United States          Air and Radiation  EPA420-K-99-001
  Environmental Protection                August 1999

  Office of Mobile Sources
                        Congestion  Mitigation
                               and  Air Quality
                    *  Improvement Program

                             Success Stories
EPA's Transportation Air Quality Center

 l       introduction	3

         Profile 1:   Giving a Boost to Ridesharing with Financial Incentives
         Advantage Rideshare Program: Riverside Comity, California	5
.;        Profile 2:   Encouraging Transit Use on High Ozone Days
 ;'       Clean Air Action Program: Houston, Texas	7

         Profile 3:   Bridging the Gap  between Daycare and Transit
         Tamien Child Care Center: Santa Clara, California	9

         Profile 4:   Helping Businesses Connect Commuters toTransportation
         Commuter Connections Employer Outreach Program:
         Washington DC Metro Area	H
         Profile 5:  The Catalyst for Innovative Suburban Transit Solutions
         Ozaukee County Express Bus: Milwaukee, Wisconsin	                    13
 |        Profile 6:  Support for Carpooling Saves Transportation Infrastructure Costs
 I                  and Improves Air Quality
 |        Emory University Rideshare: Atlanta, Georgia	 15

         Profile 7:   Cutting Employers' Payroll Costs and Expanding Commuter Choices
         TransitChek®: New York, New York	17

         Profile 8:   A Public-Private Partnership for Clean Vehicle Technologies
         Alternative Fuels Taxicab Program: New York, New York	19

         Profile 9:   Building a Comprehensive Approach to  Bicycle Transportation
         New York's City-wide Bicycle Network Development Project:
         New York, New York	21

         Profile 10: Connecting Commuter Rail to Suburban Employers
        Shuttle Bug: Chicago, Illinois	23

                  Highlighted  CMAQ Project  Locations
                                        Reverse commuting

                                         Suburban transit
Alternative fuels

  Bicycle mode
                                                               Transit incentives
                                                                     A. Employer outreach
                                                              Institutional carpooling
Transit convenience
                                           Public education

GV1AQ  Projects  in the Spotlight'

The Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) program
was created under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991
(ISTEA) to provide federal money for transportation-projects that reduce criteria
pollutant emissions in areas of die country that experience air quality problems.
Funding for CMAQ totaled $6 billion over die six-year life of ISTEA, and will add
$8.1 billion over the life of the Transportation Efficiency Act for the 21st Century
(TEA-21); the successor Act to ISTEA.

Many of die projects funded by CMAQ help to make auto travel cleaner by
elimating stop and go traffic conditions. From its beginning, however, die CMAQ
program has also been a key building block for securing cleaner air by enhancing
die nation's multimodal transportation system. This brochure, however, puts the
spotlight on exemplary CMAQ projects that encourage alternatives to driving
alone and technologies diat make auto travel cleaner.

As die following projects show, across die nation, the diversity of ways in which
CMAQ dollars help improve air quality and enhance mobility is impressive;
ranging from funding for transit accessible day care to innovative financial tools
that encourage use of alternative fuel vehicles. Some projects involve non-tradi-
tional partners like business or community groups, while odiers focus on improv-
ing the convenience of non-drive alone travel modes. Many of these projects are
also opening up die planning process in order to share with and gain additional
insights from a more diverse and non-traditional selection of interest groups.

The benefits of die CMAQ program, and particularly projects diat promote
alternatives to drive alone travel, extend beyond air quality improvements and
congestion reduction. Many CMAQ projects help to support other transporta-
tion-related policies such as welfare to work, economic  development, and commu-
nity livability initiatives. For this reason, die true cost effectiveness of CMAQ
projects (in terms of pollution control) is often difficult to estimate. Unless die
allocation of costs to each of tiiese objectives is taken into account, pollution
control cost-effectiveness estimates will not be accurate. As a result, a cost effec-
tiveness calculation has not been attempted in this publication.

