Indoor  Air  duality
     Tools  For Schools
        IAQ Coordinator's Guide


                                     U^EmrironmeflblProtedion Agency
American FederationofTeachers

Association of School Business Officials
11401 North Shore Drive

Coundlfor American Private Education
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                                     rfational Education Association
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                                     National Fa rentTeachers Association
American Lung Association
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EPA4Q2-K-9WW1 (Second Edition) August2000


Note  to  School  Officials and
Others Interested  in  Indoor Air
Quality in  Schools
                                 Indoor Air Quality
                                        Indoor Air Quality
   I ood indoor air quality contributes
to a favorable learning environment for
students, productivity for teachers and
staff, and a sense of comfort, health,
and well-being for all school occupants.
These combine to assist a school in its
core mission-educating children.

Rising energy costs encourage the
development of tighter buildings and a
reduction in the amount of outdoor air
brought into schools for ventilation. In
addition, school operating and mainte-
nance budgets are often reduced to
minimal levels. These actions, com-
bined with the variety of indoor
sources of contaminants — building
materials, furnishings, cleaning agents,
pesticides, printing and copying
devices, combustion appliances,
tobacco products, allergens, fungi,
molds, bacteria, viruses, radon, and
lead — can reduce the quality of the
indoor environment, and consequently
affect the health and well-being of
school occupants.
The number of children with asthma
increased by 60% during the 1980s,
and poor indoor air quality can trigger
asthmatic episodes. In addition to
myriad health consequences, poor air
quality is becoming increasingly costly
for schools due to the potential for
expensive investigation and hasty
solutions during a major indoor air
problem, higher heating and cooling
costs, damage to the physical building
structure and mechanical equipment,
and higher liability. For these reasons,
air quality in schools is of particular
concern. Proper maintenance of indoor
air is more than a "quality" issue, it
encompasses safety and stewardship of
the taxpayer's investment.

In response to this era of tight school
budgets, this guidance is designed to
allow you to prevent and solve the
majority of indoor air problems with
minimal cost and involvement. You
can accomplish this using current
school staff to perform a limited and
well-defined set of basic operations
and maintenance activities.
The commitment to address indoor air
quality (IAQ) starts at the highest level
of administration. To be most effective,
the school must identify — and the
administration must empower — an
IAQ Coordinator (page 5). The school
should also ensure that all school staff
are motivated to carry out the problem-
solving and problem prevention
guidance provided in this Kit.
As you read this Guide, especially the
first six pages, and as school staff
progress through program implemen-
tation, EPA urges you to maintain a
personal involvement in the issue.
      Tools For Schools

Tools for Schools

    This common-sense
    guidance is designed
    to help you prevent
    and solve the
    majority of indoor
    air problems with
    minimal cost and

 Quick  Directory
How to Use This Kit
Why Indoor Air Quality Is Important to Schools
The Role of the Indoor Air Quality Coordinator
How to Establish an Indoor Air Quality Management Plan
What To Do if Your School is Having Problems Now
Note to School Officials
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Action Kit Overview                                    1
Who Coordinates This Guidance                           1
Why Follow This Guidance                               1
How This Kit Is Organized                                1
Why IAQ Is Important to Your School                     3
Why IAQ Is Important                                    3
Unique Aspects of Schools                                4
Role and Functions of the IAQ Coordinator                5
Functions of the IAQ Coordinator                          5
Who Is the IAQ Coordinator?                              5
Launching the IAQ Team                                7
The IAQ Team                                          7
Assembling the IAQ Information Packets (Action Packets)       8
Understanding IAQ Problems                            9
Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants                            9
HVAC System Design and Operation                       10
Description of HVAC Systems                            10
Thermal Comfort                                       11
Ventilation For Occupant Needs                           12
Pollutant Pathways and Driving Forces                     12
Building Occupants                                     13
Section 6      What Is an IAQ Management Plan?
              How the IAQ Management Plan Works
              Where to Start
              Benefits of an IAQ Management Plan
Section 7      Steps to Activate the IAQ Management Plan
Section 8      The IAQ Management Plan
              Assess Current Status
              Perform Repairs and Upgrades
              Final Steps
Section 9      Effective Communication
              Communication Principles

Section 10     Resolving IAQ Problems
              Is This an Emergency?
              Who Will Solve the Problem?
Section 11     Diagnosing IAQ Problems
              How to Diagnose Problems
              Spatial and Timing Patterns
Section 12     Solving IAQ Problems
              Developing Solutions
              Solutions for Other Complaints
              Evaluating Solutions
              Evaluating the Effectiveness of Your Solution
              Persistent Problems
Section 13     Communication When Problem-solving
Appendix  A   Hiring Professional Assistance
Appendix  B   Codes and Regulations
Appendix  C   Basic Measurement Equipment
Appendix  D   Developing Indoor Air Policies
Appendix  E   Typical Indoor Air Pollutants
Appendix  F   Secondhand Smoke
Appendix  G   Radon
Appendix  H   Mold and Moisture
Appendix   I   Resources
Appendix  J   Glossary and Acronyms
Note: The IAQ
Coordinator's Forms, IAQ
Backgrounder, IAQ Check-
lists, and IAQ Problem-
Solving Wheel are sepa-
rate pieces that are
supplied with this Guide
(see diagram on page 2).


 EPA appreciates the time that numer-
 ous organizations and individuals took
 to share ideas, experiences, and
 comments on the drafts of Indoor Air
 Quality Tools for Schools. Many of
 these ideas have contributed to the
 usefulness and completeness of this
 Kit. Within EPA, project management
 was provided by Bob Thompson, who
 developed the concept and much of the
 content of Indoor Air Quality Tools for
 Schools. The insights and encourage-
 ments of Bob Axelrad, Scott Bowles,
 Sandra Eberle, Elissa Feldman, John
 Girman, and Dave Mudarri were
 especially valuable throughout the
 development of the document. Victoria
 Drew and Connie Thomas provided
 exceptional assistance in contract
 management and editing, and Lisa
 Adams, Allene Gillam, and Mary
 Vance are gratefully acknowledged for
 their office support.


 Any information gathered as a result of
 using this Kit is for the benefit and use
 of the local school or school district.
 EPA does not require retention or
 submission of any information gath-
 ered, and EPA has no regulatory or
 enforcement authority regarding
 general indoor air quality in schools.
 This Kit has been reviewed in accor-
 dance with policies of the U.S. Envi-
 ronmental Protection Agency. Informa-
tion provided is based upon current
 scientific and technical understanding
 of the issues presented. Following the
advice given will not necessarily
provide complete protection in all
situations or against all health hazards
that may be caused by indoor air
 Mention of any trade names or com-
 mercial products does not constitute
 endorsement or recommendation for


 Please note the following as you
 prepare to use this Kit:

 •  The guidance in this Kit is not
   intended as a substitute for appro-
   priate emergency action in the event
   of a hazardous situation that may be
   immediately threatening to life and

 •  Modification of building functions,
   equipment, or structure to remedy
   air quality complaints may create
   other indoor air quality problems
   and may impact life safety systems
   and energy use. A thorough under-
   standing of all the factors that
   interact to create indoor air quality
   problems can help to avoid this
   undesirable outcome. Consult with
   professionals  if it becomes neces-

 •  In the event that medical records are
   used while evaluating an IAQ
   problem, confidentiality must be


 This Kit is in the public domain. It may
 be reproduced in whole or in part by an
 individual or organization without
 permission. If it is reproduced, EPA
 would appreciate knowing how it is
 used. Please write:
 IAQ Tools for Schools
 Indoor Environments Division, #6609J
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20460
or send an email through our web site:

Action  Kit  Overview
    he goal of this Kit is to provide
clear and easily applied guidance that
will help prevent indoor air quality
(IAQ) problems and resolve such
problems promptly if they do arise. It
recommends practical actions that can
be carried out by the school staff
without the need for training, and is
flexible enough to conform to the
specific needs of your school.
The background information and
activities in this voluntary program are
directed toward existing schools in the
kindergarten through twelfth grade
range, but colleges, universities, and
preschool and day-care  centers could
benefit by application of the principles
and activities presented. In addition,
many of these principles could also be
applied by architects and engineers
when planning new schools or major

Who Coordinates This Guidance

A team leader, known as the IAQ
Coordinator, is needed to fully adminis-
ter the guidance recommended in this
Guide. Please refer to Section 3,
Roles and Functions of the IAQ
Coordinator, for information that
will help with selecting an IAQ

Why Follow This Guidance

Section 2, Why IAQ Is Important to
Your School, provides information on
the benefits of understanding and
applying this guidance to maintain
good indoor air quality. Three addi-
tional reasons to implement this
guidance include:
•  The expense and effort required to
   prevent most IAQ problems is much
   less than the expense and effort
   required to resolve problems after
   they develop.
• Many IAQ problems can be pre-
  vented by educating school staff and
  students about the factors that create
  them. When IAQ problems do arise,
  they can often be resolved using
  skills available in-house.
• If outside assistance is needed to
  solve an IAQ problem, the best
  results will be achieved if school
  officials are informed customers.

How This Kit Is Organized

The indoor air quality guidance in this
Kit can be divided into two basic
categories: background information and
specific activities. Once you under-
stand the basic principles and  factors
that influence indoor air quality in your
school, you will note that the specific
activities involve two major actions —
the management of pollutant sources,
and the use of ventilation for pollutant
This guidance is organized around the
use of an IAQ Team, with the IAQ
Coordinator fulfilling leadership and
administrative roles, and with the team
members each performing specific
activities as outlined in Section 4.
 the IAQ
ment plan

IAQ  Tools for  Schools Action  Kit
          The IAQ Coordinator
          primarily uses the
          Coordinator's Guide
                         IAQ Guide
    Asthma Companion
              Team Member
                     Look, smell, feel and listen
                     foe existing or potential
                     IAQ problems as you
                     lour your school facilities.

                     Ensure comfort health, and
                     reduced sick days for you
                     and your students by
                     preventing IAQ problems in
                     the classroom.

                     Show leadership by
                     pro vidinga heal my indoor
                     environment: conducive to
                     teaching and learning.

                     HEALTH OFFICERS
                     Recognize and monitor
                     trends in reported illnesses
                     that may give early warning
                     of IAQ problems.

                     Reduce odors, moisture,.
                     and food waste, thereby
                     lowering the risk of
                     short- or long-term health
                     problems linked to poor
                     indoor air quality.
            Be sure the ventilation system
            is clean and that an adequate
            amount of outside air is supplied
            to the school.
            Review supplies and follow label
            instructions; select the safest, most
            effective products; handle and
            dispose of supplies safely.
            Use proper waste disposal practices
            to control odors,, contaminants,
            and pests.
            During repairs, minimize dust,
            fumes, and off-gassing
            from building materials. Avoid designs
            that interfere with ventilation.

Why IAQ Is  important to Your School
   3 ost people are aware that outdoor
air pollution can damage their health
but many do not know that indoor air
pollution can also have significant
health effects. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency (EPA) studies of human
exposure to air pollutants indicate that
indoor levels of pollutants may be 2-5
times, and occasionally more than 100
times, higher than outdoor levels.
These levels of indoor air pollutants
may be of particular concern because
most people spend about 90% of their
time indoors. For the purposes of this
guidance, the definition of good indoor
air quality management includes:
• control of airborne pollutants
• introduction and distribution of
  adequate outdoor air maintenance of
  acceptable temperature and relative
Temperature and humidity cannot be
overlooked because thermal comfort
concerns underlie many complaints
about "poor air quality." Furthermore,
temperature and humidity are among
the many factors that affect indoor
contaminant levels.

Why IAQ Is Important

In recent years, comparative risk
studies performed by EPA and its
Science Advisory Board have consis-
tently ranked indoor air pollution
among the top five environmental
risks to public health. Good indoor air
quality is an important component of a
healthy indoor environment, and can
help schools reach their primary goal.
Failure to respond promptly and
effectively to IAQ problems can have
the following health, cost, and educa-
tional process consequences:
                                         increasing long- and short-term
                                         health problems such as cough, eye
                                         irritation, headache, asthma epi-
                                         sodes, and allergic reactions, and,
                                         in rarer cases, life- threatening
                                         conditions such as severe asthma
                                         attacks, Legionnaire's disease or
                                         carbon monoxide poisoning
                                         promoting the spread of airborne
                                         infectious diseases
                                         aggravating asthma and other
                                         respiratory illnesses. Nearly one
                                         school-aged child in 13 has asthma,
                                         the leading cause of school absentee-
                                         ism due to chronic disease. There is
                                         substantial evidence that indoor
                                         environmental exposure to allergens,
                                         such as dust mites, other pests, and
                                         molds play a role in triggering
                                         asthma symptoms. These allergens
                                         are found in the school indoor
                                         producing an unfavorable learning
                                         environment for children
                                         reducing productivity of teachers
                                         and staff due to discomfort, sick-
                                         ness, or absenteeism
                                         accelerating the deterioration and
                                         thus reducing the efficiency of the
                                         school's physical plant and
                                         increasing the risk that school
                                         rooms or buildings will have to be
                                         closed, and occupants temporarily
                                         straining relationships among the
                                         school administration and parents
                                         and staff
                                         generating negative publicity that
                                         could damage a school's or
                                         administration's image and
                                         creating potential liability problems
Good indoor air quality
    contributes to a
   favorable  learning
    environment for
students, performance of
teachers and  staff, and a
sense of comfort, health,
 and well-being. These
  elements combine to
assist a school in its core
       mission —
   educating  children.

 Indoor air problems can be subtle, and
 do not always produce easily recog-
 nized impacts on health, well-being, or
 the physical plant. In some cases, only
 one or a few individuals may be
 strongly affected by what appears on
 the surface to be psychosomatic in
 nature because the majority of the
 school population does not appear to
 have any symptoms.
 Children may be especially susceptible
 to air pollution. The same concentra-
 tion of pollutants can result in higher
 body burden in children than adults
 because children breathe a greater
 volume of air relative to their body
 weight. For this and the reasons noted
 above, air quality in schools  is of
 particular concern. Proper mainte-
 nance of indoor air is more than a
 "quality" issue, it encompasses safety
 and stewardship of our investment in
 the students, staff, and facilities.

 Unique Aspects of Schools

Unlike other buildings, managing
schools involves the combined respon-
sibility for public funds and child safety
issues, which can cause strong reac-
tions from concerned parents  and the
general community. Other unique
aspects include:

•  occupants are close together, with
   the typical school having approxi-
   mately four times as many occupants
   as office buildings for the same
   amount of floor space

•  budgets are tight, with maintenance
   often receiving the largest cut during
   budget reductions

•  the presence of a variety of pollutant
   sources, including art and science
   supplies, industrial and vocational
   arts, home economic classes, and

•  a large number of heating, ventilat-
   ing, and air-conditioning systems,
   placing an added strain on mainte-
   nance  staff
•  as schools add space, the operation
   and maintenance of each addition  is
   often different
•  schools sometimes use rooms,
   portable classrooms, or buildings
   which  were not originally designed
   to service the unique requirements
   of schools

Role  and  Functions  of the  IAQ  Coordinator
   IAQ management within schools
will not just happen — it requires
leadership. Leading people is an
important function of the IAQ Coordi-
nator, because it is people who both
affect and are affected by the quality of
the indoor air. People make decisions
— decisions about what materials to
bring into the school, how those
materials are used, how the school
building and ventilation systems are
operated, how they are maintained, and
how to respond to problems. Effective
leadership will ensure that an informed
choice is made at each of these
decision points.

Functions of the  IAQ Coordinator

The primary role of the IAQ Coordina-
tor is team management and leadership.
Most of the other work can be shared
among IAQ Team members and the rest
of the school staff. For example, others
can assist with copying and disseminat-
ing the Action Packets to the staff, and
summarizing responses from the
Checklists.  The primary IAQ Coordi-
nator functions are:
Team Leader: Coordinates an "IAQ
Team," as noted in the figure to the
right, and encourages a sense of shared
responsibility and cooperative effort.
Provides the team with the Team
Information Packets (Action Packets)
supplied in this Kit, and, in coordina-
tion with the IAQ Team, implements
the IAQ Management Plan (Sections
Emergency Response: Prepares for
emergency response as outlined in the
IAQ Management Plan. Follows the
guidance and makes decisions as
outlined in Resolving IAQ Problems
(Sections 10-13).  Determines if and
when outside professional assistance is
needed, and coordinates their activities.
Key Authority: Disseminates IAQ
information, registers IAQ complaints
and directs the response, and commu-
nicates IAQ issues and status to school
administration, staff, students, parents,
and the press.

Who Is the IAQ Coordinator?

The choice of IAQ Coordinator will
probably depend on the organizational
structure of your school system. In
larger school districts, the IAQ Coordi-
nator may be a district-level adminis-
trative person, such as the business
official, a health and safety officer, or
the facilities manager. In smaller
school systems and individual schools,
the IAQ Coordinator may be the
principal, the school nurse, a teacher,
or other school staff.

                        Who is chosen should be based on the
                        functions and level of leadership
                        needed and genuine interest in improv-
                        ing the indoor environment in the
                        school(s).  In any event, success
                        depends on having someone who can
                        manage the team and who is empow-
                        ered to take action. This includes
                        authority to interact with district-level
                        administration, school staff, students,
                        and parents, and to make budget
                        recommendations.  Note- the IAQ
                        Coordinator does not have to be an
                        "expert" in indoor air quality issues.
                        By using this Kit, the IAQ Coordinator
                        and all team members will learn about
                        indoor air quality as the work
                        In a few situations, it may become
                        necessary to share the responsibilities
of the IAQ Coordinator by having a
Co-Coordinator, or by delegating
many of the administrative items to a
committee, such as an existing health
and safety committee. The committee
could also be composed of selected
individuals from the community, such
as local environmental or health
department staff, parents, and volun-
teers from local businesses who have
special skills, such as commercial
building engineers. Independent of
who is acting as the team leader, it  is
fundamentally important that on a
school-by-school basis, the staff and
students have the opportunity to learn
about the  basics of indoor air quality
(IAQ Backgrounder) so that their daily
decisions  and activities (IAQ Check-
lists) will  not unnecessarily cause
indoor air problems.
                                 Start-Up  Hints
In addition to the Coordinator's Forms listed above, there is other information you should gather to make starting an
IAQ program easier:

•  Get a map/blueprint of the school (this will be invaluable)

•  Count the number of staff and their job category, for example, the number of teachers, the number of maintenance
   staff, etc. (You'll need this information to distribute checklists to staff.)

•  Obtain the names and contact information for any outside contractors the school uses, such as maintenance staff,
   or heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning contractors.

Before starting the program, some IAQ Coordinators have also found it useful to:

•  Get support from the school and/or school district administration

•  Read the IAQ Coordinator's Guide, especially pages 5-8

•  Meet with the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning technician to acquire a working knowledge of the various
   ventilation units at your school. Learn which systems serve which rooms.

•  Set up a filing system for all the paperwork you will generate. Keep it in a convenient location. (Portable file
   boxes work nicely.)  Set up a location for turning in checklists.

•  Set up an IAQ Resource Center at your school in an area where staff members can access information at their
   leisure.  This is also a great place to post important reminders and communicate with your staff when something
   comes up.

And remember Implementing an IAQ management program is an on-going process, not an overnight miracle. Be
patient Stay consistent, organized and never forget that you are doing something important for staff and students at
your school

Launching  the  IAQ Team
In most schools using this Kit, a
committed team works with the IAQ
Coordinator to implement the IAQ
Tools for Schools program. This team,
which is led by the IAQ Coordinator,
can (and probably should) include
representatives from nine distinct
Teachers play a strong role because
their decisions and activities can affect
the sources of pollutants and levels of
ventilation within their room.  Some
teachers, such as art, science, voca-
tional and industrial arts, and home
economics teachers, have unique
pollutant sources and ventilation
equipment to manage.
Administrative Staff encompasses all
administrative and support staff. The
staff has control over unique pollutant
sources such as printing and kitchen
areas, and often controls the operation
of the ventilation equipment in their
Facility Operators are the people who
have direct technical responsibility for
operating and  servicing the heating,
cooling, and ventilation systems within
the school.  The role of the facility
operator is crucial in preventing and
solving IAQ problems.
Custodians and their responsibilities
vary widely among school districts.
The Building Maintenance Checklist
focuses on the housekeeping activities
within the school.
Health Officers/School Nurses can be
helpful by monitoring and recognizing
trends in reported illnesses that may
give early warning of IAQ problems.
School Board Representatives can
provide the resources and authority
necessary to implement an IAQ
Management Plan, as outlined in
Section 6, and for solving any IAQ
problems which may arise, as outlined
in Section 12.
Contract Service Providers need to
be informed and active members of the
IAQ Team because their activities can
have a direct and substantial impact on
the quality of air within your school.
Examples of these activities include
pesticide application, renovation work
such as re-roofing, and maintenance of
ventilation equipment and air filters.
Students are the primary customers in
your school. Information should be
shared with students so they under-
stand their role in maintaining good
IAQ, such as keeping good personal
hygiene and keeping lockers clean. In
some schools, students have learned
about good indoor air quality and then
have participated by keeping rooms
clean and other activities.
Parents are another important con-
stituent. It is important that they be
included and that they be aware of the
steps the school is taking to promote
good IAQ. Sharing information with
parents not only helps avoid miscom-
munication, but also has the potential
of attracting additional  resources and
expertise to  the school.
In addition,  each team member may
want to read the Coordinator's Guide
for more detailed information on IAQ
and on the process of using this Kit to
prevent, identify and solve IAQ
problems in the school.
Available with this
Kit is information on
how  best to "get
started" on the  IAQ
Tools for Schools
program. Call 1-800-
438-4318 and ask
for the IAQ Tools for
Schools Road Map.

Action Packets
 Assembling the IAQ Information
 Packets (Action Packets)

 The Action Packets are designed to be
 useful during the three basic modes of
 improving a school's IAQ:

 •  developing a profile of the school's
   current indoor air quality;

 •  preventing IAQ problems; and,

 •  solving any IAQ problems which
   may arise.

 Action Packets should be distributed
 to the school staff in order to complete
 the three tasks listed above.

 The Action Packets are comprised of
 three basic components:
 School Memo. For school staff, the
 memo or letter carries the school
 administration's request that staff
 members perform the activities as
 provided in their individual Action
 Packets.  For the school board, con-
 tract service provides, students and
 parents, the memo notifies them that
the school has undertaken an IAQ
management program, and presents the
IAQ Backgrounder. Behind the IAQ
 Coordinator's Forms tab in the Kit are
four sample memos which can be
adapted to your needs.
IAQ Backgrounder. This generic
backgrounder will provide all team
and staff members with a summary of
important issues regarding indoor air
quality. Issues included are: what is
IAQ, why is IAQ important, basic
problems and control methods, the
team approach, and communications.
Graphics are included to assist in
understanding the issues.

IAQ Checklists.  The IAQ Checklists
provide detailed, yet simple, IAQ
activities for each staff member.
These activities are based on the
unique functions and locations of
teachers, administrative staff, facility
operators, custodians, health officers
and school nurses, and contract service
providers (e.g., roofers). Each activity
deals with a specific pollutant source or
ventilation issue.  A Checklists Log,
located behind the IAQ Coordinator's
Forms tab, is provided to assist in
summarizing the  data from the returned
checklists. The Ventilation Checklist
also includes a Log for ease of record-
ing the status of each ventilation unit.

