use  CFC-113 and
..MCF are of a type called carburetor cleaners.
 Cleaning Methods and Emission

 Wiping.  The major sources of emissions from
 wiping operations are the disposal of used solvent
 during the cleaning operation and the disposal of
 solvent-soaked rags.   Solvent  evaporation  and
 spillage from the solvent container can also result
 in substantial solvent emissions.

 The best way to reduce emissions from wiping
 operations is to use covers for solvent containers,
 fo dispose of used solvent-containing rags in closed
 containers, and to store used solvent in well sealed
 containers.  Used solvents may be reclaimed or
 recycled.  Several companies, listed on pp. 63-65,
 operate solvent reclamation and delivery services
 that may be suitable for your organization. Used
 solvents and spent rags can also be disposed of by
 incineration as a way of reducing solvent emissions.
 This should occur only in facilities that have been
 designed   for  and  authorized  to   perform

Spraying «r nuking. When solvents are used in
 spraying  and flushing systems, they  are  usually
 recycled because of their high cost  Distillation
equipment  for   these  solvents  is   relatively
 inexpensive and can be justified in terms of solvent
savings alone. Containment  systems and covers
must also  be employed during  operation and
downtime. Spraying equipment should be operated
at low pressure (less than 10 psi), and air-agitation
must be avoided.   In addition,  spray droplets
should be as large as  practical to  minimize
evaporation from the droplet surface.
 Immersion  Claming.   Consumption  of a  large
 volume of solvent is (oommonrwhen immersion cold
 cleaning systems — also known as dip tanks — are
 used as  pan of a  manufacturing  process.   If
 alternative solvents can replace CFC-113 and
 MCF, emission reductions can be significant (See
 the other manuals in this series for alternatives to
 CFC-113 and MCF.)

 Although air-agitation systems may  be used  to
 increase  the  cleaning  efficacy of immersion
 systems,  they also  cause a  higher  evaporative
 emission rate.  The use of covers and  increased
 freeboard  ratio are  both effective means  of
 reducing evaporative emissions. Covers can reduce
 emissions by between 20 to 40 percent Increasing
 the freeboartr ratio to 1.0 may reduce evaporation
 by up to  70 percent  The area around and above
 the  cleaner  should  be kept  free of drafts.
 Removing and replacing covers horizontally (rather
 than lifting them off) will reduce air currents and
 thus reduce evaporation losses.

 Dragout  and cany-out  losses  can be  reduced by
 requiring operators  to allow the pans being
 cleaned to drain for 15 seconds and rotating pans
 to ensure that soivenit is released from recesses and
blind holes in the work pieces.  Proper storage and
reclamation of used solvent can also reduce vapor
emissions.            .
     '                   .                    ,
Parts that have been sprayed, dipped, or wiped may
be drained on an inclined rack that is attached to
the degreaser. Automatic hoists can also be used
to drain parts over the degreaser.


 External reclamation and recycle services are often
 available to purify contaminated solvent and return
 it to the original customer or to sell it to other

 Reclamation and recycling can also be performed
 cm-site. Several such systems are discussed below.
 Where recycling solvent waste is viable, the choice
 between on-site versus off-site recycling must be
 made.  Major factors that may influence a decision
 are shown in Exhibit IS.   In addition to these
 factors, Title VI of the dean Air Act Amendments
 of 1990 has imposed recycling requirements. In all
 cases, the quality of the reclaimed solvents is an
 important  consideration.   ASTM  currently is
 developing standards for recycled CFC-113  and
 On-s/fe Recycling

 On-site recycling is currently economical if at least
 approximately  8  gallons of  solvent waste are
 generated per day. The simplest form of solvent
 reuse is termed •downgrading,* which is using a
 solvent that has become contaminated through
 initial use for a second cleaning process.   For
 example, precision bearings need very high purity
 solvents for cleaning.  The solvent acquires very
 little  contamination  in  usage and   can  be
 downgraded for use in  less  demanding cleaning

 Because more effort is required a> recycle solvent
 that is heavily contaminated, on-site and off-site
 recycling or reclamation should be explored.  In
 vapor degreasing and  cold cleaning, the soil re-
 moved accumulates in the equipment Eventually,
 the solvent still bottoms become too contaminated
 for farther me and must be reclaimed or disposed
 •through incineration.  For on-site recycling, many
 different separation  technologies are  available.
 Commonly used  separation technologies  for
 contaminated solvents include gravity separation,
 filtration, batch distillation, fractional distillation,
r evaporation, and steam stripping.

 Crtrity Stfontion. The  use of settling to separate
 solids and water from solvent often permits the
 reuse of solvent. For example, paint solvents may
 be reused many  times  if solids are allowed to
Filtration.  Filters can be used to remove solids
from many solvents, thus extending solvent life.
Batch Distillation. A batch still vaporizes the used
solvent and condenses the overhe^i vapors in a
separate  vessel.  Solids or high boiling residues
(>400*F) remain in the still as a .residue.  Solvent
stills  range in size from  5-gallon to 500-gallon
capacity. A vapor degreaser can be used as a batch
still for recycling solvent by employing proper boil-
down procedures.   Detailed  discussion of these
procedures  is   available   from  major  solvent

In many applications, it is necessary to keep  the
water content of the recovered solvent to less than
100 ppm.  This can be accomplished by distilling
the solvent-water azeotrope, decanting the water,
and then drying the remaining  solvent with a
molecular  sieve or other desiccant  The  water
removed in this operation must then be either
treated or drummed for disposal

Fractional  Distillation.   Fractional distillation is
carried out in a reflux column equipped with either
trays or  packing.  Heat is supplied by a reboiler
located at the bottom of the column while heat is
removed at the  top of a column by a condenser.
Fractional distillation allows for separation of
multi-component mixtures or mixtures of solvent
and oils with similar boiling points.

Evaporation. Evaporation can be employed  for
solvent recovery from viscous liquids,  sludge, or
still bottoms resulting from distillation. Scraped or
wiped-film  evaporators utilize revolving blades,
which spread the liquid  over a heated  metal
surface.  The vapors are recovered by means of a
condenser.  Another type of system, a drum dryer,
employs  two   heated  counter-rotating  drums
through which the liquid  feed must pass.  White
both systems can handle viscous wastes, the drum
dryer  is   more   tolerant   of  porymerizable

Steam Stripping-   Steam stripping  is a solvent
, reclamation enhancement process commonly used
 for  the processing of  CFC  solvent still-heels
 generated in one-plate distillations. These still-
 heels often can. contain  as  much as 40  to 50
 percent  (by weight) of solvent. In general, steam
 stripping should not be used for MCF.



Less waste leaving the facUity.

Owner controls reclaimed solvent's

Reduced liability and cost of transporting
waste off-site.

Reduced reporting (manifesting).

Possible lower unit cost of reclaimed

Perceived Benefits

Favorable economics for recovery (e.g.,
reduced solvent requirements).

Reduction in disposal costs.

Lower liability.

Capital outlay for recycling equipment

Liability for worker health, fires,
explosions, leaks,, spills, and other risks.

Need for operator training.
Additional operating and maintenance
Reported Difficulties   ,

May be a need to restabflize the
reclaimed solvent

Installation problems.

Maintenance problems.

 The vapor/liquid equilibrium associated with steam
 stripping permits a further separation of volatile
 solvent from relatively nonvolatile impurities. This
 is done" at distillation  temperatures lower than
 thcc? encountered in the one-plate distillation of
 a contaminant-rich solvent mixture.

 Steam stripping can  be carried out  either as a
 batch process or as a continuous process.  Batch
 processing  is  more  common, but  continuous
 operation offers a number of advantages  if the
 contaminants are liquids (e.g., lubricating oils) of
 low to moderate viscosity and the cleaning fluids
 arc quickly contaminated.