This booklet examines a handful of projects that state and local CMAQ program
officials from around the nation have identified as particularly innovative or
successful. Many have been honored with awards or recognition in the media.
They provide valuable ideas and lessons to consider for odiers responsible for
proposing or implementing CMAQ projects.

Profile 1

Advantage  Rideshare Program

Riverside County, California
Project Lead: Riverside County Transportation Commission

In Riverside County, California, a suburb of Los Angeles located about six miles
north of the city, local officials have created Advantage Rideshare, an innovative
financial incentive-based carpool program that helps address the area's traffic
problems, caused in part by a regional imbalance of jobs and housing.

As home prices have grown in the region's employment hubs of Orange County
and Los Angeles, many workers have opted to live further away in areas like
Riverside County and the so-called 'Inland-Empire' is booming with residential
development. In fact, one-third of Riverside County commuters travel to
workplaces outside the county, causing traffic jams along State Route  91 (SR-91),
which provides the only direct access to adjacent counties.

In 1989, Riverside County voters approved "Measure A," which increased the
county's sales tax by l/2 of 1 percent for 20 years to pay for congestion-related
transportation improvements. Advantage Rideshare began in 1991, as part of the
Measure A initiative and has been operated continuously since.

Advantage Rideshare is operated by the Riverside County Transportation Com-
mission (RCTS). The program offers a financial incentive to motivate  Riverside
County residents who currently drive alone to and from work to use alternative
modes of transportation. Since the program began, the annual budget for the
program has been funded from a variety of sources, including CMAQ dollars. The
budget covers marketing, administration and the cost of providing financial

The centerpiece of the program is a subsidy to those who currently drive alone to
work and switch to alternative modes. They are eligible for $2 in gift certificates -
redeemable at a local shopping mall or grocery store - for each day they use
another commute mode during their first three months in the program. After six
months in the program, participants become eligible for a 'club ride' membership
card good for merchant discounts at local area restaurants and business establish-
ments. The Advantage Rideshare program is widely promoted at employers'
worksites through customized flyers, rideshare fairs, and presentations to manage-
ment teams or employees.

A comprehensive tracking study conducted by an independent consultant demon-
strates the effectiveness of the program - approximately 79 percent of participants
continue to rideshare after their first three months and since 1993 over 7,000
commuters have participated in the program. The Advantage Rideshare program
was honored by EPA with a 'Way to Go' award in 1996.
Cost and Funding (total: $417,443)
Estimated Emissions Reduction
                                         I 2.0

Tanya Love, Program Manager
Riverside County Transportation Commission
Tel: 909-341-3576

 Houston, Texas
 Project Leads: Houston METRO a-nd Houston-Gctlveston Area, Council

 The Clean Air Action Program is an innovative program in the Houston-
 Galveston Area that is designed to educate the public about the region's ozone
 problem and to encourage appropriate voluntary actions to reduce emissions from
 motor vehicles. One of the most successful elements of the Clean Air Action
 Program has been the "August is Clean Air Month" transit fare subsidy campaign.

 Established by the Houston-Galveston Area Council (HGAC) to assist the eight
 county areas in attaining compliance with federal ozone standards, the Clean Air
Action Program encourages the public to take steps to reduce emissions from. ..
motor vehicles through proper vehicle maintenance, vehicle trip reduction, and
combining errands. Daily information on ozone watches and warnings is carried
on the Clean Air Action web site, and messages promote ridesharing, vanpooling,
and use of transit. CMAQ funds have been used to fund the program, and a  -•'
voluntary public-private initiative composed of local governments, businesses,
environmental and health organization, and interested citizens called the Clean Air
Coalition works to promote the program.

In 1997, in a coordinated effort with the Metropolitan Transit Authority
(METRO), all transit fares were subsidized by 50 percent during August, which
typically has the highest number of ozone exceedence days. The program was an • •!
experimental CMAQ project and proved so successful that it was approved fora-' ••' •
second year of funds.1 Research showed a dramatic 26 percent increase in August •
1997 fixed-route transit ridership compared to August 1996  figures. August 1998
fixed route ridership was up another 5  percent over the record August 1997

  CMAQ funding requirements allow transit-operating costs, such, as wages and salaries, to be funded for upA
  to three years.

 ridership — an'increase of more than 390,000 boardings. In 1997, for the first
 time in METRO'S history, fixed route ridership exceeded 8.5 million passenger
 boardings in a single month, topping this historic mark with a total of 8.654
 million boardings in August 1998.