 Understanding  IAQ  Problems
ver the past several decades, our
 exposure to indoor air pollutants has
 increased due to a variety of factors,
 including the construction of more
 tightly sealed buildings, reduced
 ventilation rates to save energy, the use
 of synthetic building materials and
 furnishings, and the use of personal
 care products, pesticides, and house-
 keeping supplies. In addition, our
 activities and decisions, such as
 deferring maintenance to "save"
 money, can lead to problems from
 sources and ventilation.
 The indoor environment in any
 building  is a result of the interactions
 among the site, climate, building
 structure and mechanical systems (as
 originally designed and later modi-
 fied), construction techniques, con-
 taminant sources (what is outside,
 inside, and part of the building), and
 building  occupants. This section
 contains  a discussion on how these
 elements can cause IAQ problems, and
 Section 12 (Solving IAQ Problems)
 provides solutions. These elements are
 grouped into four categories:
 Sources: there is a source (or sources)
 of pollution or discomfort indoors,
 outdoors, or within the mechanical
 system of the building.
 HVAC System: the heating, ventilat-
 ing, and air conditioning (HVAC)
 system is not able to control air
 pollutant levels and/or ensure thermal
 Pathways: one or more pathways
 connect the pollutant source to the
 occupants and a driving force exists to
 move pollutants along the pathway(s).
 Occupants: occupant activities have
 direct impacts on sources, the HVAC
 system, pathways, and driving forces;
 and occupants can be carriers of
communicable diseases and allergens
such as pet dander.

Sources of indoor Air Pollutants

Indoor air pollutants can originate
within the building or be drawn in
from outdoors. If pollutant sources are
not controlled, IAQ problems can
arise, even if the HVAC system is
properly designed, operated, and
maintained. Air contaminants consist
of particles, dust, fibers, bioaerosols,
and gases or vapors.  It may be helpful
to think of air pollutant sources as
fitting into one of the categories in the
table on the following page, Typical
Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants. The
examples given for each category are
not intended to be a complete list.
Appendix E contains a list of specific
air pollutants, with descriptions,
sources, and control measures.
In addition to the number of potential
pollutants, another complicating factor
is that indoor air pollutant concentra-
tion levels can vary by time and
location within the school building, or
even a single classroom. Pollutants
can be emitted from point sources,
such as from science storerooms, or
from area sources, such as newly
painted surfaces. Also, pollutants can
vary with time, such as only when
floor stripping is done, or continuously
such as mold growing in the HVAC
Indoor air often contains a variety of
contaminants at concentrations that are
well below any standards  or guidelines
for occupational exposure. Given our
present knowledge, it is often difficult
to relate complaints of specific health
effects to exposures to specific
pollutant concentrations, especially
since the significant exposures may be
to low levels of pollutant mixtures.
                                                                                Interaction of
                                                                                Sources, HVAC
                                                                                Systems, Pathways,
                                                                                and Occupants
                                                                                If independently
                                                                                evaluated, a minor roof
                                                                                leak and a dirty class-
                                                                                room carpet might not
                                                                                cause much concern. But
                                                                                if the water from the roof
                                                                                leak reaches the carpet,
                                                                                the water can wet the dirt
                                                                                in the carpet and the
                                                                                mold that has been
                                                                                dormant in the carpet
                                                                                The mold can grow and
                                                                                become a pollutant
                                                                                source that releases
                                                                                spores into the classroom
                                                                                air.  The HVAC system
                                                                                acts as a pathway that
                                                                                disperses the spores to
                                                                                other parts of the school,
                                                                                where occupants may
                                                                                experience allergic

Typical Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants
  Outside Sources
  Polluted Outdoor Air
  •  pollen, dust, mold
  •  industrial emissions
  •  vehicle emissions
  Nearby Sources
  •  loading docks
  •  odors from dumpsters
  •  unsanitary debris or
     building exhausts near
     outdoor air intakes
  Underground Sources
  •  radon
  •  pesticides
  •  leakage from under-
     ground storage tanks
Building Equipment
HVAC Equipment
•  mold growth in drip
   pans, ductwork, coils,
   and humidifiers
•  improper venting of
   combustion products
•  dust or debris in duct-
Non-HVAC Equipment
•  emissions from office
   equipment (volatile
   organic compounds,
•  emissions from shops,
   labs, cleaning pro-
• mold growth on soiled or
  water-damaged materials
• dry traps that allow the
  passage of sewer gas
• materials containing
  volatile organic com-
  pounds, inorganic
  compounds, or damaged
• materials that produce
  particles (dust)
• emissions from new
  furnishings and floorings
• mold growth on or in
  soiled or water-damaged
Other indoor Sources
•  science laboratories
•  vocational arts areas
•  copy/print areas
•  food prep areas
ซ  smoking lounges
•  cleaning materials
*  emissions from trash
*  pesticides
•  odors and volatile
   organic compounds
   from paint, caulk,
•  occupants with com-
   municable diseases
•  dry-erase markers and
   similar pens
•  insects & other pests
•  personal  care products
                              HVAC System Design and Operation

                              The HVAC system includes all
                              heating, cooling, and ventilating
                              equipment serving a school:  boilers or
                              furnaces, chillers, cooling towers, air
                              handling units, exhaust fans,
                              ductwork, and filters. A properly
                              designed and functioning HVAC
                              •  controls temperature and relative
                                 humidity to provide thermal

                              •  distributes adequate amounts of
                                 outdoor air to meet ventilation
                                 needs of school occupants
                              •  isolates and removes odors and
                                 other contaminants through pres-
                                 sure control, filtration, and exhaust
                              Not all HVAC systems are designed to
                              accomplish all of these functions.
                              Some buildings rely only on natural
                              ventilation. Others lack mechanical
                              cooling equipment, and many function
                              with little or no humidity control. The
                              features of the HVAC system in a
                              given building will depend on:

                              •  age of the design
                                            •  climate

                                            •  building codes in effect at the time
                                              of the design

                                            •  budget for the project
                                            •  designers' and school districts'
                                              individual preferences

                                            •  subsequent modifications

                                            Description of HVAC Systems

                                            Two of the most common HVAC
                                            designs used in schools are central air
                                            handling systems and unit ventilators.
                                            Both can perform the same HVAC
                                            functions of heating, ventilating, and
                                            air-conditioning, but the central air
                                            handling unit serves multiple rooms
                                            while the unit ventilator serves a single
                                            room. With central air handling units,
                                            it is important that all rooms served by
                                            the central unit have similar thermal
                                            and ventilation requirements. If these
                                            requirements differ significantly, some
                                            rooms may be too hot, too cold, or
                                            underventilated, while others are
                                            comfortable and adequately ventilated.

                                            Most air handling units distribute a
                                            mixture of outdoor air and recirculated
                                            indoor air. HVAC designs may also
                                            include units that introduce 100%

outdoor air or that simply recirculate
indoor air within the building. Uncon-
trolled quantities of outdoor air enter
buildings by leakage through win-
dows, doors, and gaps in the building
exterior. Thermal comfort and ventila-
tion needs are met by supplying
"conditioned" air, which is a mixture
of outdoor and recirculated air that has
been filtered, heated or cooled, and
sometimes humidified or dehumidi-
fied. The basic components for a
central air handling unit and a unit
ventilator are shown in the IAQ

Thermal Comfort

A number of variables interact to
determine whether people are comfort-
able with the temperature and relative
humidity of the indoor air. The amount
of clothing, activity level, age, and
physiology of people in schools vary
widely, so the thermal comfort require-
ments vary for each individual. The
American Society of Heating, Refrig-
erating, and Air-Conditioning Engi-
neers (ASHRAE) Standard 55-1992,
describes the temperature and humid-
ity ranges that are comfortable for
80% of people engaged in largely
sedentary activities. That information
is summarized in the chart below. The
ASHRAE standard assumes "normal"
indoor clothing. Added layers of
clothing reduce the rate of heat loss.
Uniformity of temperature is important
to comfort. Rooms that share a
common heating and cooling system
controlled by a single thermostat may
be at different temperatures. Tempera-
ture stratification is a common prob-
lem caused by convection, the ten-
dency of light, warm air to rise, and
heavier, cooler air to sink. If air is not
properly mixed by the ventilation
system, the temperature near the
ceiling can be several degrees warmer
or cooler than near the floor, where
young children spend much of their
time. Even if air is properly mixed,
uninsulated floors over unheated
spaces can create discomfort in some
climate zones. Large fluctuations of
indoor temperature can also occur
when thermostats have a wide "dead
band" (a temperature range in which
neither heating or cooling takes place).
Radiant heat transfer may cause people
located near very hot or very cold
surfaces to be uncomfortable even
though the thermostat setting and the
measured air temperature are within
the comfort range. Schools with large
window areas sometimes have acute
problems of discomfort due to radiant
heat gains and losses, with the loca-
tions of complaints shifting during the
day as the sun angle changes. Poorly
insulated walls can also produce a
flow of naturally-convecting air,
leading to complaints of draftiness.
Closing curtains reduces heating from
direct sunlight and reduces occupant
exposure to hot or cold window
Large schools may have interior
("core") spaces in which year round
cooling is required to compensate for
heat generated by occupants, office
equipment, and lighting, while perim-
eter rooms may require heating or
cooling depending on outdoor condi-
Humidity is a factor in thermal
comfort. Raising relative humidity
reduces a person's ability to lose heat
through perspiration and evaporation,
                 All schools need
               ventilation, which is
                  the process of
              supplying outdoor air
                 to the occupied
                 areas within the
   Recommended Ranges of Temperature and Relative Humidity
   Relative Humidity            Winter Temperature        Summer Temperature
   Recommendations apply for persons clothed in typical summer and winter clothing, at light,
   mainly sedentary, activity.
   Source; Adapted from ASHRAE Standard 55-1992, Thermal Environmental Conditions for
   Human Occupancy

 Selected Outdoor Air

 Application   CFM per Person

 Classroom        IS

 Music Rooms      IS

 Libraries         IS

 Auditoriums       15

 Spectator Sport Areas IS

 Playing Floors     20

 Office Space       20

 Conference Rooms  20

 Smoking Lounges   60

 Cafeteria         20

 Kitchen (cooking)   15
 Source: ASHRAE Standard 62-
 19S9, Ventilation for Acceptable
Indoor Air Quality
 so that the effect is similar to raising
 the temperature. Humidity extremes
 can also create other IAQ problems.
 Excessively high or low relative
 humidities can produce discomfort,
 high relative humidities can promote
 the growth of mold and mildew, and
 low relative humidities can accelerate
 the release of spores into the air. (See
 Appendix H).

 Ventilation For Occupant Needs

 All schools need ventilation, which is
 the process  of supplying outdoor air to
 the occupied areas in the school. As
 outdoor air is drawn into the school,
 indoor air is exhausted by fans or
 allowed to escape through openings,
 thus removing indoor air pollutants.
 Often, this exhaust air is taken from
 areas that produce air pollutants such
 as restrooms, kitchens, science-storage
 closets, and fume hoods.

 Modern schools generally use
 mechanical ventilation systems to
 introduce outdoor air during occupied
 periods, but some schools use only
 natural ventilation or exhaust fans to
 remove odors and contaminants. In
 naturally ventilated buildings, unac-
 ceptable indoor air quality is particu-
 larly likely when occupants keep the
 windows closed because of extreme
 hot or cold outdoor temperatures.
 Even when windows and doors are
 open, under ventilation is likely when
 air movement forces are weakest, such
 as when there is little wind, or when
 there is little temperature difference
 between inside and outside (stack

 The amount of outdoor air considered
 adequate for proper ventilation has
 varied substantially over time.  Be-
 cause updating building codes often
takes several years, the building code,
 if any, that was in force when your
 school HVAC system was designed,
may well have required a lower
amount of ventilation than what is
currently considered adequate.
 ASHRAE ventilation standards are
 used as the basis for most building
 ventilation codes.  A table of outdoor
 air quantities in schools as recom-
 mended by ASHRAE Standard 62-
 1989, Ventilation for Acceptable
 Indoor Air Quality, is shown to the
 left. Please note that this is a limited
 portion of the Standard, and that the
 quantities listed are in units of CFM7
 person, which is cubic feet per minute
 of outdoor air for each person in the
 area served by that ventilation  system.

 Pollutant Pathways and  Driving

 Airflow patterns in buildings result
 from the combined action  of mechani-
 cal ventilation systems, human
 activity, and natural forces. Differ-
 ences in air pressure created by these
 forces move airborne pollutants from
 areas of higher pressure to areas of
 lower pressure through any available
 openings. An inflated balloon is an
 example of this driving force. As long
 as the opening to the balloon is kept
 shut, no air will flow, but when open,
 air will move from inside (area of
 higher pressure) to the outside (area of
 lower pressure). Even if the opening is
 small, air will move until the pressures
 inside and outside  are equal.
 If present, the HVAC ducts are
 generally the predominant pathway
 and driving force for air movement in
 buildings. However, all of a building's
 components (walls, ceilings, floors,
 doors, windows, HVAC equipment,
 and occupants) interact to affect how
 air movement distributes pollutants
 within a building.
 For example, as air moves  from supply
 outlets to return inlets, it is diverted or
 obstructed by walls and furnishings,
 and redirected by openings that
provide pathways for air movement.
 On a localized basis, the movements
of people have a major impact on the
movement of pollutants. Some of the
pathways change as doors and

windows open and close.  It is useful
to think of the entire building — the
rooms with connecting corridors and
utility passageways between them —
as part of the air distribution system.

Air movement can transfer emissions
from the pollutant source:
•  into adjacent rooms or spaces that
   are  under lower pressure

•  into other spaces through HVAC
   system ducts
•  from lower to upper levels in multi-
   story schools

•  transport of pollutants into the
   building through either infiltration
   of outdoor air or reentry of exhaust

•  to various points within the room
Natural forces exert an important
influence on air movement between a
school's interior and exterior. Both
the stack effect and wind can over-
power a building's HVAC system and
disrupt air circulation and ventilation,
especially if the school envelope
(walls, ceiling, windows, etc.) is leaky.
Stack effect is the pressure-driven
airflow produced by convection, the
tendency of warm  air to rise. Stack
effect exists whenever there is an
indoor-outdoor temperature difference,
and the effect becomes stronger as the
temperature difference increases.
Multi-story schools are more affected
than single-story schools. As heated air
escapes from upper levels, indoor air
moves from lower to upper levels, and
outdoor air is drawn into the lower
levels to replace the air that has
escaped. Stack effect can transport
contaminants between floors by way
of stairwells, elevator shafts, utility
chases, and other openings.
Wind effects are transient, creating
local areas of high pressure (on the
windward side) and low pressure (on
the leeward side) of buildings. De-
pending on the size and location of
leakage openings in the building
exterior, wind can affect the pressure
relationships within and between
rooms. Entry of outdoor air contami-
nants may be intermittent or variable,
occurring only when the wind blows
from the direction of the pollutant

Most public and commercial buildings
are designed to be positively  pressur-
ized, so that unconditioned air does
not enter through  openings in the
building envelope causing discomfort
or air quality problems. The interac-
tion between pollutant pathways and
intermittent or variable driving forces
can lead to a single source causing
IAQ complaints in an area of the
school that is distant from the pollutant

Building Occupants

The term "building occupants" is
generally used in this document to
describe the staff, students, and
other people who  spend extended
time periods in the school. Some
occupants may be particularly
susceptible to the  effects of indoor air
•  individuals with allergies or asthma
•  people who may be sensitive to
•  people with a respiratory disease
•  people whose immune systems are
   suppressed due to chemotherapy,
   radiation therapy, disease, or other
•  individuals who wear contact lenses
Other groups are particularly  vulner-
able to exposures of certain pollutants
or pollutant mixtures. For example:
•  people with heart disease may be
   more affected by exposure to
   carbon monoxide than healthy

  Some occupants
may be particularly
 susceptible to the
effects of indoor air
 •  children exposed to secondhand
   tobacco smoke are at higher risk for
   respiratory illnesses

 •  people exposed to significant levels
   of nitrogen dioxide are at higher
   risk for respiratory infections

 Because of varying sensitivity to
 airborne chemicals and irritants,
 individuals with heightened sensitivi-
 ties may react to a particular IAQ
 problem while surrounding occupants
 do not display ill effects. Symptoms
 that are limited to only one or a few
 persons can also occur when only their
 area contains the airborne pollutant.
 In other cases, complaints may be
 widespread. In addition to different
 degrees of reaction, an indoor air
 pollutant or problem can trigger
 different reactions in different people.
 The effects of IAQ problems are often
 non-specific symptoms rather than
 clearly defined illnesses. Symptoms
 (which can occur singly or in groups)
 commonly attributed to IAQ problems

 •  headache, fatigue, and shortness of

 •  sinus congestion, coughing, and

 •  eye, nose, throat, and skin irritation
 •  dizziness and nausea

 These symptoms, however, may be
 caused by other factors, and are not
 necessarily due to air pollutants.
 "Health" and "comfort" are used to
 describe a spectrum of physical
 sensations. For example, when the air
 in a room is slightly too warm for a
 person's activity, that person may
 experience mild discomfort. If the
temperature rises, discomfort increases
 and the symptom of fatigue can
 appear. The person may attribute this
 fatigue to an unknown air pollutant,
rather than to being too warm.

Some complaints by building occu-
pants are based on discomfort. A
common IAQ complaint is that
"there's a funny smell in here." If
occupants think there is an indoor air
problem, the slightest odor can trigger
concerns over health, even though the
cause of that particular odor may not
have any effects on health. Environ-
mental stressors such as improper
lighting, noise, vibration, poor ergo-
nomics, and psychosocial problems
(such as job stress) also can produce
symptoms that are similar to those
associated with poor air quality.

Sometimes several school occupants
become aware of serious health
problems (e.g., cancer, miscarriages)
over a relatively short time period.
Indoor air quality is  occasionally
blamed for these clusters of health
problems, and this can produce
tremendous anxiety among school
occupants. State or local health
departments can provide advice and
assistance if clusters are suspected.
They may be able to help answer key
questions such as, whether the appar-
ent cluster is actually unusual and
whether the underlying cause could be
related to IAQ.

What  Is an  IAQ Management Plan?
   I he IAQ Management Plan as
presented in this guidance is a set of
flexible and specific activities for
preventing and resolving IAQ prob-
lems. The goals of the IAQ Manage-
ment Plan as outlined in this document
are to:
1.  fix any existing IAQ problems

2.  instill an IAQ awareness that leads
    to preventive actions
3.  resolve IAQ complaints and
    incidents as they occur

How the IAQ Management Plan

This Kit provides the activities and
information needed to prevent and
resolve most IAQ problems, and
provides checklists to help coordinate
the activities. As the IAQ Coordinator,
you provide the leadership to manage
these activities. The delegation of
activities to the IAQ Team members
(primarily school staff) helps ensure
that people in the school understand
their role in preventing and solving
IAQ problems. Because no one person
is overly burdened, the program is
more likely to get started and succeed.
The IAQ Management Plan can be
used as presented, or tailored to the
specific needs of your school. Because
the organizational and physical struc-
tures of schools vary, the IAQ Coord-
inator may choose to make modifica-
tions to this recommended process. For
example, the IAQ Coordinator may
modify some of the steps in the IAQ
Management Plan, or may give the IAQ
Backgrounder and Teacher's Checklist
to the teachers for their awareness, but
may request that some other staff
member perform the actual activities
for each teacher. Although the adminis-
trative process of "who" and "when"
is designed to be flexible according to
your needs, it is important that all of
the individual activities be completed.
For additional information on how this
Kit is organized, see Section 1.

Where to Start

A step-by-step process for activating
and implementing the IAQ Manage-
ment Plan is provided in Sections 7
and 8, and checklists to guide and log
this process are provided in the IAQ
Coordinator's Forms tab of the Kit.

Benefits of an IAQ Management

A well-run IAQ management program
yields substantial benefits for the
school, employees, and students. In
addition to the benefits of health and
well-being outlined in Section 2, Why
IAQ Is Important to Your School, the
expensive process of investigating and
mitigating suspected IAQ problems can
be reduced significantly or avoided
entirely by employing the plan.
Recommended Approach for Implementing the Plan

   Schools IAQ Coordinator      WHO      School Staff and Contract
                                            Service Providers
Administrative Actions and     WHAT     Hands-on Actions Prevention
     Team Leading             |          and Problem-Solving
   Use the IAQ Management      HOW       Use the Action Packets
       Plan Checklists

                             A typical school provides many
                             opportunities for IAQ problems to
                             develop. Schools contain a variety of
                             special use areas such as kitchens,
                             locker rooms, science laboratories,
                             technology education rooms, dark-
                             rooms, art rooms, and cleaning storage
                             areas, each with pollutant sources that
                             can cause discomfort and health
                             problems. Under detailed inspection,
Prevention Saves
If minor problems are allowed to develop unchecked into a serious IAQ problem,
a variety of deficiencies may be identified, but ft often cannot be determined
which one—if any—caused the problem. Asa result, schools can be confronted
with an expensive Fist of potential explanations of their problem. The crisis
atmosphere surrounding a serious IAQ problem creates pressure to remedy
every deficiency immediately instead of establishing a prioritized approach to IAQ
improvement By contrast many of the preventive measures recommended in
this guidance can be accomplished with in-house effort following a schedule that
reflects your resources.
                             most schools will reveal some inad-
                             equacies of design, construction,
                             operation, and maintenance.
                             Significant IAQ problems often arise
                             from combinations of "normal"
                             defects, rather than from exotic or
                             unique circumstances:
                             •  A school is not getting enough
                               outdoor air because a fan belt is
                               broken or slipping and a seldom
                               used drain trap dries out, resulting
                               in sewer gases being drawn into the
•  The design of the school ceiling/roof
   allows significant air leakage
   through unintentional openings and
   stack effect (warm air rising) pushes
   indoor air out through these open-
   ings, which causes radon to be
   drawn into the school through cracks
   and utility penetrations in the floor

•  A housekeeping product is mixed at
   double the recommended strength
   so it "does a better job" and the
   unused mix is placed in an inappro-
   priate container and stored in a
   utility closet that is connected to the
   return air ductwork, which results in
   pollutants being distributed to other
   parts of the school
IAQ problems may occur even in
schools where a conscientious  effort is
being made to avoid such problems.
However, schools that can demonstrate
ongoing efforts to provide a safe indoor
environment are in a strong legal and
ethical position if problems do arise.
Further considerations for instituting
an IAQ Management Plan include:

•  quicker and more cost-effective
   response if problems occur
•  greater peace of mind for parents,
   students, and staff
•  better comfort, efficiency and
   durability of the physical plant and

•  less crisis intervention which
   involves upper-level management

 Steps to Activate the
 IAQ  Management  Plan
Mm o help ensure that the IAQ Man-
agement Plan gets off to a good start,
the IAQ Coordinator can perform the
following 10 steps as presented, or the
steps can be tailored to the specific
needs of your school. The Checklist,
Activating the IAQ Management Plan,
simplifies tracking completion of these

1.  Select an  IAQ Coordinator.
    This position is critical to the
    success of the IAQ Management
    Plan. If an IAQ Coordinator has
    not already been selected, please
    refer to Section 3, Role and
    Functions of the IAQ Coordinator,
    and ensure that the new Coordina-
    tor receives a complete copy of
    this Kit.
2.  Become Familiar with This
    Guidance. The IAQ Coordinator
    should read this Guide to become
    familiar with the IAQ issues in
    schools and to have a basic
    understanding of the IAQ
    Management Plan process and
    effective communication.
3.  Gain Top Administrative
    Support. The highest levels of
    school or district administration
    should be fully committed to
    implementing the IAQ Manage-
    ment Plan.  The top levels of
    administration have the authority
    to ensure that the school staff has
    the proper incentive and resources
    to carry out the Plan. It may be
    useful to provide a briefing to the
    highest levels of school or district
    administration using information
    from the Note to School Officials
    (page i), the IAQ Backgrounder,
    and from additional details found
    in Why IAQ Is Important to "Your
    School (Section 2), What Is an
    IAQ Management Plan (Section
    6), and Effective Communication
    (Section 9). Most activities in this
    Plan have specifically been
    designed to have little or no impact
    on the school budget and time
    resources of school staff. Three of
    the ventilation system activities
    will require a few tools which
    your school most likely will need
    to purchase, rent, or share. See
    Appendix C, Basic Measurement
    Equipment, for information.

