EPA/AA/TDG/93-02
                         Technical Report
              Cold Starting an Alcohol-Fueled Engine
                 with Ultrasonic Fuel Atoization
                                by



                        Robert I.  Bruetsch

                         Fakhri J.  Hamady
                            March 1993
                              NOTICE
     Technical  Reports do  not necessarily  represent final  EPA
decisions pie positions.   They are intended  to  present technical
analysis ot Issues using data which are currently available.  The
purpose  i^Eth release of  such  reports is to facilitate  the
exchange off technical information  and to  inform the public  of
technical developments which  may  form the basis  for  a final  EPA
decision, position, or regulatory action.

              U.S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency
                   Office of Air and Radiation
                    Office of Mobile  Sources
                Regulatory Programs and Technology
                  Technology  Development Group
                       2565 Plymouth  Road
                    Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105

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        UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                     ANN ARBOR. MICHIGAN 48105
                             MAY 21 1993                   OFFICE OF
                                                      AIR AND RADIATION
MEMORANDUM


SUBJECT:  Exemption  from Peer  and Administrative Review


FROM:     Karl H. Hellman, Chief
          Technology Development  Grou;


TO:       Charles L. Gray, Jr., Director^
          Regulatory Programs  and Technology^
                                            /

     The attached report entitled  "Cold Starting an Alcohol-Fueled
Engine  with  Ultrasonic  Fuel  Atomization,"   EPA/AA/TDG/93-02,
presents the test results of an engine modified to be cold started
with the  assistance of  automatically controlled ultrasonic  fuel
atomizers and  run on methanol fuel.   This report represents  the
successful completion of an international cooperative program;  the
effective  development   of  improved  alcohol  fuel  cold start
technology  by  the  Japanese  government  and  industry,  and   the
associated technical evaluation by the U.S. government.

     Since this report is  concerned only  with the presentation of
data and their analysis  and  does  not  involve matters  of policy or
regulation, your concurrence is requested to waive administrative
review according to the policy outlined in your directive  of April
22, 1982.
Concurrence:   f ^rCd/^^^-^^o /A            Date:/^/-^
                 arles L. Gray,
Nonconcurxence t
               Charles L. Gray, Jr., Director, RPT

Attachment

cc:  E. Burger, RPT

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                        Table of Contents
                                                            Page
                                                           Numbei
I.   Summary  .	      !
II.  Introduction	      1
III. System Description	      i
IV.  Starting Procedure	      4
V.   Test Results	      5
VI.  Conclusions and Recommendations	      9
VII. Acknowledgments	     10
VIII. References	     10

APPENDIX A - Ultrasonic Atomizer System Location ....    A-l
APPENDIX B - Starting Procedure Flow Diagram	    B-l
APPENDIX C - Engine and Fuel Specifications	    C-l

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              Cold Starting an Alcohol-Fueled Engine
                 with Ultrasonic Fuel Atomization
 I.    summary

      A test program was devised at EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel
 Emissions Laboratory to evaluate a Tonen ultrasonic fuel atomizer
 system on  a  Honda B20 engine using  both M85 (85% methanol,  15%
 hydrocarbons) and M100 (neat methanol)  fuels to  determine whether
 cold starting a  premixed-charge  port injected engine on alcohol
 fuels at low ambient temperatures can  be improved. [1]  Modification
 to  the engine's  intake manifold was performed  at the  Japanese
 Automotive Research Institute (JARI)  in  cooperation with the New
 Energy Development Organization (NEDO) to install heated injectors
 in close proximity to the ultrasonic atomizers.  The engine is also
 equipped with the stock port injector  system intact and functional.
 Successful M100 cold starts were  obtained down to 20F (-7C).


 II.   Introduction

      Tonen initially developed the ultrasonic fuel atomizer in the
 mid-1980's to investigate the relationships between spark ignition
 characteristics and combustion stability  in  gasoline-fueled race
 car  engines.  After Tonen achieved some success in this development
 program,  a representative of EPA visited Tonen in November of 1988
 to  negotiate a cooperative agreement for the development of  the
 ultrasonic atomizer as a cold  start  assist device for  pre-mixed
 charge alcohol-fueled engines.