 According to METRO'S evaluation, introducing people to transit through the
 half-price program in combination with the ozone public education campaign has
 been successful at improving year-round ridership. Survey results from the 1998
 event and retention rates from similar reduced fare promotions such as "Try
 METRO Week" indicate that at least half of new riders continue to ride METRO
 following a significant fare promotion. Trends in average number of passenger
 trips per weekday indicate that the months following the 1998 Clean Air Month
 half-fares also showed significant growth in transit ridership, reaching double digit
 or near double digit growth in most months.

 "We are very pleased with the results,"  said Alan C. Clark, Transportation MPO
 Director. "We were able to encourage a significant number of people to get out of
 their cars and get on a bus during a month when we historically have the greatest
 number of hazardous ozone exceedance days." The Houston-Galveston Area
 Council sees the program as a strategic element of its plan to attain the ozone
 standard by 2007 and has included the program in the Metropolitan Transporta-
 tion Plan through the attainment year.

 FHWA recognized the extensive evaluation effort in awarding the Houston-
 Galveston Area Council's Air Quality Program its 1999 Environmental Excellence
Award for Environmental Research.
Cost and Funding (total: $7,000,000)
Estimated Emissions Reduction
Nancy Bentch, Program Manager
Houston-Galveston Area Council
Tel: 713-993-4582

 Profile 3
 Tamien Child  Care Center
 Santa Clara, California
 Project Lead: Santa Clara. Valley Transportation Authority

 Using transit to commute is often difficult for working parents who must stop by
 day care and take care of errands on their way to and from work. So when Caltrain
 decided to build a major new transit-hub to serve the commuter rail line to San
 Jose and San Francisco, and the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority
 (VTA) bus and light rail system, Santa Clara County Supervisor Zoe Lofgren
 sought to include an onsite child day care center as part of the project. Positive
 results from a market feasibility study by the County helped build the case for
 funding this first of a kind facility, which provides a unique bundling of day care
 services and access to transit. Since opening in late 1995, the center has received
                local and national recognition (see sidebar), and VTA reports that
                          it receives at least one call a month from other areas
                              .        ....                     .
                              interested in learning more about how to imple-
                                 ment similar projects.
Tamien Childcare
 Center Awards:
In May 1999, the NAEYC
accredited the Center. (Only 5% of
child care centers nationwide possess
this accreditation.) In April 1996,
it was awarded the "Outstanding
Provider Award" by the City of San
Jose.  Also in 1996, VTA received a
proclamation from the San Jose City
Council as an ''Outstanding
Contributor to Child Care".
                          \   As an experimental pilot, CMAQ funds
                           W  were used for construction of the Tamien
                            % Child Care Center. It is operated by
                                Bright Horizons Family Solutions, a
                              w  nationally known child care provider,
                              l»  under contract to VTA. The facilities
                             141 are provided by VTA on a no cost lease
                            jl   basis to Bright Horizons, who in turn
                               covers the entire cost of operating the
                               center through enrollment fees.

To encourage commuters with young children to use public transit, a comprehen-
sive Transit Incentive Program was established at the Center. The program
provides a 50 percent discount on monthly transit passes for the first three months
that a family uses the Center; as well as priority enrollment and discounted fees;
and waiver of late fees if lateness in picking up child is due to transit service delays.
The Center also offers free morning coffee for parents, family evening meals to go,
drop-off dry cleaning service and shoe repair, on-site children's hair cuts, on-site
sale of transit passes, and on-site family social events. The co-location of transit,
quality day care, and convenient services made transit a more attractive commuting