4.  Obtain Information on Radon.
    Radon is a colorless, odorless, and
    tasteless radioactive gas that
    occurs naturally in almost all soil
    and rock. Radon can enter schools
    through cracks or other openings
    in their foundations. Radon's
    decay products can cause lung
    cancer, and radon is estimated to
    be second only to smoking as a
    cause of lung cancer in America.
    EPA recommends that all schools
    test for the presence of radon, and
    provides free guidance on how to
    perform testing. For information
    on how to test for radon, and how
    to reduce radon within your
    school, see Appendix G, Radon
    and Appendix I, Resources.
5.  Obtain Information on Inte-
    grated Pest Management.
    Several of the activities in the
    Checklists affect the availability of
    food and water for pests, which
    may reduce the number of pests
    within your school. In addition,
    EPA recommends that schools use
    Integrated Pest Management
    (EPM). IPM is an effective and
    environmentally sensitive approach
    to pest management that utilizes a
    combination of common-sense
    practices. IPM can reduce the use
    of chemicals and provide eco-
To get information from
   EPA on radon, see
  Appendix G, call your
 State Radon Office, or
 visit the EPA web site:

    nomical and effective pest sup-
    pression. A copy of Pest Control
    in the School Environment:
    Adopting Integrated Pest Manage-
    ment (EPA 735-F-93-012) is
    included in this Kit. Contact the
    National Pesticide Telecommuni-
    cation Network Hotline (1-800-
    858-7378) or visit www.ifas.ufl/
    edu/~schoolipm/ for more infor-

6.  Obtain information on Lead.
    Children and pregnant women
    especially  should not be exposed
    to lead dust particles during
    renovation or repair of surfaces
    that are painted with lead-based
    paint. Lead poisoning can affect
    children's developing nervous
    systems, causing reduced IQ and
    learning disabilities. Guidelines for
    proper removal are available from
    OSHA (see Appendix I).
7.  Establish  an IAQ Checklist
    Interval. To help maintain a high
    level of indoor air quality, it is
    recommended that the IAQ
    Coordinator's Checklist  be
    completed  at least once,  and
    preferably twice, each year.
    Completing the Checklist more
    than once each year is desirable,
    because the additional checkups
    will catch any new and potential
    IAQ problems.  Since many
    complaints occur at the start of the
    new school year, completing the
    IAQ Coordinator's Checklist
    shortly before school begins would
    reduce these complaints. Midway
    through the school year,  for
    example during winter break,
    could be an appropriate time for
    the second checkup.
8.  Establish a Plan for Emer-
    gency  Response. Acute IAQ
    problems such as a chemical spill,
    unintentional shutdown  of ventila-
    tion systems, and other events such
    as a flooded carpet will require
    some form of immediate response.
    Preparing for such events now will
    help ensure that timely and cost-
    effective actions result.  Prepara-
    tions may include developing a
    cooperative agreement or contract
    with a health and safety agency  or
    private contractor to assist with
    acute IAQ problems that are
    beyond the capabilities of your
    team (see Appendix A, Hiring
    Professional Assistance). Proper
    preparation can also mean having
    the appropriate equipment on
    hand, for example the equipment
    needed to immediately clean and
    dry wet carpets, or having a pre-
    established agreement with a
    professional cleaning firm that can
    provide immediate service on a
    24- hour, 7-days-a-week basis.
9.  Inform Appropriate Committees
    and Groups. Some of the actions
    that result from implementing this
    guidance may need to be coordi-
    nated with specific school com-
    mittees such as a school or school
    district health and safety commit-
    tee, or groups such as the local
    PTA. It may be useful to provide a
    briefing to these committees and
    groups that is similar to the
    briefing in Step 3 above.
10. Establish IAQ Policies as
    Needed.  Some activities that
    affect the quality of air within
    schools may require clearly written
    policies from top management to
    ensure that all school occupants
    understand how they should or
    should not perform certain
    activities. Inappropriate activities
    include smoking in improperly
    ventilated areas, pest control by
    individual occupants, adjustment
    of ventilation systems by un-
    trained individuals, and mainte-
    nance activities such as painting
    during school hours or by using
    paints that have lead or high
    emissions of indoor air pollutants.
    Sample IAQ policies are provided
    in Appendix D.

The  IAQ  Management Plan
   I he IAQ Management Plan involves
implementing the following 19 steps on
a periodic basis, at least once each year.
The IAQ Coordinator and Team can
perform the steps as presented, or the
steps can be tailored to the specific
needs of your school. The steps are
grouped into three categories: Assess
Current Status, Perform Repairs and
Upgrades, and Final Steps. Steps 5-7
can begin at the same time as Step 2. A
Checklist that simplifies tracking
completion of these steps is found in
the IAQ Coordinator's Forms tab of
the Kit.

Complete the Checklist, Activating the
IAQ Management Plan, before applying
the IAQ Coordinator's Checklist.

Assess Current Status

1. Start the Checklists Log.
   This log, found in the IAQ
   Coordinator's Forms section, is
   used to list all the people who will
   receive an Action Packet.  A unique
   Action Packet is provided for each
   specific group of people within  the
   school (i.e., teachers, administra-
   tive staff, facility operators,
   custodians, health officers, school
   nurses,  contract service providers,
   and others). The log is also used to
   keep track of which IAQ Check-
   lists have been returned, and what
   unresolved IAQ problems, if any,
   have been identified. Section 4,
   Launching the IAQ Team, provides
   details on who comprises the IAQ
   Team, descriptions of the Action
   Packet components, and which
   Action Packet each team member
   should receive.
2. Activate the IAQ Team by
   Distributing the Action
   Packets. Copies of the appropri-
   ate Action Packets  should be
    provided to each of the team
    members as listed on the Check-
    lists Log (Step 1). Each Action
    Packet contains a cover memo, an
    IAQ Backgrounder, and a Check-
    list. The Action Packets for parents
    and local media contain only the
    memo and IAQ Backgrounder.
    Sample memos are located in the
    IAQ Coordinator's Forms section.
    You may wish to introduce the
    Action Packets and the IAQ
    Management Plan during a
    meeting of the school faculty and

3.  Receive and Summarize the
    IAQ Checklists. By the closing
    date noted in the cover memo, all
    Checklists should be returned to
    you. You should follow up until all
    Checklists have been completed
    and returned, then review the
    information on the Checklists and
    transfer pertinent data to the
    Checklists Log. Make a list of
    irregularities for review during the
    walkthrough inspection.
4.  Perform a Walkthrough
    Inspection. Based on the new
    perspective you have gained from
    the information in this Kit, and
    from the summary of the Check-
    lists, perform a walkthrough
    inspection of the school. This is
    not intended to be an intensive and
    detailed inspection, but rather a
    quick overview of the conditions
    that affect the quality of air within
    your school. You may wish to have
    someone who is familiar with the
    operation of the building, such as
    a facility operator or custodian,
    assist you during the inspection.
    During your walkthrough inspec-
    tion, you can learn a lot by using
    Use the new
Walkthrough Checklist
 provided with this Kit
 for your walkthrough.

 You can iearn a lot by
  using your sense of
sight, smell, feeling and
    hearing to gain
 information on factors
  which affect indoor
      air quality.
  your sense of sight, smell, feeling,
  and hearing to gain information on
  factors which affect indoor air
• Observe the general level of cleanli-
  ness in classrooms and mechanical
  rooms. Look for pollutant sources
  such as mold, improperly stored
  chemicals, or excessively dirty air
  filters and ducts, and look for blocked
  airflows, such as those caused by
  books  or papers on top of unit
  ventilators or plywood covering
  outdoor air intakes.
• Smell for unique or objectionable
  odors as you move from room to
• Feel for uncomfortable air tempera-
  tures, drafts, and high or low
  humidity, and feel  for air flowing
  into and out of grilles and air vents.
• Listen to the concerns of school
  occupants regarding IAQ. Do they
  provide clues to problems such as
  using their own pest spray to control
  pests, or turning off the unit ventila-
  tor because it is too noisy during
  class-time? Do you hear unusual
  equipment noises which may
  indicate potential problems, and do
  you hear air blowing out of supply
Also, perform a walkthrough inspec-
tion in all special-use areas, such as
the cafeteria, art rooms, industrial arts
areas, and science laboratories. For
information on smoking lounges, see
Appendix F.
5.  Assess Radon Status. Con-
    sider the following questions
    regarding your current radon status
    (for specific considerations see the
    EPA guidance document on radon):
• Has testing for radon been com-
• If needed, has a radon mitigation
  system(s) been installed?

• Are all radon mitigation systems
  operating properly?
6.  Assess Pest Control Program.
    Consider the following questions
    regarding your current pest control
    program (for specific consider-
    ations see the EPA guidance
    document on Integrated Pest
• Are IPM principles being applied in
  all areas?
• Are staff using pest control chemi-
  cals in accordance with instructions?

• Are only spot-treatments of pesti-
  cides used to control obviously
  infested  areas, instead of wide-
  spread, indiscriminate application of
7.  Assess Lead Status. Consider
    the following questions regarding
    your current lead status (for
    specific considerations see the
    EPA guidance document on lead):
ป Has lead contamination been
  assessed in your school?
• Is a lead  control or removal program
  in place?

ซ Will any upcoming renovation work
  affect surfaces painted with lead-
  based paint?
8.  Identify Recent Changes that
    Affect IAQ.  Consider whether
    any recent changes to the school
    building, around the building, to
    the school schedule or activities, or
    to occupants, has had an impact on
    IAQ. Examples include:
• Has flooding occurred? Look and
  smell for mold growth and an
  increase  in IAQ complaints in
  flooded areas.
• Have night or-weekend classes
  started?  Check time clo'ck(s)
  setting on the ventilation system(s)
  for these class areas.
• Have new staff been added? Give
  them an Action Packet.

Perform Repairs and Upgrades

9.  Set Repair and Upgrade
    Priorities. In all likelihood, the
    Checklists (Step 3) and your
    walkthrough inspection (Step 4)
    identified some IAQ problems
    which have not been corrected.
    Based on your knowledge of the
    problem, and your resources of
    school staff and funding, set repair
    and upgrade priorities based on
    your specific needs, and make a
    to-do list. Include any unresolved
    problems from previous IAQ
    Coordinator's Checklists.

    Section 12 provides some ideas on
    what may be involved in solving
    the problems ( "Developing Solut-
    ions" and "Solutions for Other
    Complaints "). In addition, Section
    12 also provides basic criteria for
    determining the practicality of the
    proposed solutions ("Evaluating
10. Gain Consensus and Approv-
    als. Because of the potential
    complexities involved in setting
    priorities for repairs and upgrades
    (Step 9 above), and for commit-
    ting school resources, an agree-
    ment from top school management
    and appropriate committees will
    probably be necessary.
11. Distribute Status Report.
    Keep school occupants and
    constituents informed about the
    general status of IAQ in your
    school according to the principles
    of effective communication in
    Section 9.

12. Perform Repairs and Up-
    grades.  Ensure that the priorities
    set in Step 9 are met as the repairs
    and upgrades are being performed
    (see Section 12, "Evaluating
13. Conduct Follow-up Inspec-
    tions. Determine if the repairs
    and upgrades were performed
    according to plan or specifica-
    tions, and determine if the in-
    tended results were obtained
    (see Section 12, Solving IAQ

Final Steps

14. Develop a Schedule of IAQ
    Events.  It would be very helpful
    for you, as the IAQ Coordinator, to
    develop and maintain a schedule of
    events which may affect IAQ. This
    could be a separate schedule, but
    would probably work best if the
    IAQ events were noted directly on
    your personal schedule. Following
    are some examples of IAQ events
    to note:

• Establish a date for the next round
  of implementing the IAQ
  Coordinator's Checklist (see
  Section 7, Step 7, for details).

• If your school is in a humid climate
  and will be closed-up over the
  summer, set weekly dates to check
  for mold growth (sight and smell).
  Take measures, such as cycling the
  cooling system, to keep relative
  humidity below 60% as needed.

• Will there be  any renovation or new
  construction during school time,
  school breaks, or the summer? If
  so, mark your schedule with enough
  lead time so that you can provide
  Action Packets or other information
  to the people performing the work.

• Will new school staff be added?  If
  so, mark your schedule to give them
  appropriate Action Packets so that
  they can become part of the IAQ

15. Assess  Problem-Solving
    Performance. Assess recent
    problem-solving performance and
    determine if changes need to be
    made in your ability to:

• respond to IAQ complaints and
  incidents quickly
 Develop and maintain a
schedule of events which
 may affect IAQ, such as
   building renovation,
  major repairs, summer
shutdown, and new staff.

   it is important that
  everyone affected—
   students, parents,
   teachers, staff, and
 a report of IAQ issues.
 •  solve IAQ problems, preferably

 •  communicate in a way that prevents
   or reduces the concerns of school
   occupants and constituents during
   an IAQ problem or crisis

 For information on resolving IAQ
 complaints and incidents, and how to
 communicate during IAQ problems,
 use the guidance in Sections 10
 through 13.

 16. Establish and Update IAQ
    Policies. Based on what you
    have learned during this round of
    implementing the IAQ Manage-
    ment Plan, does an IAQ policy
    need to be established to prevent
    IAQ problems from recurring?
    Address any existing IAQ policies
    which are not being properly
    followed. For information on
    establishing IAQ policies, see
    Appendix D.

 17. Distribute Summary Report, it
    is important that school occupants
    and constituents, as well as the
    school administration, receive a
    report of IAQ issues from this
    round of the IAQ Management
    Plan.  The Plan is not complete
    until others know at least the
    basics of what you know about the
    status of IAQ in your school. For
    additional guidance on what to
    include in the report, see Sections
    9 and  13.

When reporting to school or district
administration., it may be desirable to
provide indicators of how successful
the IAQ Management Plan has been to
date. Indicators may include:

•  all IAQ Checklists completed and

•  all IAQ problems identified by the
   Checklists corrected

•  fewer IAQ complaints

•  establishment of good relations with
   the local media
•  school memo and IAQ
   Backgrounder mailed to all parents

18. Check Contacts List. Ensure
    that the contact information is still
    valid, so that assistance can be
    quickly obtained if needed.
19. File Checklists, Reports, and
    Notes. For future reference when
    setting repair-priorities or solving
    persistent problems, and for
    accountability purposes, it is
    recommended that all completed
    paperwork be filed in a readily
    accessible manner. Files should

•  Activating the IAQ Management
   Plan Checklist

•  IAQ Coordinator's Checklist

•  Checklists from Team members
   who received an Action Packet

•  Checklists Log

•  IAQ Problem-Solving Checklist

•   Copies of memos, status reports,
   and final reports

•   Copies of communications with
   school or district administration

•   Any personal notes, contracts, or
   other paperwork as appropriate

Effective  Communication
   | ood communication can help
prevent indoor air quality problems,
and can allay unnecessary fears.
Communication can assist school
occupants in understanding how their
activities affect IAQ, which will
enable the occupants to improve their
indoor environment through proper
choices and actions.

Good communication also involves
building rapport with the local media
now, before a potentially serious IAQ
problem occurs. An informed media
that understands your efforts to
prevent IAQ problems, and that
understands the basics of IAQ in
schools, can be an asset instead of a
liability during an IAQ crisis.
The following five objectives are
important in assuring good communi-
cation between you and the school
1. provide accurate information
    about factors that are affecting
2. clarify the responsibilities and
    activities of the IAQ Coordinator
3. clarify the responsibilities and
    activities of each occupant
4. notify occupants and parents of
    planned activities that may affect
5. employ good listening skills
The Action Packets, forms, and
information contained in this Kit will
assist you in accomplishing the first
three objectives. In addition, refer to
the list of communication principles
on the next page.
The level of communication is often
dependent on the severity of the
indoor air quality complaint. If the
complaint can be resolved quickly and
involves a small number of people
(e.g., an annoying but harmless odor
from an easily identified source),
communication can be handled
matter-of-factly like other minor
problems without risking confusion
and bad feeling among school occu-
pants. Communication becomes a
more critical issue when there are
delays in identifying and resolving
the problem and when serious health
concerns are involved.

The fourth objective deals with
informing occupants and parents
before the start of significant planned
activities that produce odors or
contaminants. If occupants and
parents  are uninformed, they may
become concerned about unknown air
contaminants, such as strange odors
or excessive levels of dust, and
register an IAQ complaint. Examples
of planned activities include pest
control, painting, roofing,  and new
flooring. Notification of planned
activities can  also prevent problems
from arising with students and staff
with special needs. For example, an
asthmatic student may wish to avoid
certain areas within a school, or use
alternative classrooms, during times
when a major renovation project will
produce higher levels of dust. A
sample notification letter is provided
in the model painting policy in
Appendix D.
Finally,  effective communication also
involves effective listening. Listening
may provide information that helps
prevent  problems, and it may help
defuse negative reactions by occu-
pants if indoor air problems should
 If a tense atmosphere exists
due to concerns about current
IAQ problems, please refer also
 to Section 13, "Communica-
 tion When Problem-Solving."

Once trust and credibility
 are lost they are almost
  impossible to regain.
 Communication Principles

 •  Be honest, frank, and open. Once
   trust and credibility are lost, they
   are almost impossible to regain. If
   you don't know an answer or are
   uncertain, say so. Admit mistakes.
   Get back to people with answers.
   Discuss data uncertainties,
   strengths, and weaknesses.

 •  Respect your audience.  If people
   are sufficiently motivated, they are
   quite capable of understanding
   complex information. However,
   they may not agree with you.
   Furthermore, no matter how well
   you communicate, some people will
   not be satisfied.
 •  Avoid technical language and
   jargon.  Minimize and fully explain
   any necessary technical language.
   Use concrete images that communi-
   cate on a personal level. People in
   the community are often more
   concerned about such issues as
   credibility, competence, fairness,
   and compassion than about statistics
   and details.

•  Employ your best listening skills.
   Take time to find out what people
   are thinking, rather than assuming
   that you already know.
•  Different audiences require
   different communication strate-
   gies. Use mass media for providing
   information, and interpersonal
   techniques for changing attitudes.
•  Involve school employees. An
   informed staff is likely to be a
   supportive staff.
•  Involve parents. Inform parents
   about what is being done and why,
   as well as what will happen if
   problems are detected.
 Involve the school board. Encourage
 board members to observe the process
 (e.g., taking a walkthrough of the
 school with the IAQ Coordinator).
 Emphasize action. Always try to
 include a discussion of actions that
 are underway or that can be taken.
 Encourage feedback.  Accentuate
 the positive, and learn from your

 The goal is an informed public.
 Strive to produce a public that is
 involved, interested, reasonable,
 thoughtful, solution-oriented, and

 Be prepared for questions.  Provide
 background material on complex
 issues. Avoid public conflicts or
 disagreements between credible
 Be responsive.  Acknowledge the
 emotions that people express and
 respond in words and actions. When
 in doubt, lean toward sharing more
 information, not less, or people may
 think you are hiding something.

 Combat rumors -with facts.  For
 example, set up a chalkboard in the
 teachers' lounge for recording what is
 heard. Record rumors as they arise,
 and add responses. Then pass out
 copies to the staff.
 Tell people -what you can  and cannot
 do. Promise only what you can do
 and do what you promise.

 Work -with the media.  Be accessible
to reporters and respect deadlines.
Try to establish long-term relation-
ships of trust with specific editors
and reporters. Remember that the
media are frequently more interested
in politics than in science, more
interested in simplicity than complex-
ity, more interested in danger than

Resolving  IAQ  Problems
    esolving indoor air quality (IAQ)
problems involves diagnosing the
cause, applying practical actions that
either reduce emissions from pollutant
sources or remove pollutants from the
air (e.g., increasing ventilation or air
cleaning), or both.  Causes for prob-
lems with sources can stem from
improper material selection or applica-
tion, from allowing conditions that can
increase biological contamination and
dust accumulation, or from source
location. Causes for problems with
ventilation stem from improper design,
installation, operation, or maintenance
of the ventilation system.
This Kit provides guidance for most
IAQ problems found in schools, and
does not require that pollutant measure-
ments be performed and analyzed. It is
important to take reported IAQ prob-
lems seriously and respond quickly

• IAQ problems can be a serious
  health threat and can cause acute
  discomfort (irritation) or asthma
• Addressing an IAQ problem
  promptly is good policy. Parents are
  sensitive to unnecessary delays in
  resolving problems that affect their
  children. Staff have enough burdens
  without experiencing frustration
  over unresolved problems, and
  unaddressed problems invariably
  lead to greater complaints
• Diagnosing a problem is easier
  immediately after the complaint(s)
  has been received. The source of the
  problem may be intermittent and the
  symptoms may come and go. Also,
  the complainant's memory of events
  is best immediately after the
  problem occurs.
In some cases, people may believe that
they are being adversely affected by
the indoor air, but the basis for their
perception may be some other form of
stressor not directly related to indoor
air quality. Section 12 discusses some
of these stressors such as glare, noise,
and psychosocial factors.

Is This an Emergency?

The first decision that must be made in
dealing with an IAQ problem is
whether the problem requires an
emergency response. Most IAQ
problems can be diagnosed and
resolved on a short-term, and in some
cases even a long-term, basis. But some
IAQ incidents require immediate
response — high carbon monoxide
levels or certain toxic chemical spills
will require evacuation of all affected
areas in the school, and biological
contaminants such as Legionella may
require a similar response. In recent
years, large outbreaks of influenza
have caused entire schools and districts
          IAQ Problem Identified
   Does Problem Threaten Life or Safety?
         Evacuate Affected Areas
      Notification and Communication
              (Section 13)

For most problems,
a team of in-house
staff can be pulled
together to solve a
to temporarily cease operation. Some
schools and districts may already have
established policies on what constitutes
a life and safety emergency. Local and
State health departments can also be
helpful in defining life and safety
threatening emergencies.
If this is an emergency situation, in
addition to immediate action to protect
life and health, it is vital that the school
administration, parents of students, and
appropriate authorities be notified of
the situation in a carefully coordinated
manner. You must also be prepared to
quickly and properly deal with ques-
tions from local media. Review the
guidance in Section  13, Communica-
tion  When Problem-Solving, to assist in
managing the issues of notification and

Who Will Solve the Problem?

For most problems,  a team of in-house
staff, with an appropriate range of
skills, can be pulled together to solve a
problem. The use of in-house staff
builds IAQ knowledge and skills that
will be helpful in minimizing and
resolving future problems. The Action
Packets can teach these skills for
typical IAQ problems found in
schools. On the other hand,  unique or
complex IAQ problems may best be
handled by professionals who have
specialized knowledge, experience,
and equipment. Your knowledge of
your staffs capabilities will help in
deciding whether in-house personnel
or outside professionals should be
used in responding to the specific IAQ
Regardless of whether it is in-house
staff or outside assistance that diag-
noses and solves the problem, the IAQ
Coordinator remains responsible for
managing the problem-solving process,
and for communicating as needed with
all appropriate parties during the
process. If an IAQ Coordinator has not
been appointed already, please refer to
Section 3, Role and Functions of the
IAQ Coordinator.

Diagnosing  IAQ  Problems
    he goal of diagnosing an IAQ
problem is to discover the cause of the
problem so that an appropriate solution
can be implemented. Often, more than
one problem will be present, requiring
more than one solution. This section
presents the Problem-Solving Checklist
and the IAQ Problem-Solving Wheel
for diagnosing and solving problems.
For best results, it is also important to
have good background knowledge of
the basics of IAQ as outlined in
Sections 2 and 5.

The IAQ diagnostic process begins
when a complaint is registered or an
IAQ problem is identified. Many
problems can be simple to diagnose,
requiring a basic knowledge of IAQ
and some common sense. If the cause
(or causes) of the IAQ problem has
already been identified, proceed to the
solution phase outlined in Section 12.
Not all occupant complaints about
indoor air quality are caused by poor
indoor air. Other factors  such as noise,
lighting, and job-, family-, or peer-
related psychosocial stressors can —  -
individually  and in combination —
contribute to a perception that the
indoor air quality is poor.