 Batch steam stripping is usually performed in the
 same still  as was used for still-heel  generation.
 However,  in   some  high-volume solvent  use
 applications, the provision  of a separate still
 dedicated solely to the processing of heels from
 other  one-plate  stills  can  offer  significant
 advantages  in  maintaining  a high  level  of
 productivity in the cleaning system.  An example of
 a steam stripping system is shown in Exhibit 16.
wastes and product outputs of individual industries
and firms.                    '       .

Both before and after recycling, solvent should be
monitored for acceptability,  including  thermal
breakdown (acidity) and azeotropic imbalance. It
is important to ensure that solvents are not mixed
at any time during the recovery process.

Off-site recycling services are offered by a number
of licensed commercial operators. A partial listing
of these firms is provided later in this document.
After  the • maximum  amount  of solvent  is
recovered, the still bottoms and other residues
from   degreasing   operations  are  destroyed
thermally, generally through fuel blending.
 Off-site Recycling

 If recycling of waste solvent on-site is impractical,
 several off-site recycling schemes are available.
 When selecting an off-site recycling scheme, one
 should consider or investigate all of the items
 listed in Exhibit 17. Some viable off-site recycling
 arrangements  include  toll recyclers  and  waste
     Rtcyckrs.  Toll  recyclers  offer services  to
 generators by supplying solvent wash equipment
 and solvent and  waste recycling services.  The
 solvent wash equipment is maintained by these
 companies and the solvent is replaced periodically.
 The used solvent is recycled at an off-site facility.
 Costs for these services range from  50 to 90
'percent of new solvent cost

 Wmae Exchange mud Brokerage.  This is not a
 technology but an information  service.  A waste
 exchange can match a generator of waste with a
 facility that can use the waste as a raw material
 Commercial waste brokerage  services are  also
 available.  A waste generator is matched with a
 potential waste user who can utilize the waste as a
 feedstock. Matching generators and users is based
 on the  knowledge of raw material inputs and

                             Exhibit 16
                                   •  \

Source: DuPont
                               Steam  ;


                                    .Exhibit 17
                        FACILITY CONSIDERATIONS
 Types of solvent wastes managed.
 Availability of laboratory facilities and suitable analytical procedures.
 Ability to meet solvent purity specifications.
 Avaflabflity of custom recycling services (e.g., vendor-owned recycling units that
 can be operated on the generator's property).
 Expertise on in-plant waste management strategies and process controls.
 Availability of registered trucks to transport the solvent wastes.
 Distance to the recycling facility and associated transportation costs.
 Completeness of recordkeeping.                               ,
 Adequacy of permits held by the facility.
 Sufficiency of insurance for recycMng/treatment/disppsal operations.
 Adequacy of disposal procedures for still bottoms and other solvent wastes.
 Compliance record of the facility.
Reputation of the facility.
Financial stability.              ,
Costs of using service.  .

 Other Control  Technologies

 Carbon Adsorption
 Because dragout losses are a major contributor to
 iae overall solvent loss, causing high  levels  of
 solvent vapor in the manufacturing area, vapor
 capture  systems should  be considered.  These
 systems  adsorb  the solvent  molecule -on  an
 activated carbon  bed  which  is  subsequently
 extracted by steam. After water separation, the
 solvent is reblended with additives for reuse.

 The intake  and .exhaust  ports of the cleaner are
 vented to hoods where vapors are drawn under
 negative pressure through the activated carbon
 bed.  Proper design of the collection hood at the
 cleaner  discharge  is vital since this is  where
 dragout and drying losses are most significant

 Adsorption   proceeds  until  the  carbon  bed
 approaches  saturation.   At that time,  steam  is
 injected  onto the carbon surface to strip solvent
 molecules  for  later  condensation  and  water
 separation.  Exhibit 18 shows a point-of-use carbon
 adsorption process schematic.

 Three material streams  are  produced:   pure
 solvent, clean air, and wastewater. '

 •  Solvent is rcblended/reconstituted-with additives
   for reuse;

 •  Air is returned to the plant or exhausted;

 •  Wastewater is treated and released to the sewer
   system. With circuit board cleaners, there could
   be some alcohol in the waste water streams and
   local  legislation  should  be  reviewed  and
   considered in equipment selection. Alcohol in
   the wastewater increases the biological oxygen
   demand  (BOD)  load to the  local  sewage
   treatment plant

Systems  can  be  sized  to suit the  scale  of
application, and one. adsorption system can service
more  than   one  cleaner.    However,  carbon
adsorption systems are expensive to purchase and
to operate  unless  their  is a  large quantity  of
solvent to capture.

For  maximum  emission reductions, the  bulk
storage tank, the stills, and the adsorption system
i should all be located in an enclosed, room so that
 air can  pass  through  the adsorption system to
 capture and recycle any fugitive solvent losses.
 MCF and Carbon Adsorption

I Steam desorption of MCF results in the loss of
 stabilizers and the formation of hydrochloric acid.
 This leads to corrosion problems and damage to
 equipment  In  addition,  the  MCF  has  to be
 restabilizcd after stripping for reuse.

 New technologies  to  recover  MCF  vapors, by
 carbon  adsorption have been developed.  These
 technologies eliminate the problem  of   MCF
 hydrolysis  and associated  corrosion present in
 traditional  carbon  adsorption/steam desorption
systems. These new adsorption methods include
 replacing water with nitrogen  as the stripping
agent, employing a new condensation membrane
technology, hot gas desorption cycle, and polymeric
particle adsorption.

A carbon  adsorption  system  using a  hot gas
desorption cycle is shown  in Exhibit 19. In this
process the solvent and the small quantity of water
are expelled from the activated carbon by hot air
in a closed circuit The solvent/water mixture then
passes  through a condenser.    The solvent is
separated from the wsiter in a subsequent gravity
separator.   Solvent residues in  the "processing
water" are then removed and the clean water is
1    -                :'              .
Safety Note: When operating carbon adsorption
systems, use proper  chemical procedures, and
include  fire protection on beds.
Mr Stripping      i

Air  stripping, which is a  process  similar to
distillation, can reclaim CFCs.  In air stripping a
contaminated stream is fed into a packed column
from the top and air is injected at the bottom. As
the two streams pass one another through the
'Column, they exchange volatile materials.  The air
phase and the volatile:, are then carried from the
top for recovery usually by granular activated
carbon.  The bottom  products containing the
heavier phases are sent for recovery,  perhaps by
distillation.   Emissions  from, air stripping are
probably subject to environmental regulation.

                   Exhibit 18
    Recovered Solvent

Sourt*: Digital Equipment Corporation


                           Flowchart             i
         RA Rotary Adsorbers
         CC Crude Gas Conditioner
         AH Air Heater
         HP Heating Pipe
AC Air Cooler
WS Water Separator
ST Solvent Tank   ; j •
PR Processing Water, Purification
Source: Bowe

TTwima/ Destruction
In a thermal destruction unit, the  CFCs and
hydrocarbons are mixed and ignited and passed
through a hot. ceramic furnace to complete the
destruction.    Incineration  of  the  gases  is
accomplished at approximately l^OOT. A thermal
destruction unit consists of two beds and the flame
is alternated between one bed and the oilier to
optir.se efficiency (see Exhibit 20).
      Recent developments in catalytic chemistry appear
      to  make catalytic destruction of halogenated
      hydrocarbons a viable control option. In addition
      to significantly reducing the temperature required,
      these new catalysts allow complete destruction and
      have been shown to be resistant to deactivation.

                                                                TO ATMOSPHERE
                (1500 T@ 1.0 SEC.)
                                                         FROM PROCESS
                    ROOM AIR
    Source: Manch*Mr Corp.

Previous sections of this manual have provided information on:
   •  Stratospheric ozone depletion and restrictions on the use of CFC-113 and MGF.

   •  Steps to characterize a process to determine solvent use and emissions.
                '          '              i  '   ' .-     ..        •           • •

   •  Conservation practices and strategies specific to batch cleaning, in-line cleaning,
     and cold cleaning.    ,

   •  Rationale for conserving and recycling solvents in cleaning processes.

   •  Reclamation and recycling systems and services.
A summary of problems and solutions for solvent emission is presented in Exhibit 21.

                                  Exhibit 21

                      EMISSIONS  REDUCTIONS:
      Possible Problems
           Possible Solutions
Improper degreaser placement
Failure to cover degreaser
Poor maintenance
Spraying above the vapor zone
Excessive solvent dragout
Product is too large for machine
Cleaning system should be placed to avoid cross
drafts from open doors, windows, fins, and air
conditioning vents.  If possible, enclose the unit

Remove or reduce dedicated vents.

Degreasers should be covered when not in use. A
tight sliding cover  is best  A rolling cover is

Clean-out doors, piping, pumps, and filter housings
should be checked weekly for leaks.

Chiller package should be maintained regularly.

Spraying should always be conducted at least  6
indies below  the vapor line.  Sprays should be
directed downward.

Work should be oriented  and rotated  to allow
maximum solvent drainage.

Immersion and withdrawal rates should be less
than 10 fpm for open top units.

Conveyor speeds should be approximately 3-5 fpm
for in-line belt units.

Work should  remain  in vapor  zone  until
condensation stops.

The area of the basket or work load should not
exceed 50 percent of the area of the boil sump.

The  mass (weight) of the workload  processes
should not exceed the machine's rated capacity.

                             Exhibit 21 (Continued)
                                          •       -"!.-•     •   ,

                       EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS:
      Possible Problems
           Possible Solutions
Degreasing of absorbent materials
Improper  start-up  and  shut-down
Solvent degradation
Inadequate freeboard height
Inadequate condensing capacity
Possible repermitting  and attendant
changes in regulatory requirements
Absorbent materials (such as cloth, wood, porous
plastics, etc)  should  not  te  cleaned in vapor
systems or used in the construction of baskets or
Activate condenser prior to turning on heat

Do not turn on sprays until a stable vapor level
has been established.

After cleaning operations are complete, turn off
heaters and continue to operate the condensing
coils until the vapor zone has completely collapsed
and the boil sump cools well  below the solvent
boiling point

Hot spots on heating coils should be repaired, as
they cause thermal breakdown of solvent

Electric heater watt density should not exceed 20
watts/sq. inches.
                                      Desiccint   system
                  should   be  checked  for
Cooling coil design should be altered.

Freeboard height to degreaser width ratio for
CFC-113 and MCF cleaning systems should be 1.0
or mote.

Turn on  water-cooled  systems and  check the
condenser discharge water temperature.  Vapor
degreasers should be provided with chilled water at
40"F (4J°C), and discharge water temperatures
should be 50°F (10°C) for CFC systems and 70°F
(21°C) for MCF systems.

Contact and work with yoiiir local air  quality
representative.       •



                                    I   *       . -   '        .'    '
                      '.'"',      '           'I"              -  -

The following section presents industrial case studies of conservation and recycling.

The mention of any company or product in this document is for informational purposes onhr

and does not constitute a recommendation, of any such company or product either expressed

orimphed by EPA, IO>LP,ICOLP committee members, 0?^ companies that eStSe
ICOLP committee members.                             _r         ,-f v "*c
  •  Case Study #1: CFC Reduction/ Elimination in Electronics; Cleaning

  •  Case Study #2:  Using Industrial Hygiene Techniques to Monitor and Reduce
     oolvent Losses
  •  Case Study *J; Solvent Equipment Selection -A Case Study of Errors

  •  Case Study #4: Emissions Monitoring and Reduction

  •  Case Study #5: History of Equipment Upgrades.

  •  Case Study #6: Solvent Conservation and Recycling.


Case Study #1 describes the steps taken by Digital
Equipment Corporation to reduce CFC emissions
and to select an alternative cleaning method.

Digital has-used CFC-113 to dean many different
parts  and sub-assemblies in the assembly  and
testing of  disk drives  (a  storage device* for

The  equipment  is  a 5-sump, open-top  vapor
degreaserthat was emitting 124,000 Ibs of CFC-113
fugitive emissions each year before reduction steps
were taken.
Selecting a Technology to
Reduce  Emissions
Digital commissioned a study to investigate several
technologies for reduction and/or elimination of
CFC-113. The following summarizes each of the
technologies and recommendations that came from
the study.

Thermal oxidation is a choice of last resort for
CFC-113.  Oxidized CFC-113 creates by-products
of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid which
react  with the insulating materials used on
commercial oxidizers.  The acid vapors must also
be scrubbed in a  caustic  scrubber.   Thermal
oxidation has no solvent recovery. It is, however,
an effective means  of reducing  volatile organic
compounds (VOCs).
Water scrubbing

Water scrubbing extracts solvent from the process
air stream and, consequently, is most effective in
'removing  solvents that require one  scrubbing.
These solvents generally have high solubility in
water.  When this method is used to remove CFC-
113, a solvent that has low solubility in water, the
water after one scrubbing is so saturated  with
solvent  that it loses  its ability to remove any
additional CFC-113 torn the air stream.   Two
other factors also malice this process questionable
for removing CFC-113: Not only must the water
coming out of the scrubber be air stripped before
it can be reused or drained, but the exhausted air
must also be treated to capture the solvent
 Oil scrubbing

 Under certain conditions oil scrubbing has been
 demonstrated as an effective means of extracting
 solvent from the process air stream.  However,
 there are no known installations for capture and
 recovery of CFC-113.  The process air enters a 7
 diameter column approximately 30* tall, while a
 low viscosity, high boiling point petroleum-based
 oil is sprayed  downward  from the top of the
 column over a 20* long mesh packed at intervals
 against the air flow. The solvent dissolves into the
 oil and collects at the base of the column.  The
 scrubbed air exits the top of the column into the
 atmosphere. The oil/solvent mixture at the base of
 the column is pumped to a holding tank.  The
i mixture then moves to a retirculating evaporator
 where the oil is heated to distill the solvent from
 the mixture.  The solvent vapors and oil are sent
 to a cyclone separator. In the separator, the oil is
 captured and sent to a holding tank where it is
 pumped back up to the scrubber distributor.  The
 solvent vapor is vented out the top of the cyclone
 separator, condensed!, and gravity  fed  to  a
 recovered solvent tank.

 Refrigeration is a means of recovering VOCs by
! condensation of the airborne solvent Extremely
 low temperatures for first droplets are required to
; reduce the solvent vapor pressure to a point where
 90 percent  recovery  by condensation  can  be
\ achieved. Refrigeration recovery is best suited for
 applications where airflow is  low and solvent
 concentrations high. This technique is widely used
i for storage tank vents.

 Carbon Adtorption
 Carbon adsorption, a good means of recovering
 and reusing solvents, is accomplished by adsorbing
 the solvent in a bed of carbon and later steam
 stripping  for reuse. This technique was chosen
 because it is the best available technology known
 at this time, has a relatively low cost, and is proven
 in many actual installations.

 The basic steps are:

 •  Solvent laden air is drawn from an enclosure
   built around the 5-sump, open-top degreaser to
   capture fugitive emissions.  Solvent vapors are
   collected at the bottom and top of the enclosure
   (designed to minimize  any drafts across the
   degreasers)  and ducted to  carbon adsorbers
   through  a  paniculate filter  to catch   any
   particles.  Air is collected by lip vents at the
   base of the cleaning chamber access door of the
   shear stress machine.        '

 •  At the carbon adsorber, the solvent laden air is
   drawn through the carbon beds by a process
   blower at 800 to 1,200 cftn. Blowers pull the air
   through one or two carbon adsorption beds,
   each bed filled with 600 Ibs. of carbon leaving
   the solvent deposited on the carbon (coconut).

 •  Two or three carbon beds  (depending on the
   solvent loading and cftn required) are installed
   in parallel One or two beds are adsorbing CFC
   while one is de-sorbing and drying CFC for re-
   use. The beds are switched by either the stack
   analyzer (typically set at 5 ppm) or a timer as a
   back-up to the analyzers.

•  Upon completion of this phase  of the process,
   steam is used to remove trapped solvent  from.
   the carbon pores by pushing steam in a reverse
   flow through the beds. A water/solvent mixture
   is created when the steam is passed through a
   condenser.   From  this  condenser, the water/
   solvent mixture  is sent to a separator  tank
   where the water and solvent are separated by
   gravity with the water going out the top and the
   solvent out the bottom.

 •  The solvent then goes to a solvent holding  tank.
   The solvent is pumped to a still where it is
   further refined and then transferred to another
   holding tank where the technician pumps  it on
   demand to the still on the open top  or the
   solvent tank in the shear stress machines.
   The carbon  adsorbers  are designed to
   meet the following specifications:

   •   10 and 16 Ibs per hour of. CFC-113
       loading for recovery;

   •   800 and 1,200 cfm blower for solvent
       air stream;

   •   Stainless steel recovery vessels;

   •   Carbon granules designed specifically
       for   CFC-113   recovery   (charred
       coconut husk);

   •   Stack analyzer for bed switching when
       saturated with hour time as backup.
The project cost of the carbon adsorbers was:

•  For a 2 bed, 10 Ibs per hour, 800 cfm unit:

•  For a 3 bed, 16 Ibs,per hour, 1200 cfm unit:

•  Automated material handling unit:  $45,000

«  Facility fit-up and miscellaneous:  $187,000

Total project cost, including start-up and operator
training was $380,000.

Currently there are two carbon adsorbers operating
at Digital.   Based on actual usage numbers for
1990, solvent emissions are projected to be reduced
by 69 percent (see  Exhibit 22).

                         Exhibit 22
    120 -
    too -
 CO  80 H

60 -

40 -

20 -


Source: Digital Equipment Corp.



A Three-Phase Plan

This study also resulted in a three phase plan to
recover  and reuse solvents and eventually  to
eliminate usr c-f CPC-113.
   PHASE 1

   o   Education and training

   «   Equipment enhancements

   •   Process engineering changes

   •   Operating disciplines

   •   Accountability  (make  one  person
       responsible   for   managing   the

   •   Limiting new applications

   This phase reduced the solvent emission
   and usage by 20 to 30 percent, as shown in
   Exhibit 22.

   PHASE 2

   «   Install  new vapor  recovery system
       (carbon bed adsorption), for point-of-
       use only.

   This phase is projected to reduce the tofc.1
   emission and usage by 55 to 70 percent, as
   shown in the Exhibit 22.


   •   Conversion to alternative methods of

   This phase will reduce the emission/ usage
   to zero.
Phases 1 and 2 have been completed. Phase 3 is
being implemented and is expected to eliminate
CFC usage by mid-1992.

Case Study #2 shows  how monitoring solvent
emissions can identify  ways to reduce solvent
consumption and protect worker health.
A Problem with Excessive

At Honeywell a MCF vapor degreaser was losing
large quantities of solvent and employees were
complaining about strong solvent odors.  The
degreaser is an open top degreaser with no hoist
The maintenance  departments showed through
inspection of the heat and cooling systems that all
systems  were  operating  properly  within  the
designated  temperatures  and there  were  no
identifiable leaks.
Taking Action to Solve the

Ac investigation was completed by the Industrial
Hygiene staff  to  identify employee,  solvent
exposures. During the investigation, air samples
were collected in operator breathing 'zones with
length-of-stain  caloiimetric  detection   tubes.
Readings were found to vary greatly between SO
and 300 ppm MCF. The current threshold limit
value is 350 ppm.  Further monitoring found a
correlation between air monitoring results and air
conditioner  and elevator operations.  Smoke
testing  of  air  currents and  vapor blanket
disturbances indicated that increased  velocities
across the top of the vapor degreaser. caused by air
conditioning and elevator shaft drafts, broke down
the vapor blanket  Detector tube readings in
stable conditions  ware SO ppm  compared to
\ turbulent conditions of 300 ppm solvent

Partitioning, the work area stopped air currents
from passing across the vapor degreaser. To allow
some air movement and  reduce the chance of
; vapor buildup in the work area, the partitioning
did not extend to the ceiling. Follow-up personal
monitoring of the operator confirmed these  levels.

Worker exposures and solvent losses were reduced
greatly.  An immediiite reduction in work area
concentration was achieved with solvent levels
dropping  to between 25 and 50  ppm MCF.
Improvements from the program are presented in
the table below. The overall solvent losses were
reduced  by 75 percent.   This easy-to-perform
monitoring can be completed at a cost of less than
$100 per  investigation and an initial equipment
investment of approximately $300.   In this case
study, the value of the MCF saved in one month
exceeds the $300 investment in equipment, and
j contributed to employee satisfaction.
Air Conditioning on
Elevator Door Open
Partitioning in Place

Detector Tube .
Reading I'ppml
I. ,
. • "- ;
Losses rGalday)
0.2 .
/ •
- :..• . ' ' .- . •"""



Case Study  *3 fllnstrates  errors that can  be
avoided daring planning and implementation of a
CFC reduction program.

Wlh the growing concerns associated with CFC
sotyent usage.  Northern  Telecom, a  large,
multinational supplier of telecommunications
dectronfcs,  began  an aggressive campaign to
eliminate the materials. While the conservation
ponton of this program was successful in reducing
CFC emissions by  about 50  percent.. there  are
lessons from the experiences that wfll help others
avoid investment mistakes.
    Errors resulted in several areas:

    •  Ineffective use of an automated hoist

    •  Poor education of operators

    •  Incorrect equipment selection

    •  Improper equipment operations

    •  Poor control over use and handling of
  Northern Tekcom was using CFC-113 in an open-
  top batch cleaner for cleaning printed circuit board
  assemblies. The open-top unit had the following

  • At  50 percent  utilization,, the unit cleaned
    30,000 square feet of boards;

  • The unit consumed 80 gallons of solvent per

  • Energy costs were insignificant;
• Labor costs were

• Total operating costs (labor •+• solvent) was
  $45,000#r.                        ;

Shortly after the open-top unit was .installed, an
automatic  hoist was added for better process
control and to conserve solvent.  However, the
hoist system was  removed within six months  of
installation because operators  complained  of
inefficiencies associated with its use.  Failure to
utilize   the  hoist  represented  management's
reluctance to support a conservation process that
would have reduced solvent use. Operators had
not been educated about the importance of solvent

 After two years of operation, Northern, Telecom
 introduced a new product line.  As part of this
 product line, the company purchased a new in-line
 solvent cleaning machine. The batch cleaner was
 replaced by an in-line cleaner and stilL The in-line
 system  was being  used in other high volume
 corporate facilities, and was therefore was assumed
 to be appropriate.

 The operating characteristics  of the in-line unit

 .  Capital costs $90,000 (with still);

 •  Capacity of 200 gallons of solvent;

 •  At idle the unit consumed 0.75 Ibs of solvent
    per hour,

 .  Operating at 4  fpm, the unit consumed 143
    Ibs/hr of solvent;

  . Average production was near 36,000 square feet
    of product per year,

  • Average solvent use was  3 to 4 barrels per
    month. Solvent costs were $78,000 per year,

  • The unit required a pan-time operator (25
    percent of the time), even though at the time of
    purchase it was assumed to need no operator.
    Labor costs were $6,250 per year,

  o Annual utility costs were $25,000;

   • Total  operating  costs (labor, utilities, and
    solvent): S109,250#r, or over S3.00/board.

In replacing the batch cleaning system with an in-
line system and associated still. Northern Telecom
encountered a number of problems. Although the
new in-line system was more sophisticated, it was
much more expensive (based on per square Coot of
boards cleaned) and  used  a  greater amount of
solvent than the batch machine.

The new cleaner was not the best machine for the
specific needs and functions and was not entirely
appropriate for the new product applications. A
financial analysis  of the break-even point  would
have  identified the  shortcomings  of the  new
machine and the  likelihood that CFC legislation
would make the unit obsolete.

To conserve CFC-113, a reduced CFC-113 blend
was used in this machine.   The machine was not
compatible with the blend and the ball valves used
in the machine failed.

Besides specific problems related to the equipment
choice, there were also errors in general handling
of solvents. Throughout this entire process, the
solvent was never treated as a chemical of concern.
Operator awareness was not stressed, and as  a
consequence  excessive solvent usage  continued

Excessive solvent consumption was not initially
noticed  because of two errors in the procedures
implemented  to  track solvent usage.   First,
operators were asked to report solvent use on their
respective  machines,  and who  were initially
assumed to be accurate, consistently made mistakes
in  reporting solvent  use  by over 50 percent
Because the measuring errors were random, several
months  were  lost    The  management  group
responsible  for tracking  the efficiency  of the
solvent cleaners from two solvent tracking reports
somehow mishandled  the data presented it out of
context   It  was  not until  all  reports  were
channelled  through one individual that confusion
and misunderstanding was replaced by reliable
reporting of data.

Case Study #4 outlines the 50 percent reduction of
CFC-113 solvent consumption from a conveyor
degreaser. Motorola accomplished the reduction
with the following actions:
  The temperature of-the vapor cooling coils was
  reduced until water started condensing on the
  coik This required a system with a dosed loop
  cooling unit with a refrigeration system. Water
  condensation initially caused the alcohol in the
  solvent to separate into a second phase.
  destroying  the  cleaning  effectiveness  and
  creating a  Ore hazard.  To overcome this
  problem, the desiccant must be dried daily.
                  •  Entrance and exit brushes were installed to
                     contain vapors and fans arid other, air currents
                    'near the degreasing machine were eliminated.

                  •  All system leaks were detected and eliminated
                     on  4, regular basis.   Solvent usage is tightly
                     tracked and plotted.  Any spikes in the usage
                     level triggers a thorough systems check of all
                     seals,   fittings,  covers,  using  a  common
                     refrigerant vapor detector. Note that solvent
                     evaporates so quickly that leaks will not appear
                     as drips. Exhibit 23 depicts a spike caused by a
                     seal leak  which  was  detected  by  close
                     monitoring of the solvent usage. UCL and LCL
                     are the acronyms for upper confidence limit and
                   ,  lower confidence limit respectively.

                  •  Internal baffles were installed to reduce the
                     disturbance to the vapor blanket caused by
                     external air currents.

                  •  Vapor leaks were sealed where possible.
                      CONVEYOR DEGREASER
               38   40  42
               |1988 |

         Source: Motorola
44   46  48  50  52 f 2
                                                         10  12  14  18

UPGRADES                                     wujrMcw i

Case Study #5 presents a history of six solvent users who {switched from old to
Mittceinvic  TV* ««*A «>•»«*.. .._.._ ——__ • .*. j «	 ..  '-. n .   -               *^
                            provided by the Hatogenated Solvents
                                                                           ems to «
  S2T' T^aSC SttMly ™ Provkted * «« HaJogenated Solvents Indus
  describes specific equipment .nd operating characteristics and the systems whtl/re^eTthem
       Type of product manufaaured:
       Previous method of cleaning:
       Approximate age of equipment:
       Reason for expenditure:
       New method of cleaning:

       Previous solvent consumption:
       New solvent consumption:
       Percent emission reduction:
       Capital investment:
       Hours operated per week:
       Emission per noun
       Solvent savings per yean
                                            Cosmetic packaging
                                            Crossrod in-line vapor degreaser using trichloroethylene
                                            20 years,     •         .    .                       •
                                            Regulation of trichloroethylene as an oxidant
                                            Crossrod in-line vapor degreaser using trfcbtoroetoytene,
                                            refrigeration chiller, carbon adsorber, negative pressure
                                            1,250 gall/mo.-
                                            64               ••'••!            !
                                            IS Ib. tnichloroethylene/hr.   ;
        Type of product manufaaured:
        Previous method of cleaning:
        Approximate age of equipment:
        Reason for expenditure:
        New method of cleaning:

        Previous solvent consumption:
        New solvent consumption:
        Percent emission reduction:
        Capital investment:
        Hours operated per week:
        Emission per houn
        Solvent savings per yean
                                         Cosmetic packaging
                                         Crossrod in-line vapor degreaser using methyl chloroform
                                         15 years
                                         Obtain better cleaning
                                         Crossrod in-line vapor degreaser using methyl chloroform
                                         encosed, superheat,  no refrigeration, river  water  for
                                         1,050 gal/mo.
                                         105 gal/mo.
                                         $270,000 (includes new boiler)
                                         3.4 Ib. MCF/hr.
     Type of product manufactured:
     Previous method of cleaning:
     Approximate age of old equipment:
     Reason for expenditure:
     New method of cleaning:

     Previous solvent consumption:
     New solvent consumption:
     Percent emission reduction:
     Capital investment:
     Hours operated per week:
     Emission per houn
     Solvent savings per yean
                                          Small household appliances
                                          Crossrod vapor degreaser using trichloroethylene
                                          20 years  j           .                 *
                                          Automate handling and reduce emission
                                          Crossrod vapor degreaser using trichloroethylene, enclosed
                                          cooling tower, primary cold  trap, negative pressure, and
                                          'carbon adsorber
                                          £500 gal/mo.
                                          250gaJ/mo.                 -|
                                          90'     '  !     -    '          i -  :   -
                                          120                          ;
                                          6.0 Ib. trichloroethylene/hr.      i
                                          $124,200  !•

 4.      Type of product manufactured:
        Previous method of cleaning:
        Approximate age of old equipment:
        Reason for expenditure:
        New method of cleaning:
        Previous solvent consumption:
        New solvent consumption:
        Percent emission reduction:
        Capital investment:
        Hours operated per week:
        Emission per hour
        Solvent savings per yean

 5.      Type of product manufactured:
        Previous method of cleaning:
        Approximate age of equipment:
        Reason for expenditure:
        New method of cleaning:

        Previous solvent consumption:
        New solvent consumption:
        Percent emission reduction:
        Capital investment:
        Hours operated per week:
        Emission per hour.
        Solvent savings per yean

 6.      Type of product manufactured:
'        Previous method of cleaning:

        Approximate age of equipment:
        Reason for expenditure:
        New method of cleaning:

        Previous solvent consumption:
        New solvent consumption:
        Percent emission reduction:
        Capital investment:
        Hours operated per week:
        Emission per noun
        Solvent savings per year.
Screw machine parts                      -.',-..
Crossrod vapor degreaser using methylene chloride
15 years
Eliminate solvents or reduce emission
Crossrod  vapor  degreaser  using methylcne chloride,
enclosed, auto hoist, refrigeration chiller, superheat, down
time chiller                                   ,
750 gal/mo.
100 gal/mo.                       ,
33 Ib. methylene chloride/hr.

Screw machine parts
Crossrod vapor degreaser using methylene chloride
15 years
Eliminate solvents or reduce emissions
Crossrod  vapor  degreaser  using methylene chloride,
enclosed, auto hoist, refrigeration chiller
750 gal/mo.
200 gal/mo.
13.1 Ib. methylene chloride/hr.

Screw machine parts                        ,
Open-top vapor degreaser using methylene chloride, two
15 years
Eliminate solvents or reduce emissions
Open-top vapor  degreaser  using methylene  chloride,
enclosed, auto hoist, refrigeration chiller       :
350 gal/mo.
100 gal/mo.
&5 Ib. methylene chloride/hr

 Case Study #6 presents a solvent conservation and
 recycling project undertaken at Royal Ordnance
 Blackburn, United Kingdom.  Royal Ordnance
 Blackburn was Originally established to produce
 artillery  fuzes, and continues to dp  so  today
 although these are now electronic based as distinct
 from  being  purely  mechanical   Additional
 expansion and diversification over the years into
 electronic control and communication systems of
 various lands has seen the work pattern change,
 but  essentially Royal  Ordnance  Blackburn still
 manufactures large  numbers of small  precision
 engineered  components  in  brass,  steel,  'and

 Royal  Ordnance Blackburn's usage of CFCs is of
 three types:

 •  De-fluxing of printed circuit boards;

 •  Precision cleaning of assemblies/sub-assemblies;

 •  Stain-free   drying   of  components  after

 In order to meet the requirements of the Montreal
 Protocol, a program of control and recycling was
 introduced. This program included surveying the
 usage of CFCs, and how individual plants operated.
This survey showed that in some instances CFCs
were being used (often in open containers) for
general cleaning purposes when  other solvents
would have been more appropriate. Some working
 practices were also identified as being wasteful of
solvent  An in-house training  program which
explained the problem and consequences of ozone
layer destruction was instituted. This program was
aimed at all levels of shop-floor staff.  As a result
of this program, a reduction in usage  of CFCs
coupled with improved methods of working were
achieved.                             .