A progress survey conducted on the Center's one-year anniversary shows that it
has helped improve mobility and has shifted commute mode share away from
single occupant vehicles among both families using the Center and the daycare
staff. Among the parents of children, commute mode split for transit increased
from 11 percent to 17 percent (a 54 percent increase in transit share) and among
staff, transit mode split increased from 11 percent to 30 percent (a 190 percent
increase in transit share). Drive alone auto mode share dropped from 83 percent to
77 percent for parents and from 80 percent to 70 percent for staff. In addition, the
survey shows that users of the facility are very satisfied, with 100 percent of the
parents rating services at the center as "good" or "excellent." As one parent
responded, "the Center is fantastic!"
 Cost and Funding (total: $2,350,000)

Estimated Emissions Reduction

  ».  0.08
  >*  0.06
  «  0.04

  >-  0.02

 Julie Render, Principal Transportation Planner
 Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority
 Tel: 408-321-5744

 Profile 4

 Commuter Connections

 Employer Outreach Program

 Washington DC Metro Area
 Project Lead: Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments

 The Washington DC region's Commuter Connections program was developed in
 response to Clean Air Act Amendments legislation that required areas with poor
 air quality to reduce drive alone commuter travel. With the help of CMAQ funds,
 the program now includes a dedicated "employer outreach" sales force that
 promotes Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies directly to
 employers in the region.2 Virginia, Maryland and the District of Columbia jointly
 help to support the program.

 Employers can access Commuter Connections services simply by dialing an easy-
 to-remember 800 number (745-RIDE). Outreach staff, also market Commuter
 Connections to employers and are available to conduct on-site business informa-
 tion and assistance sessions on a variety of topics including the following:

 •   Tax-free commute benefits (such as transit subsidies and discounted
    carpool/vanpool parking)
 •   Guaranteed ride home and ride matching services
 0   Employee commute habit surveys
 9   Transit
 •   Telework programs
•   Training for on-site transportation manager
•   Bicycle commuting
  CMAQ funding requirements allow transit-operating costs, such as wages and salaries, to be funded for up
  to three years.

 In 1997, which was its first
 year of operation, Com-
 muter Connections
 outreach staff mailed
 out almost 3,600
 packets of informa-
 tion, participated in
 over 100 on-site
 meetings with
 employers, and
 conducted 5 8
 surveys aimed at
 employers. As a
 result of these
 efforts, 15 employers
 established new transit
 benefit programs, 12
 commuter information
 displays were installed at
        ^/       Success Stories
      A *    1- When George Mason University's    -^
      >*  Arlington camfits lost its only on-site parking ~^^
       lot in January of 1996 it hired a full-time parking
     information coordinator and established parking
    assistance resource center, which stocked information on
   alternative modes. TH encourage use of alternative transpor-
  tation, the cam fits provides discounted, fare media and bicycle
2.  UK Culvert Group, an investment company located in
Bethesda, Maryland, has subsidized both public transpor-
 tation and parking since 1987. The company recently
 instituted a cap on the reimbursement of parking costs
   while continuing transit subsidies. As a result about 25
    percent of all employees now commute via public
      transportation. In 1993, the company started
        subsidising those employees who walked or
           hiked to work by paying for walking
               shoes or a bicycle.
employer work sites, and 43
on-site commuter information
fairs were held.
Annually, the Commuter Connections program provides recognition awards for
companies that have developed outstanding commuting programs. In 1998, the
winners included George Mason University and the Calvert Group (see sidebar).
Cost and Funding (total: $928,200)
                    Estimated Emissions Reduction
Nicholas Ramfos, Program Manager
Commuter Connections Program,
Tel: 202-962-3313

 Profile  5
 Ozaukee County Express Bus

 Milwaukee, Wisconsin
 Project Lead: Ozaukee County, Wisconsin
 Connecting people to jobs, improving mobility, and improving air quality are all
 outcomes of the nationally recognized Ozaukee Express bus service. The project
 was founded as an innovative partnership between employers and state and local
 government and it uses a mix of private and public funds to pay for new local
 transit service.