How to Diagnose Problems

The Problem-Solving Checklist and the
IAQ Problem-Solving Wheel are your
primary tools for solving problems, and
will help simplify the process. They
serve to lead the investigation in the
right direction and offer suggestions
for other areas to evaluate.
Start with the Problem-Solving Check-
list, and enlist the assistance of school
staff to answer questions or perform
activities posed by the Checklist and
the Wheel. Consider that pollutant
sources and the ventilation system
may act in combination to create an
IAQ problem.

If the investigation identifies a potential
problem (e.g., you find a blocked vent),
remedy the situation to see if the symp-
toms stop. You may find problems
unrelated to the symptoms or a number
of potential causes. Resolve as many
problems as is feasible and make note
of any problems that you intend to fix

Once the likely cause of the IAQ
problem is identified, or if the solution
is readily apparent, refer to Section 12,
Solving IAQ Problems, for information
on courses of action.

Spatial and liming Patterns

As a first step, use the spatial pattern
(locations) of complaints to try to
define the complaint area. School
locations where symptoms or discom-
fort occur define the rooms or zones
that should be given particular atten-
tion during the investigation. However,
the complaint area may need to be
revised as the investigation progresses.
Pollutant pathways can cause com-
plaints in parts of the school that are
far removed from the source of the
problems. See the Spatial Patterns
table on the next page.
After a location or group of locations
have been defined, look for patterns in
the timing of complaints. The timing of
symptoms and complaints can indicate
potential causes for the complaints and
provide directions for further investiga-
tion. Review the data for cyclic
patterns of symptoms (e.g., worst
during periods of minimum ventilation
or when specific sources are most
active) that may be related to HVAC
system operation or to other activities
in and around the school. See the
Timing Patterns table on the next page.

Spatial  Patterns of Complaints     Suggestions
Widespread, no apparent spatial pattern
Check ventilation and temperature control for entire building
Check outdoor air quality
Review sources that are spread throughout the building (e.g., cleaning materials or
microbiological growth inside the ventilation system)
Check for distribution of a source to multiple locations through the ventilation system
Consider explanations other than air contaminants
Localized {e.g., affecting individual rooms,
zones, or air handling systems)
Check ventilation and temperature control within the complaint area
Check outdoor air quality
Review pollutant sources affecting the complaint area
Check local HVAC system components that may be acting as sources or distributors
of pollutants
Check for drafts, radiant heat (gain or loss), and other localized temperature control or
ventilation problems near the affected individual(s)
Consider that common background sources may affect only susceptible individuals
Consider the possibility that individual complaints may have different causes that are
not necessarily related to the building (particularly if the symptoms differ among
the individuals)
Timing Patterns of Complaints      Suggestions
Symptoms begin and/or are worst at the start
of the occupied period
Review HVAC operating cycles. Pollutants from building materials, or from the HVAC
system itself, may build up during unoccupied periods
Symptoms worsen over course of
occupied period
Consider that ventilation may not be adequate to handle routine activities or equipment
operation within the building, or that temperature is not properly controlled
Intermittent symptoms
Look for daily, weekly, or seasonal cycles or weather-related patterns, and check linkage
to other events in and around the school
Single event of symptoms
Consider spills, other unrepeated events as sources
Symptoms relieved on leaving the school,
either immediately, overnight, or (in some
cases) after extended periods away from
the building
Consider that the problem may be building-associated, though not necessarily due to air
quality. Other stressors (e.g., lighting, noise) may be involved
Symptoms never relieved, even after
extended absence from school
(e.g., vacations)
Consider that the problem may not be building-related

 Solving  SAG  Problems
    he purpose of this section is to
provide an understanding of basic
principles in solving IAQ problems.
This guidance can be helpful in
selecting a mitigation strategy, and in
evaluating the practicality and effec-
tiveness of proposals from in-house
staffer outside professionals.

Developing Solutions

Selection of a solution is based on the
data gathered during diagnostics
(Section 11). The diagnostics may have
determined that the problem was either
a real or a perceived IAQ problem, or
combination of multiple problems. For
each problem that the diagnostics
identify, develop a solution using the
basic control strategies described

There are six basic control methods for
lowering concentrations of indoor air
pollutants. Often only a slight shift in
emphasis or action using these control
methods is needed to more effectively
control indoor air quality. Specific
applications of these basic control
strategies can be found in each team
member's Checklist.

Source Management includes source
removal, source substitution, and
source encapsulation. Source manage-
ment is the most effective control
method when it can be practically

•  Source removal is very effective.
  However, policies and actions that
  keep potential pollutants from
  entering the school are even better
  at preventing IAQ problems. Other
  examples of source removal
  include, not allowing buses to idle
  near outdoor air intakes, not placing
  garbage in rooms where HVAC
  equipment is located, and banning
  smoking within the school.
 •  Source substitution includes actions
   such as selecting a less toxic art
   material or interior paint than the
   products which are currently in use.
 •  Source encapsulation involves
   placing a barrier around the source
   so that it releases fewer pollutants
   into the indoor air.
 Local Exhaust is very effective in
 removing point sources of pollutants
 before they can disperse into the indoor
 air by exhausting the contaminated air
 outside. Well known examples where
 local exhaust is used include restrooms
 and kitchens. Other examples include
 science labs and housekeeping storage
 rooms, printing and duplicating rooms,
 and vocational/industrial areas such as
 welding booths.
 Ventilation through use of cleaner
 (outdoor) air to dilute the polluted
 (indoor) air that people are breathing is
 often a solution.  The ventilation
 system, when properly designed,
 operated, and maintained, will auto-
 matically take care of "normal"
 amounts of air pollutants. For emer-
 gency situations, such as quick removal
 of toxic fumes, increased ventilation
 can be useful, but when considering
 long-term operating costs, employing
 "dilution as the solution" is best applied
 after attempts have been made to
 reduce the source of the pollutant.
 Exposure Control includes adjusting
the time, amount, and location of use
to reduce exposure.
 • Time of use. Try not to use a
  pollutant source when the school is
  occupied.  For example, strip and
  wax floors on Friday after school is
  dismissed, so that the floor products
  have a chance to off-gas over the
  weekend, reducing the  level of

 If people are provided
information...they can
  act to reduce their
  personal exposure.
   pollutants in the air when the school
   is reoccupied on Monday.
•  Amount of use. If less of an air
   polluting source can be used, then
   less of it will end up in the air.
•  Location of use. Move the polluting
   source as far as possible from
   occupants, or relocate susceptible
Air Cleaning primarily involves the
filtration of particulates from the air
as it passes through the HVAC equip-
ment. Gaseous pollutants can also be
removed, but these removal systems
must be engineered on a case-by-case
Education of school occupants
regarding IAQ is critical. If people are
provided information about the sources
and effects of pollutants in their control,
and about the proper operation of the
ventilation system, they can act to
reduce their personal exposure.
Some solutions, such as major ventila-
tion modification, may  not be practi-
cally implemented due to lack of
resources, or due to the need for long
periods of non-occupancy so that the
work can be safely completed. Em-
ploy temporary measures to ensure
good IAQ in the meantime.

Solutions for Other Complaints

Specific lighting deficiencies or
localized sources of noise or vibration
can sometimes be readily identified,
and remedial action may be fairly
straightforward, such as having more
or fewer lights, making adjustments
for glare, and relocating, replacing, or
acoustically insulating a noise or
vibration source. Similarly, some
causes of ergonomic or psychosocial
stress may be apparent even to an
untrained observer.
In other cases, where problems may be
more subtle or solutions more complex
(such as psychogenic illnesses), enlist
the services of a qualified professional.
Remedial actions for lighting, noise,
and vibration problems might range
from modifications of equipment or
furnishings to renovation of the
building. Ergonomic deficiencies may
require furniture or equipment changes
or different work practices. The
solution to psychosocial problems for
school staff may involve new manage-
ment practices, job redesign, or resolu-
tion of underlying labor-management

Evaluating Solutions

To help ensure a successful solution,
mitigation efforts should be evaluated
at the planning stage by  considering
the following criteria:

•  permanence
•  durability
•  operating principle
•  installation & operating cost

•  control capacity
•  ability to institutionalize the

•  conformity with codes
Permanence. Mitigation efforts'that
create permanent solutions to indoor
air problems are clearly superior to
those that provide temporary solutions,
unless the problems are also tempo-
rary. Opening windows or running air
handlers on full outdoor air may be
suitable mitigation strategies for a
temporary problem such as off-gassing
of volatile compounds from new
furnishings, but are not acceptable
permanent solutions due to increased
costs for energy and maintenance. A
permanent solution to microbiological

contamination involves not only
cleaning and disinfection, but also
moisture control to prevent regrowth.

Durability. IAQ solutions that are
durable are more attractive than
approaches that require frequent
maintenance or specialized skills. New
items of equipment should be quiet,
energy-efficient, and durable.

Operating Principle. The most eco-
nomical and successful solutions to
IAQ problems are those in which the
operating principle of the correction
strategy makes sense and is suited to
the problem.  If a specific point source
of contaminants has been identified,
treatment at the source by removal,
sealing, or local exhaust is almost
always a more appropriate correction
strategy than dilution of the contami-
nant by increased general ventilation.
If the IAQ problem is caused by the
introduction of outdoor air that
contains contaminants, then increasing
the outdoor air supply will only make
the situation worse, unless the outdoor
air being supplied is cleaned.

Installation and Operating Costs. The
approach with the lowest initial cost
may not be the least expensive over
the long run. Long-term economic
considerations include: energy costs
for equipment operation, increased
staff time for maintenance, differential
cost of alternative materials and
supplies, and higher hourly rates if
odor-producing activities such as
cleaning must be scheduled for
unoccupied periods.
Control Capacity.  It is important to
select a solution whose size and scope
fits the problem. If odors from a
special use area such as a kitchen are
causing complaints in nearby class-
rooms, increasing the ventilation rate
 in the classrooms may not be success-
 ful. If mechanical equipment is needed
 to correct the IAQ problem, it must be
 powerful enough to accomplish the
 task. For example, a local exhaust
 system should be strong enough and
 close enough to the  source so that
 none of the contaminant moves into
 other portions of the building.

 Ability to Institutionalize the Solution.
 A solution will be most successful
 when it is institutionalized as part of
 normal building operations. Solutions
 that do not require exotic equipment are
 more likely to be successful in the long
 run than approaches  that involve
 unfamiliar concepts  or delicately
 maintained systems.  If maintenance or
 housekeeping procedures or supplies
 must change as part  of the solution, it
 may be necessary to  provide additional
 training, new inspection checklists, or
 modified purchasing guidelines.
 Operating and maintenance schedules
 for heating, cooling,  and ventilation
 equipment may also  need modification.
 Conformity With Codes.  Any modifica-
 tion to building components or me-
 chanical systems should be designed
 and installed in conformance with
 applicable fire, electrical, and other
 building codes.

 Evaluating the Effectiveness  of Your

 Two kinds of indicators can be used to
 evaluate the success of an effort to
 correct an indoor air problem:

 •  reduced complaints

 •  measurement of the properties of
   the indoor air

Reduction or elimination of complaints
appears to be a clear  indication of
success, but that is not necessarily the
A solution will be most
 successful when it is
  institutionalized as
    part of normal
  building operations.

  Ongoing complaints
may indicate that there
  were multiple 1AQ
  problems and that
 one or more problems
  are still unresolved.
case. Occupants who realize that their
concerns are being heard may tempo-
rarily stop reporting discomfort or
health symptoms, even if the actual
cause of their complaints has not been
corrected. On the other hand, lingering
complaints may continue after success-
ful mitigation if people have become
upset over the handling of the problem.
A smaller number of ongoing com-
plaints may indicate that there were
multiple IAQ problems and that one or
more problems are still unresolved.

Measurements of airflows, ventilation
rates, and air distribution patterns can
be used to assess the results of control
efforts. Airflow measurements taken
during the building investigation can
identify areas with poor ventilation;
later they can be used to evaluate
attempts to improve  the ventilation rate,
distribution, or direction of flow.
Studying air distribution patterns will
show whether a mitigation strategy has
successfully prevented a pollutant from
being transported by airflow. While in
some cases the measurement of
pollutant levels can be used as a means
of determining whether indoor air
quality has improved, in many cases
this may be difficult and/or prohibi-
tively expensive. Concentrations of
indoor air pollutants typically vary
greatly over time; further, the specific
contaminant measured may not be
causing the problem. Measurement of a
specific pollutant by a professional is
appropriate if the problem was limited
to that pollutant. For further informa-
tion on IAQ measurements, see
Appendix C.
Persistent Problems

Even the best-planned investigations
and mitigation actions may not produce
a resolution to the problem. You may
have made a careful investigation,
found one or more apparent causes for
the problem, and implemented a
control system. Nonetheless, your
correction strategy may not have
caused a noticeable reduction in the
concentration of the contaminant or
improvement in ventilation rates or
efficiency. Worse, the complaints may
persist even though you have been
successful at improving ventilation and
controlling all of the contaminants you
could identify. When you have pursued
source control options and have
increased ventilation rates and effi-
ciency to the limits of your expertise,
you must decide how important it is to
pursue the problem further.

If you have made several unsuccessful
efforts to control a problem, then it
may be advisable to seek outside
assistance. The problem may be fairly
complex, and it may occur only
intermittently or cross the borders that
divide traditional fields of knowledge.
It is even possible that poor indoor air
quality is not the actual cause of the
complaints. Bringing in a new perspec-
tive at this point can be very effective.
Appendix A provides guidance on
hiring professional indoor air quality

Communication  When  Problem-Solving
   I hen a major, and sometimes even
minor, IAQ problem occurs, you can be
assured that the school community will
learn about it quickly. Without open
communication, any IAQ problem can
become complicated by anxiety,
frustration, and distrust. These compli-
cations can increase both the time and
money needed to resolve the problem.

Immediate communication is vital, and
is easiest if a few strategic steps are
taken before an IAQ problem arises.
First, ensure that a spokesperson is
ready by having a "working understand-
ing of the communication guidance
found in this section and Section 9,
and a background knowledge of IAQ
as outlined in Sections 2 and 5. This
person should also have complete
access to information as the investiga-
tion progresses. Because of these
qualifications, the IAQ Coordinator
may be a good choice for spokesperson.
Second, establish a plan for how you
will communicate to the school
community. The school community
includes all occupants of the school,
parents, the school district administra-
tion and school board, and the local
news media.
Paying attention to communication
when solving a problem helps to
ensure the support and cooperation of
school occupants as the problem is
investigated and resolved. The basic,
yet important, messages to convey are:
•  school administration believes it is
  important to provide a healthy and
  safe school
•  good IAQ is an essential component
  of a healthful indoor environment
•  complaints about IAQ are taken
When a problem arises, communica-
tion should begin immediately. You
should not wait until an investigation
is nearly completed, or until final data
are available, before providing some
basic elements of information. Com-
munications, whether in conversations
or in writing, should include the
following elements in a factual and
concise manner:

• the general nature of the problem, if
  it is known, the types of complaints
  which have been received, and the
  locations which are affected

• the administration's policy in regard
  to providing a healthy and safe

• what has been done to date to
  address the problems or complaints,
  including the types of information
  that are being gathered
• what is currently being done,
  including factors that have been
  evaluated and found not to be
  causing or contributing to the

• how the school community can help
• attempts that are being made to
  improve IAQ

• work that remains to be  done and
  the expected schedule for its
• the name and telephone  number of
  the IAQ Coordinator, who can be
  contacted for further information or
  to register complaints
Productive relations will be enhanced
if the school community is given basic
progress reports during the process of
diagnosing and solving problems. It is
advisable to explain the nature of

                             investigative activities, so that rumors
                             and suspicions can be countered with
                             factual information. Notices or memo-
                             randa can be posted in general use areas
                             and delivered directly to parents, the
                             school board, and other interested
                             constituents of the school community.
                             Newsletter articles or other established
                             communication channels can also be
                             used to keep the school community up-

                             Problems can arise from saying either
                             too little or too much.  Premature
                             release of information when data-
                             gathering is still incomplete can
                             produce confusion, frustration, and
                             mistrust at a later date.  Similar
                             problems can result from incorrect
                             representation of risk — improperly
                             assuming the worst case, or the best.
                                              However, if even simple progress
                                              reports are not given, people will think
                                              that either nothing is being done, or
                                              that something terrible is happening.

                                              Even after the proper mitigation
                                              strategy is in place, it may take days or
                                              weeks for contaminants to dissipate
                                              and symptoms to disappear. If building
                                              occupants are informed that their
                                              symptoms may persist for some time
                                              after solving the problem, the inability
                                              to bring instant relief is less likely to
                                              be seen as a failure.

                                              Remember to communicate as the final
                                              step in problem-solving — although
                                              you may know that the problem has
                                              been solved, the school community
                                              may not know, so be sure to provide a
                                              summary status report.
                     Before Problem   I   During Problem
   Select &
Status Report

 Hiring  Professional  Assistance
tCj ome IAQ problems are simple to
resolve when school personnel under-
stand the building investigation process.
Many potential problems will be
prevented if staff and students do their
part to maintain good indoor air quality.
However, a time may come when
outside assistance is needed. For
example, professional help might be
necessary or desirable in the following

•  If you suspect that you have a
   serious building-related illness
   potentially linked to biological
   contamination in your building,
   mistakes or delays could have
   serious consequences (e.g., health
   hazards, liability exposure, regula-
   tory sanctions).  Contact your local
   or State Health Department.
•  Testing for a public health hazard
   (such as asbestos, lead, or radon)
   has identified a problem that
   requires a prompt response.
•  The school administration believes
   that an independent investigation
   would be better received or more
   effectively documented than an in-
   house investigation.

•  Investigation and mitigation efforts
   by school staff have not relieved an
   IAQ problem.
•  Preliminary findings by staff suggest
   the need for measurements that
   require specialized equipment and
   skills that are not available in-house.

Hiring Professional Help:

As you prepare to hire professional
services for a building investigation,
be aware that indoor air quality is a
developing area of knowledge. Most
individuals working in IAQ received
their primary training in other disci-
plines. It is important to define the
scope of work clearly and discuss any
potential consultant's proposed
approach to the investigation, includ-
ing plans for coordinating efforts
among team members. The school's
representatives must exercise vigilance
in overseeing diagnostic activities and
corrective action. Performance specifi-
cations can help to ensure the desired
results. Sample performance specifica-
tion language is italicized.

Other than  for lead and asbestos
remediation, there are no Federal
regulations covering professional
services in the general field of indoor
air quality,  although some disciplines
(e.g., engineers, industrial hygienists)
whose practitioners work with IAQ
problems have licensing and certifica-
tion requirements. Individuals and
groups that offer services in this
evolving field should be questioned
closely about their related experience
and their proposed approach to your
problem. In addition, request and
contact references.
Local, State, or Federal government
agencies (e.g., education, health, or air
pollution agencies) may be able to
provide expert assistance or direction
in solving IAQ problems. If available
government agencies do not have
personnel with the appropriate skills to
assist in solving your IAQ problem,
they may be able to direct you to firms
in your area with experience in indoor
air quality work. You may also be able
to locate potential consultants by
looking in the yellow pages (e.g.,
under "Engineers," "Environmental
Services," "Laboratories — Testing," or
"Industrial Hygienists"), or by asking
other schools for referrals. Often, a
multi-disciplinary team of profession-
als is needed to investigate and resolve
an IAQ problem.  The skills of HVAC

engineers and industrial hygienists
are typically useful for this type of
investigation.  Input from other
disciplines such as chemistry,
architecture, microbiology, or
medicine may also be important.
If problems other than indoor air
quality are involved, experts in
lighting, acoustic design, interior
design,  psychology,  or other fields
may be helpful in resolving occu-
pant complaints about the indoor

Evaluating Potential Consultants

As with any hiring process, the
better you know your own needs,
the easier it will be to select indi-
viduals or firms to service those
needs. The more clearly you can
define the project scope, the more
likely you are to achieve the desired
result without paying for unneces-
sary services. An investigation
strategy based on evaluating
building performance, can be used to
solve a problem without necessarily
identifying a particular chemical
compound as the cause. The idea of
testing the air to learn whether it is
"safe" or "unsafe" is very appealing.
However, most existing standards
for airborne pollutants were devel-
oped for industrial settings, where
the majority of occupants are usually
healthy adult men. Some state
regulations call for the involvement
of a professional engineer for any
modifications or additions to a
school HVAC system. Whether or
not this is legally mandated for your
school, the professional engineer's
knowledge of air handling, condi-
tioning and sequencing strategies
will help to design ventilation
system modifications without
creating other problems. In some
situations, proper engineering can
save energy while improving indoor
air quality. An example of this might
be the redesign of outside air
handling strategies to improve the
performance of an economizer

These guidelines may be of assis-
tance in evaluating potential

1ซ Competent professionals will
    ask questions about your
    situation to see whether they
    can offer services that will
    assist you.

    The causes and potential
    remedies for indoor air quality
    problems vary greatly. A firm
    needs at least a preliminary
    understanding of the facts about
    what is going on in your
    building to evaluate if it can
    offer the professional skills
    necessary to address your
    concerns and to make effective
    use of its personnel  from the
2. Consultants  should be able to
    describe how they expect to
    form and test explanations for
    and solutions to the problem.

    Discuss the proposed approach
    to the building investigation. It
    may involve moving suspected
    contaminant sources or manipu-
    lating HVAC controls to
    simulate conditions at the time
    of complaints or to test possible
    corrective actions. Poorly
    designed studies may lead to
    conclusions that are either "false
    negative" (i.e., falsely conclud-
    ing that there is no problem) or
    "false positive" (i.e., falsely
    concluding that a specific
    condition caused the com-

    Some consultants may produce
    an inventory of problems in the
    building without determining
    which, if any, of those problems
    caused the original complaint. If
    investigators discover LAQ
    problems unrelated to the
    concern that prompted the
    evaluation, those problems
    should be noted and reported.
    However, it is important that the
    original complaint is resolved.

3. Decisions to make IAQ mea-
    surements should be well-
    A decision to obtain IAQ-
    related measurements should
    follow logically from other
    investigative activities. Before
    starting to take measurements,
    investigators need a clear
    understanding of how the results
    will be used. Without this
    understanding, it is impossible
    to plan appropriate sampling
    locations and times, instrumen-
    tation, and analysis procedures.
    Non-routine measurements
    [such as relatively expensive
    sampling for volatile organic
    compounds (VOCs)] should not
    be conducted without site-
    specific justification.

    Concentrations low enough to
    comply with industrial occupa-
    tional standards could still be
    harmful to children, or other
    school occupants. Also,
    industrial IAQ problems tend to
    arise from high levels of
    individual chemical compounds,
    so standards set limits for
    individual contaminants or

    contaminant classes. Exposure
    standards of this type are rarely
    exceeded in schools. Instead,
    IAQ investigators often find a
    large number of potential
    sources contributing low levels
    of many contaminants to the air.
4. A qualified IAQ investigator
    should have appropriate
    experience, demonstrate a
    broad understanding of indoor
    air quality problems and the
    conditions that can lead to them
    (e.g.., the relationship between
    IAQ and the building structure,
    mechanical systems, sources,
    and human activities), and use  a
    phased diagnostic approach.
    Have the firm identify the
    personnel who would be
    responsible for your case, their
    specific experience, and related
    qualifications.  Contract only for
    the services of those individuals,
    or require approval for substitu-
    tions. When hiring an engineer,
    look for someone with the
    equipment and expertise to carry
    out a ventilation system assess-
    ment, and with a strong back-
    ground of field experience.
    Some engineers rarely get out of
    the office.
5. In the proposal and the inter-
    view, a prospective consultant
    should present a clear, detailed
    picture of the proposed services
    and work products, including
    the following information:
•  the basic goal(s), methodology,
  and sequence of the investigation,
  the information to be obtained,
  and the process of hypothesis
  development and testing, includ-
  ing criteria for decision-making
  about further data-gathering.
 •  any elements of the work that
   will require a time commitment
   from school staff, including
   information to be collected by the

 •  the schedule, cost, and work
   product(s), such as a written
   report, specifications, and plans
   for mitigation work; supervision
   of mitigation work; and training
   program for school staff.