A second phase was  to examine recycling  of
solvents for reuse in the factory. All departments
were  required  to  dram their  waste solvents
separately and return them to a central collection
point, correctly identified and labelled.  A solvent
distillation plant was purchased and installed. The
plant was  designed to  meet all present and
foreseeable safety and legislative requirements and
was  to be capable  of re-distilling most solvents
used in  the factory,  e.g^ trichloroethylene, in
addition  to CFCs.  The plant,  including  some
necessary conversion 'work on the building housing
the plant cost some U.S. $79,500. The solvent
reclaimed over approximately six months indicates
that the plant will pay for itself in 12-15 months.
The plant is capable of distilling  up to 500 liters
per hour, depending on the solvent and operating
parameters. It lias considerable spare capacity, and
is capable of meeting all future requirements. The
quality of solvent obtained from the distillation
process  is of an acceptable quality for normal


                                                               in batch v,ipor degreascis. Presented

 AndelUJ- Solvent conservation in batch degreasers. Pan 2: CFC-1 13 vs. methyl chloroform solvents  From
 the proceedings of the 1989 International Conference on CFC Alternatives.                 •  .  *
                                                                           • ''"     ;  •    '
 Anonymous.  1986 (June). Solvent vapor recovery and VC)G emission control Pollution Engineering.

 Anonymous. 1984 (August 24). Activated carbon fiber aids in solvent recovery. Chemical Engineering.: 6344.

 Anonymous.  1982 (November 19). Vacuum rotary dryer recovers solvent Chemical Processing: 36.

 Anonymous. 1980 (March 10). Solvent recycling system sa^es costs and cleans air. Chemical Engineering: 91-

 Qeinent, R.W., J. Rains, R. Simmons, and K. Suprenam. undated. Solvent cleaning. ASM Committee on
 solvent Cleaning.                                                 .       ,                  . .  - .
                    .     :        •                  •       "'.'.'       ' "'      •      "      ' ••' '
 .Dow Chemical Corporation. Product stewardship manual -

 DuPont de Nemours & Co. 1982. Performance guide for
                                                    specially chlorinated solvents. 1988/1989 edition.

                                                    Itreon solvent systems.

                                                *""* ' cta"""e
 DuPont de Nemours & Co. 1987. Freon cleaning agents -
 literature) Wilmington, DE.
                                                    recommended work piactices. FS-30B (product
Hatogenated Solvents Industry Alliance. 1989. Manual on vapor degreasing. ASTM Manual Series: MNL2,
                              •      -
                                                 recovery of solvent from air streams. Runcorn.U.K.
ICI Chlor-Chemicals.  1990 (January). Activated carbon

ICI Chtor-Chemicals.  1989.  Genklene fact sheets.  Runcorn, U.K.
Joshi, S.B.  1988 (August 15-18). Use of solvent test kits to....
utilization. Symposium proceedings of Process Technology '88
Sacramento, CA. Sponsored by Air Force Logistics Comma
Kenson, R.E.  1985 (August).  Recovery and reuse of i
Progress: 161-165.
                                                    monitor solvent condit on and maximize solvent
                                                      !:  The Key to Hazardous Waste Minimization.
                                                 solvents from VOC air emissions.  Environmental

68     	f	.

Kohl, JJ., M. Person, Rose and P. Wright. 1986 (May).  Managing and recycling solvents in the furniture
industry. Industrial Extension Service, School of Engineering, North Carolina State University. Raleigh, N.C

Kohl, J.P., Moses, and B.Triplett.  1984. Managing and recycling solvents: North Carolina practices, facilities,
and regulations.  North Carolina State University. Raleigh, N.C

Massouda, BflL  1988.  Assessment of chlorinated solvent usage and control costs in metal cleaning and
electronics cleaning.  US. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
Washington, DC

Ramsey, R.B.  1990  (September  1990). Vapor degreaser emission control. Presented at the International
Machine Tool Show. Chicago, IL.

Tbofstensen, Peter.  1990 (September 13).   Process-equipment  modifications to reduce CFC emissions.
Presented at the ICOLP Solvent Conservation Workshop. Chicago. IL.

US. Environmental Protection Agency.  1986. Analysis of treatment and recycling technologies for solvents
and determination of best available demonstrated technologies.

US. Environmental Protection Agency. 1977 (November). Control of volatile organic emissions from solvent
metal cleaning. EPA-450/2-77-022. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park,
N.C                ,           .             ,        , •      ;•       .                   '-''   '  ' .

US. Environmental Protection Agency.  1989 (August).  Waste minimization in metal parts cleaning.  Office
of Solid Waste.  Washington, DC

US. Environmental  Protection  Agency.   1989 (August).   Alternative control technology document -
halogenated solvent cleaners. Office of Air Quality Planning and  Standards.  Research Triangle Park, NC

US. Environmental Protection Agency. 1990 (March). Manual of practices to reduce and eliminate CFC-113
use in the electronics industry. EPA 400/3-90-003.  Office of Air and Radiation.  Washington, D.C

             U« erf Solvent Recyclers and Equipment Manufacturers*
    Alhvorth, Inc.
    500 Medco Road
    Birmingham, AL 35217
    (205) 841-1707

    Arivec Chemicals, Inc.
    7962 Huey Road
    P.O. Box 549
    Douglasville. GA 30122

   Baron-Blakeslee, Inc.
   2001 North Janice Avenue
   Melrose Park, IL 60160
   (312) 450-3900

   Chem Pak Corporation
   P.O. Box 7151
   Warwick. RI02887

  Chemical Solvents. Inc.
  3751 Jennings Road
  Cleveland, OH 44109

  Chemtron Corporation
  35850 Schneider Court
  Avon, OH 44011

 CWM Resource Recovery; Inc.
 P.O. Box 453
 West Carrollton, OH 45449

 Gibraltar Chemical Resources
 P.O. Box 1640
 Kilgore. TX 75662

   Anachemia Solvents, Ltd
   3549 Mavid Road
   Mississauga. Ontario. CN L5C 1T7
   i      "             'i  . '
   Avganic Industries. Inc.
   114 North Main Street
   P.O. Box 208
   Cottage Grove. WI53527

   Berkley Products Company
   P.O, Box E
  Akron. PA 17501

  Chemical Reclamation Services
  P.O. Box 69
  Avalon, TX 76623
  (214) 299-5043
   i                  • '
  Cliempro .
  2203 Airport Way, South
  Smite 400
  Seattle. WA 98134
  (206) 223-0500

  Clayton Chemical Company
  1 Mobile Street
, Saiuget, IL 62201

 General Chemical
 P.O. Box 608
 Framingham, MA 01701
 (617) 872-5000

 Huikill Chemical Corporal ion
 7013 Krick Road
Bedford, OH 44146
only, and does not constitute any endo^memT^33S5? il^Si** J*S°™tio** *»**<*«
or service offered by such entiry;                         ;   *      Cxpress or "mP1'^ of any product

Hydrocarbon Recycleis
5354 West 46th Street South
P.O. Box 9557
Tufca, OK 74157
International Solvent Corporation
9800 190th Street
Surrey, Vancouver. CN VST 4W2

Liberty Solvents and Chemical
9429 Ravena Road
Twimburg, OH 44087
(216) 425-4484
 Marisol, Inc
 125 Factory Lane
 Middlesex, NJ 08846
 (201) 469-5100

 Mllsolv Company
 P.O. Box 444
 Butler, WI53007
 (414) 252-3550

 515 Lycaste
 Detroit, MI 48214
 (313) 824-5850

 Omega Recovery Services
 12504 East Whittier Blvd.
 Whittier.CA 90602
 (213) 698-0991

 Prillaman Chemical Corporation
 P.O. Box 4024
 Martinsvflle, VA 24112
 (713) 638-8829

 Rho-Chem Corporation
 425 Isis Avenue
  Ingtewood,CA 90301
  (213) 776-6233

  Romic Chemical Corporation
  2081 Bay Road
  Pato Alto, CA 94303
  (415)  324-1638
Industrial Solvents & Chemical
P.O. Box 158
Emigsville. PA 17318
(717) 938-4621
KDM Company                   .
4303 Profit Drive
San Antonio, TX 78219

M & J Solvents Company
1577 Marietta Road, N.W.
P.O. Box 19703
Atlanta, GA 30325
(404) 355-8240

Michigan Recovery Systems
36345 Van Born Road
Romulus, MI 41874

North East Chemical Corporation
3645 Warrensville Center Road
 Cleveland, OH 44122
 (216) 961-8618

 00 and Solvent Process Company   .
 P.O. Box 907
 Azusa, CA 91702

 Pride Solvents & Chemical Company
 88 Lamar Street
 Wist Babylon, NY 11704
 (516) 643-4800

 Reclaimed Energy Company, Inc.
 P.O. Box 418111
 Indianapolis, IN 46241

  Rinchem Company
  4115 West Turney Avenue
  Phoeniuc, AZ 85019

  Safety Kleen Corporation
  777 Big Timber Road
  Elgin, IL 60120
  (312) 697-8460

   Sol-Pro. lot
   P.O. Box 1781
   Tacoma, WA 98401

   Spartan Chemical Compa*"-
   2538 28th Street, S.W.
   Wyoming, MI 49509
  US. Chemical Company
  29163 Calahan
  Roseville, MI 48066
   Southeastern Chemical & Solvent
   170 South Lafayette Boulevard
   Sumter, SC 29150

 |  TricU Recovery Services, Inc.
   Bartow Municipal Airport
   Route 3, P.O. Box 249
 |  Bartow,  FL 33830-9504

  Waste Research & Reclamation
  Route No. 7
  Eau Claire, WI54701
  (715) 834-9624
  Equipment Suppliers - Carbon Adsorption Equipment
  Handelsges mbH 7 Co. KG
  28 Bremen 66
  Postfach 66032
  Knechtsand 4
  Tel: 0421-580038
  Telex: 245445

  BOWE Reinigungstechnik GmbH
  Haunstetter Str. 112
  D-8900 Augsburg
  Tel:  (0821)57021
 Ceilcote Company
 140 Sheldon Road
 Berea,-OH 44017

 Detrex Corporation
 Equipment Division
 P.O. Box 5111
 Southfield, MI 48086-5111

 Otto Dflrr AG
 Werk Bernhausen
 Postfach  1260
 7024 Filderstradt 1
 Tel: 0711-790281
 Telex: 7255850
  Baron-Blakeslee, Inc.
  2001 North'Janice Avenue
  Melrose Park, IL 60H50
 CH-8031 Zurich
 Tel: 01-448950
 Telex: 54195 PLAZU CH

 1DCI International    '
 1229 Country Oub Road
 Hndianapolis, IN 46234
 I      ,.,.-,          !

 Hoyt Manufacturing Oimpany
 -i51 Forge Road
 Westport, MA 02790
 (617) 636«11
40013 Castel Maggiore
Via Andrea Costa 4
Iiafy                '
Tel: 051-70034
Telex: 213418 OTEX-1

Phillips Manufacturing Company
	_ i — . *  ^**_~.l« f*trmmt       /
7334 North Clark Street
 Rotamll Maschinenbar GmbH
 Postfach 12053
 Eisenhuttenstrasse 26
 0271 6711
 Telex:  872352

 Sutdilfe Croftshaw Limited
 P.O. Box 2526
 Columbus, OH 43216
 Tel: (614) 258-9501

 Vara International, Inc.
  120119th Place
  Veto Beach, FL 32690
  (407) 567-1320
Rekuperator KG
Dr Ing Schack & Co.
Sternstrasse 9-11
Postfach 320960
D-4000 Dusseldorf 1
Tel: 0211-49Q055
Telex: 8584894

Sutcliffe Croftshaw Limited
St. Helens
Merseyside WA9 4TH
Tel:  0744-810107

 Vic Manufacturing Company
 1620 Central Avenue, N.E.
 Minneapolis, MN 55413
  Equipment Supplier* - Vapor D*gna*ing Efju/pment
  Baron-Blakeslee, Inc
  2001 North Janice Avenue
  Melrose Park, IL 60160
  (312) 450-3900

  Corpane Industries
  10100 Bluegrass Parkway
  Louisville, KY 40299
  (502) 491-4433
   Delta Industries
   8137 Allport Avenue
   Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670
   (213) 945-1067

   Hectrovert Corp.
   4330 Beltway Place
   Suite 350
   Arlington, TX 76017
   (817) 468-5171
  Branson Ultrasonics Corporation
  Eagle Road
  Danbury, CT 06484

  Crest Ultrasonics Corporation
  Scotch Road - Mercer County Airport
  P.O. Box 7266
  Trenton, NJ 08628
  (609) 883-4000

  Detrex Corporation
  Equipment Division
   P.O. Box 5111
   Southfield, MI 48086-5111

   Finishing Equipment, Inc.
   3640 Kennebec Drive
   St. Paul, MN 55122

  Hoshikawa Co., Ltd.
  Tokyo, Japan
  Tel: 03-643-6601
  Fax: 03443-6093
  Kerry Ultrasonics, Ltd.
  Hunting Gate, Wilbuiy Way, Hitchin
  Herts SC4 OTQ England
  Tel: 0462-50761-5
  Fax 0462-420712

  Phfllips Manufacturing Company
  7334 North dark Street
  Chicago, IL 60626
 ICI Chemical & Polymers Ltd.
 P.O. Box 19
 Cheschire, WA7 4LW
 Tel:  0928514444
 Fax:  0928580742

 Ohtsuka Technical Industry Co., Ltd
 3-32 3 Chome, Kigawahigashi
 Yodogawa-Ku, Osaka, Japan
 Tel: 06-304-7963
 Unique Industries
 111544 Sheldon Street
 Stan Valley, CA 91352
 (213) 875-3810
 Equipment Suppliers - Monitoring Equipment
 Foxboro Co..
 151 Woodward Ave.
 S. Norwalk, CT 06856

 Mine Safety Appliances
 Pittsburgh, PA 15230

 12345 Starkey Rd.
 Largo, FL 33543

 Other Resources

Center for Emissions Control
1225 19th Street, N.W.
Suite 300
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 785-4374
8445 Central Ave.
Newark, CA 94560
3561 NW 74 SL
Miami. FL 33147


 Carbon Adsorption - A recovery process that captures solvent vapors from air on activated carbon. The
 solvent is recovered (by desorption) from the carbon by injecting steam into the carbon bed and condensing
 the resultant solvent and water vapor.

 CFC '— An abbreviation for chlorofluorocarbon.          ••                       .
                        •                   -             '   .   • '              'l
 OriorofluorocBrbbn - An organic chemical composed  of chlorine,  fluorine and carbon  atoms, usually
 characterized by high stability contributing to a high ODP.                      ;

 Condensate - Liquid solvent resulting from cooling solvent vapors. It is the dean solvent that condenses on
 the cooling coils of a vapor degreaser or stflL              •

 Desiceant Dryer - A means of removing water from a solvent by  adsorption with desiccant such as a silica
 gel or molecular sieve.                                  ;

 Desorption - The process of regenerating a carbon adsorption unit by treating the carbon with steam to
 remove the adsorbed solvent.