 The Ozaukee Express targets "reverse commuters," a population that is not easily
 served by traditional bus systems. In the Milwaukee metro region, as in other
 metropolitan areas, demand for labor is growing in suburban areas like Ozaukee
 County, while unemployment remains higher in the urban core. By providing
 convenient transit service, dependence on autos for mobility can be reduced in
 areas where a car is usually the only option for travel.

 The Ozaukee Express service operates between several boarding points on
 Milwaukee's near south side and Park-and-Ride lots in suburban Ozaukee County
 to the north. Shuttle vans meet express buses at the lots to take passengers to.
 employment sites in six communities in Ozaukee County. Since beginning service
 three years ago, the Express Bus has grown from its initial six to twelve round trips
 per day. Average daily ridership now stands at 372 trips per day, which dramatically
 exceeds the initial prediction of 19 trips per day. About 70 percent of the riders
 travel from Milwaukee to jobs in Ozaukee County, the remaining 30 percent travel
 to jobs or school in downtown Milwaukee.

A recent customer satisfaction survey reveals riders use the Express bus for a wide
variety of reasons. One rider describes how the bus "eliminates the hassle of

 driving in heavy traffic," while another points out "its economical, very conve-
 nient. .. and it's good for the environment."

 The Ozaukee County Economic Development Corporation and its employer-led
 Ozaukee County Transportation Management Association was responsible for
 establishing the project, and keeping it on track. Funding for operation of the
 service comes from a mix of federal transit operating assistance, passenger fare
 revenues, CMAQ, andlocal employers.3 In 1998, employers paid 70 percent of
 the local share, with the county paying 30 percent. Having built a solid ridership
 base over the last three years, management of the Ozaukee Express was recently
 turned over to the County, which will continue to operate the program.

 According to the project's proponents, the success of the Ozaukee Express is
 attributable to support from a diverse mix of public and private participants,
 whose wide range of agendas include economic development, environmental
 quality, and welfare to work.

 3  CMAQ funding requirements allow transit-operating costs, such as wages and salaries, to be funded for up
   to three years.
 Cost and Funding (total: $234,375)
Estimated Emissions Reduction

 Sharon Oilman, Director of Transit Services
 Ozaukee County Government
 Tel: 414-284 8194


 Profile 6

 Emory University Rideshare

 Atlanta, Georgia
 Project Lead: Emory University

 Located approximately seven miles east of downtown Atlanta, Emory University
 suffers some of the region's worst traffic congestion, according to an Atlanta
 Regional Commission (ARC) Study. Members of the Emory University commu-
 nity, however, are working together to offer a broad range of commuting options
 to meet the university's parking challenges and to help address the Atlanta region's
 traffic and air quality problems.

 Emory University's Department of Community Services has planned and devel-
 oped a comprehensive transportation management plan that includes financial
 incentives for University employees who choose alternative modes of transporta-
 tion, such as  carpools, vanpools, and rapid transit for commuting. Funding for this
• project comes from a CMAQ grant that is administered by ARC and is intended to
 encourage transportation demand management strategies at Emory and several
 other university campuses in the Atlanta region too.

 The University Rideshare program is designed to relieve traffic congestion and
 parking demand on campus through ride-matching services, financial incentives,
 and information. Two-person carpools are eligible for parking at a cost of $100 a
 year, which is less than half the cost of most Emory University parking assign-
 ments. Car and vanpools of three persons or more are eligible for a $38 per month
 subsidy and free parking, which is at least a $700 value. In case vanpool or carpool
 riders need to drive their own car to work, Community Services issues one parking
 pass per month; additional passes are available at a discounted rate. In addition to
 the carpooling program, Emory also provides monthly discounted transit
 farecards to over one thousand University employees, and to facilitate travel
 around the large campus for those without access to a vehicle, a campus shuttle-
 service has been initiated.

 Approximately 400 university employees are now carpooling to work, and the
 success of the transit pass and carpooJing programs has allowed the University to
 forgo construction of an expensive new parking facility.