 •  additional tasks (and costs) that
   may be part of solving the IAQ
   problem but are outside the scope
   of the contract. Examples include:
   medical examination of complain-
   ants, laboratory fees, and
   contractor's fees for mitigation

 •  communication between the IAQ
   professional and the client: How
   often will the contractor discuss
   the progress of the work with the
   school?  Who will be notified of
   test results and other data? Will
   communications be in writing, by
   telephone, or face-to-face? Will
   the consultant meet with students
   and/or school staff to collect
   information? Will the consultant
   meet with staff, parent organiza-
   tions,  or others to discuss
   findings, if requested to do so?
-•  references from clients who have
   received comparable services.

 IAQ-Related Ventilation  Modifica-

 The most important thing for the
 school's representatives to remem-
 ber is: Oversee the work and ask
 questions that will help you assure
 that the work is properly performed.
 Specialized measurements of air
flows or pre- and post-mitigation
contaminant concentrations may be
needed to know whether the correc-
tive action is functioning properly.

Performance specifications can be
used as part of the contract package
to establish critical goals for system
design and operation.  Performance
specifications can be used to force
contractors to demonstrate that they
have met those goals.  At the same
time, performance specifications
should avoid dictating specific
design features such as duct sizes
and locations, thus leaving HVAC
system designers free to apply their
professional expertise.  You may be
able to adapt appropriate sections of
the following sample performance
specifications for your school.

Performance Specifications

•  The control system shall be
   modified and the ventilation
   system repaired and adjusted as
   needed to provide outdoor air
   ventilation during occupied
   hours. The amount of outdoor
   air ventilation shall meet
   ASHRAE Standard 62-1989
   minimum recommendations, or
   shall be the maximum possible
   -with the current air handling
   equipment, but in no case shall
   the minimum outdoor air ventila-
   tion rate be less than the ventila-
   tion guideline in effect at the time
   the school was constructed.
•  When designing the ventilation
   system modifications, it is
   important to ensure that:
   1) increased outdoor air intake
   rates do not negatively impact
   occupant comfort, 2) heating

  coils do not freeze, and
  3) the cooling system can handle
  the increased enthalpy load. A
  load analysis shall be performed
  to determine if the existing
  heating (or cooling) plant has
  the capacity to meet the loads
  imposed by the restored or
  increased ventilation rates.
   If the existing plant cannot meet
  this load or, if for some other
  reason, it is decided not to use the
  existing heating system to condi-
  tion outdoor air, then a heating
  (or cooling) plant shall be designed
  for tliat purpose. The proposal
  shall include a life-cycle cost
  analysis of energy conservation
  options (e.g., economizer cooling,
  heat recovery ventilation).
• All screens in outdoor air intakes
  shall be inspected for proper
  mesh size.  Screens -with mesh
  size smaller than 1/2 inch are
  subject to clogging; if present,
  they shall be removed and
  replaced with larger-sized mesh
  (not so large as to allow birds to

Demonstrating System

• The proper operation of control
  sequence and outdoor air damper
  operation shall be verified by
  school personnel or the school's
  agent after ventilation system
  modifications and repairs have
  been completed. This shall
  include, but not be limited to:
  observation of damper position
  for differing settings of low limit
  stats and room stats, measure-
  ment of air pressure at room stats
  and outdoor air damper actua-
  tors, direct measurement of air
  flow through outdoor air intakes,
  and direct measurement of air
  flows at exhaust grilles. The
  contractor shall provide a -written
  report documenting: 1) test
  procedures used to evaluate
  ventilation system performance,
  2) test locations, 3) HVAC
  operating conditions during
  testing, and 4) findings.

Institutionalizing the Corrective

• After the ventilation system
  modifications are completed,
  school facility operators shall be
  provided with training and two
  copies of a manual that docu-
  ments the ventilation system
  control strategy, operating
  parameters, and maintenance

Codes  and  Regulations
Pollutant-Related Regulations

The Federal government has a long
history of regulating outdoor air
quality and the concentrations of
airborne contaminants in industrial
settings. In an industrial environment,
specific chemicals released by indus-
trial processes can be present in high
concentrations. It has been possible to
study the health effects of industrial
exposures and establish regulations to
limit those exposures.
Some States have established regula-
tions regarding specific pollutants in
schools, such as testing for radon and

Indoor air quality in schools, however,
presents a different problem. A large
variety of chemicals, used in class-
rooms, offices, kitchen and cleaning
applications, exist at levels that are
almost always lower than the concen-
trations  found in industry. The indi-
vidual and combined effects of these
chemicals are very difficult to study,
and the people exposed include
pregnant women, children, and others
who may be more susceptible to health
problems than the adult males typically
present in regulated industrial settings.

There is still much to learn about the
effects of both acute (short-term) and
chronic  (long-term) exposure to low
levels of multiple indoor air contami-
nants. At this time, there are few
Federal regulations for airborne
contaminants in non-industrial settings.
OSHA (the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration) is the Federal
agency responsible for workplace
safety and health. In the past, OSHA
focused primarily on industrial
worksites, but most recently has
broadened its efforts to address other
worksite hazards. In Spring 1994,
OSHA introduced a proposed rule
regarding IAQ in non-industrial
environments. School employees may
be able to obtain help (in the form of
training and information) from their
State OSHA on how to reduce their
exposure to potential air contaminants.
In States without OSHA organizations,
the regional U.S. OSHA contact may be
able to provide information or assis-
tance (see Resources, Appendix I).

Ventilation-Related Regulations

Ventilation is the other major influence
on indoor air quality that is subject to
regulation. The Federal government
does not regulate ventilation in non-
industrial settings. However, many
State and local governments do
regulate ventilation system capacity
through their building codes.
Building codes have been developed
to promote good construction practices
and prevent health and safety hazards.
Professional associations such as the
American Society of Heating, Refrig-
erating, and Air-Conditioning Engi-
neers (ASHRAE) and the National
Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
develop recommendations for appro-
priate building and equipment design
and installation (e.g., ASHRAE
Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for
Acceptable Indoor Air Quality). Those
recommendations acquire the force of
law when adopted by State or local
regulatory bodies. There is generally a
time lag between the adoption of new
standards by consensus organizations
such as ASHRAE and the incorpora-
tion of those new standards as code
requirements. Contact your local code
enforcement official, your State's
Education Department or a consulting
engineer to learn about the code
requirements that apply to your school.

In general, building code requirements
are only enforceable during construc-
tion and renovation. When code
requirements change over time (as
code organizations adapt to new
information and technologies), build-
ings are usually not required to modify
their structure or operation to conform
to the new codes. Indeed, many
buildings do not operate in conform-
ance with current codes, or with the
codes they had to meet at the time of
construction. For example, the outdoor
air flows that ASHRAE's Standard 62
recommends for classrooms were
reduced from 30 cfrn/person to 10 cfm/
person in the 1930's, and reduced
again to 5 cfrn/person in 1973 in
response to higher heating fuel costs
resulting from the oil embargo. Con-
cern over indoor air quality stimulated
reconsideration of the standard, so that
its most recent version, Standard 62-
1989, calls for a minimum of 15 cfm/
person in classrooms. However, many
schools that reduced outdoor air flow
during the "energy crisis" continue to
operate at ventilation rates of 5 cfm/
person or less. This underventilation is
contrary to current engineering recom-
mendations, but, inmost jurisdictions,
it is not against the law.

 Basic  Measurement  Equipment
Um ฐ prevent or resolve indoor air
quality (IAQ) problems effectively and
efficiently, you must be able to make
four basic measurements relating to the
air within the school. Your school or
school district may already own some
or all of the equipment necessary to
make these measurements. If not, it is
important to buy or borrow that
equipment to accurately assess the IAQ
conditions in your school and ensure
that the ventilation equipment is
working properly (which can save the
school money in heating and cooling
bills), as well as improve IAQ. Check
with your EPA Regional office about
equipment availability.

There are four measurements that are
important to the activities in this Guide:
•  Temperature
•  Relative humidity
•  Air movement
•  Airflow volume
In addition, a CO2 monitor is useful for
indicating when outdoor air ventilation
may be inadequate (see the Ventilation
School management may be nervous
about spending money on measurement
equipment. This Guide does not
recommend sampling for pollutants,
which is difficult to interpret and can
require costly measurement equipment
and significant training and experience.
The activities described in this guid-
ance are likely to prevent or uncover
problems more effectively than pollut-
ant sampling. The four measurements
just listed do not require expensive
equipment or special training and are
straightforward to interpret. The
equipment to measure these four
factors is readily available.

If your school's budget does not allow
for purchase of some or all of the
equipment, try a cooperative approach:

•  Combine resources with other
   schools in the district or neighboring

•  Contact school organizations and
   local government to inquire about
   cooperative purchasing options
•  Borrow equipment from another
   school, district, a State or local
   government, or an EPA Regional
Do not let lack of some equipment
prevent you from conducting the
majority of activities. Conduct all
recommended activities possible with
the equipment you have available.  If
you cannot secure resources for
obtaining the recommended equipment,
prioritize your equipment purchases as

Temperature, relative humidity,
and chemical smoke device for
indicating air movement
Airflow volume measuring devices
CO2 monitor


 Developing  Indoor Air  Policies
    j f there have been problems with
 staff understanding verbal communica-
 tion regarding specific activities that
 affect indoor air quality (IAQ), or if
 staff follow-through is a problem, a
 written IAQ policy statement regarding
 specific IAQ issues may help prevent
 future problems.

 An IAQ policy  statement demonstrates
 a strong commitment by the school
 administration to address the health
 and comfort of staff and students, as
 well as the environmental quality in
 the school. In addition, an IAQ policy
 sets an overall direction for efforts to
 prevent and correct IAQ problems.
 General issues which may require
 policies include, but are not limited to:
 painting; smoking; renovations and
 repairs; pest management; ventilation
 system operation; school supply and
 purchasing; food or pets in the class-
 room; and disinfectants.

 This appendix presents general
 considerations related to developing an
 IAQ policy. In addition, it presents
 three sample IAQ policies targeted  to
 specific indoor pollutant sources. The
 first sample is a policy on integrated
 pest management (D?M) developed by
 EPA. The second sample is a memo on
 painting, and includes an information
 letter to parents. The final sample is a
 nonsmoking policy, including a sample
 letter to staff. The nonsmoking policy
 was developed based on a review of
 model policies from the American
 Cancer Society,  the American Lung
 Association,  and sample policies from
various companies and organizations.
The samples presented are only
intended as guides, and may be
modified in any  way to meet the site-
specific needs and intent of individual
 General Considerations

 An IAQ policy could include the
 following components:

 •  a statement indicating that the
   school administration is concerned
   about IAQ and the health, safety,
   and comfort of staff and students

 •  a statement indicating that the
   school administration is committed
   to preventing and correcting IAQ

 •  authorization of an IAQ Coordina-
   tor for each school or district and
   delegation of authorities to the IAQ

 •  guidance on appropriate steps for
   maintaining good IAQ (see specific
   activities in the various IAQ Check-
   lists for ideas)

 •  guidance on appropriate actions for
   correcting IAQ problems
 •  reporting requirements

Developing an IAQ policy should be
 an open process. A health and safety
 committee is a good forum for devel-
 oping consensus recommendations. In
the absence of an existing committee,
consider establishing an ad hoc
committee including administrators,
teachers, support personnel, school
health officers, maintenance personnel,
physicians and community leaders.
Interested parents may also wish to
serve on this committee.

Sample School Pest Management Policy Statement
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       locators of pest POP*                  ^ ^ents*


 Excerpts from a Painting  Memo
       sactofflSk"—      desisted repreSct^dcilSCuซ^cated
        reserves ttiensttidejvts Triep                      ^nleted. T^5
        r.nseaViaza1010                     •     ft lunch !S conv      ,

Source: "Indoor Air Quality Management Program," Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Maryland

Sample Parental Notification Letter for School Painting


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                         PrฐJectjs Dieted to
Source: "Indoor Air Quality Management Program," Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Maryland

 Nonsmoking   Policies
 This section includes a sample
 announcement policy and sample
 nonsmoking memo. The announce-
 ment letter should address the six
 main issues covered by the school's
 nonsmoking policy:
 •  Explicitly state where smoking is
   prohibited and permitted (if
   permitted at all).
 •  Define individuals who are
   covered by the policy.
 •  Clarify exactly what constitutes
 •  Outline the stages and dates of
   policy implementation.
 •  State the enforcement procedures
   taken when the policy is violated.
 *  Identify the appropriate contact
   for questions and concerns.
 The sample policy is intended to
 provide a framework for developing
 a nonsmoking policy and highlights
 issues of particular importance for
 both large and small schools. The
 level of detail and specificity of any
 policy will depend on the type of
 school, the actions to be taken, and
 the level of guidance required to
 effectively communicate the policy
 to all affected individuals. A simple,
 clear-cut policy, for example, will
 require few specifics and will be
 easily enforced as well.
The nonsmoking policy should be
 placed in the personnel manual,
 employee handbook, school by-
laws, or another location that will
 facilitate the distribution of this
information to all affected individu-
als. There are five main issues that
should be addressed by the policy:
 •  Why the school is pursuing such
   a policy.

 •  What is considered smoking.

 •  Where and/or when smoking is
   and is not permitted.

 •  The procedures for voicing
   concerns and resolving conflicts.

 •  The enforcement procedures
   supporting the implementation of
   the policy.

 The policy may also include infor-
 mation on smoking cessation or
 other staff education programs being
 offered or covered by the school.

 Following is a sample nonsmoking
 policy that eliminates smoking
 indoors. If separately ventilated
 designated smoking rooms are being
 provided, this policy can be easily
 revised by omitting the step about
 eliminating smoking within the
 school building.  Add more specifics
 regarding the exact locations where
 smoking is prohibited and permitted,
 as well as additional enforcement
 procedures for potential and re-
peated infractions.

For additional information on
second-hand smoke, see
Appendix F.

Sample Nonsmoking Policy
    ""•** ^solution            —".see Appen(fe

  Ural reminder  ฐ
Source: "Indoor Air Quality Management Program," Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Maryland

Sample Nonsmoking Announcement Memo

   rooms ,f d^SSd^suchas^nthep                     This

          ..  . *,.irซ>n several s>^f                   (month].

Typical  Indoor  Air Pollutants
	I he following four pages present
information about several indoor air
pollutants common to schools, in a
format that allows for easy comparison.
The pollutants presented include:
•  Biological contaminants (mold, dust
   mites, pet dander, pollen, etc.)
•  Carbon dioxide
•  Carbon monoxide
•  Dust
•  Lead
•  Nitrogen oxides
•  Other volatile organic compounds
   (formaldehyde, solvents,
   cleaning agents)
•  Pesticides
•  Radon
•  Tobacco smoke
Each pollutant is described or analyzed
across six categories:
•  Description
•  Sources
•  Standards and guidelines
•  Comfort and health effects
•  Control measures

          Indoor Air Pollutant
 Biological Contaminants
 Common biological contaminants include mold,
 dust mites, pet dander (skin flakes), droppings
 and body parts from cockroaches, rodents and
 other pests or insects, viruses, and bacteria.
 Many of these biological contaminants are small
 enough to be inhaled.
 Biological contaminants are, or are produced by,
 living things. Biological contaminants are often
 found in areas that provide food and moisture or
 water. For example, damp or wet areas such as
 cooling coils, humidifiers, condensate pans, or
 unvented bathrooms can be moldy. Draperies,
 bedding, carpet, and other areas where dust
 collects may accumulate biological contami-
 Carbon Dioxide
 Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless
 product of carbon combustion
 Human metabolic processes and all combustion
 processes of carbon fuels are sources of CO,.
 Exhaled air is usually the largest source of CO,
 in classrooms. •
 Carbon Monoxide
 Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and
 odorless gas. It results from incomplete
 oxidation of carbon in combustion processes.
 Common sources of CO in schools are from
 improperly vented furnaces, malfunctioning gas
 ranges, or exhaust fanes that have been drawn
 back into the building. Worn or poorly adjusted
 and maintained combustion devices (e.g. boilers,
 furnaces) can be significant sources, or a flue
 that is improperly sized, blocked, disconnected,
 or leaking. Auto, truck, or bus exhaust from
 attached garages, nearby roads, or idling
 vehicles in parking areas can also be a source.
Dust is made up of particles in the air that settle
on surfaces. Large particles settle quickly and
can be eliminated or greatly reduced by the
body's natural defense mechanisms. Small
particles are more likely to be airborne and are
capable of passing through the body's defenses
and entering the lungs.
Many sources can produce dust including: soil,
fleecy surfaces, pollen, lead-based paint, and
burning wood, oil or coal.
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
(ETS) or Secondhand Smoke
Tobacco smoke consists of solid particles, liquid
droplets, vapors and gases resulting from tobacco
combustion. Over 4000 specific chemicals have
been identified in the particulate and associated
Tobacco product combustion

       Standards or Guidelines
              Health Effects
                                                           Control Measures
 There are currently no federal government
 standards for biologicals in school indoor air
 environments (as of 1999).
 Mold, dust mites, pet dander, and pest droppings
 or body parts can trigger asthma. Biological
 contaminants, including molds and pollens can
 cause allergic reactions for a significant portion
 of the population. Tuberculosis, measles,
 staphylococcus infections, Legionella and
 influenza are known to be transmitted by air.
                                                 General good housekeeping, and maintenance of
                                                 heating and air conditioning equipment, are very
                                                 important  Adequate ventilation and good air
                                                 distribution also help. The key to mold control is
                                                 moisture control. If mold is a problem, clean up
                                                 the mold and get rid of excess water or moisture.
                                                 Maintaining the relative humidity between 30%
                                                 - 60% will help control mold, dust mites, and
                                                 cockroaches. Employ integrated pest manage-
                                                 ment to control insect and animal allergens.
                                                 Cooling tower treatment procedures exist to
                                                 reduce levels of Legionella and other organisms.
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 recommends 1000
ppm as the upper limit for occupied classrooms.
 CO, is an asphyxiate. At concentrations above
 1.5% (15,000 ppm) some loss of mental acuity
, has been noted. (The recommended ASHRAE
 standard of 1000 ppm is to prevent body odor
 levels from being offensive.)
                                                Ventilation with sufficient outdoor air controls
                                                CO, levels, j
The OSHA standard for workers is 50 ppm for 1-
hour. MOSH recommends no more than 35 ppm
for 1-hour. The US. National Ambient Air
Quality Standards for CO are 9 ppm for 8-hours
and 35 ppm for 1-hour. The Consumer Product
Safety Commission recommends levels not to
exceed 15 ppm for 1-hour or 25 ppm for 8-hours.
CO is an asphyxiate. An accumulation of this gas
may result in a varied constellation of symptoms
deriving from the compound's affinity for and
combination with hemoglobin, forming
carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and disrupting
oxygen transport Tissues with the highest
oxygen needs-myocardium, brain, and
exercising muscle—are the first affected.
Symptoms may mimic influenza and include
fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea and
vomiting, cognitive impairment, and tachycardia.
At high concentrations CO exposure can be
                                                 Combustion equipment must be maintained to
                                                 assure that there are no blockages and air and
                                                 fuel mixtures must be properly adjusted to ensure
                                                 more complete combustion.  Vehicular use should
                                                 be carefully managed adjacent to buildings and
                                                 in vocational programs. Additional ventilation
                                                 can be used as a temporary measure when high
                                                 levels of CO are expected for short periods of
The EPA Ambient Air Quality standard for
particles less than 10 microns is 50 ug/m3 per
hour for an annual average and 150 ug/m3 for a
24-hour average.
 Health effects vary depending upon the
 characteristics of the dust and any associated
 toxic materials. Dust particles may contain
 lead, pesticide residues, radon, or other toxic
 materials. Other particles may be irritants or
 carcinogens (e.g. asbestos).
                                                Keep dust to a minimum with good housekeep-
                                                ing.  Consider damp dusting and high efficiency
                                                vacuum cleaners. Upgrade filters in ventilation
                                                systems to medium efficiency when possible and
                                                change frequently. Exhaust combustion
                                                appliances to the outside and clean and maintain
                                                flues and chimneys. When construction or
                                                remodeling is underway, special precautions
                                                should be used to separate work areas from
                                                occupied areas.
Many office buildings and areas of public
assembly have banned smoking indoors, or
required specially designated smoking areas
with dedicated ventilation systems be available.
The Pro-Children Act of 1994 prohibits smoking
in Head Start facilities, and in kindergarten,
elementary and secondary schools that receive
federal funding from the Department of
Education, the Department of Agriculture, or the
Department of Health and Human Services
(except Medicare or Medicaid).
 The effects of tobacco smoke on smokers include
 rhinitis/pharyngitis, nasal congestion, persistent
 cough, conjunctjval irritation, headache,
 wheezing, exacerbation of chronic respiratory
 conditions. Secondhand smoke has been
 classified as a "Group A" carcinogen by EPAand
 has multiple health effects on children. It has also
 been associated with the onset of asthma,
 increased severity- of, or difficulty in controlling^
 asthma, frequent upper respiratory infections,
 persistent middle-ear effusion, snoring, repeated
 pneumonia, bronchitis.
                                                Smoke outside. Smoke only in rooms which are
                                                properly ventilated and exhausted to the

         Indoor Air Pollutant
 Lead is a highly toxic metal.
 Sources of lead include drinking water, food,
 contaminated soil and dust, and air. Lead-based
 paint is a common source of lead dust.
 Nitrogen Oxides
 The two most prevalent oxides of nitrogen are
 nitrogen dioxide (NO,) and nitric oxide (NO).
 Both are toxic gases with NO, being a highly
 reactive oxidant and corrosive.
 The primary sources indoors are combustion
 processes, such as unvented combustion
 appliances, e.g. gas stoves, vented appliances
 with defective installations, welding, and
 tobacco srnoke.
Pesticides are classed as semi-volatile organic
compounds and include a variety of chemicals
in various forms. Pesticides are chemicals that
are used to kill or control pests which include
bacteria, fungi, and other organisms, in addition
to insects and rodents.  Pesticides are inherently
Pesticides may be applied indoors or can be
tracked in from the outdoors.
Radon is a colorless and odorless radioactive
gas, the first decay product of radium-226. It
decays into solid alpha particles which can be
both inhaled directly or attached to dust particles
that are inhaled. The unit of measure for radon
is picocuries per liter (pCi/L).
Radium is ubiquitous in the earth's crust in
widely varying concentrations. Well water can
have high concentrations of radon. Masonry
building blocks can have elevated radium
concentrations. The principle source, however,
is the earth around and under buildings. Radon
penetrates cracks and drain openings in
foundations, into basements and crawl spaces.
Water containing radon will out-gas into spaces
when drawn for use indoors.  Some building
materials will out-gas radon.
Volatile Organic Chemicals
(Formaldehyde, Solvents,
Cleaning Agents)
Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) are emitted
as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs
include a variety of chemicals, some of which
may have short- and long-term adverse health
effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are
consistently higher indoors (up to ten times
higher) than outdoors.
VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products
numbering in the thousands. Examples include:
paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning
supplies,  pesticides, building materials and
furnishings, office equipment such as copiers
and printers, correction fluids and carbonless
copy paper, graphics and craft materials
including glues and adhesives, permanent
markers, and photographic solutions.