 Distillation - A process of purifying a solvent by boiling, condensing the vapor, and collecting the condensate.

 Dragout - Solvent that is carried out of a vapor degreasing operation as a liquid trapped in or on the parts
 being processed, and a micro-layer of solvent on pan surfaces.

 Freeboard — Distance from the top of the vapor level to the top of the degreasing tank.

 Freeboard Ratio -The ratio of freeboard height to width of jhe machine opening. It should be between .75
 and 1.0 for reduced emissions.
                    '                              '  •    i    -    -         '  ." j .  '      •  •  ' :
 Greenhouse Effect -  A thermodynamic effect whereby  energy absorbed at the isarth's surface, which is
 normally able to radiate back out to space in the form of long-wave infrared radiation, is retained by gases in
 the atmosphere, causing a rise in temperature.  The gases in question are partially natural, but manmade
 pollution is thought to increasingly contribute to the effect The same CFCs that cause ozone depletion are
 known to be "greenhouse gases,* with a single CFC molecule having  the same estimated effect as lO.oOO carbon
 dioxide molecules.                         .                 ,   '

 Halogenated Solvents - Liquid substances that contain carbon, halogen or carbon hydrogen, and halogen (such
 as fluorine  or chlorine) atoms. In this text, the term refers 10 the  commercial solvents, methylene chloride,
 perchloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (MCF), trichloroethylene, and trichldrotriiluoroethane (CFC-113).
             ' ,             '               •       -'      .{.                   '       •     ' i  •"   . •
~ Batons — Fire-extinguishing agents with high ODPs.

 HCFC — An abbreviation for hydrochlorofluorocarbpn.

 HFC — An abbreviation for hydrofiuorocarbbn.

 ODP - An abbreviation for ozone depletion potential.
 Ozone — A gas formed when oxygen is ionized by, for example,
 electric field.  It has the property of blocking the passage
 Whereas it is a desirable gas in the stratosphere, it is toxic to
 organic compound).
   :, the action of ultiaviolet light or a strong
of dangerous wavelengths of ultraviolet light
 living organisms at ground level (see volatile

Oaooe depletion - Accelerated chemical destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer by the presence of
substances produced, for the most part, by. human activities. The most depleting species for the ozone layer
are the chlorine and bromine free radicals generated from relatively stable chlorinated, fluorinated, and
brominated. products by ultraviolet radiation.

Oxooe depletion potential - A relative index indicating the extent to which a chemical prodn-: may cause
ozone depletion. The reference level of 1 is the potential of CFC-11 and CFC-12 to cause ozone depletion.
If a product has an ozone depletion potential of 0:5, a given weight of the product in the atmosphere would,
in time, deplete half the ozone that the same weight of CFC-11 would deplete. The ozone depletion potentials
are calculated from mathematical models which take into account factors such as the stability of the product,
the rate of diffusion, the quantity of depleting atoms per molecule, and the effect of ultraviolet light and other
radiation on the molecules.

Oaooe layer - A layer in the stratosphere, at an altitude of approximately 10-50 km, where a relatively strong
concentration of ozone shields the earth from excessive ultraviolet radiation.

Piston Effect - Displacement of solvent vapors due to entry and exit of basket or part that is too large.

Refriterated  Freeboard Device - A low-temperature heat  exchange coil located in the degreaser freeboard
zone, immediately above the water-cooled condensers. The freeboard chiller lowers the partial pressure of the
solvent in the freeboard zone which results in a reduction in the solvent diffusion rate.

Shock Load - A large part or toad of pans which cause the solvent vapor level to drop substantially below
the normal operating leveL

Staun Distillation - The practice of injecting steam directly into the still after normal distillation has ceased
to recover more solvent from the residue.

Still — A unit employed to purify solvent by distillation.

Vapor Line - The line or level of the solvent vapor-air interface in the vapor degreasing unit

Volatile organic compound (VOQ - These are constituents that will evaporate at their temperature of use
and which, by a photochemical reaction, will cause atmospheric oxygen to be converted into potential smog-
promoting troposphsric ozone under favorable climatic conditions.

Water Separator - A device designed to remove water from the solvent by flotation..            .

Work Capacity - The toad a degreaser is designed to process efficiently while maintaining a steady vapor level

                                 APPENDIX A

                       INDUSTRY COOPERATIVE
Hie  Industry Cooperative  for. Ozone  Layer
Protection (ICOLP) was formed by a group of
industries to protect the ozone layer. The primary
role of ICOLP is to coordinate the exchange of
non-proprietary  information  on   alternative
technologies,  substances,  and   processes   to
eliminate ozone-depleting solvents.  By working
closely  with solvent users, suppliers, and other
interested organizations worldwide, ICOLP seeks
the widest and most effective dissemination of
information  harnessed   through  its  member
companies and other sources.
   ICOLP corporate members include:

      Boeing Company
      British Aerospace
      Compaq Computer Corporation
      Digital Equipment Corporation
      Ford Motor Company
      General Electric
      Hitachi Limited
      Matsushita Electric Industrial
      Mitsubshi Electric Corporation
      Northern Telecom
      Texas Instruments
      Toshiba Corporation
In addition, ICOLP has a number of industry
association and government organization affiliates.
 Industry association affiliates include American
 Electronics  Association  (AEA),   Electronic
 Industries  Association,  Japan   Electrical
 Manufacturers  Association  and  Halogenated
 Solvents Industry Alliance (U.S.).  Government
 organization affiliates include the City of Irvine,
 California, the State Institute of Applied Chemistry
 (U.S.S.R.), the US. Air Force, and the US.
 Environmental  Protection Agency (EPA). The
 American Electronics Association, the Electronic
 Industries   Association,   the  City  of  Irvine,
 California,  the Japan IBectrical Manufacturers
 Association, the Swedish  National Environmental
 Protection Agency, the U.S. Air Force, the U.S.
 EPA, and the U.&S.R. State Institute or Applied
 Chemistry have signed formal Memorandums of
 Understanding  with ICOLP.  ICOLP will work
 with the U.S. EPA to disseminate information on
 technically  feasible,   cost  effective.  ' and
 environmentally sound  alternatives for  ozone
 depleting solvents.
   i .                !  . '   , •
 ICOL? is also working with the National Academy
. of Engineering to hold a series of workshops to
 identify promising research directions and to make
 most efficient use of reasarch funding;
   i          , •    .  .    ''/-",
 The goals of ICOLP are to:

 • Encourage the prompt adoption  of -safe,
   1 environmentally acceptable,  non-proprietary
   alternative  substances,   processes,  and
   ; technologies to replace current ozone-depleting

 • Act as  an  international  clearinghouse for
   information on alternatives;
   It.     -  '
 • Work  with  existing  private, national,  and
  .: international trade groups, organizations, and
  i government bodies to develop the most efficient

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  means of creating, gathering, and distributing
  information on alternatives.

One  example  of  ICOLP's  activities is  the
development  and  support  of an  alternative
technologies  electronic database  •OZONET.'1
OZONET is accessible worldwide and has relevant
information on the alternatives to ozone-depleting
solvents. OZONET not only contains technical
publications, conference papers, and reports on the
most recent developments  of alternatives to the
coma* oses of ozone-depleting solvents, but it also

* Information   on  the  health,   safely   and
  environmental effects of alternative chemicals
  and processes;

•  Information supplied by companies developing
  alternative chemicals and technologies;

• Names, addresses, and telephone numbers for
  technical   experts,  government  contacts,
   institutions and  associations, and other key
  contributors to the selection of alternatives;

*  Dates and places of forthcoming conferences,
  seminars, and workshops;

•  Legislation that has been enacted or is in place
   internationally, nationally, and locally.

Information about ICOLP  can be obtained from:

   Mr. Steven B. Heltem
   Executive Director
   1440 New York Avenue, N.W.
   Suite 300
   Washington, D.C 20005
   Tel: (202) 737-1419
   F»c (202)639-8685