 Regional planning agencies and business have taken note of the program's success.
 "The Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) has held Emory's alternate transporta-
 tion up as a model," says Cheryl Crumley, Director of Emory's Rideshare pro-
 gram. "When ARC began its Commute Connections Program, they wanted to get
 other businesses to do what Emory's doing in the alternate transportation arena."
 Bill Minter, director of the region's 'Commute Connections' program sees the
 Emory program as "essential because they address behavioral changes."
 Cost and Funding  (total: $1,283,000)
 *' This figure includes MARTA passes,
   parking subsidy and shuttle bus service;
   cost of administering program estimated
   at approximately 4250,000/year
 Cheryl J. Crumley, Director
 Department of Community Services
 Emory .University
 Tel: 404-727-7638
Estimated Emissions Reduction
                                                     voc     NOX

 Profile  7


 New York, New York
 Project Lead: TransitCenter

 The New York metro region has one of the most extensive public transit systems in
 the world. And all over the New York-New Jersey-Connecticut tri-state area, more
 and more companies are using TransitCenter's TransitChek® to help employees
 get to work by transit for less money and save on company taxes.

 TransitCenter was started in 1986. As an innovative public-private alliance
 between the region's businesses and transit operators, it's mission is to encourage
 greater use of public and private transit services in order to improve mobility,
 reduce traffic congestion and air pollution, and support the region's economy.
 Pounding partners include the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA),
 New Jersey Transit Corporation, PATH (an operating subsidiary of the Port
Authority of New York and New Jersey), and the New York City Partnership and
 Chamber of Commerce.

TransitChek is one of TransitCenter's most successful programs. It provides a
convenient and economical way for employers to offer transit benefits to their
employees. Before the advent of TransitChek, employers offering transit passes to
their staff had to purchase passes, tickets, or tokens separately from each transit
agency in the region. Now, employers purchase TransitChek vouchers from
TransitCenter and distribute them to their employees, who can exchange them for
transit passes at more than 60 transit operators and vanpool services. Since
TransitChek vouchers are paid for on a pre-tax basis, employees receive substantial
tax savings, typically over $200 per year, while employers save on payroll taxes.

 CMAQ funding has allowed TransitCenter to hire eight sales staff to market
 TransitChek and assist companies in using the program.4 With the grant,
 TransitCenter has been able to expand marketing activities to the entire New York
 ozone nonattainment area, opening sales offices in various parts of the region, and
 extending its marketing activities beyond its initial New York City base.

 As a result of these CMAQ funded efforts, TransitCenter was able to substantially
 increase awareness of TransitChek, to increase the number of companies providing
 the tax incentive to their employees, to increase transit ridership, and to reduce
 auto use. Between 1993 and 1995, TransitChek sales increased by 78 percent. In
 1996, sales increased to $42.5 million, or a 39% increase over 1995. This trend has
 continued through 1998. The number of companies participating in TransitChek
 is also increasing. Currently, close to 10,000 organizations are participating
 including Colgate-Palmolive Company, Fidelity Investments and the Securities &
 Exchange Commission.
 *  CMAQ funding requirements allow transit-operating costs, such as wages and salaries, to be funded for up
   to three years.
 Cost and Funding (total: $1,700,000)
Estimated Emissions Reduction
  re  25
  a,  -»

  S  20
  ? 15
  o  10
Larry Filler, President and CEO
Tel: 212-329-2000

 Profile  8
 New York, New York
 Project Leads: New York State Energy Research and. Development Authority,
 New York City Department of Transportation

 New York City is known for its taxis, which are privately operated but which
 provide a great deal of the city's public transportation. Over 12,000 taxis travel the.
 streets of New York City every day, and taxis account for over 10 percent of all
 vehicle miles traveled.

 The New York City Alternative Fuels Taxicab program is an innovative program
 that encourages taxicab owners to convert their vehicles to run on compressed
 natural gas (CNG) or to purchase a dedicated CNG vehicle. The original idea for
 the project began with City government. The City partnered with the New York
 State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) for technical
 assistance and eventually asked the state authority to run the program. The
 program also includes a number of private partners, including a major auto
 manufacturer, regional energy providers, private taxi owners and drivers, the New
York City Taxi and Limousine Commission, and private system installers.

 Under the program, a taxicab owner can bring a conventional taxicab to a certified
 conversion shop, which will install equipment to convert a conventional vehicle to
 a bi-fuel vehicle. The conversion shop is then reimbursed for the cost of the
 conversion, and there is no cost to the cab owner. Taxi''owners must sign a
statement assuring that they will operate the vehicle on natural gas for the life of
the vehicle. Alternatively, the taxicab owner can purchase a dedicated CNG vehicle
and are then reimbursed for the incremental cost of approximately $6,000 per
vehicle, so that the purchase price for the CNG vehicle is about the same price as a

  comparable gasoline cab. The cab operator also benefits from reduced costs since
  CNG is cheaper than gasoline.

  The program was established with CMAQ funds. About three-quarters of CMAQ
  funds go directly toward the vehicle subsidy. The remainder of funds have been set
  aside for the development of refueling stations; monitoring and testingvehid.es;
  and program planning, management, and reporting. Early project implementation
  issues regarding fuel availability have been resolved by providing larger fuel tanks;
  and despite concerns about loss of trunk space, these measures have not hindered
  the overall progress of the program.

  The program is a partnership between the public and private sectors, and its
  example has been an impetus to broaden the eligibility of CMAQ funds for other
  types of innovative public-private partnerships. CMAQ funds pay for about 80
  percent of the incremental cost of a new CNG vehicle or conversion, with the
  remaining 20 percent coming from program partners. For example, Keyspan
  Energy, a private company, provides the 20 percent match for converted vehicles
  that will fuel at their CNG station sites. As a result of the program, a taxi fleet of
  300 CNG vehicles is in operation. Of these, 165 are bi-fuel conversions and 135
 are dedicated fuel vehicles.

 The program is a catalyst for expanding the market for clean vehicle technologies
 to light-duty vehicles. The program was awarded a certificate of environmental
 achievement by Renew America and received a 1998 National Clean Cities Partner
 Cost and Funding (total: $3,940,000)
       Estimated Emissions Reduction
 Mark Simon
 New York City Department
  of Transportation
 (212) 442-0543
New York City Taxi and
 Limousine Commission
(718) 267-4599

 Profile 9

 New York's City-wide

 Bicycle Network Development Project

 New York, New York
 Project Leads: New Tork City Department of Transportation,
 New York City Department of 'City Planning

 New York City's Bicycle Network Development (END) project is recognized as
 one of the nation's most ambitious non-motorized transportation planning
 initiatives, and it is laying the foundation for a 900-mile city-wide bike network.
 Begun in 1994, the centerpiece of this joint effort between the New York City
 Department of City Planning and Department of Transportation is the Bicycle
 Master Plan. The Master Plan was developed in close coordination with key
 constituencies including advocacy organizations, community boards, elected
 officials, and the bicycling community. CMAQ funds are being used to assist in the
 implementation of the Master Plan.

 A Technical Advisory Committee (TAG) composed of representatives of City
 agencies, the Boroughs, state and local transportation agencies, bicycle advocacy
 groups, and citizens facilitated public involvement in the development of the
 Master Plan. In addition, presentations on the draft network were made to the
 Borough Boards, and as the designs for specific routes advanced, affected commu-
 nities were also brought into the design process.

 The Bicycle Master Plan focuses on four key themes for promoting bicycling:
 encouragement, engineering, enforcement, and education. It includes develop-
ment of promotional literature and events (encouragement), development and
maintenance of bicycle facilities in all five of New York's boroughs (engineering),
enhancement of bicycle safety and respect for cyclists (education), and prevention
of bicycle theft and policing of traffic (enforcement).

  The Master Plan identifies priority on-street routes and off-street facilities, with a
  specific focus on river bridge crossings, access to transit, and bicycle parking.
  Selection of priority routes was based on ease of connection to an existing system,
  potential for high volume use, geographic balance, and reasonable implementation
  cost. Much of the 900-mile network identified in the plan can be implemented
  through routine rehabilitation of the city's infrastructure.