        Standards or Guidelines
              Health Effects
            Control Measures
 The Consumer Product Safety Commission has
 banned lead in paint.
 Lead can cause serious damage to the brain
 kidneys, nervous system, and red blood cells.
 Children are particularly vulnerable.  Lead
 exposure in children can result in delays in
 physical development, lower IQ levels, shorten
 attention spans, and increase behavioral
 Preventive measures to reduce lead exposure
 include: cleaning play areas; mopping floors and
 wiping window ledges and other smooth flat areas
 with damp cloths frequently; keeping children
 away from areas where paint is chipped, peeling,
 or chalking; preventing children from chewing on
 window sills and other painted areas; and
 ensuring 1hat toys are cleaned frequently and
 hands are washed before meals.
 No standards have been agreed upon for nitrogen
 oxides in indoor air. ASHRAE and the US. EPA
 National Ambient Air Quality Standards list 0.053
 ppm as the average 24-hour limit forNO2 in
 outdoor air.
 NO, acts mainly as an irritant affecting me
 mucosa of the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory
 tract Extremely high-dose exposure (as in a
 building fire) to NO2 may result in pulmonary
 edema and diffuse lung injury. Continued
 exposure to high NO2 levels can contribute to the
 development of acute or chronic bronchitis. Low
 level NO, exposure may cause increased
 bronchial reactivity in some asthmatics,
 decreased lung function in patients with chronic
 obstructive pulmonary disease and increased risk
 of respiratory infections, especially in young
 Venting the NO2 sources to the outdoors, and
 assuring that combustion appliances are correctly
 installed, used, and maintained are the most
 effective measures to reduce exposures.
No air concentration standards for pesticides
have been set, however, EPA recommends
Integrated Pest Management, which minimizes
the use of chemical pesticides.  Pesticide
products must be used according to application
and ventilation instructions provided by the
Symptoms may include headache, dizziness,
muscular weakness, and nausea. Chronic
exposure to some pesticides can result in
damage to the liver, kidneys, endocrine and
nervous systems.
Use Integrated Pest Management. If chemicals
must be used, use only the recommended
amounts, mix or dilute pesticides outdoors or in
an isolated well ventilated area, apply to
unoccupied areas, and dispose of unwanted
pesticides safely to minimize exposure.
EPA recommends taking corrective action to
mitigate radon if levels are at or exceed 4 pCi/L.
Radon is a known human lung carcinogen.
There is evidence of a synergistic effect between
cigarette smoking and radon; the risks from
exposure to both may exceed the risk from either
acting alone.
Active Soil Depressurization and building
ventilation are the two most commonly used
strategies for controlling radon in schools.
Sealing foundations to prevent radon entry as a
stand-alone strategy is rarely successful.
However, sealing major entry points can improve
the effectiveness of other strategies. Increased
outdoor air ventilation can reduce radon levels
by dilution or pressurization of the building. A
ventilation based strategy may not be the most
effective strategy if initial radon levels are
greater than 10 pCi/L.
No standards have been set for VOCs in non
industrial settings. OSHA regulates formalde-
hyde, a specific VOC, as a carcinogen. OSHA
has adopted a Permissible Exposure Level (PEL)
of .75 ppm, and an action level of 0.5 ppm.
HUD has established a level of .4 ppm for
mobile homes. Based upon current information,
it is advisable to mitigate formaldehyde that is
present at levels higher than 0.1  ppm.
Key signs or symptoms associated with exposure
to VOCs include conjunctiva! irritation, nose and
throat discomfort, headache, allergic skin
reaction, dyspnea, declines in serum cholinest-
erase levels, nausea, emesis, epistaxis, fatigue,
Increase ventilation when using products that
emit VOCs. Meet or exceed any label
precautions. Do not store opened containers of
unused paints and similar materials within the
school. Formaldehyde, one of the best known
VOCs, is one of the few indoor air pollutants
that can be readily measured. Identify, and if
possible, remove the source. If not possible to
remove, reduce exposure by using a sealant on
all exposed surfaces of paneling and other
furnishings. Use integrated pest management
techniques to reduce the need for pesticides.


 Secondhand  Smoke
งCj econdhand smoke, also called
 environmental tobacco smoke (ETS),
 is a mixture of the smoke given off by
 the burning end of a cigarette, pipe, or
 cigar, and the smoke exhaled from the
 lungs of smokers.  This mixture
 contains more than 4,000 substances,
 more than 40 of which are known to
 cause cancer in humans or animals and
 many of which are strong irritants.
 Exposure to secondhand smoke is
 called involuntary smoking, or passive

 EPA has classified secondhand smoke
 as a known cause of cancer in humans
 (Group A carcinogen). Passive smoking
 is estimated to cause 3,000 lung cancer
 deaths in nonsmokers each year. It also
 causes irritation of the eyes, nose,
 throat., and lungs.  ETS-induced
 irritation of the lungs leads to excess
 phlegm, coughing, chest discomfort,
 and reduced lung function. Secondhand
 smoke may also affect the cardiovascu-
 lar system, and some studies have
 linked exposure to it with the onset of
 chest pain.

Secondhand  Smoke Effects
on  Children

 Secondhand smoke is a serious health
risk to children. Children whose
parents smoke are among the most
seriously affected by exposure to
secondhand smoke, being at increased
risk of lower respiratory tract infec-
tions such as pneumonia and bronchi-
tis.  EPA estimates that passive
smoking is responsible for between
 150,000 and 300,000 lower respiratory
tract infections in infants and children •
under 18 months of age annually,
resulting in between 7,500 and 15,000
hospitalizations per year.
 Children exposed to secondhand
 smoke are also more likely to have,
 reduced lung function and symptoms
 of respiratory irritation like cough,
 excess phlegm, and wheeze. Passive
 smoking can lead to a buildup of fluid
 in the middle ear, the most common
 cause of hospitalization of children for
 an operation.

 Asthmatic children are especially at
 risk. EPA estimates that exposure to
 secondhand smoke increases the
 number of episodes and severity of
 symptoms in hundreds of thousands of
 asthmatic children. EPA estimates that
 between 200,000 and 1,000,000
 asthmatic children have their condition
 made •worse by exposure to second-
 hand smoke. Passive smoking is also
 a risk factor for the development of
 asthma in thousands of children each


 EPA recommends that every organiza-
 tion dealing with children have a
 smoking policy that effectively protects
 children from exposure to secondhand
 smoke. Parent-Teacher Associations,
 school board members, and school
 administrators should work together to
 make children's school environments
 smoke free.
Key features of smoking education
programs include multiple sessions
 over many grades, social and physi-
ological consequences of tobacco use,
information about social influences
(peers, parents, and media), and
training in refusal skills.  School based
non-smoking policies are important
because the school environment should
be free from secondhand smoke for
health reasons and because teachers and
staff are role models for children.


In general, the Federal government
does not have regulatory authority
over indoor air or secondhand smoke
policies at the State or local level.
Restricting smoking in public places
is primarily a State and local issue,
and is typically addressed in clean
indoor air laws enacted by States,
counties and municipalities. How-
ever, the "Pro-Children Act of 1994"
prohibits smoking in Head Start
facilities, and in kindergarten,
elementary, and secondary schools
lhat receive federalfimdingfrom the
Department of Education, the
Department of Agriculture, or the
Department of Health and Human
Services (exceptfimding from
Medicare orMedicaid). The Act was
signed into law as part of the "Goals
2000: Educate America Act."
What follows are excerpts from the
Act, which took effect December

Pro-Children Act of  1994

Following are excerpts from Public
Law 103-227, March 31,1994.
(1) CHILDREN. The term "chil-
dren" means individuals who have
not attained the age of 18.
term "children's services" means
the provision on a routine or regular
basis of health, day care, education,
or library services —
    (A) that are funded, after the
date of the enactment of this Act,
directly by the Federal Government
or through State or local govern-
ments, by Federal grant, loan, loan
guarantee, or contract programs —
        (i)  administered by either
the Secretary of Health and Human
Services or the Secretary of Educa-
tion (other than services provided and
funded solely under titles XVffl and
XIX of the Social Security Act); or

        (ii) administered by the
Secretary of Agriculture in case of a
clinic; or
    (B)  that are provided in indoor
facilities that are constructed,
operated, or maintained with such
Federal funds, as determined by the
appropriate Secretary in any
enforcement action under this title,
except that nothing in clause (ii) of
subparagraph (A) is intended to
include facilities (other than clinics)
where coupons are redeemed under
the Child Nutrition Act of 1966.
(3) PERSON. The term "person"
means any State or local subdivi-
sion thereof, agency of such State or
subdivision, corporation, or partner-
ship that owns or operates or
otherwise controls and provides
children's services or any individual
who owns or operates or otherwise
controls and provides such services.


(a) PROHEBmON. After the date
of the enactment of this Act, no
person shall permit smoking within
any indoor facility owned or leased
or contracted for and utilized by
such person for provision of routine
or regular kindergarten, elementary,
or secondary education or library
services to children.
After the date of the enactment of
this Act, no person shall permit
smoking within any indoor facility
(or portion thereof) owned or leased
or contracted for and utilized by
such person of regular or routine
health care or day care or early
childhood development (Head Start)
services to children or for the use of
the employees of such person who
provides such services.
After the date of the enactment of
this Act, no Federal agency shall
permit smoking within any indoor
facility in the United States operated
by such agency, directly or by
contract, to provide routine or
regular kindergarten, elementary, or
secondary education or library
services to children.

(1)  IN GENERAL.  On receipt of
an application, the head of the
Federal agency may grant a special
waiver to a person described in
subsection (a) who employs indi-
viduals who are members of a labor
organization and provide children's
services pursuant to a collective
bargaining agreement that —

    (A) took effect before the date
of enactment of this Act; and

    (B) includes provisions relating
to smoking privileges that are in
violation of the requirements of this
A special waiver granted under this
subsection shall terminate on the
earlier of—
    (A) the first expiration date
(after the date of enactment of this
Act) of the collective bargaining
agreement containing the provisions
relating to smoking privileges; or

    (B) the date that is 1 year after
the date of the enactment of this Act.

(1)  IN GENERAL. Any failure to
comply with a prohibition in this
section shall be a violation of this
section and any person subject to
such prohibition who commits such
violation, or may  be subject to an
administrative compliance order, or
both, as determined by the Secre-
tary. Each day a violation continues
shall constitute a separate violation.

Background information

The EPA and other major national and
international scientific organizations
have concluded that radon is a human
carcinogen and a serious public health
problem. An individual's risk of
developing lung cancer from radon
increases with the level of radon, the
duration of exposure, and the
individual's smoking habits. EPA
estimates that 7,000 to 30,000 lung
cancer deaths in the United States each
year are attributed to radon. Because
many people spend much of their time
at home, the home is likely to be the
most significant source of radon
exposure. For most school children and
staff, the second largest contributor to
their radon exposure is likely to be
their school. As a result, EPA recom-
mends that school buildings as well as
homes be tested for radon.

Results from a National Survey of
Radon Levels in Schools

A nationwide survey of radon levels in
schools estimates that 19.3% of U.S.
schools, nearly one in five, have at
least one frequently occupied ground-
contact room with short-term radon
levels at or above the action level of 4
pCi/L (picocuries per liter) — the level
at which EPA recommends mitigation.
Approximately 73% of these schools
will have only five or less school
rooms with radon levels above the
action level. The other 27% will have
six or more such schoolrooms. If your
building has a radon problem, it is
unlikely that every room in your
school will have an elevated radon
level.  However, testing all frequently-
occupied rooms that have contact with
the ground is necessary to identify
schoolrooms with elevated radon

Guidance for Radon Testing

EPA's document, Radon Measurement
in Schools - Revised Edition (EPA 402-
R-92-014), provides guidance on
planning, implementing, and evaluating
a radon testing program for a school.
To assist schools with testing, helpful
aids such as a checklist of the testing
procedure is included in the document.
However, before initiating radon
testing in your school, contact your
State Radon Office (see Resources,
Appendix I) for information on any
State requirements concerning radon
testing, or for a copy of the document.
Check for
radon in schools documents.

To reduce the health risk associated
with radon, EPA recommends that
officials test every school for elevated
radon levels. Because the entry and
movement  of radon in buildings is
difficult to  predict, officials should test
all frequently occupied schoolrooms
that are in contact with the ground. If
testing identifies schoolrooms with
radon levels of 4 pCi/L or greater,
officials should reduce the radon levels
to below 4 pCi/L using an appropriate
mitigation strategy.

Guidance for Radon Mitigation

If you identify a radon problem in your
school, EPA has developed guidance on
radon mitigation entitled Reducing
Radon in Schools —A Team Approach
(EPA 402-R-94-008) that describes the

recommended approach to radon
mitigation in schools and provides an
overview of the mitigation process to
the IAQ Coordinator.
For a free copy, please call 1-800-
490-9198 or contact your State
Radon Office (see Appendix I,

Guidance for Radon Prevention in
Renovations and New Buildings

EPA's document entitled Radon
Prevention in Design and Construc-
tion of Schools and Other Large
Buildings (EPA625R-92-016)
provides guidance for incorporating
radon resistant and/or easy-to-
mitigate features into the design of a
new school building including
design recommendations for HVAC
systems. This guidance is useful to
school personnel (e.g., school
business officials) or architects
involved with the new building
construction in a school district.
For a free copy, contact 1-800-490-

Training for Testing and Mitiga-
To develop public and private sector
capabilities for radon testing and
mitigation, EPA has formed four
Regional Radon Training Centers
(see Resources, Appendix I). These
training centers offer courses on
testing and mitigation in school
buildings designed to simulate
hands-on activities by having
participants solve practical prob-
lems. Contact your State Radon
Office (see Resources, Appendix I)
for information on local training
opportunities or on state training

Testing and Mitigation Costs

Cost for radon testing in a typical
school building ranges from $500 to
$1,500. The type of measurement
device used, the size of the school,
and whether testing is performed in-
house using school personnel or a
measurement contractor will
influence testing costs.
If a radon problem is identified, the
cost for radon mitigation typically
ranges from $3,000 to $30,000 per
school. The mitigation strategy, the
school building design, the radon
concentration in the school room(s),
and the number of school rooms that
need mitigation influence the cost of
mitigating a school. The appropriate
mitigation strategy will depend on
the school building design and initial
levels of radon. Mitigation costs at
the high end of the cost range are
often associated with a mitigation
strategy involving the renovation of
a school's heating, ventilation, and
air-conditioning (HVAC) system.
Although the cost is higher, this
strategy has the added benefit of
improving ventilation within a
school building which contributes to
the improvement of indoor air

Mold  and  Moisture
   lolds can be found almost any-
where; they can grow on virtually any
substance, providing moisture is
present. There are molds that can
grow on and within wood, paper,
carpet and foods. When excessive
moisture accumulates in buildings or
on building materials, mold growth
will often occur, particularly if the
moisture problem remains undiscov-
ered or unaddressed. There is no
practical way to eliminate all mold
and mold spores in the indoor environ-
ment; the way to  control indoor mold
growth is to control moisture.
Molds produce tiny spores to repro-
duce. Mold spores waft through the
indoor and outdoor air continually.
When mold spores land on a damp
spot indoors, they may begin growing
and digesting whatever they are
growing on in order to survive.
There are many different kinds of
mold. Molds can produce allergens,
toxins, and/or irritants. Molds can
cause discoloration and odor prob-
lems, deteriorate  building materials,
and lead to health problems such as
asthma episodes and allergic reactions
in susceptible individuals.
The key to mold control is moisture
control. If mold is a problem, clean up
the mold and get rid of excess water or
moisture. Maintaining the relative
humidity between 30%-60% will help
control mold.

Condensation, Relative Humidity,
and  Vapor Pressure

Mold growth does not require the
presence of standing water, leaks, or
floods; mold can grow when the
relative humidity of the air is high.
Mold can also grow in damp areas
such as unvented bathrooms and
kitchens, crawl spaces, utility tunnels*
gym areas and locker rooms, wet
foundations, leaky roof areas, and
damp basements. Relative humidity
and the factors that govern it are often
misunderstood. This section discusses
relative humidity and describes
common moisture problems and their
Water enters buildings both as a liquid
and as a gas (water vapor). Water is
introduced intentionally at bathrooms,
gym areas, kitchens, art and utility
areas, and accidentally by way of leaks
and spills. Some of the water evapo-
rates and joins the water vapor that is
exhaled by building occupants. Water
vapor also moves into the building
through the ventilation system,
through openings in the building shell,
or directly through  building materials.
The ability of air to hold water vapor
decreases as the air temperature falls.
If a unit of air contains half of the
water vapor it can hold, it is said to be
at least 50% relative humidity (RH).
The RH increases as the air cools and
approaches saturation. When air
contains all of the water vapor it can
hold, it is at least 100% RH, and the
water vapor condenses, changing from
a gas to a liquid. The temperature at
which condensation occurs is the "dew
It is possible to reach 100% RH
without changing the air temperature,
by increasing the amount of water
vapor in the air (the' "absolute humid-
ity" or "vapor pressure"). It is also
possible to reach 100% RH without
changing the amount of water vapor in
the air, by lowering the air temperature
to the "dew point."

The highest RH in a room is always
next to the coldest surface. This is
Molds gradually destroy
the things they grow on.
   Prevent damage to
 building materials and
  furnishings and save
 money by eliminating
     moid growth.

 referred to as the "first condensing
 surface," as it will be the location
 where condensation happens first, if
 the relative humidity  of the air next
 to the surface reaches 100%. It is
 important to understand this when
 trying to understand why mold is
 growing on one patch of wall or
 only along the wall-ceiling joint. It
 is likely that the surface of the wall
 is cooler than the room air because
 there is a gap in the insulation or
 because the wind is blowing
 through cracks in the  exterior of the

 Taking Steps to Reduce Moisture
 and Mold

 Moisture control is the key to mold
 control. Respond to water damage
 within 24-48 hours to prevent mold
 Mold growth can be reduced if
 relative humidities near surfaces
 can be maintained below the dew
 point. This can be done by: 1)
 reducing the moisture content
 (vapor pressure) of the air, 2)
 increasing air movement at the
 surface, or 3) increasing the air
 temperature (either the general
 space temperature or the tempera-
 ture at building surfaces).
 Either vapor pressure  or surface
 temperature can be the dominant
 factor in a mold problem. A vapor
 pressure dominated mold problem
 may not respond well  to increasing
 temperatures, whereas a surface
 temperature dominated mold
 problem may not respond very well
 to increasing ventilation. Under-
 standing which factor  dominates
 will help in selecting an effective
 control strategy.
 If the relative humidity near the
 middle of a room is fairly high (e.g.,
 50% at 70 F), mold or mildew
problems in the room are likely to
be vapor pressure dominated. If the
relative humidity near the middle of
 a room is fairly low (e.g. 30% at
 70 F), mold or mildew problems in
 the room are likely to be surface
 temperature dominated.

 Vapor Pressure Dominated Mold

 Vapor pressure dominated mold
 growth can be reduced by using one
 or more of the following strategies:

 •  use source control (e.g., direct
   venting of moisture-generating
   activities such as showers to the

 •  dilute moisture-laden indoor air
   with outdoor air at a lower
   absolute humidity
 •  dehumidify the indoor air
 Note that dilution is only useful as a
 control strategy during heating
 periods, when cold outdoor air
 contains little total moisture. During
 cooling periods, outdoor air often
 contains as much moisture as
 indoor air.

 Consider an old, leaky, poorly
 insulated school in Maine that has
 mold and mildew in the coldest
 corners of one classroom. The
 indoor relative humidity is low
 (30%). It is winter and cold air
 cannot hold much water vapor.
 Therefore, outdoor air entering
 through leaks in the building lowers
 the airborne moisture levels in-
 doors. This is an example of a
 surface temperature dominated
 mold problem. In this building,
 increasing the outdoor air ventila-
 tion rate is probably not an effective
 way to control interior mold and
 mildew. A better strategy would be
to increase surface temperatures by
 insulating the exterior walls,
thereby reducing relative humidity
 in the comers.
 Consider a school locker room that
has mold on the ceiling. The locker
room exhaust fan is broken, and the
 relative humidity in the room is
 60% at 70 F. This is an example of a
 vapor pressure dominated mold
 problem. In this case, increasing the
 surface temperature is probably not
 an effective way to correct the mold
 problem. A better strategy is to
 repair or replace the exhaust fan.

 Surface Temperature Dominated
 Moid Growth

 Surface temperature dominated
 mold growth can be reduced by
 increasing the surface temperature
 using one or more of the following
 •  raise the temperature of the air
   near room surfaces

 •  raise the thermostat setting
 •  improve air circulation so that
   supply air is more effective at
   heating the room surfaces

 •  decrease the heat loss from room
 •  add insulation
 •  close cracks in the exterior  wall
   to prevent "wind washing"  (air
   that enters a wall at one exterior
   location and exits another
   exterior location without pen-
   etrating into the building)

 Moid Clean Up

 The key to mold control is moisture
 control. It is essential to clean up
 the mold and get rid of excess water
 or moisture. If the excess water or
 moisture problem is not fixed, mold
 will most probably grow again,
 even if the area was completely
 cleaned. Clean hard surfaces with
 water and detergent and dry  quickly
 and completely. Absorbent materials
 such as ceiling tiles may have  to be
Note that mold can cause health
 effects such as allergic reactions;
remediators should avoid exposing
themselves and others to mold.

Wear waterproof gloves during
clean up; do not touch mold or
moldy items with bare hands.
Respiratory protection should be
used in most remediation situations
to prevent inhalation exposure to
mold. Respiratory protection may
not be necessary for small
remediation jobs with little expo-
sure potential. Refer to Appendix I,
Resources, for sources of more
information on mold remediation.
When in doubt consult a profes-
sional, experienced remediator.

Identifying and Correcting Com-
mon Mold and Moisture Problems

Exterior Comers and Walls

The interior surfaces of exterior
comers and behind furnishings such
as chalk boards, file cabinets, and
desks next to outside walls are
common locations for mold growth
in heating climates. They tend to be
closer to the outdoor temperature
than other parts of the building
surface for one or more of the
following reasons:
• poor indoor air circulation
• wind washing
• low insulation levels
• greater surface area of heat loss
Sometimes mold growth can be
reduced by removing obstructions
to airflow (e.g., rearranging furni-
ture). Buildings with forced air
heating systems and/or room ceiling
fans tend to have fewer mold
problems than buildings with less
air movement.

Set-Back Thermostats

Set-back thermostats (program-
mable thermostats) are commonly
used to reduce energy consumption
during the heating season. Mold
growth can occur when tempera-
tures are lowered in buildings  with
high relative humidity. (Maintaining
a room at too low a temperature can
have the same effect as a set-back
thermostat.) Mold can often be
controlled in heating climates by
increasing interior temperatures
during heating periods. Unfortu-
nately, this also increases energy
consumption and reduces relative
humidity in the breathing zone,
which can create discomfort.

Air-Conditioned Spaces

Mold problems can be as extensive
in cooling climates as in heating
climates. The same principles
apply: either surfaces are too cold,
moisture levels are too high or both.

One common example of mold
growth in cooling climates can be
found in rooms where conditioned
"cold" air blows against the interior
surface of an exterior wall. This
condition, which may be due to
poor duct design, diffuser location,
or diffuser performances, creates a
cold spot at the interior finish
surfaces, possibly allowing moisture
to condense.
Possible solutions for this problem
• eliminate the cold spots (i.e.,
  elevate the temperature of the
  surface) by adjusting the diffus-
  ers or deflecting the air away
  from the condensing surface
• increase the room temperature to
  avoid overcooling. NOTE:
  During the cooling season,
  increasing temperature decreases
  energy consumption, though it
  could cause comfort problems.
Mold problems can also occur
within the wall cavity, when
outdoor air comes in contact with
the cavity side of the cooled interior
surface. It is a particular problem in
room decorated with low mainte-
nance interior finishes (e.g.,
impermeable wall covering such as
vinyl  wallpaper) which can trap
moisture between the interior finish
and the gypsum board. Mold growth
can be rampant when these interior
finishes are coupled with cold spots
and exterior moisture.

A possible solution for this problem
is to ensure that vapor barriers,
facing sealants, and insulation are
properly specified, installed and

Thermal Bridges

Localized cooling of surfaces
commonly occurs as a result of
"thermal bridges," elements of the
building structure that are highly
conductive of heat (e.g., steel studs
in exterior frame walls, uninsulated
window lintels, and the edges of
concrete floor slabs). Dust particles
sometimes mark the locations of
thermal bridges, because dust tends
to adhere to cold spots.

The use of insulating sheathings
significantly reduces the impact of
thermal bridges in building enve-


In winter, windows are typically the
coldest surfaces in a room. The
interior surface of a window is often
the first condensing surface in a

Condensation on window surfaces
has historically been controlled by
using storm windows or "insulated
glass" (e.g., double-glazed windows
or selective surface gas-filled
windows) to raise interior surface
temperatures. In older building
enclosures with less advanced
glazing systems, visible condensa-
tion on the windows often alerted
occupants to the need for ventilation
to flush out interior moisture, so
they knew to  open the windows.

The advent of higher performance
glazing systems has led to a greater
number of moisture  problems in

heating climate building enclosures,
because the buildings can now be
operated at higher interior vapor
pressures (moisture levels) without
visible surface condensation on

Concealed Condensation

The use of thermal insulation in
wall cavities increases interior
surface temperatures in heating
climates, reducing the likelihood of
interior surface mold and condensa-
tion. However, the use of thermal
insulation without a properly
installed air barrier may increase
moisture condensation within the
wall cavity.
The first condensing surface in a
wall cavity in a heating climate is
typically the inner surface of the
exterior sheathing.
Concealed condensation can be
controlled by either or both of the
following strategies:

•  reducing the entry of moisture
   into the wall cavities (e.g., by
   controlling entry and/or exit of
   moisture-laden air)

•  raising the temperature of the
   first condensing  surface

•  in heating-climate locations:
   installing exterior insulation
   (assuming that no significant
   wind-washing is occurring)

•  in cooling-climate locations:
   installing insulating sheathing to
   the interior of the wall framing
   and between the  wall framing
   and the interior gypsum board
Moid and
Health Effects
Molds are a major source
of indoor allergens.
Molds can also trigger
asthma. Even when
dead or unable to grow,
mold can cause health
effects such as allergic
reactions. The types and
severity of health effects
associated with exposure
to mold depend, in part,
on the type of mold
present, and tiie extent of
the occupants' exposure
                                                                                        orallergies. Promptand
                                                                                        effective remediation of
                                                                                        moisture problems is
                                                                                        essential to minimize
                                                                                        potential mold exposures
                                                                                        and their potential health

   I his Appendix lists organizations with information or services related to indoor
air quality. In addition, the Appendix includes a section on indoor air quality related
publications. Following is a listing of the subsections contained in this Appendix.
Federal Agencies with Major Indoor Air
Responsibilities for Public and Commercial Buildings                           66
    EPA Regional Offices                                                    66
    OSHA Regional Offices                                                  67
Other Federal Agencies with Indoor Air Responsibilities                         67
State and Local Agencies                                                   67
Building Management Associations                                          68
Professional and Standards Setting Organizations                              68
Product Manufacturer Associations                                          68
Building Service Associations                                               69
Unions                                                                  69
Environmental/Health/Consumer Organizations                                 69
MCS-Related Organizations                                                 69
Organizations Offering Training on Indoor Air Quality                           70
Radon                                                                   70
Other EPA Contacts and Programs of interest                                  70
Publications                                                              70
    General Information                                                     71
    Indoor Air Quality                                                      71
    Radon                                                                71
    Secondhand  Smoke (Environmental Tobacco)                               71
    Asbestos                                                             72
    Biological Contaminants                                                 72
    PCBs                                                                 73
    Building Management Investigation, and Remediation                        73
    Ventilation/Thermal Comfort                                             73
    Standards and  Guidelines                                                74

 Federal Agencies With Major
 Indoor Air Responsibilities For
 Public and Commercial Buildings

 U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency conducts a non-regulatory
 indoor air quality program that
 emphasizes research, information
 dissemination, technical guidance,
 and training. EPA issues regulations
 and carries out other activities that
 affect indoor air quality under the
 laws for pesticides, toxic substances,
 and drinking water.
 Indoor Air Quality
 Information Clearinghouse
 P.O. Box 37133
 Washington, DC 20013-7133
 Toll Free: 1-800-438-4318
 Local: 202-356-5346
 Fax: 202-356-5386
 Information specialists are on duty
 Monday - Friday 9:00 am to 5:00 pm
 eastern time. Provides indoor air
 quality information and publications.
 Occupational Safety and Health
 Administration promulgates safety
 and health standards, facilitates
 training and consultation, and
 enforces regulations to ensure that
 workers are provided with safe and
 healthful working conditions. (For
 further information contact OSHA
 Regional Offices.)
National Institute for Occupational
 Safety and Health conducts research,
 recommends standards to the U.S.
Department of Labor, and conducts
training on various issues including
 indoor air quality to promote safe and
healthful workplaces. Undertakes
 investigations at request of employ-
 ees, employers, other federal agen-
 cies, and state and local agencies to
 identify and mitigate workplace
Requests for Field Investigations:

Hazard Evaluations and Technical
Assistance Branch (R-9)
4676 Columbia Parkway
Cincinnati, OH 45226

Requests for Information:


EPA Regional Offices

Address inquiries to IAQ staff in the
EPA Regional Offices at the following

EPA Region 1
1 Congress Street, Ste.  1100 (CPT)
Boston, MA 02114-2023
617-918-1639 (indoor air)
617-918-1534 (radon)
617-918-1524 (asbestos)

EPA Region 2
290 Broadway (MC R2DEPDIV)
28th Floor
New York, NY 10007-1866
212-637-4013 (indoor air)
212-637-4013 (radon)
212-637-4081 (asbestos)
EPA Region 3
1650 Arch Street, (3AP23)
Philadelphia, PA 19103-2029
215-814-2083 (indoor air)
215-814-2086 (radon)
215-814-2103 (asbestos)

EPA Region 4
61 Forsyth Street, SW
Atlanta, GA 30303-3104
404-562-9136 (indoor air)
404-564-9145 (radon)
404-562-8978 (asbestos)
 EPA Region 5
 77 W. Jackson Boulevard
 Chicago, EL 60604-3 590
 Region 5 Environmental Hotline:
 312-353-2000 (outside Region 5)
 312-353-6686 (indoor air, radon)
 312-353-4370 (asbestos)
 EPA Region 6"
 1445 Ross Avenue (6 PD-T)
 Dallas, TX 75202-2733
 1-800-887-6063 (indoor air)
"1-800-887-6063 (radon)
 1-800-887-6063 (asbestos)

 EPA Region 7
 901 N. 5th Street (MC ARTD/RALI)
 Kansas City, KS 66101
 913-551-7260 (indoor air)
 913-551-7260 (radon)
 913-551-7260 (asbestos)

 EPA Region 8
 999 18th Street, Suite 500
 (MC 8P-AR)
Denver, CO 80202-2466
 303-312-6031 (indoor air, radon)
 303-312-6204 (asbestos)

EPA Region 9
75 Hawthorne Street (MC AIR-6)
San Francisco, CA 94105
415-744-1047 (indoor air)
415-744-1046 (radon)
415-744-1145 (asbestos)

EPARegion 10 (MC OAQ-107)
 1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101-9797
206-553-2589 (indoor air)
206-553-7660 (radon)
206-553-4762 (asbestos)

OSHA Regional Offices

OSHA Region 1
133 Portland Street, 1st Floor
Boston, MA 02114
OSHA Region 2
201 Varick Street, Room 670
New York, NY 10014
OSHA Region 3
Gateway Building, Suite 2100
353 5 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA  19104

OSHA Region 4
1375 Peachtree Street, NE
Suite 587
Atlanta, GA 30367
OSHA Region 5
230 South Dearborn Street
Suite 3244
Chicago, IL 60604
OSHA Region 6
525 Griffin Street, Room 602
Dallas, TX  75202
OSHA Region 7
911 Walnut Street, Room 406
Kansas City, MO 64106

OSHA Region 8
Federal Building, Room 1576
1961 Stout Street
Denver, CO 80294
OSHA Region 9
71 Stevenson Street, Suite 420
San Francisco, CA 94105
OSHA Region 10
1111 Third Avenue, Suite 715
Seattle, WA 98101-3212

Other Federal Agencies with
Indoor Air Responsibilities

Bonneville Power Administration
P.O. Box 3621-RMRD
Portland, OR 97208
Provides radon-resistant construction
techniques, source control, and
removal technology for indoor air
Consumer Product
Safety Commission
4330 East-West Hwy., Room 502
Bethesda, MD 20814
Reviews complaints regarding the
safety of consumer products and takes
action to ensure product safety.
Genera! Services Administration
18th and F Streets, NW
Washington, DC 20405
Writes indoor air quality policy for
Federal buildings.  Provides proac-
tive indoor air quality building
assessments. Assesses complaints
and provides remedial action.
National Heart, Lung, & Blood
Institute Information Center
P.O. Box 30105
Bethesda, MD 20824-0150
Provides information and materials
regarding asthma education and
U.S. Department of Energy
Energy Efficiency and Renewable
1000 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20585
Quantifies the relationship among
infiltration, ventilation, and accept-
able indoor air quality.
Centers for Disease Control
& Prevention
Office on Smoking and Health
4770 Buford Highway, NE
Mail Stop K50
Atlanta, GA 30341
Disseminates infonnation about the
health effects of passive smoke and
strategies for reducing exposure to
secondhand smoke.

Tennessee Valley Authority
Occupational Hygiene Dept.
328 Multipurpose Building
Muscle Shoals, AL 35660-1010
Provides building surveys and
assessments associated with employee
indoor air quality complaints.

State and Loca! Agencies

Your questions and concerns about
indoor air problems can frequently be
answered most readily by the govern-
ment agencies in your State or
locality. Responsibilities for indoor
air quality issues are usually divided
among many different agencies. You
will often find that calling or writing
the agencies responsible for health or
air quality control is the best way to
start getting information from your
State or local government. Check the
EPA web site for State agency
contacts (www. epa. gov/iaq/

 Building Management

 Association of Higher Education
 Facilities Offices (APPA)
 1643 Front Street
 Alexandria, VA 22314

 Professional and Standards
 Setting Organizations

 American Academy of Allergy
 and Immunology
 611 East Wells Street
 Milwaukee, WI 53202
 Air and Waste
 Management Association
 1 Gateway Center, 3rd Floor
 Pittsburgh, PA 15222
 Air-Conditioning and
 Refrigeration Institute
 4301 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 425
 Arlington, VA 22203
 American Conference of
 Governmental Industrial Hygienists
 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive
 Cincinnati, OH 45240
 American Industrial
 Hygiene Association
 2700 Prosperity Avenue
 Suite 250
 Fairfax, VA 22031
American Society for Testing
 and Materials
 100 Bar Harbor Drive
West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959
 American Society of Heating,
 Refrigerating, and
 Air-Conditioning Engineers
 179 ITullie Circle, NE
 Atlanta, GA 30329

 Center for Safety in the Arts
 Web site only:
 http://artswire. org: 70/csa
 The Center has a list of products that
 are safe for children from grades K-6.
 The list is provided for a nominal

 Art and Craft Materials Institute
 P.O. Box 479
 Hanson, MA 02341
 Conducts a certification program lo
 ensure nontoxicity (or proper label-
 ling) and quality of products. Works
 to develop and maintain chronic
 hazard labelling standard for art and
 craft materials.
 The American Institute
 of Architects
 1735 New York Avenue, NW
 Washington,  DC 20006
 202-626-7300              b
 National Conference of States on
 Building Codes and Standards, Inc.
 505 Huntmar Park Drive
 Suite 210
 Herndon,VA 20170
 www.ncsbcs. org

 Product Manufacturer

 Adhesive and Sealant Council
7979 Old Georgetown Road
www.ascouncil .org
 Abestos Institute
 1002 Sherbrooke St., West
 Suite 1750
 Montreal, Quebec
 Canada H3A3L6
 www.asbestos-institute. ca: 807
 Business Council on Indoor Air
 2000 L Street, NW
 Washington, DC 20036

 Carpet and Rug Institute
 310 Holiday Avenue
 Dalton, GA 30720
 www. carpet-rug, com

 Chemical Specialties
 Manufacturers' Association
 1913 I Street, NW
 Washington, DC 20006

 Electric Power Research Institute
 P.O. Box 10412
 Palo Alto, CA 94303

 Association of Wall and Ceiling
 Industries, International
 803 West Broad Street
 Suite 600
 Falls Church, VA 22046
 email:j ones@awci. org
 Gas Research Institute
 8600 West Bryn Mawr Avenue
 Chicago, TL 60631

National Paint and
Coatings Association
 1500 Rhode Island Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20005

North American Insulation
Manufacturers' Association
44 Canal Center Plaza., Suite 310
Alexandria, VA 22314

Building Service  Associations

Air-Conditioning  and
Refrigeration Institute
4301 North Fairfax Drive
Suite 425
Arlington, VA 22203

Air-Conditioning  Contractors
of America
1712 New Hampshire Ave., NW
Washington DC 20009
American Consulting
Engineers Council
1015 15th Street, NW, Suite 802
Washington, DC 20005
Associated Air Balance Council
1518 K Street, NW, Suite 503
Washington, DC 20005
Association of Energy Engineers
4025 Pleasantdale  Rd., Suite 420
Atlanta, GA 30340

Association of Specialists in
Cleaning and Restoration Intl.
8229 Clover Leaf Drive, Suite 460
National Air Duct
Cleaners Association
1518 K Street, NW, Suite 503
Washington, DC 20005
www. nadca. com
National Association
of Power Engineers
5707 Seminary Rd, Suite 200
Falls Church, VA 22041
National Energy
Management Institute
601 North Fairfax St., Suite 120
Alexandria, VA 22314
National Environmental
Balancing Bureau
8575 Grovemont Circle
Gaithersburg, MD 20877-4121
301 -977-3698
National Pest Control Association
8100 Oak Street
Dunn Loring, VA 22027

Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
Contractors National Association
P.O. Box 221230


American Federation of Teachers
555 New Jersey Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20001
American Association of Classified
School Employees
PO Box 640
San Jose, CA 95106
National Education Association
1201 16th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20036
National Association
of School Nurses
PO Box 1300
Scarborough, ME 04070-1300
Consumer Organizations

American Lung Association
or your local lung association
1740 Broadway
New York, NY 10019

Consumer Federation of America
1424 16th Street, NW, Suite 604
Washington, DC 20036
National Environmental
Health Association
720 South Colorado Blvd.
South Tower, Suite 970
Denver, CO 80222
Occupational Health Foundation
815 16th Street, NW, Room 312
Washington, DC 20006

MCS-Reiated  Organizations

Human Ecology Action League
P.O. Box 29629
Atlanta, GA 30359
National Center for
Environmental Health Strategies
1100 Rural Avenue
Voorhees,NJ 08043
National Foundation for the
Chemically Hypersensitive
4407 Swinson Road
Rhodes, MI 48652
www. mcsrelief. com

  Organizations Offering Training
  on Indoor Air Quality

  Also, note Regional Radon Training
  Centers on page 70.

  American Industrial
  Hygiene Association
  2700 Prosperity Avenue, Suite 250
  Fairfax, VA 22031
 Sponsors indoor air quality courses in
 conjunction with meetings for AIHA
 members only.

 American Society of Heating,
 Refrigerating, and
 Air-Conditioning Engineers
 1791 Tullie Circle NE
 Atlanta, GA 30329.
 Sponsors professional development
 seminars on indoor air quality.
 Mid-Atlantic Environmental
 Hygiene Resource Center
 University City Science Center
 3624 Market Street, 1st Floor East
 Philadelphia, PA 19104
 Provide training to occupational
 safsty and health professionals and
 OSHA Training Institute
 155 Times Drive
 Des Plaines, IL 60018
Provides courses to assist health and
safety professionals in evaluating
indoor air quality.


State Radon Offices

For information, call the radon
contact in the EPA Regional Office
for your state, or visit www.epa gov/
Jag/contacts/index- html
  Regional Radon Training Centers

.  EPA has coordinated the formation of
  four Regional Radon Training Centers
  (RRTCs). The RRTCs provide a
  range of radon training and profi-
  ciency examination courses to the
  public for a fee.

  (ERRTC) Rutgers, The University
  of New Jersey
  21 Road One, Building 4087
  Piscataway, NJ 08854-8031
  www. envsci.rutgers. edu/~errtc/
  see also:
  Consortium (MURC)
  University of Minnesota
  1985 Buford Avenue (240)
  St Paul, MN 55108-6134
  Western Regional Radon Training
  Center (WRRTC)
  525 E. Fountain Blvd.
  Colorado Springs, CO 80903
  1-800-513-8332 or

  Southern Regional Radon Training
  Center (SRRTC)
  Auburn University
  217 Ramsey Hall
  Auburn University, AL 36849-5331
  334-844-5718 or 800-626-2703

  EPA Regional Offices

 If you need additional information in
 radon, contact the EPA Regional
 Offices listed on pages 66.

 Other EPA Contacts and
 Programs of interest

 Asbestos and Small Business
 Provides information on asbestos.
 National Lead Information Center
 Provides information on lead, lead
 contamination, and lead hazards.

 National Pesticides Telecommunica-
 tions Network
 In Texas: 806-743-3091
 Provides information on pesticides,
 hazards and risks.

 RCRA/Superfund/EPCRA Hotline

 Safe Drinking Water Hotline
 Provides information on lead in

 Stratospheric Ozone Information
 Hotline 1-800-296-1996

 Provides information on chlorofluom-
 carbons (CFCs).

 TSCA Hotline Service
 Provides information on asbestos and
 other toxic substances.

 EPA Energy Star Programs
 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW.
 Washington, DC 20460


 Items marked * are available from the
 National Service Center for Envi-
 ronmental Publications
 (NSCEP) Fax: 513-489-8695

 Items marked ** are available from
 TSCA Assistance Hotline (TS-799),
 401 M Street, SW, Washington, DC

Items marked *** are available from
NIOSH Publications Dissemination,
4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati,
OH 45202.

General Information

* Building Air Quality: A Guide for
Building Owners and Facility
Managers. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and the U.S.
Department of Health and Human
Services December 1991. Available
from Superintendent of Documents,
P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA

Indoor Air Pollution  Control. Thad
Godish. 1989. Lewis Publishers, 121
South Main Street, Chelsea, MI
Problem Buildings: Building-
Associated Illness and the Sick
Building Syndrome. James E. Gone
and Michael J. Hodgson, MD, MPH.
1989. From the series "Occupational
Medicine: State of the Art Reviews."
Hanley & Belfus, Inc., 210 South 13th
Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107.
Report of the Inter-ministerial
Committee on Indoor Air Quality,
1988. G. Rajhans. Contact: G.
Rajhans, Health and Safety Support
Services Branch, Ministry of Labour,
400 University Avenue, 7* Floor,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M7A1T7.

Indoor Air Quality

introduction to Indoor Air Quality:
A Self-Paced Learning Module.
National Environmental Health
Association and U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. June 1991.
Introduces environmental health
professionals to the information
needed to recognize, evaluate, and
control indoor air quality problems.
*Introduction to Indoor Air Quality:
A Reference Manual. National
Environmental Health Association,
U.S. Public Health Service and U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency.
June 1991. Companion document to
the Learning Module. Provides
reference material on selected indoor
air quality topics. EPA400-39-1003
*Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduc-
tion for Health Professionals. The
American Lung Association, Ameri-
can Medical Association, U.S.
Consumer Product Safety Commis-
sion and U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency. Manual assists health
professionals in diagnosing symptoms
that may be related to an indoor air
pollution problem. EPA402R-94-007
Managing Asthma: A Guide for
Schools. Available from NHLBL, P.O.
Box 30105, Bethesda, MD 20824.
Pub. 91-2650. Other asthma-related
materials also available.
*The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor
Air Quality. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and the U.S.
Consumer Product Safety Com-
mission. 1988. Addresses residential
indoor air quality primarily, but
contains a section on offices.
*Sick Building Syndrome. Indoor Air
Quality Fact Sheet #4. U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency.  Revised,
1991. EPA 402F-94-004
*Ventilation and Air Quality in
Offices. Indoor Air Quality Fact
Sheet #3. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. Revised, 1990.
Air Quality Guidelines for Europe.
World Health Organization. 1987.
WHO Regional Publications, Euro-
pean Series No. 23. Available from
WHO Publications Center USA, 49
Sheridan Avenue,  Albany, NY 12210.

* Radon Measurements in Schools -
Revised edition. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. 1993.
Radon Measurement in Schools: Self-
Paced Training Workbook. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency.
1994. EPA402/B-94-001.
* Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team
Approach. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. 1994.
*Radon Prevention in the Design and
Construction of Schools and Other
Large Buildings, -with Addendum.
U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency. June 1994. EPA 625 R-92-

Secondhand Smoke

*Secondhand Smoke: What. You Can
Do About Secondhand Smoke as
Parents, Decisionmakers, and
Building Occupants. U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency. July 1993.
A useful brochure describing the
health implications of secondhand
smoke and ways to avoid its risks.
EPA 402 F-93-004 (Available in
English, Spanish, Chinese)
* Respiratory Health Effects of
Passive Smoking fact sheet U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency.
January 1993. 430-F-93-004
*Setting the Record Straight: Second-
hand Smoke is a Preventable Health
Risk: fact sheet. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. June 1994.

  Guidelines for Controlling Environ-
  mental Tobacco Smoke In Schools —
  Technical Bulletin. Ronald Turner,
  Bruce Lippy, Arthur Wheeler.
  Februraryl991.  Maryland State
  Department of Education, Office of
  Administration and Finance, Office of
  School Facilities, 200 West Baltimore
  Street, Baltimore, MD 21201.
 Respiratory Health Effects of Passive
 Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other
 Disorders. U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency.  1990. EPA/600/
 6090/006F. EPA's major risk assess-
 ment of the health effects of passive
 smoking (ETS).
 The Health Consequences of Involun-
 tary Smoking: A Report of the
 Surgeon General. U.S. Department
 of Health and Human Services.
 Public Health Service.  Office on
 Smoking and Health.  1986. 1600
 Clifton Road, NE (Mail Stop K50)
 Atlanta, GA 30333.
 Current Intelligence Bulletin 54:
 Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the
 Workplace — Lung Cancer and Other
 Health Effects. ***  U.S. Department
 of Health and Human Services, Public
 Health Service. Centers for Disease
 Control, National Institute for
 Occupational Safety and Health.
 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 91-
 108.  1991.
 A series of one-page information
 sheets on all aspects of smoking in the
 workplace. U.S. Department of
 Health and Human Services, National
 Cancer Institute. Office of Cancer
 Communications. For copies, call 1-


A Guide to Monitoring Airborne
Asbestos in Buildings. Dale L. Keyes
and Jean Chesson. 1989. Environ-
mental Sciences, Inc., 105 E. Speed-
way Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85705.
  Testimony of NIOSH on the Occupa-
  tional Safety and Health
 Administration's Proposed Rule on
  Occupational Exposure to Asbestos,
  Tremolite, Anthophyllite, andActino-
  lite.  U.S. Department of Health and
 Human Services, Public Health
  Service, U.S. Centers for Disease
 Control, National Institute of Occupa-
 tional Safety and Health. June 1984,
 May 1990, and January 1991.
 NIOSH Docket Office, C-34, 4676
 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH

 A Guide to Respiratory Protection for
 the Asbestos Abatement Industry. **
 U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency. 1986. EPA560/OTS 86-001.