      Since the cooperative agreement involved working with the U.S.
"government, the  Tonen Corporation aligned  itself with the  New
 Energy Development Organization (NEDO) and the Japanese Automotive
 Research   Institute  (JARI)  to  take  advantage  of  the  testing
 facilities and related research expertise  already in  existence
 within the Japanese government. [2]  What resulted was a three year
 development  program  between these Japanese  organizations  with
 periodic   meetings to  update the  EPA  on  the  status  of  their
 progress.    At first:,  it  was  planned  to  adapt  the ultrasonic
 atomizer  system to a  Toyota engine, but ultimately it was decided
 to instead: us* a  Honda B20  four cylinder engine.
 III.  Systea Description

      By trial and error, JARI engineers evaluated various different
 intake manifold locations to mount two of these atomizers  in order
 to realize  the best  possible charge  distribution to the  four
 cylinders,  with the minimum amount  of  distance and wall  surface
 area  between tha ultrasonic atomizers and the cylinders. The final
 design featured a distance of roughly 6 inches (15 cm)  between the
 ultrasonic   atomizers  and  a nearly  90  elbow,  followed  by an

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                                -2-

approximately  8  inch (20 cm)  distance between the elbow  and the
cylinders  (see  Appendix A) .   This  is  not  exactly an  optimum
configuration,  but  is  probably  the  best  geometry  given  the
constraints of the engine's  intake manifold design.

     Throughout its development program, Tonen continued to refine
the design of  the ultrasonic atomizer.  At  first  it  was merely a
probe which, when energized, vibrated ultrasonically in the intake
air  stream between  the port  fuel  injectors  and the  combustion
chambers.  Then  the  injectors were mounted  in the same holder as
the  atomizers, such  that the  fuel stream  leaving  the injector
became excited by the  atomizer before it made  its  way into the
intake  air stream.    Next,   Tonen  fitted  the  atomizer/injector
assembly with  an  electrically heated glow plug.   Three different
heated atomizer configurations  were tested.[3]

     The first of these heated atomizer configurations (Type A)  is
shown in Figure 1.  In  this  design,  the fuel is  supplied close to
the base of the glow plug,  such that  the fuel has to  travel the
length of the glow plug  before being introduced near the tip of the
ultrasonic atomizer,  thereby adding as much heat to the  fuel  as
possible before exciting it  with the atomizer.

     The second atomizer configuration tested (Type B)  is shown in
Figure  2.    In this  version,  the  length  of the glow plug  is
shortened, and the glow plug is fitted with an  insulating shield
and a preheat  zone.   The fuel is introduced closer to the tip  of
the glow plug  into the preheat  zone, where it first has to travel
back toward the base of the  glow plug  over a greater  surface area
                   Ultrasonic Atomiser Designs

 Ul trasonic Transducer

                Fuel Supplier

                                                         Glow Plug
          SPRAY

        Figure.1. Type A
         Pre-heat zone
      Adiabator

Figure 2. Type B

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to promote heat transfer  between the fuel  and the hot  surface,
before being introduced to the atomizer.   This design also shields
the glow plug  from being quenched by the direct flow of  the fuel
spray.

     The third and final heated atomizer  configuration  (Type C) is
similar to the second version with the addition of stainless steel
beads at the tip of the glow plug  (Figure 3).  Tonen  found  that the
addition of these beads provides an additional surface between the
glow plug and the atomizer, which retains heat and transfers it to
the fuel.   The improvement  in fuel  atomization  is significant
enough to  justify  this  subtle difference  in the  design of the
heated injector/atomizer assembly.

     The final ultrasonic atomizer system design consists of two of
these Type C glow plug heated  injector/atomizer assemblies mounted
on the intake  manifold of the Honda B20 engine.   The system is
controlled by  a Pantos Nippon  Denshi Kagaku (NDK)  Sofrecs 8604A
Super  Intelligent  Data  Logger/Analyzer with an AU-1208 signal
conditioner.   This  unit is  connected to  a switching box  with
control of the  glow plug heater, ignition and the engine's  starter.
Engine control parameters are traced and  are monitored on  a Pantos
NOK Model LCD-8660 Color Display Unit. Power is supplied  to these
units by  two Pantos  NDK Model AC-8600  Power Supply Units.   An
oscilloscope  is  used  to  insure  that  injection  events  occur
properly.  Exhaust mixture concentration is sensed by four lambda
sensors,  one in each exhaust bank, and monitored by four Horiba Air
Fuel Ratio Analyzers Model MEXA-110(lambda).
                     SPRAY
   Pre-heat zont

Adiabator
                           Stainltss biads

           Figure 3. Type C Ultrasonic Atomizer Design

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                              -4-

     The engine used  for this test program is  a  1991 Honda B20,
such as is used in the Honda Prelude, a water cooled in-line four
cylinder engine with  a displacement of 2.0L modified for use of
neat  methanol  (M100)  and  methanol/hydrocarbon  blends  such  as
M85.[4]  The engine is equipped with four stock port fuel injectors
in addition to the two temperature controlled electrically operated
"cold  start11  injectors mounted  in  the  ultrasonic  atomizer
assemblies.    Engine     compression  ratio  is   10.5:1 and  rated
horsepower is 135 @ 5800 rpm.


IV.  starting Procedure

     Prior to  each  starting attempt, the  battery,  an Interstate
Deep Cycle SRM-24 marine battery with 550  cold cranking amps,  is
charged at a slow rate overnight until fully charged.  The engine
is  placed  in the  cold  room and  soaked  at   the  desired  test
temperature overnight, or until the  oil temperature is within + or
- one degree centigrade  of  the desired  test  temperature.   A flow
chart for the starting procedure employed in this test program is
shown in Appendix B.

     Initially,  control of injection  is selected  between  the
choices of manual and  automatic.   The main injection system, based
on  the  stock  Honda   gasoline   engine  maps,  was  automatically
controlled throughout this test program.  The ultrasonic atomizer
injectors were also automatically controlled throughout the test
program, but are based on methanol engine maps developed at JARI.
Also  prior to a  cranking  attempt,  the fuel  control  system  is
switched on and the injection triggering mechanism is checked for
proper  operation.   Injection events  are then  verified by  the
presence of a waveform on the oscilloscope.

     The ignition switch is then turned to the on  position such
that the glow plug heaters can be energized prior to cranking.  The
heaters are thus enabled for the  desired glow plug preheat time, a
period of 10 seconds per NEOO recommendation,  and if sampling for
emissions, the CVS is turned on  and a sampling bag  is initiated.
NEDO  recommended  the   10  second  preheat  time,  because  fuel
temperature  is not. significantly increased  after 10  seconds  as
shown in Figure 4.

     The engine is then  cranked  by  flipping  a  starter switch and
holding ifc in the on  position for an increment of 10 seconds and
then  letting go.   If the  engine starts, the cranking  time  is
recorded,  and: the  engine  is  run at  idle for  five  minutes  to
determine the idle emissions (g/min) until the engine  is warmed up.
If  the engine does  not start,  the heater remains  on,  but  the
starter switch is  allowed to automatically flip back to the off
position for a waiting period of  10  seconds to protect the starter
from overheating.  After 10 seconds, the starter switch is turned
back to the on position to crank the engine for another 10 seconds.
If  the engine does  not start  after six  of  these  cranking  and
waiting periods, (i.e., after 120 seconds) it is determined that

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                                -5'
           a
           a
JJ
c
^
           s-i
           a
           c
           3
           4J
           (Tl
           !-l


           I
           0)
           E-
           3
           Cu
        100

         90

         80

         70

         60

         50

         40

         30

         20

         10

          Cl
                                          Type-C
                                    Type-B
                           Type-A
                          Fuel :  MS5
                          Ambient temperature :  -30  8C  
                             10           20
                               Time (sec)
                                                 30
      Figure 4. Temperature Profiles of Ultrasonic Atomizers

the engine is not: startable at the temperature being tested within
reasonable commercial acceptability.

     Once the engine  does start, the starter switch is let go (and
automatically  flips back to the off position), and  the glow plug
heater  switch  is also turned  off.   At the  end of a test,  e.g.,
"after a five minute emission sample is taken,  the  ignition switch
is turned off,  and the STOP button on the fuel control system  is
pressed to terminate  the logging of engine control parameter data.
V.
Test Results
     The results obtained from this test program are quite similar
to the result* obtained by  the JARI  engineers in Japan before  the
engine was*. s&Epped to the EPA for evaluation. [5]  The heated ultra-
sonic atomizer system helped to improve the cold startability of
both.  Mioa * and M85  fuels  at colder temperatures  than  normally
observed  from unassisted engines  with  only OE  injection systems
using these fuels.  The engine is capable of being cold started on
H100 at temperatures as low as 20F (-7C) with a glow plug preheat
time of 30 seconds.  The engine is  capable of being cold started on
H85 without the ultrasonic atomizer system at; ambient temperatures
lower than are capable of being obtained in EPA's current cold room
test facility.
     The  engine was initially tested on 11.8  RVP M85  fuel  at 50F
 (10C).  startup was almost instantaneous, with a required cranking

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                                -6-
 time of only l.l second.   The cold engine idle speed was 1620 rpm
 though after five minutes of operation, this speed was reduced to
 1340 rpm.  Average lambda values in the four exhaust runners were
 0.84, and were  quite  stable except for cylinder No.  1 which was
 somewhat leaner at 0.94.   Only the OEM injectors were required to
 start the engine.  The ultrasonic atomizor injection system was not
 required, nor was the glow plug preheater.  Figure 5 shows both the
 JARI and the EPA test results on both M85 and M100.

      Testing continued on M85 fuel,  and cold starting was success-
 ful at  32F  (0C),  15F  (-10-C), and 9F  (-13-C).   The  results
 closely matched the results  obtained  at the JARI.   Cranking time
 increased to 3.5 seconds  at the 9F (-13C) test temperature, and
 idle engine speeds increased to 1800 rpm  initially and 1400 rpm
 after 5  minutes of stabilizing.  Average lambda values were similar
 to the 50F (10C)  test except  during the  9F  (-13C)  test where
 lambda values averaged a relatively rich 0.71, with cylinder No.  l
 somewhat leaner at 0.77.   Again, only the OEM injection system was
 required to  start the engine.  The cold start injectors, atomizers
 and preheaters were not required for any test using M85 fuel within
 the lower temperature  limit of the cold room  used in this  test
 program.

      The engine oil and coolant were  checked between each test, and
 the battery was  fully charged before each starting attempt.  After
 completing the  M85 evaluations,  the  engine's fuel was  drained and
 testing  was  initiated  on M100 fuel.

      The MlOO fuel used has an RVP of  4.6 psi.   The first test on
 M100 was performed at 50F (10C).  Testing with MlOO required the
 use of not only the OEM injectors, but also the  heated cold start
 atomized fuel injectors.   Preheat time at this temperature  was 10
-seconds.  Cranking time   to  start  was 5.5  seconds,  and initial
 engine speed was 1622 rpm.   Lambda  values  with MlOO were  leaner
 than with M85,  and averaged 0.96.  Cylinder No. 1  demonstrated a
 lambda value of 1.1.   This cylinder, due to the placement  of  the
 two ultrasonic  atomizers,  was consistently  the leanest throughout
 all tests of  both fuels.

      The cold room temperature was  cooled  to  20F (-7C),  and a
 cold start; attempt was made with the use of the ultrasonic atomizer
 fuel injector* and the  same glow plug  preheat time  of  10 seconds.
 The engine  would not  start  under  these  conditions  under   the
 prescribed; cranking procedure.   This same result occurred  in  the
 JARI tests,  and it was decided to lengthen the glow plug preheat
 time before attempting  another 20F  (-7C)  or colder test.

     First, however, a test was  run at 32F (0C) in an effort to
 correlate data at other points along the curves already generated
 at  the JARI  laboratory.   The engine started with the ultrasonic
 injectors and the 10 second glow plug preheat time after 28 seconds
 of cranking.   Engine speed  was slightly higher than observed during
 the 50F (10C) test,  with an  initial speed  of 1650  rpm  and a
 stabilized speed of 1400 rpm  after 5 minutes.

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                          -7-
   60
   50
O
03
CO
   30
fi
(C

O
   20
   10
      M85 	
      MI+US
      without
      heater
  M85
  MI+US
  with heater
  (10 sec preh aH

        \
                         start
                                EPA results
                                 V M85  OEM
                                 A Ml00  MI+US
                                   with heater

                                Hollow  symbols
                                represent JARI
                                results
                                   MI+US
                                   with heater
                                   (lOsec preheat)
-4
            -30
10
                  -20     -10     0
                   Temperature (C)
Figure 5. JARI and EPA Engine Cold Startability
          Results on M85 and Ml00
20

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                                -8-

      Two more tests  were run at the intermediate temperatures of
 40P  (4C) and  35F  (2C)  with the ultrasonic atomizer injectors
 and a  glow plug preheat time of  10  seconds.   Cranking times for
 successful starts were 11 and 14 seconds, respectively.  Again, the
 results  closely  matched   the  results  obtained  at  the  JARI
 laboratory.  However, lambda values,  for some unknown reason, were
 considerably richer  during  the  40eF (4C) test,  averaging 0.73
 compared with lambda values averaging 0.96 at  35F (2C).   This
 anomaly, along with the highly variable meter readings, caused some
 skepticism with regard  to  the  accuracy  of  the  air/fuel  ratio
 measurements.  During engine operation after these two successful
 cold starts,  engine speed was initially about 1700 to 1775 rpm, and
 1265 to 1400 rpm after 5 minutes.

      The test cell was then cooled to 25F  (-4C)  and  the lower
 limit  of cold startability of the ultrasonic atomizer  system on
 M100 was again investigated.  This time the atomizer injectors were
 used with a glow plug heatup time of  30 seconds instead of only 10
 seconds.   Though NEDO found that the fuel temperature. does  not
 increase measureably after 10 seconds, it was decided to evaluate
 whether a  longer preheat time  added more heat to  the system  for
 improved cold start  performance.   The  engine  started after  49
 seconds of cranking.   Lambda  values  were relatively lean,  and
 averaged near stoichiometric levels of  0.96.   Engine speed  was
 elevated, however, with an initial post startup measurement of 2200
 rpm and a stabilized level of over 1600 rpm after 5 minutes.

      Another  20F (-7C)  start  attempt was made, this time with an
 extended glow plug preheat time.  The preheat time in this case was
 30  seconds as  in the  successful  25F  (-4C)   test.    By  the
 prescribed starting procedure,  the engine did not start within the
 acceptable cranking time  limit.  After an additional waiting period
"with the heater still on, the engine finally did  start, but this
'test  would be  considered  a  "no start"  condition  within  the
 prescribed starting  procedure  or within  reasonable commercial
 acceptability.   No emission samples were measured  following  the
 successful  20F  (-7C)  M100 test, though levels  would be expected
 to be high  given the  excessive  cranking time.

      During most other successful cold starts  on either M85 or
 M100,  emissions were sampled as  the engine warmed up under idle
 conditions for a period of five minutes starting with the  initial
 cranking period  (i.e.,  coincident with turning the starter switch
 on)  and ending five minutes later.  As a result, the emissions of
 tests with short cranking times are generally less than those of
 tests with  long cranking  times, because a larger percentage of the
 emissions are collected  while the engine is running and fuel is
 being burned  more completely.  Table 1 shows the post-start idle
 emissions of  the test  engine.   Data points are not included in
 Table 1 for the successful cold starts on M85 at 50P (10C) and on
 M100 at 20F  (-7C),  because emissions were  not sampled during
 these tests.   The emissions  of the  engine on both fuels are, as
 expected,  higher, and  the  cranking times  are  longer,  at colder
 temperatures. .

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                                Q
                              Table l

            Honda B20 Cold Start Idle Emissions (g/mia)
Fuel
Temp (F)
NO,
HC"
CO2
CO
MS 5
32
0.03
0.67
59
22.8
15
0.03
1.42
65
29.6
9
0.04
1.65
66
31.3
M100
50
0.02
0.32
60
6.3
40
0.03
0.40
61
5.3
35
0.04
0.65
70
7.9
32
0.04
1.70
65
11.3
25
0.11
1.85
81
9.8
21'
_
_
-
-
 **
Engine did not start at 21F on M100 with a 10 second preheat
time.  No emission samples were obtained.

HC  emissions  not adjusted  for  methanol  fuel.   Exhaust  HC
density assumed equal to that of gasoline = 16.33 g/ft3.
 VI.   Conclusions and Recommendations

      Successful cold starts on M100 fuel  with a heated ultrasonic
 fuel atomizer system were  obtained down  to 20 F (-7)  with a  30
 second glow plug preheat period. With only the NEDO recommended  10
 second preheat time, successful M100 cold starts were obtained  at
 temperatures as low as32F(0C).

      Cold starting the engine on H85 does not require the use  of
 the   ultrasonic  atomizer   system  or  the  glow plug  heater   at
'.temperatures as low  as 9F, or the  lower limit of the EPA cold test
 facility utilized in this  test program.   Successful cold starts
 were obtained on H85 with less cranking time than is required with
 only the stock fuel injection system.

      EPA and JARI data of measured cranking times on H100 with the
 heated ultrasonic atomizer  system, and on M8S with  and without the
 ultrasonic atomizer and  the  glow plug heater,   are  in  close
 agreements "
      The cold  start performance on  M100 is  similar to results
 obtained witlt long duration spark systems evaluated previously at
 the EPA. [6]

      The proximity of the ultrasonic atomizer system to the engine
 combustion chambers is not optimum.  In particular, the near 90
 elbow in the intake manifold makes it difficult for finely atomized
 fuel to reach the combustion  chambers  without condensing on the
 manifold wall and generating larger fuel droplets, especially at
 low ambient temperatures.

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                                -10-

      Tonen engineers investigated the optimum glow plug  preheat
 time, and found very little benefit in  fuel temperature increase is
 obtained with preheat times longer than 10 seconds.  Heat retention
 of the fuel  (and M100 cold start performance) was found to  improve
 with glow plug preheat times of up to 30 seconds, but the detriment
 to glow plug durability of these extended preheat times is unknown.

      EPA was not able to test the effects of variation in ignition
 timing,  ignition duration,  ignition energy,  or injection quantity
 on  cold start  performance of  M85  and M100  with the  ultrasonic
 atomizer system.    These  parameters  were  fixed throughout  this
 evaluation program.

     The accuracy of relative  air fuel ratio measurements  was not
 determined and  is, therefore,  unknown.

     Post  cold start   idle  emissions  of the Honda  B20  engine
 increase with  increased  cranking  time  and  decreasing  ambient
 temperature.

     Cold  start performance of an alcohol-fueled engine equipped
 with the ultrasonic fuel atomizer system in combination with  long
 duration spark  or plasma  ignition systems,  and perhaps variable
 control of ignition and injection parameters, is likely to  promote
 improved alcohol engine cold start  performance, and is worthy of
 further  investigation.[7]


 VII. Acknowledgments

     The authors wish to acknowledge the efforts of NEDO, JARI, and
 Tonen managers  and engineers  for providing  system development,
 operation, maintenance,  and troubleshooting functions  throughout
 this international cooperative development program.

     The authors also thank technicians Jim Garvey, Steve Half yard,
 and craftsman Lenny Kocher for assisting with the test  program.


VIII.Rfrne

 1.   Bruetacfc, Robert I.,  and Fakhri J. Hamady, "Test Plan for Cold
 Start  Evaluation  of NEDO-Supplied  Methanol  Engine," EPA/OAR/
 OMS/RPT/TDGY memorandum to Charles L. Gray, Ann Arbor, MI, December
 22, 1992.

2.   Iwai,  Nobuo,  Kiiechi Nagai, Hitoshi Yasuda, Tadashi Ayusawa,
and  Yong Kil  Kim, "A  Study  on Cold Startability and Mixture
Formation of High-Percentage Methanol  Blends,1* SAE Paper 880044,
presented at the International Congress and Exposition, Detroit,
MI, February 29 - March 4, 1988.

3.   Hosogai, Daijiro,  overhead presentation in meeting at EPA's
National Vehicle  and Fuel  Emissions  Laboratory, Ann  Arbor,  MI,

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                               -11-

Corporate Research and Development Laboratory, Tonen  Corporation.
Iruma-Gun, Saitama, Japan, January 7,  1993.

4.   "1991 Test Car  List  Passenger  Cars,11  U.S.  EPA/OAR/OMS,
Certification Division, Ann Arbor, MI, September 6, 1990.

5.   Iwai, Nobuo, handout presentation in meeting at EPA's National
Vehicle  and  Fuel Emissions  Laboratory,  Ann  Arbor,  MI,  Japan
Automobile Research   Institute,  Inc., Karima,  Tsukuba, Ibaraki,
Japan, January 7, 1993.

6.   Bruetsch, Robert I., "Cold Starting  a  Neat Methanol  (M100)
Vehicle with Long Duration Spark Ignition," EPA/AA/CTAB/89-05, June
1989.

7.   Gardiner, D. P., V.  K. Rao, M.  F. Bardon,  J.  D.  Dale, P. R.
Smy, R.F. Haley,  J.  R.  Dawe, "Sub-Zero Cold Starting of a Port-
Injected M100 Engine Using Plasma Jet Ignition and Prompt EGR," SAE
Paper  930331,  presented at  the  International   Congress  and
Exposition, Detroit,  MI, March 1-5, 1993.

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Appendixes

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Appendix A: Ultrasonic Atomizer System Location

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                                A-l
                                             Idle control valve
                                  First idle valve
Type C Ultrasonic Atomizers
mounted in locations "B" and "E"
                          Intake manifold
              Equipment location of Ultrasonic Atomizer

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                            A-2
                           Radiator
            Intake
U.S. Injector
                       Main Injector
                           Engine
                           2L,4cyc.
                           4cyl.SI
                           Methanol
                           EFI
                                         Exhaust
                           Trig. Sig.
                           Boost Pres.
                           Water Temp.
                           Starter Sig.
                           etc.
  Catalyzer
A/F Analyzer
for detect
combustion
(4ch)
                        Fuel Inj. Controller

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Appendix B: Starting Procedure Flow Diagram

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                 B-l
Injectie
n Control Selector
Auto

                  Fuel Control System
           Trig.fControl)
           Check Inj. by
           Osillosco
|  Heater of U.S. Injector Sw. ON
           Starter Sw. ON
           Cheek In), by
             iltoscope
            Engine Start
            below 10 see
               nking
Starter Sw. OFF
          Starter Sw. OFF
    Heater of U.S. Injector Sw. OFF
       Fuel Control System
               Check System
                       Test Procedure

-------
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-------
Appendix C: Engine and Pul Specifications

-------
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-------
                                          ABB MAWdTIHC CO.
                                   CUSTOM PRODUCTS GROUP

                                          C-2
CUSTOMER:
P.O. NO.:
PRODUCT:
SU5
PH 2/9/90
SUB MS*
                            & MARKETING CO.
BAT1 SHIPPED:   2/9/90

BATCH HO.:   9001033
                                      SPECIFICATIONS

                       PRODUCT:   MS3  (83% MZTHANOL / 15% CASOHHI)
     Gravity, Aft, ASTM D287
     Spacilie Gravity, 60V0
     Kathaaol, by Volua*
     Unlaadad Gaaolina,, by Volt
        Hydrocarbon Competition,  Vol. %,
        ASTM 01319 Aromatic*
     Raid Vapor Praaausa, pal
        ASTM 0323 Autonatad
     Discillation Raaidua, .ASTM 086
    .Laad, Organic j/lttar,
     :   ASTM 03229, 02599
     Sulfur, We. %, ASTM 02622
     Fhoiphofua, /litr ASTM 03231
     tfatar, by VoltiM, ASTX 1203
     Appaaranca
     Acidicy, WC.%, ASTM 01813
     Total Chlorid* Ceaeaae, Orgaaio
       and InorimU^ ASTM 03120
     Hydroaaa, Kf Lubrieanta

-------
        INTERSTflTEf CHEMICPL      HI
                        981 8383
  13136684573-   P.02
OCT 10. 1991
 METHAIMOL
Synonym* Methyl alcohol, Woodtteohol



-------

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