United States
                   Environmental Protection
                     Air and Radiation
July 1998
                   Office of Mobile Sources
TRAQTechnical Overview
 Transportation Air Quality Center
                   Transportation Control Measures:
                   Bicycle and  Pedestrian Programs
                   EPA's main strategy for addressing the contributions of motor vehicles
                   to our air quality problems has been to cut the tailpipe emissions for
                   every mile a vehicle travels. Air quality can also be improved by
                   changing the way motor vehicles are used—reducing total vehicle miles
                   traveled at the critical times and places, and reducing the use of highly
                   polluting operating modes. These alternative approaches, usually
                   termed Transportation Control Measures (TCMs), have an important
                   role as both mandatory and optional elements of state plans for
                   attaining the air quality goals specified in the Clean Air Act. TCMs
                   encompass a wide variety of goals and methods, from incentives for
                   increasing vehicle occupancy to shifts in the timing of commuting trips.
                   This document is one of a series that provides overviews of individual
                   TCM types, discussing their advantages, disadvantages, and the issues
                   involved in their implementation.
                                                          > Printed on Recycled Paper

        Bicycle  and  Pedestrian  Programs

   O How It Works
   @ Costs and Benefits
   © Implementation
   O Keys to Success
   © Equity Issues
   ® Recent Examples
   9 Sources
   © On-line Resource
   icycle and pedestrian programs are one type of
   transportation control measure (TCM) which can be used
to reduce air emissions associated with transportation.
Although exercise and social/recreation have consistently been
cited as the most common reasons for bicycling and walking,
most people use motor vehicles for "serious" travel (i.e.,
commuting, shopping, and personal business), particularly in
suburban areas. Across urban and suburban areas, private
vehicles comprise 93 percent to 99 percent of trips taken for
commuting purposes and 93 percent to 98 percent of trips
taken for shopping purposes. Traffic congestion and air
quality objectives would benefit from shifting low-occupancy
vehicle trips of any purpose to bicycling and walking. [1]
      Until the 1970's, bicycling was considered strictly a recreational activity. In the early
1970's, as bicycling underwent a renaissance and the country faced its first oil crisis, bicycling
received a lot of attention not only as an attractive recreational activity, but as a viable commute
alternative.  Many communities developed bicycle plans and built facilities.  Similar to bicycling,
the idea of walking as a means of transportation was not widely recognized as an alternative to
using an automobile, but is becoming more popular.  Planners  are beginning to incorporate
criteria for pedestrian circulation and bicycle travel into the requirements for developing new
activity centers. For example, Cleveland's Walkway to Gateway program involves improving
walkway access to downtown shopping, eating, and sports complexes.
1.     How Bike and Pedestrian Programs Work

       In the U.S., biking and walking are primarily used for recreation, exercise, and non-
utilitarian travel. From a TCM perspective, bicycling and walking represent viable alternatives
to most single occupancy vehicle trips. Each trip shifted from a single occupancy vehicle to a
bicycle or to walking results in a 100 percent reduction in vehicle emissions for that trip.

       Bicycle and pedestrian programs may include a wide array of elements amenable to a
community's characteristics (e.g., topography, population, existing infrastructure) and the budget
of the administering agency.  Some common types of bicycle and pedestrian facilities include the

             **•    Routes, lanes and paths
             ^    Sidewalks and walkways
             ^    Plans and maps

Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs                                                Page 2

              **•    Bicycle coordinators
              ^    Racks and other storage facilities
              **•    Ancillary facilities (showers and clothing lockers)
              **•    Integration with transit
              **•    Ordinances for bicycle parking (Tucson, Seattle, and Madison have
                    ordinances that require a certain defined proportion of parking spaces at
                    new developments be set aside for bicycle parking)
              ^    Education, media and promotion (e.g., "bike to work" days)

2.     Costs and Benefits
                                           Bike and pedestrian paths may result in
                                           large emissions benefits, even if the
                                           reduction in vehicle miles traveled may be
       A shift of automobile trips to
either bicycle or walk trips has a direct,
positive impact in that trip emissions are
reduced by 100 percent. Bicycling and
walking realistically can substitute for
relatively short trips which make up
approximately 60 percent of all trips (i.e.,
generally less than five miles in length).  Although the amount of saved vehicle miles traveled
(VMT) may be small, the air emissions benefits can be quite large because cold start and hot soak
emissions comprise a large proportion of emissions from a vehicle trip. Cold start and hot soak
trip-end emissions comprise 75 percent of a 5-mile auto trip, 61 percent of a 10-mile trip, and 45
percent of a 20-mile trip of the vehicles total emissions.  [1]