 Abatement of Asbestos-Containing
 Pipe Insulation. ** U.S. Environ-
 mental Protection Agency. 1986.
 Technical Bulletin No. 1986-2.

 Asbestos Abatement Projects: Worker
 Protection. 40 CFRPart 763. **
 U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency. February 1987.

 Asbestos Ban and Phaseout Rule. 40
 CFR Parts 763.160 to 763.179.**
 U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency. Federal Register, July 12,

Asbestos in Buildings: Guidance for
 Service and Maintenance Personnel
 (English/'Spanish). ** U.S. Environ-
 mental Protection Agency. 1985.
EPA 560/5-85-018. ("Custodial
Asbestos in Buildings: Simplified
Sampling Scheme for Surfacing
Materials. ** U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency.  1985. 560/5-85-
030A.  ("Pink Book").
Construction Industry Asbestos
Standard. 29 CFRPart 1926.58.
General Industry Asbestos Standard.
29 CFR Part 1910.1001.
 Guidance for Controlling Asbestos-
 Containing Materials in Buildings. **
 U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency.  1985. EPA 560/5-85-024.
 ("Purple Book").

 Guidelines for Conducting the
 AHERA TEM Clearance Test to
 Determine Completion of an Asbestos
 Abatement Project. ** U.S. Environ-
 mental Protection Agency.  EPA 560/

 Managing Asbestos In Place: A
 Building Owner's Guide to Opera-
 tions and Maintenance Programs for
 Asbestos-Containing Materials. **
 U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency. 1990.  ("Green Book").

 Measuring Airborne Asbestos
 Following An Abatement Action. *'*
 U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency. 1985. EPA 600/4-85-049.
 ("Silver Book").

 National Emission Standards for
 Hazardous Air Pollutants. 40 CFR
 Part 61. ** U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency. April 1984.
 Transmission Electron Microscopy
 Asbestos Laboratories: Quality
 Assurance Guidelines. ** U.S.
 Environmental Protection Agency.
 1989. EPA 560/5-90-002. Respiratory
 Protection Standard.  29 CFR Part

 Biological Contaminants

Mold Remediation in Schools and
Large Buildings.  * (scheduled to be
available 12/00) U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency.

Biological Pollutants in Your Home.
* webpage:
pubs/bio_l.html Prepared by: The
Consumer Product Safety Commis-
sion (CPSC), and the American Lung

Bioaerosols, Assessment and Control.
American Conference of Governmen-
tal Industrial Hygienists, Inc.  1999.
Cincinnati, Ohio. ISBN 1-882417-
29-1 phone 513-742-2020
Guidelines for the Assessment of
Bioaerosols in the Indoor Environ-
ment. American Council of Govern-
mental Industrial Hygienists.  1989.
6500 Glenway Avenue, Building D-7,
Cincinnati, OH 45211.


A Recommended Standard for
Occupational Exposure  to Polychlori-
natedBiphenyls. U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services. Public
Health Service. Centers  for Disease
Control.  National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health.
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 77-
225. 1977. Available from the
National Technical Information
Service, 5285 Port Royal Road,
Springfield, VA 22161.
Current Intelligence Bulletin 45:
Polychlorinated Biphenyls—Potential
Health Hazards from Electrical
Equipment Fires or Failures.  U. S.
Department of Health And Human
Services. Public Health Service.
Centers for Disease Control. National
Institute of Occupational Safety and
Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication
No. 86-111. 1977.  Available from
the National Technical Information
Service, 5285 Port Royal Road,
Springfield, VA 22161.
Transformers and the Risk of Fire: A
Guide for Building Owners. ** U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency.
1986.  OPA/86-001.
Building Management,
Investigation, and Remediation

*Building Air Quality: A Guide for
Building Owners and Facility
Managers. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and the U.S.
Department of Health and Human
Services December 1991.
Carpet and Indoor Air Quality in
Schools.  Maryland Department of
Education. October 1993. Maryland
State Department of Education,
Division of Business Services, School
Facilities Branch, 200 West Baltimore
Street, Baltimore, MD 21201.
Guidance for Indoor Air Quality
Investigations. ***  U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services.
Public Health Service. Centers for
Disease Control.  National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health.
Indoor Air Quality: Selected Refer-
ences. *** U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services.  Public Health
Service. Centers for Disease Control.
National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health. 1989.
Interior Painting and Indoor Air
Quality in Schools. Bruce Jacobs,
March 1994. Maryland State Depart-
ment of Education, Division of
Business Services, School Facilities
Branch, 200 West Baltimore Street,
Baltimore, MD 21201.
Managing Indoor Air Quality.
Shirley J. Hansen.  1991. Fairmont
Press, 700 Indian Trail, Lilburn, GA
Practical Manual for Good Indoor
Air Quality.  Hani Bazerghi and
Catherine Arnoult.  1989.  Quebec
Association for Energy Management.
1259 Bern Street, Suite 510,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H2L 4C7.
Science Laboratories and Indoor Air
Quality in Schools.  Bruce Jacobs.
March 1994. Maryland State Depart-
ment of Education, Division of
Business Services, School Facilities
Branch, 200 West Baltimore Street,
Baltimore, MD 21201.
The Practitioner's Approach to
Indoor Air Quality Investigations.
Proceedings of the Indoor Air Quality
International Symposium. Donald M.
Weekes and Richard B. Gammage.
1989. American Industrial Hygiene
Association, P.O. Box 8390, Akron
Ohio 44320.

Ventilation/Thermal Comfort

ASHRAE materials are available from
their Publication Sales Department,
1791 Tullie Circle, NE, Atlanta, GA
Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC
Supply Systems In Schools.  Arthur
Wheeler. December 1992.
Guideline for the Commissioning of
HVAC Systems. ASHRAE Guideline
1-1989. 1989. Several articles
describing ASHRAE Standard 62-
1989. ASHRAE Journal.  October,
Method of Testing Air-Cleaning
Devices Used in General Ventilation
for Removing Particulate Matter.
ASHRAE Standard 52-76.  1976.

Practices for Measurement, Testing,
Adjusting and Balancing of Building
Heating,  Ventilation, Air-Condition-
ing and Refrigeration Systems.
ASHRAE Standard 111-1988
Reducing Emission of Fully Haloge-
nated Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
Refrigerants in Refrigeration and Air
Condition Equipment and Applica-
tions. ASHRAE Guideline  HI-1990.

 Selecting HVAC Systems for Schools.
 Arthur Wheeler and Walter Kunz, Jr.
 October 1994. Maryland State
 Department of Education, Division of
 Business Services, School Facilities
 Branch, 200 West Baltimore Street,
 Baltimore, MD 21201.
 Thermal Environmental Conditions
for Human Occupancy.  ASHRAE
 Standard 55-1992.  1992.

 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air
 Quality,  ASHRAE Standard 62-1989.

 The  Ventilation Directory. National
 Conference of States on Building
 Codes and Standards, Inc., 505
Huntmar Park Drive, Suite 210,
Hemdon, VA 22070.  703-481-2020.
Summarizes natural, mechanical, and
exhaust ventilation requirements of
the model codes, ASHRAE standards,
and unique State codes.

Standards and Guidelines

Occupational Safety and Health.
U.S.  Department of Health and
Human Services, Public Health
Service, Centers for Disease Control,
National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health. Compendium of
Policy Documents and Statements.
DHHS  (NIOSH) Publications 91-109.
OSHA Standards for Air Contamin-
ants.  29 CFRPart 1910.1000.  U.S.
Department of Labor.  OSHA
Regulations. Available from the U.S.
Government Printing Office, Wash-
ington, DC 20402. 202-783-3238.
Additional health standards for some
specific air contaminants are also
available in Subpart Z.

Threshold Limit Values and Biologi-
cal Exposure Indices.  American
Conference of Government Industrial
Hygienists. 1990-1991.  6500
Glenway Avenue, Building D-7,
Cincinnati, OH 45211.

Glossary  and Acronyms
AHERA. Asbestos Hazard Emergency
Response Act
AHU. See "Air Handling Unit."

ASHRAE. American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-
Conditioning Engineers. See Appendix
I: Resources for more information.

ASTM.  Consensus standard-setting
organization. See Appendix I:
Resources for more information.

Action Packet.  Contains three
components - an introductory memo,
IAQ Backgrounder, and IAQ Checklist -
to assist school personnel to implement
an effective yet simple IAQ program in
their school.
Air Cleaning. An IAQ control strategy to
remove various airborne participates
and/or gases from the air. The three
types of air cleaning most commonly
used are  particulate filtration,
electrostatic precipitation, and gas
Air Exchange Rate. The rate at which
outside air replaces indoor air in a
space. Expressed in one of two ways:
the number of changes of outside air per
 unit of time - air changes per hour
 (ACH); or the rate at which a volume of
 outside air enters per unit of time - cubic
 feet per minute (cfm).
 Air Handling Unit (AHU). For purposes of
 this document refers to equipment that
 includes a blower or fan, heating and/or
 cooling coils, and related equipment
 such as controls, condensate drain pans,
 and air filters. Does not include
 ductwork, registers or grilles, or boilers
 and chillers.
 Antimicrobial. Agent that kills microbial
 growth.  See "disinfectant," "sanitizer,"
 and "sterilizer."
 BRI. See "Building-Related Illness."
Biological Contaminants. Biological
contaminants are produced by living
things. Common biological
contaminates include mold, dust mites,
pet dander (skin flakes), droppings and
body parts from cockroaches, rodents
and other pests or insects, viruses, and
bacteria.  Biological contaminants can
be inhaled and can cause many types of
health effects including allergic
reactions, respiratory disorders,
hypersensitivity diseases, and infectious
diseases. Also referred to as
"microbiologicals" or "microbials."  See
Appendix E: Typical Indoor Air
Pollutants for more information.
Building-Related Illness. Diagnosable
illness whose symptoms can be
identified and whose cause can be
directly attributed to airborne building
pollutants (e.g., Legionnaire's disease,
hypersensitivity pneumonitis).
Central AHU. See "Central Air Handling
Central Air Handling Unit For purposes of
this document, this  is the same as an Air
Handling Unit, but serves more than one
CFM. Cubic feet per minute. The amount
of air, in cubic feet, that flows through a
given space in one minute. 1 CFM equals
approximately 2 liters per second (1/s).
CO. Carbon monoxide. See Appendix E:
Typical Indoor Air Pollutants for more
C02,  Carbon dioxide. See Appendix C:
LAO Measuring Equipment, and
Appendix E:  Typical Indoor Air
Pollutants for more information.
 Conditioned Air. Air that has been heated,
 cooled, humidified, or dehumidified to
 maintain an interior space within the

  "comfort zone." (Sometimes referred
  to as "tempered" air.)
  Dampers.  Controls that vary airflow
  through an air outlet, inlet, or duct A
  damper position may be immovable,
  manually adjustable, or part of an
  automated control system.
  Diffusers and Grilles. Components of
  the ventilation system that distribute
  and return air to promote air
  circulation in the occupied space. As
  used in this document, supply air
  enters a space through a diffuser or
  vent and return air leaves a space
  through a grille.
  Disinfectants.  One of three groups of
  antimicrobials registered by EPA for
  public health uses. EPA considers an
 antimicrobial to be a disinfectant
 when it destroys or irreversibly
 inactivates infectious or other
 undesirable organisms, but not
 necessarily their spores. EPA
 registers three types of disinfectant
 products based upon submitted
 efficacy data: limited, general or
 broad spectrum, and hospital
 Drain Trap.  A dip in the drain pipe of
 sinks, toilets, floor drains, etc., which
 is designed to stay filled with water,
 thereby preventing sewer gases from
 escaping into the room.

 EPA. United States Environmental
 Protection Agency. See Appendix 1:
 Resources for more information.
 ETS. Environmental tobacco smoke.
 See Appendix E: Typical Indoor Air
 Pollutants, Appendix F: Secondhand
 Smoke, and Appendix I: Resources
 for more information.
 ExhaustVentilation. Mechanical
 removal of air from a building.
 Flow Hood. Device that easily
measures airflow quantity, typically
up to 2,500 cfm.
  HVAC.  Heating, ventilation, and air-
  conditioning system.

  Hypersensitivity Diseases. Diseases
  characterized by allergic responses to
  pollutants. The hypersensitivity
  diseases most clearly associated with
  indoor air quality are asthma, rhinitis,
  and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
  Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare
  but serious disease that involves
  progressive lung damage as long as
  there is exposure to the causative

  IAO, Indoor air quality.

  IAQ Backgrounder. A component of
  the Action Packet that provides a
  general introduction to IAQ issues, as
  well as IAQ program implementation

  IAQ Checklist A component of the
 Action Packet containing information
 and suggested easy-to-do activities
 for school staff to improve or maintain
 good indoor air quality. Each focuses
 on topic areas and actions that are
• targeted to particular school staff
 (e.g., teachers, administrators, kitchen
 staff, maintenance staff, etc.) or
 specific building functions (e.g.,
 HVAC system, roofing, renovation,
 etc.). The Checklists are to be
 completed by the staff and returned to
 the IAQ Coordinator as a record of
 activities completed and assistance as

 IAQ Coordinator. An individual at the
 school and/or school district level
 who provides leadership and
 coordination of IAQ activities.  See
 Section 3 for more information.

 IAQ Management Plan. A set of flexible
and specific steps for preventing and
resolving IAQ problems. See Section 6
for more information.

IAQ Team. People who have a direct
impact on IAQ in the schools (school
staff, administrators, school board
  members, students and parents) and
  who implement the IAQ Action
  Packets. See Section 3 for more

  IPM. Integrated pest management
  See Appendix D: Developing Indoor
  Air Policies for more information.

  Indoor Air Pollutant Particles and dust,
  fibers, mists, bioaerosols, and gases or
  vapors.  See Section 4 and Appendix
  E: Typical Indoor Air Pollutants for
  more information.

  MCS. See "Multiple Chemical

  Make-up Air.  See "Outdoor Air

  Microbiologicals. See "Biological

  Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. A
  condition in which a person reports
 sensitivity or intolerance (as distinct
 from "allergic") to a number of
 chemicals and other irritants at very
 low concentrations. There are
 different views among medical
 professionals about the existence,
 causes, diagnosis, and treatment of
 this condition.

 NIOSH.  National Institute for
 Occupational Safety and Health. See
 Appendix I: Resources for more

 Negative Pressure. Condition that
 exists when less air is supplied to a
 space than is exhausted from the
 space, so 'the air pressure within that
 space is less than that in surrounding
 areas. Under this condition, if an
 opening exists, air will flow from
 surrounding areas into the negatively
 pressurized space.

 OSHA. Occupational Safety and
Health Administration. See Appendix
I: Resources for more information.

Outdoor Air Supply. Air brought into a
building from the outdoors (often

through the ventilation system) that
has not been previously circulated
through the system.
PPM. Parts per million.
Plenum. Unducted air compartment
used to return air to central air
handling unit.

Pollutant Pathways. Avenues for
distribution of pollutants in a
building. HVAC systems are the
primary pathways in most buildings;
however all building components and
occupants interact to affect how
pollutants are distributed. See
Section 5 for more information.
Positive Pressure. Condition that
exists when more air is supplied to a
space than is exhausted, so the air
pressure within that space is greater
than that in surrounding areas. Under
this condition, if an opening exists, air
will flow from the positively
pressurized space into surrounding
Pressure, Static. In flowing air, the
total pressure minus velocity pressure.
The portion of the pressure that pushes
equally in all directions.
Pressure, Total. In flowing air, the sum
of the static pressure and the velocity
Pressure, Velocity. The pressure due
to the air flow rate and density of the
Preventive Maintenance. Regular and
systematic inspection, cleaning, and
replacement of worn parts, materials,
and systems. Preventive maintenance
helps to prevent parts, material, and
systems failure by ensuring that parts,
materials and systems are in good
working order.
Psychogenic Illness.  This syndrome
has been defined as a group of
symptoms that develop in an
individual (or a group of individuals in
the same indoor environment) who are
under some type of physical or
emotional stress. This does not mean
that individuals have a psychiatric
disorder or that they are imagining

Psychosocial Factors. Psychological,
organizational, and personal stressors
that could produce symptoms similar
to those caused by poor indoor air
Radon. A colorless, odorless gas that
occurs naturally in almost all soil and
rock.  Radon migrates through the soil
and groundwater and can enter
buildings through cracks or other
openings in the foundation. Radon
can also enter through well water.
Exposure to radon can cause lung
cancer.  See Appendix G: Radon for
more information. See Appendix E:
Typical Indoor Air Pollutants for
more information.
Re-entry.  Situation that occurs when
the air being exhausted from a
building is immediately brought back
into the system  through the air intake
and other openings in the building
SBS.  See "Sick Building Syndrome."
Sanitizer. One of three groups of anti-
microbials registered by EPA for
public health uses. EPA considers an
antimicrobial to be a sanitizer when it
reduces but does not necessarily
eliminate all the microorganisms on a
treated surface.  To be a registered
sanitizer, the test results for a product
must show a reduction of at least
99.9% in the number of each test
microorganism  over the parallel
Secondhand Smoke. See
Appendix F: Secondhand Smoke for
more information.
Short-circuiting. Situation that occurs
when the supply air flows to return or
exhaust grilles before entering the
breathing zone (area of a room where
people are). To avoid short-circuiting,
the supply air must be delivered at a
temperature and velocity that results in
mixing throughout the space.
Sick Building Syndrome. Term
sometimes  used to describe situations
in which building occupants
experience acute health and/or
comfort effects that appear to be
linked to time spent in a particular
building, but where no specific illness
or cause can be identified.  The
complaints may be localized in a
particular room or zone, or may be
spread throughout the building.
Soil Gases. Gases that enter a building
from the surrounding ground (e.g.,
radon, volatile organic compounds,
gases from  pesticides in the soil).
Sources. Sources of indoor air
pollutants.  Indoor air pollutants can
originate within the building or be
drawn in from outdoors. Common
sources include people, room
furnishings such as carpeting,
photocopiers, art supplies, etc.  (see
Section 5 for more information).
Stack Effect  The flow of air that
results from warm air rising, creating a
positive pressure area at the top of a
building and a negative pressure area
at the bottom of a building. The stack
effect can overpower the mechanical
system and disrupt ventilation and
circulation in a building.
Sterilizer. One of three groups of anti-
microbials registered by EPA for
public health uses. EPA considers an
antimicrobial to be a sterilizer when it
destroys or eliminates all forms of
bacteria, fungi, viruses, and their
spores. Because spores are considered
the most  difficult form of a
microorganism to destroy, EPA
considers the term sporicide to be
synonymous with "sterilizer."

TVOCs. Total volatile organic
compounds. See "Volatile Organic
Compounds (VOCs)"
Unit Ventilator. A single fan-coil unit
designed to satisfy tempering and
ventilation requirements for individual
VOCs.  See "Volatile Organic
Ventilation Air. Defined as the total air,
which is a combination of the air
brought inside from outdoors and the
air that is being recirculated within the
building. Sometimes, however, used
in reference only to the air brought
into the system from the outdoors;
this document defines this air as
"outdoor air ventilation."

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).
Compounds that vaporize (become a
gas) at room temperature. Common
sources which may emit VOCs into
indoor air include housekeeping and
maintenance products, and building
and furnishing materials. In sufficient
quantities, VOCs can cause eye, nose,
and throat irritations, headaches,
dizziness, visual disorders, memory
impairment; some are known to cause
cancer in animals; some are suspected
of causing, or are known to cause,
cancer in humans. At present, not
much is known about what health
effects occur at the levels of VOCs
typically found in public and
commercial buildings. See Appendix
E: Typical Indoor Air Pollutants for
more information.
Zone. The occupied space or group of
spaces within a building which has its
heating or cooling controlled by a
single thermostat.

air, (distribution, flow, movement of:)
    9-13, 38-41, 62-63
air filters
air handling unit
    10-12, 75
air pressure
    12-13, 77
    3, 9, 52-53
    See also Teacher's Checklist
art supplies
    See also Teacher's Checklist
    10, 35, 70-72
    11-12, 37, 39-40, 53, 55, 68, 70, 73
    i, 3, 25, 53, 61, 64, 67
    See also Health Officer/School
    Nurse Checklist
carbon dioxide
    41, 52-53, 75
carbon monoxide
    3, 25, 52-53, 75
    9, 18, 68
chemical smoke
cleaning agents
    i, 51, 54-55
    See also Building Maintenance
    and Teacher's Checklists
combustion appliances
    i, 52-54
    23-24, 33-34
complaints, IAQ
    27-28, 30-32
    16,21, 39-40, 53, 60
    See also Renovation and
    Repairs Checklist
biological contaminants
    52-53, 72, 75
building occupants
building-related illness
    See also Health Officer/School
    Nurse Checklist
diagnosing an IAQ problem
    63, 76

 drain trap
    9-10, 18, 52-54
 dust mites
    3, 52-53, 75

 emergency response
    5, 18, 25-26
 environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
    See secondhand smoke
 equipment, 1AQ basic measurement
 exposure control
    29-30, 52-55

    10, 12, 49, 63
    17, 54
    See also Food Service Checklist
    51, 54-55
fiime hoods
    20, 38, 76
health problems
    See also Health Officer/School
    Nurse Checklist
heating system
    38, 60, 63
    See HVAC or ventilation system
    7, 16, 29, 53
    See also Building
    Maintenance Checklist
    See ventilation system
IAQ, importance of
IAQ coordinator
    i,  1-2, 5-7, 15-24, 33-34, 76
IAQ Management Plan
    5-7, 15-22, 76
IAQ measurements
IAQ problems
    3, 5-7, 9-16, 18-22, 25-32
IAQ team
    5-7, 19, 76
integrated pest management
    17, 44-45, 55

    i,  18,20,47,51,54-55,70

local exhaust
locker room
    See also Teacher's Checklist

    i, 3-4, 6-7, 9, 16, 18, 25, 47, 53,
    63, 72, 76-78
    3, 9, 12, 20-21, 51-53, 61-64,

nitrogen oxides

    18, 39, 53, 66-67, 70, 74, 76
outdoor air intake
    20, 29, 37-38
outdoor air supply
     18, 20, 23, 29, 43, 46-47, 52, 54,
     See also Renovation and
     Repairs Checklist
     5, 7, 8, 23-36, 33-34, 43,
     46-47, 76
pest control
    17-18, 20, 44-45, 55, 69
    i, 9-10, 20, 44-45, 54-55,
    3-4, 9-10, 12-13, 14, 16, 25,
    72, 75-78
professional assistance

    10, 17, 20, 35, 39, 54-55,
    59-60, 66-67, 70-77
relative humidity
    7, 20-21, 23, 30, 40, 43, 60, 76
    See also Renovation and
    Repairs Checklist
    7, 9, 16, 23
 sample memo
 secondhand smoke
    14, 48-53, 57-58, 67,
    71-72, 76
 schools, unique aspects of
 science supplies
    See also Teacher's Checklist
 semi-volatile organic compounds
    54-55, 77
 sewer gases
    51, 54-55

 solving 1AQ problems
     3, 7, 9,15, 16, 21, 25-26,
     29-32, 35
     52-55, 61-62, 77-78
     25,28, 61
 start-up hints
    See also IAO Road Map

    3, 10-14, 20, 61-64
thermal bridges
thermal comfort
 unit ventilators
     10,20, 78
    i, 1, 6, 7, 9-14, 18, 25, 28-32, 39-41, 53,
    60, 62, 64, 67, 73-74, 76, 78
    See also Ventilation Checklist
 ventilation system
    5, 9-14, 17-18, 25, 27-30, 36-39, 43, 61,
    See also Ventilation Checklist
 VOC's (volatile organic compounds)
    10, 36, 54-55, 77-78
walkthrough inspection
    See also Walkthrough
    Inspection Checklist
    9-10, 17, 47, 54, 61-62, 66, 70, 76