  The development of a comprehensive network for non-motorized transportation
  options is expected to increase bicycling activity significantly and reduce emissions
  by diverting some people from using motor vehicles. It is also seen as a benefit to
  the region's quality of life. At the time of the Bicycle Master Plan's development,
  there were approximately 119 miles of bicycle facilities in New York City. Within a
  little over a year of the Plan's release, the total mileage of on-street bike lanes had
  increased by 85 percent. Bicycle facilities are expected to support not only bicy-
  cling but also in-line skating, which the plan recognizes as an increasingly popular
  form of transportation and recreation.

  Counts of bicyclists in Manhattan show a 15 to 20 percent increase in bicycling
  activity since the program's inception. The project was awarded the 1999 Envi-
  ronmental Excellence Award for Non-Motorized Transportation by Federal
  Highway Administration. Phase II of die END, now underway, will ensure that
  needed capital investments take place and that better ways to track bicycle use are
 Cost and Funding (total: $5,290,000)
 Estimated Emissions Reduction
 Note: About $60 million has been
 authorized for implementing various aspects of
 the bicycle plan, including development of new
 bike routes and greenways.

 John Benfatti, Bicycle Planner
 New York City Department of
 Tel: 212-442-9890

   „ 40
   I" 20

  H 10


Profile 10
Lake Cook Shuttle Bug
Chicago, Illinois
Project Lend: Transportation Management Association of Lake-Cook

The Shuttle Bug was started in 1996 as a CMAQ "demonstration" project that
used shuttle buses to connect commuter rail riders with suburban employers. Now
in its third year of funding, the project has proven to be a success, with increases in
daily ridership necessitating a shift from 15-seat to 26-seat buses and new routes

Metra, the Chicago region's rail service, has nearly 1.5 million boardings per week.
Most of Metra's riders travel to downtown destinations. For those who work in
Chicago's fast growing suburbs like the Lake Cook Road area however, campus
style office and industrial parks often require automobile transportation, even in
areas served by rail transit. And as travel grows, traffic corridors such as Lake
Cook Road are clogging up quickly.

Growing traffic problems have led several employers in the area to form the
Transportation Management Association (TMA) of Lake Cook. The TMA's
support for innovative solutions to congestion provided the catalyst for establish-
ing a free shuttle that connects a new local Metra station to major employers
nearby, like Underwriters Laboratories, Walgreens, and Morgan Stanley Dean
Witter. In fact, employer contributions help to  make up the local match for the
CMAQ grant used to meet the cost of operating shuttles. The Shuttle Bug also
receives support from Metra.

The Shuttle Bug is operated by Pace, Chicago's suburban bus service, and CMAQ
funds are used to help cover the cost of operations5. The  Shuttle Bug serves six
5 CMAQ funding requirements pkce a limit of 3 years on use of fluids for transit operating expenditures.

 routes, and a seventh route is planned. The buses offer high frequency, door-to-
 door service to about half of the 25,000 employees in the area, larget riders
 include those who commute out of Chicago to jobs in the suburbs, but significant
 ridership also comes from suburban residents. The air quality benefits of the
 Shuttle Bug get a boost because many riders have commutes of jfaore than 15 miles
 one way. Even more importantly, surveys show that 60 percent of those who take
 the shuttle previously drove to work alone. Ridership now standis at about 550
 trips per day.

 The Shuttle Bug provides a range of benefits. Employers benefit; because it helps
 to attract employees; commuters face a less stressful work trip; aid, by adding fare
 paying passengers on the return leg of train journeys to downtown, Metra is able
 to make its service more cost-effective. The success of the project has prompted
 additional daily reverse commute train service and plans for simitar shuttles at other
 Cost and Funding (total: S390,ooo)

Estimated Emissions Reduction
 Bill Baltutis, Executive Director
 TMA of Lake-Cook
 Tel: 847-948-4023

Ifef Is
S ^ § o >
JQ O5 CO ff CO