CLEANER GASOLINE
PHASE I: A SUCCESS STORY

Phase I of the reformulated gasoline program was
conducted from 1995 through 1999.  During that time,
drivers in 17 states and the District of Columbia used
fuel blended to burn cleaner and reduce emissions.
Today, this cleaner-burning fuel represents about 30
percent of the gasoline sold in the  U.S.

The results of the Phase I program  are impressive.

   By using reformulated gasoline, drivers have
    cut emissions of pollutants that cause smog
    17 percent, compared to conventional gasoline.
   That 17 percent cut means that 64,000 tons of
    pollution are kept out of the air each year.
   Keeping 64,000 tons out of the air is like taking
    10 million cars that burn conventional gasoline off
    the road.
   Drivers  using reformulated gasoline have also
    cut emissions of toxic pollutants 17 percent.
   Benzene, a known cancer-causing compound, has
    been reduced 43  percent.

The graph below shows how drivers who use
cleaner-burning reformulated gasoline are helping to
reduce air pollution and protect the health of millions
of Americans.
  Phase I Impact of Reformulated Gasoline
  Amount of Annual Vehicle Emissions Reduced Since 1995
         Smog-forming Pollutants
         VOCs           NOx
Toxic Pollutants
                       2%
  Smog-forming Pollutant Reduction
  Equivalent in Automobile Reductions

      Phase I
  (1995-1999)
                               = 2 million automobiles
                        CLEANER GASOLINE
                        PHASE II: GREATER AIR BENEFITS

                        Phase II of the reformulated gasoline program begins
                        January 1, 2000. The formula for gasoline sold in cities
                        and states that participate in the reformulated gasoline
                        program will again be adjusted to help them move
                        toward cleaner air.

                        The Phase II program will further improve air quality
                        in cities with the worst smog.

                           It will remove an additional 41,000 tons of
                           smog-forming pollutants from the air, which is  like
                           taking 6 million cars that burn conventional
                           gasoline off the road. Two of the key smog-forming
                           pollutants are volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
                           and nitrogen oxide (NOx).  Compared to
                           conventional gasoline, Phase  II RFG will:
                           >~  Cut the release of VOCs 27 percent.
                           >~  Cut NOx emissions 7 percent.
                           It will cut emissions of toxic pollutants 22 percent.

                        The combined impact of Phase I and Phase II of the
                        reformulated gasoline program will be substantial.
                        Reducing emissions of smog-forming chemicals by
                        105,000 tons is the equivalent of taking about 16
                        million vehicles that burn conventional  gasoline off the
                        road, as shown in the graph below.
                         Phase II Impact of Reformulated Gasoline
                         Amount of Annual Vehicle Emissions Reduced Since 1995
                               Smog-forming Pollutants
                               VOCs           NOx
Toxic Pollutants
                                                                                7%
                         Smog-forming Pollutant Reduction
                         Equivalent in Automobile Reductions

                         Phase II
                           (2000)
                                                                                              22%
                                                       = 2 million automobiles

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Reformulated  Gas:
Providing  Cleaner Air
For All  Americans

In  1995, America took an important step to
help clean the air we breathe. We started
using gasoline blended to burn more cleanly,

that reduces emissions and cuts smog in
cities with the worst air quality.


The switch to "reformulated" gasoline

(RFG) was part of a national strategy
outlined by Congress in the Clean Air Act.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) has been working with states to

implement a two-phase reformulated
gasoline program to improve air quality.


Phase I  of the reformulated gasoline
program made great progress.  Between
1995 and 1999, it cut smog-forming pollutant

levels by about 17 percent compared to
conventional  gasoline in communities where
75 million people live and work.


Phase II, which begins January 1, 2000, takes
another step toward cleaner air. It will

reduce smog-forming pollutants 27 percent

more than conventional gasoline.
                                                    BASIC QUESTIONS ABOUT REFORMULATED GAS
Why do we need reformulated gasoline?
Since Congress passed the first Clean Air Act in 1970,
the U.S. has made tremendous progress in reducing air
pollution from gasoline-powered cars and trucks.
Today's vehicles are 98 percent cleaner than those on
the road 30 years ago.

Despite these improvements, cars and trucks still
cause much of the pollution in our cities. There are
twice as many cars on the road traveling twice as many
miles each year.

The reformulated gasoline program is helping to
reduce  pollution in areas with the worst air quality
problems.  Phase I of the program helped make
significant progress in cutting emissions that cause
smog and toxic air pollutants.  Phase II will help make
even more progress.

How does reformulated gasoline differ from
conventional gasoline?
Reformulated gasoline has the same components as
conventional gasoline. However, the components
that contribute most to air pollution are further
processed and refined. RFG is made in a way that
prevents it from evaporating as quickly as
conventional gasoline, and it contains chemical
oxygen, known as oxygenate, to improve combustion.
Reformulated gasoline performs at the same level as
conventional gasoline and meets the power
requirements of all gasoline vehicles.

How does Phase II reformulated gasoline differ
from Phase I reformulated gasoline?
Manufacturers will process and refine the components
of Phase II reformulated gasoline to further reduce
those that contribute most to air pollution.

Will Phase II gasoline cost more?
EPA estimates it will cost one or two cents more per
gallon to produce Phase II reformulated gasoline than
Phase I. The slightly higher cost may be reflected at
the pump in some cities, depending upon a variety of
national, regional, and local market conditions.  It is
important to note that retail prices may be higher and
more changeable at the start of the Phase II program.
   Where will Phase II RFG
   be used?
   The Clean Air Act requires
   those metropolitan areas with
   the worst smog problems to
   participate in the reformulated
   gasoline program. Many
   communities and states also
   have opted to  participate in
   Phase II voluntarily. The State
   of California implements  its
   own reformulated gasoline
   program; in effect since 1996,
   it already meets the EPA  Phase
   II RFG requirements. Shaded
   areas are federal reformulated
   gasoline areas.
Will Phase II gasoline affect engine performance?
EPA tested Phase II RFG using fleets of cars and trucks
in Boston, Chicago, and Houston, logging more than
one million miles. Those tests document that vehicle
performance with Phase II gasoline is as good as with
Phase I gasoline.  Tests on small engines, motorcycles
and marine engines showed similar results.

Will Phase II gasoline affect my gas mileage?
In EPA testing, vehicles using Phase II reformulated
gasoline achieved the same miles-per-gallon
performance as those using Phase I fuel.

What should I know about health effects of
reformulated gasoline components?
A 1998 study for a coalition of northeastern state
air officials, NESCAUM, demonstrated that RFG
substantially reduced the relative cancer risk associated
with gasoline vapors by 12 percent in Phase I. The
study estimates that in Phase II, cancer risks will  drop
19 percent.

Does MTBE in RFG  pose a health threat?
In July 1999, a blue ribbon panel of independent
experts convened by EPA recommended that the use
of the oxygenate MTBE should be reduced without
sacrificing the gains made in achieving cleaner air.
MTBE has been detected in groundwater in some
areas, usually as a result of leaking underground
gasoline storage tanks. In most cases, MTBE
concentrations are below levels of public health
concern.  Even at minute concentrations, however,
MTBE produces a strong taste and odor that may make
a water supply distasteful.  EPA is improving
regulations governing the storage and handling  of
gasoline to prevent MTBE and other chemicals from
leaking into water supplies.  EPA is also working with
Congress to provide a targeted legislative solution that
maintains the air quality benefits of RFG while allowing
reductions in the use of MTBE.

For more information about RFG, visit us on the
Internet at: www.epa.gov/oms/rfg.htm
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