       Many cities and states have calculated the air quality impacts of a shift in auto trips to
bicycle trips. Oklahoma's State Implementation Plan estimated that a 25-mile network of bicycle
facilities would result in a 1 percent modal shift to bicycles and a corresponding 0.4 percent
reduction in air pollutants. [1]

       Biking and walking are cost-effective solutions to society at large and to individuals.
Society and individuals benefit from every commute trip shifted from single occupancy vehicles
to bicycles  or walking because of reductions in the following:

              **•    Vehicle expenses

              **•    Costs associated with municipal services devoted to vehicle traffic

              ^    Air, noise, and water pollution

              ^    Resource consumption

Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs                                                Page 3
              **•    Barrier effect (the disamenity motor traffic imposes on pedestrian and
                    bicycle mobility)

              **•    Land use impacts

              **•    Waste disposal

       Investments in bike and pedestrian paths can be investments in both recreation and the
commuter.  Dollars spent for facilities may reduce the overall cost of a community's programs.
Trails can offer economic benefits by raising the value of property adjacent to once idle land.

       To the degree that bike and pedestrian programs provide benefits to individuals, these
benefits also accrue to the companies whose employees walk or bike to work because these
employees tend to miss fewer work days. Additional cost savings to employers consist of
reduced parking costs, which must be traded off against bike lockup facilities and possibly
shower and change facilities (which mostly apply to bicycle users).

       The main costs associated with bicycle and pedestrian programs and facilities include
reduced travel range and usually longer travel times. Bicycle and pedestrian safety also pose
potential concerns. Furthermore, transporting goods by these modes of travel can be difficult.

       The costs of implementing a program or facility range from supplying a bike rack or trail
map to developing a trail corridor such as the Atlanta/DeKalb Greenway Trail Corridor, which is
estimated to cost $2.5 million. Costs for developing, maintaining and operating a bicycle or
pedestrian program may include the following:

              ^    Salary and benefits for a program coordinator and other staff

              ^    Land acquisition

              **•    Bike lane construction
                    Bike path construction


                    Bicycle lockers and racks
                    c.       ,                        safety, and weather conditions.
                    Signage striping                       J
The potential for bicycling and
walking as alternatives to auto
travel mainly depend on three
factors: trip distance, route


                    Educational materials

Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs                                               Page 4
3.     Implementation

       Biking and pedestrian programs may be used in transportation management as primary
modes, feeder modes (media to connect with transit or ridesharing modes), or circulation
(movement within an area such as an activity center or employment development).

       The potential for bicycling and walking as alternatives to auto travel mainly depend on
three factors: trip distance, route safety, and weather conditions.  The degree to which
destination sites or activity centers allow convenient and safe circulation affects travelers'
decisions on how to reach the site in the first place.  Weather conditions also may affect the
extent to which bicycling and walking represent viable alternatives to driving or transit. Since
most bicycle trips are five miles or less in length, and most walk trips are less than one half mile,
individual concerns  over the physical condition of the trip maker also affect whether or not the
trip can be shifted to these modes.

       Commuters in the 25 to 40 age group are most likely to bicycle to work. Because
walking does not require as great a physical demand or exposure risk, the age and health of a
pedestrian are not as critical to program success.  While a very small portion of the population
may not have the physical capabilities to walk to a destination or ride a bicycle, for most people
these activities are well within their abilities.

       Local governments generally finance bicycle and pedestrian facilities and programs,
although implementation may be passed on to others (e.g., volunteer groups maintaining trails).
Municipalities also facilitate these programs by imposing municipal or regional trip reduction
ordinances.  Thus, employers and developers are paying increased attention and financing
elements of these programs.

       Since the enactment of the Intermodal Surface Transportation and Efficiency Act
(ISTEA) of 1991, there has been an impetus for increased spending on bicycle and pedestrian
projects.  The dollar figure spent on these projects has risen dramatically from  3-4 million
annually to nearly 180 million.  The latest summary of federal-aid highway obligations spent on
independent bicycle and pedestrian projects show an increase from $4.6 million in FY 1992 to
$179.5 million in FY 1996.  The majority of these funds have been allocated under the
Transportation Enhancements category of the Surface Transportation Program. [2]

       A major barrier to implementation are missing links, (e.g., non-continuous bike routes or
lanes along a commute and walking corridors).  Other factors that have limited bicycling include
lack of safe routes to work destinations, conflicts with traffic laws that give preference to autos,
and lack of facilities to accommodate these activities (e.g., bike racks or access to showers).

Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs                                              Page 5

4.     Keys to Success

       Settings that facilitate successful programs include the following:

       **•    Places with short travel distances between residential areas and key trip attractions

       ^    Areas with high concentrations of people under age 40

       ^    Areas with compatible infrastructure that can be modified into appropriate

       Areas with localized congestion or crowded parking facilities also have good potential, so
long as the congestion does not present a safety threat to bike or pedestrian travel. Because
participation in these programs is voluntary (in the  absence of ordinances), marketing and
education efforts are often necessary accompaniments.  Education efforts may include maps and
plans, safety training, promotions, and media events.

5.     Equity  Issues

       People with severe income limitations may  have to walk or bike out of necessity. One
study in 1991, which surveyed bicycle commuters,  found that 23 percent of those commuting by
bicycle had annual incomes less than $7,500, where as those with incomes between  $30,000-
$50,000 comprised only 1 percent of the group. An interesting observation is that the percentage
of bicycle commuters increased to 7 percent when incomes exceeded $50,000. Although cost
savings are generally not a major reason people choose to bike or walk, (i.e., people cite exercise
as the top reason for commuting by bike followed by enjoyment, environmental concerns, and
cost savings) bicycle and pedestrian programs increase equity by providing more low-cost travel
options. People who do not apply high values to their leisure time will gain from trading their
increased travel time for decreased travel costs. [3]

6.     Summary of  Recent Examples

       Bicycle and pedestrian programs may be found throughout the U.S. Some examples of
these programs include a $1 million program in Chicago that will provide bicycle lockers and
racks throughout the metropolitan area, including 169 lockers at nine commuter rail stations.
The city of Albuquerque, New Mexico's Trails and Bikeways Program is a state and local
government effort to form an interconnected network of multi-use trails and on-street bicycle
improvements for recreation and transportation purposes.

Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs                                              Page 6
                                  Bicycle and pedestrian programs are often paired
                                  with other TCMs. For example, many employers
                                  provide bike and pedestrian facilities as part of
                                  their employer-based transportation management
                                  program. This relationship is critical  if bicycle and
                                  pedestrian programs are to succeed as alternative
                                  commute options.
       Bicycle and pedestrian
programs are often paired with
other TCMs. For example, many
employers provide bike and
pedestrian facilities as part of their
employer-based transportation
management program.  This
relationship is critical if bicycle
and pedestrian programs are to
succeed as alternative commute
options. Many improved public transit programs also support bicycle and pedestrian programs
by incorporating elements to improve access to transit facilities, or by adding bicycle carriers to
transit vehicles. Florida's DOT is involved with a Busway program that will link bus lines to a
metrorail line and an adjacent bikeway/walkway. Traffic flow improvements may indirectly
support bicycle and pedestrian programs by improving signal intersections and increasing safety
for bicyclists and pedestrians.  An example of a successful bicycle and pedestrian program that
combines usage of other TCMs is UC-Davis, whose program includes the following:

       ^    Bicycle registration requirements

       **•    Active enforcement of bicycle and motor vehicle laws

       **•    High parking fees on the UC-Davis campus

       **•    Development patterns which enhance access to biking facilities and reduce
             reliance on autos.
7.     Sources

[1] Transportation Control measure Information Documents, Cambridge Systematics, Inc., U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. (March 1992).

[2] "Federal Dollars for Bicycle and Pedestrian Projects," in Pro Bike News, Bicycle Federation
of America, Volume 16, Number 12, Washington, D.C. (December 1996).

[3] Implementing Effective Travel Demand Management Measures: Inventory of Measures and
Synthesis of Experience Final Report, Report No. DOT-T-94-12, U.S. Department of
Transportation, Washington, D.C. (September 1993).

Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs                                            Page 7
8.    On-line Resource

      The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Mobile Sources has established the
TCM Program Information Directory to provide commuters, the transportation industry, state and
local governments, and the public with information about TCM programs that are now operating
across the country. This document and additional information on other TCMs and TCM
programs implemented nationwide can be found at: