&EPA
            United States
            Environmental Protection
            Agency
            Office of Water       October 1973
            Program Operations (WH-547)   430/9-74-004
            Washington, DC 20460
            Water
Maintenance Management
Systems for Municipal
Wastewater Facilities
                              MO-7

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                              NOTES

To order this publication, MO-07, "Maintenance Management Systems for Municipal
Wastewater Facilities", write to:


                    GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION (8BRC)
                    CENTRALIZED MAILING LIST SERVICES
                    BUILDING 41, DENVER FEDERAL CENTER
                    DENVER, COLORADO  80225

Please indicate the MO  number and title of publication.

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  MAINTENANCE
                FOR
   MUNICIPAL WASTEWAT1B FACILITIES
    MUNICIPAL OPERATIONS BRANCH
- OFFICE OF WATER PROGRAM OPERATIONS
U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
        WASHINGTON, D, C. 20460
        CONTRACT NO. 68-01-0341
            OCTOBER 1973

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                  EPA Review Notice

This manual  is presented as helpful guidance and source
material only; it is not a regulatory  document. Mention of
trade names or commercial products does not constitute EPA
endorsement or recommendation for use.
                                u

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                                  ABSTRACT

The  Environmental Protection  Agency  (EPA)  through its operation and maintenance
program, Office of Water Programs Operations, has commissioned Wiley & Wilson, Inc.,
Engineers * Architects * Planners, Lynchburg, Virginia to develop recommendations for
the preparation of maintenance management systems to be used at municipal wastewater
treatment facilities. The recommendations are presented in the form of a manual to be
used by treatment system management in developing maintenance management systems.

The principal background for this work came from the existing maintenance guidelines
as outlined in the  Appendix of the "Federal Guidelines  For Design, Operation  and
Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities", 1970, During the project, informatioa
was  obtained from persons experienced in maintenance management.  Existing  main-
tenance management systems used by wastewater treatment facilities, industry, anei the
armed forces also were reviewed.

These recommendations cover each of the basic features required in a sound maintenance
management system and  a separate section of this manual discusses each feature.

These recommendations are not intended  as a rigid format; they can be modified to, fit
the particular     at hand. By following these recommendations, a complete and efficient
maintenance management system will be developed.
                                       111

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                           TABLE  OF CONTENTS

SECTION

I          CONCLUSIONS

II          RECOMMENDATIONS
                                '              *           - *
III         INTRODUCTION                               '•"          ^5
             Scope and Purpose                                              5
             Manual Format        •                                       6
             Basic System Features Outline                                    6

IV         EQUIPMENT RECORD SYSTEM                                 '9
             General                                                       9
             Equipment Numbering System                                    9
             Equipment Catalog                                            10
             Maintenance Information                                       10
             Card File Systems  •                                          13
             Single Card System         '                                  13
             Three Card System  .                                         14
            "Edge-Punched Card System                                     14
             Collection System Maintenance Records           .-              _ 19
             Computerized Maintenance Program                             21

V          MAINTENANCE PLANNING AND SCHEDULING     -           27
             General                                                     27
             Schedule Chart Board       '                                  32
             Work Order System             "                               32
             Preventive Maintenance                                        39
             Preventive Maintenance Servicing Procedure and Checklists         ' 43
             Corrective Maintenance    "                                    43
            - Manpower Utilization                          •                44
            -- Maintenance Labor Standards                                   47

 VI         STOREROOM AND INVENTORY SYSTEM                      49
             Central Storeroom                                            49
             Storeroom System                                    •         50
             Inventory System                                             50
            - Purchase Order System                                         53

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                         TABLE OP CONTENTS
                               (Continued)

SECTION                                                         PAGE

VII       MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL AND ORGANIZATION           57
            General                                                  57
            Maintenance Personnel                                      57
            Maintenance Organization                                    59
            Maintenance Personnel Training                               60

VIII      COSTS AND BUDGETS FOR MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS      67
            Maintenance Costs                                          67
            Maintenance Budget                                        70

IX        CORRELATION OF THE BASIC SYSTEM FEATURES
          INTO A WORKING  MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT
          SYSTEM                                                   75
            General                                                  75
            Example Maintenance Management System                       76
              (Small, Middle Size and Large Facilities)

X         MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION        95
          GUIDELINES

XI        ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                    101

XII       REFERENCES                                             103
                                   VI

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                        LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE
  NO.                                                '       PAGE
   1    PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE FORM   '                   15
   2    EDGE-PUNCHED CARD RECORD SYSTEM                  ,17
   3    SAMPLE CARD FOR THE WEEKLY FREQUENCY GROUP     18
   4    DAILY WORK SHEET                                   20
   5"   CLOSED SYSTEM COMPUTER MAINTENANCE PROGRAM     26
   6    DAILY WORK SHEET                                   29
   7    ROUTINE DUTIES—TO BE SCHEDULED BY FOREMAN       30
   8    MAINTENANCE SECTION GENERAL PRIORITY SCHEDULE    31
   9    WORK ORDER FORM                                   34
   10    WORK ORDER FORM                                   35
   11    WORK ORDER FORM                                   36
   12    WORK ORDER FORM                                   37
   13    WORK ORDER FORM                                   38
   14    STOREROOM INVENTORY CARD                         51
   15    STOREROOM TICKET                                   52
   16    SAMPLE PURCHASE ORDER                             55
   17    MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONAL CHART—PLANT     :     61
                                10 MGD OR LESS
   18    MAINTENANCE OKGANIZATIONAL CHART—PLANT SIZE:     62
                                10 MGD TO 50 MGD
   19    MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONAL CHART—PLANT     :    . 63
                                50 MGD TO 100 MGD .
   20    MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONAL CHART—PLANT SIZE;     64
                                100 MGD AND GREATER
   21    MAINTENANCE COST TREND FORM        "              69
   22    SAMPLE THREE  CARD SYSTEM                         79
   23    SAMPLE EQUIPMENT RECORD CARD                     82
   24    WORK ORDER FORM                                   84
   25    WORK ORDER FORM                                   85
   26    MAINTENANCE SECTION GENERAL PRIORITY SCHEDULE    86
   27    SAMPLE INVENTORY CARD                             88
   28    STOREROOM  TICKET                                   89
   29   • SAMPLE PURCHASE ORDER -                           91
                               vn

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                                 •   SECTION I
                                  CONCLUSIONS

 1.   A  sound maintenance  management system will help ensure that a municipal waste-
     water treatment facility operates efficiently and the effluent limitations, as described
     in  the facility's  discharge permit,  are being met.

 2,   A  review of municipal wastewater treatment facilities across the country reveals
     that, although no standard maintenance system is in use, all  plants have instituted
     some form of maintenance. However, many plants haven't undertaken their main-
     tenance in an orderly enough manner that it could be termed a system.

 3.   The information on maintenance management systems contained in this manual
     should be helpful to persons developing the maintenance  chapter in a  treatment
     facility's Operation and Maintenance Manual.  The  information  should  also  assist
     persons revising an existing maintenance program. The manual, however, does not
     attempt to define ideal maintenance management systems  for every size and type
     municipal wastewater treatment plant.

• 4.   Treatment  plant management must give their full support  to the maintenance pro-
     gram if it is to be successful. Plant management must  convince all maintenance
     personnel that,  by  following the maintenance program, both the overall plant oper-
     ation and the maintenance organization will benefit.

 5.   A good maintenance management system ensures that necessary preventive main-
     tenance work is performed through proper planning and scheduling, by adequately
     trained personnel, and by realistic estimates  of corrective  maintenance  require-
     ments.

 6.   The costs required to maintain a preventive maintenance program are less than the
     expensive repairs that result from inadequate preventive maintenance.

 7.   The records  of  a good maintenance system on equipment, work orders, and store-
     room activities  contain sufficient cost information to permit  control of maintenance
     expenditures and to allow realistic budget preparation.

 8.   A maintenance management system should not stand still. It needs to be continuously
     reviewed  and revised to  keep up with  changing  equipment  requirements,  staff
     capabilities,  and maintenance costs.

 9.   The attention given to maintenance activities by wastewater treatment management
     is somewhat less than that given by managers in profit oriented industries.

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10.  The most important factor in any good maintenance program is the people involved.
    It is essential to pay attention to the needs of these  people. These people's needs
    include adequate training, proper  tools, good working  surroundings,  competitive
    salaries and fringe benefits, and adequate  opportunity  for advancement  in both
    salary and degree of responsibility.

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      -           - -  -.           • SECTION  II   '
                              RECOMMENDATIONS

1.   Persons preparing the maintenance chapter for a municipal wastewater treatment
     facility's  operation  and  maintenance manual  should  review  the information on
     maintenance management systems  contained in this manual. This manual contains
     the necessary information to ensure  that  consideration is given to  each feature
     required in a sound maintenance  management system. Persons  revising existing
     maintenance programs also may find  this information helpful.

2.   Persons recommending maintenance management systems for municipal wastewater
     treatment  facilities  should  review thoroughly the requirements for the particular
    facility under consideration. Obtain information from  persons  with  experience in
     the maintenance and operation of equipment similar to that in the facility under
    study. The maintenance program recommended, however, should be tailored to the
     facility's needs. Also, investigate the use of computers to handle a portion or all of
    the maintenance  system.

3.  The maintenance management system of a municipal wastewater treatment facility
     should  be  ready  for implementation  when  the plant  is started up.  All  necessary
     forms should  be  available and procedures defined. These items, of course, can be
     revised at  some later time, but it is important  to have the  maintenance  program
     properly initiated to ensure its proper place in  overall  plant operation.

4.   The training of the maintenance staff should  receive  the same  emphasis as the
     operator training in a municipal wastewater  treatment facility.  This training  is
     necessary if maintenance  skills are  to be sharpened and expanded, and should be a
     combination of formal courses,  correspondence courses, and on-the-job training.

5.   All corrective maintenance work in a municipal wastewater treatment facility should
     be initiated by a written work order. Of course, emergency repairs are an exception
     to this recommendation, but a follow-up work order should be prepared even on these"
     repairs. The work order system  provides the necessary control to ensure that correc-
     tive maintenance work is  not  interfering with the preventive maintenance schedule.
     The system provides a record  of maintenance  labor  and material costs. The work
     orders  also can be used to measure the efficiency of the maintenance staff.
                             <.

6.   Detailed preventive maintenance procedures (or checklists) should be developed for
     all major equipment items in the municipal wastewater treatment  facility. These
     procedures (or checklists) should be based on individual manufacturer's recommen-
     dations and provided to maintenance crews to  help  ensure preventive maintenance
     is performed correctly and efficiently.

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7,   Municipal wastewater  treatment management regularly should investigate the per-
    formance standards of maintenance labor and use of maintenance manpower. Such
    investigation will improve the efficiency of their maintenance personnel. Performance
    usually improves when a minimum level of acceptable work is established and when
    the activities of the labor force are planned and scheduled for maximum efficiency.

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                            -  -  -SECTION III
                                 INTEODUCTION

Scope and Purpose

The primary function of municipal wastewater treatment facilities is to collect and treat
municipal waste-waters so as to attain an interim national  ", . .  goal  of  water quality
which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish,  and wildlife, and
provides for recreation in and on the water." The Federal  Water Pollution Control Act
Amendments of 1972 stipulate that  this is to be accomplished by publicly owned treat-
ment works in a consistent and reliable manner so as to meet effluent limitations based
upon secondary treatment or  any more stringent applicable limitation, by July 1,  1977,
and so as to employ the best practicable waste treatment  technology by  July 1,  1983.
The  specific conditions and limitations will be identified in a permit issued to each point
source  discharge  under the  "National Pollutant  Discharge Elimination System" as
established by the Act.

Since the discharge of pollutants in excess of the effluent limitations of discharge permits
is prohibited by the Act, it is  essential that municipal wastewater plants, from the day of
initial  operation,  effectively  treat wastewater in compliance with those limitations. This
manual has been prepared to  assist in the accomplishment of this objective.

This manual provides guidelines to  aid plant management in selecting, instituting, and
evaluating various maintenance management systems for municipal wastewater treat-
ment facilities. A maintenance management system encompasses all those policies, plans,
and procedures required to -adequately maintain a facility.

To obtain data for the manual, a survey of existing manual and automated maintenance
systems literature was conducted. Techniques used by the Armed  Forces, industries, and
existing municipal wastewater treatment systems were reviewed and field  surveys of
selected facilities also  were made. The results of these surveys plus information obtained
from persons  experienced - in maintenance  management, and  recommendations  from
Wiley  & Wilson's Sanitary Engineering Conceptual Design Team all are incorporated
in this manual.

The treatment plant must be recognized as a highly specialized and complex manufac-
turing facility that must produce an acceptable  product   or  effluent. It is  the  plant
management's responsibility to produce this effluent at the lowest unit cost  and at the
highest quality possible. One important key  to fulfilling this responsibility is a sound
maintenance management program.

A good maintenance management system will reduce breakdowns, extend equipment life,
and provide for more efficient manpower utilization and performance. The system will

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provide data to aid in solving maintenance management problems and develop cost and
budget recommendations.

Manual Format

Persons using this manual should be familiar with its organization  and the general
contents of its major sections, and following basic definitions:

Preventive maintenance is work done to prevent breakdown, reduce wear, improve effici-
ency, and extend the life of equipment and structures. These are maintenance functions
that can be performed while the plant is  usually in operation. These tasks would include
routine inspection of equipment, lubrication, and minor equipment adjustments.

Corrective maintenance is work required for repairs and nonroutine maintenance func-
tions. These tasks are performed while the plant is  in operation or with & minimum of
equipment downtime. These tasks would include  changing belts and  replacing worn
bearings and brushes.

Major repairs or alterations are major tasks which generally occur when a unit is out of
service. These tasks usually involve  large expenditures of money and additional support
personnel to aid or accomplish the required task.

Detailed discussions of the basic features of any sound maintenance management system
are provided in the following sections:

    •   Equipment Record System

    »   Maintenance Planning  and  Scheduling

    •   Storeroom and Inventory System

    «   Maintenance Personnel and  Organization

    •   Cost and Budgets for  Maintenance Operations

The following is  a brief  introduction to each of the five basic features of any sound
maintenance  management system.  A  system efficiently using these basic features will
provide for economy in maintenance cost and reliability in equipment operations for the
maintenance  program.

Equipment Record System — The  equipment record system  contains information on
each item of  equipment requiring maintenance. This system may be one  card on  each

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item of equipment, a number of. cards for each item, or for largre plants, a combination
of both cards and data maintained on a computer.

The equipment record system provides information on preventive maintenance tasks with
their frequencies, corrective maintenance work performed and maintenance cost data.
Information used in making cost analyses, preparing maintenance budgets and evaluating
maintenance problems  will be found in the record system.

Maintenance  Planning and  Scheduling — The planning and scheduling of maintenance
work is an essential ingredient in any  good maintenance  management system.  If plan-
ning and scheduling is done  properly, the maintenance  force  will be  used in the  most
efficient manner and  the preventive maintenance program  will be effective. Tools for
planning and scheduling include schedule boards,  maintenance work orders, and main-
tenance labor standards.  The  key to  succssful planning and scheduling is a  realistic
estimate  of a facility's corrective and  preventive maintenance needs.

Storeroom  and  Inventory System — The  purpose of a good maintenance management
system is to ensure the proper operation of the treatment facility. The storeroom and
inventory procedures used at the treatment plant can help ensure that the maintenance
system's  purpose is achieved. A good storeroom procedure will maintain control of items
on hand, will recognize when to reorder needed supplies, will facilitate locating items
on hand, and will provide for efficient purchasing and receiving of all supplies.

Maintenance Personnel and  Organization — Regardless  of the care which goes  into the
selection of an equipment record system or work order system, it is  the  plant's main-
tenance staff who is  ultimately responsible for ensuring  the maintenance management
system functions properly.  All maintenance tasks  within the treatment facility should
be analyzed, and properly trained personnel in, sufficient  numbers should  be provided.
The maintenance management  system should provide adequate staffing, arrange compre-
hensive maintenance training programs, develop accurate job descriptions for all  per-
sonnel, and maintain an organizational chart to help define maintenance responsibilities.

Cost and Budgets for Maintenance Operations — Information on plant maintenance cost
and the development of a maintenance  budget are very important for their incorporation
into the plant's  total operation and maintenance budget.  Before an accurate estimate of
maintenance cost can be made or a sound maintenance  budget can be  prepared,  it is
necessary to divide the  maintenance operations into service categories such as preven-
tive maintenance, corrective maintenance, and major repairs or alterations. With the
maintenance operations  defined,  the  information  in the equipment  card file  on  work
performed, work contracted out,  items used from storeroom stock and purchased, and a
breakdown of man-hours can be used to develop information  on maintenance cost. With
allowances for equipment replacement, expansion, and information on maintenance history
for the plant, the maintenance  budget then can be developed.

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The manual section entitled "Correlation of the Basic System Features into A Working
Maintenance  Management System"  provides three examples of how the basic features
may be combined to develop a sound system.

Criteria to be used for evaluating proposed or existing maintenance management systems
are provided in the manual section entitled "Maintenance Management  System  Evalu-
ation  Guidelines."

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                                  SECTION IV
                        EQUIPMENT RECORD  SYSTEM
General
An equipment record system should be developed to maintain Information on each item
of equipment. The  facility owner should be  involved in selecting the system  to  be
recommended. The  equipment  record  system should contain information on each item
of equipment. This  system may be only one card on each type of equipment, a number
of cards for each item  or  for larger plants, a combination of information cards and data
maintained on a computer.

In addition to the  equipment records,  as-built  drawings of the facility,  construction
specifications, construction photos, shop drawings, and  manufacturer's  catalogs should
be maintained in a  file for easy access.

The equipment record system will be used as a source of information for developing cost
and budgets, and obtaining information to evaluate maintenance problems,

Equipment Numbering ^System

The first step in selecting- an equipment record system Is to find an equipment numbering
system that best satisfies the  needs of  the particular treatment facility. Each item of
equipment  in the plant requiring maintenance  should be assigned  a number for easy
identification and to help  ensure all equipment receives proper attention,

One approach is to start numbering the equipment beginning with the point where the
wastewater enters  the plant and  continue to number each item of equipment as the
wastewater continues through the plant. Sludge handling equipment is numbered after
all  wastewater treatment  equipment has been  numbered.

The consecutive numbering system is  not flexible with respect to equipment additions
and omissions. Therefore,  consideration might be given to alternating equipment numbers
 (1, 3, 5,  ?, 9 etc.) or using an alphabetical suffix (12A, 12B, 12C, etc.) to handle this
problem.

A second approach  is to number all equipment in a specified area or building with a
range of numbers as 100-120 and the equipment in another area 200-230,  this system
of block  numbering for a specified area aids in  locating equipment, adding equipment,
and setting up numbering system for the equipment card file.

A third approach is to divide the facility into nine       and assign 1000 numbers to
each; the stages may be further broken down to  100 series numbers to  identify specific

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items and allow for future additional  units.  For example, the  pretreatment stage may
be identified as:

3000             Pretreatment Stage          3210         Compressor
 3100            Grit Collection              3220         Accessories
   3101          Structure                 3300           Screens
   3110          Mechanism                 3301         Structure
   3120          Hoist                      3310         Bar Screens
   3130          Conveyor                   3320         Trash Rack
 3200            Preaeration                 3330         Trash Rack Rake
   3201          Structure

A fourth approach is to use a combination of letters and  digits. Each  plant building or
structure is classified by a capital letter and begins with the influent end of the facility.
An example would be as follows:

                  A - Pump building
                  B - Grit chamber
                  H - Sludge disposal

Equipment in each building is numbered in the  sequence  of flow such  as the pump
building drainage pumps could be A-1.2.

A simple consecutive numbering system is usually entirely satisfactory for a small plant
with a minimum of structures  and equipment. A more complicated system that definitely
locates, designates function and  identifies is justified for a large plant with several
buildings and a  number of treatment steps.

Equipment Catalog
After each item of equipment has been assigned a number, a catalog should be prepared
that lists equipment descriptions, locations and equipment numbers. The catalog will pro-
vide a convenient reference for locating equipment  and identifying equipment numbers.
The catalog may be a small file, a notebook containing this  information, or a computer
printout bound into a desk reference.

Maintenance Information
The maintenance information maintained in the equipment card or computer files is a
vital part of plant maintenance  and operation. The maintenance  information  should
                                        10

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include a list of preventive maintenance functions to be performed and their frequencies.
As these preventive maintenance items are performed, they should be recorded with
the date the work is accomplished and related  cost  information. As corrective main-
tenance work is performed,  this information should  also be recorded with the date the
work  is accomplished, cost information, and any pertinent comments.

The following is an outline of the information the equipment cards  or computer should
contain:

    »  Description of equipment and equipment number with location in plant.

    »  * Supplier with address,  representative, phone number, date of purchase with
       cost.

    •  *Size, model, type, and serial number.

    •  Electrical and/or mechanical data.

    •  Inventory of spare parts on hand.

    *  Preventive maintenance items to  be accomplished  with their frequency.
       Space to note when PM  was performed,  by  whom and pertinent comments.
       Data on man-hours, costs,  and materials or supplies consumed.

    •   Information on corrective maintenance work should be maintained in a
       manner similar  to that outlined above for preventive maintenance.

    •   A system to compile this  information for  use in determining cost and for
        future use in budget development.

* Copies of all purchase orders  and invoices should be routed through the  maintenance
department to  ensure all needed  equipment data  may be obtained for the equipment
record system.

The system for retaining equipment data should include procedures and information on
how the system is to function and to describe each employee's responsibilities.

Adequate maintenance records assist in equipment evaluation, aid in establishing budgets
for manpower and materials, and  help ensure an efficient schedule for preventive main-
tenance functions. Maintenance records also provide plant management with  aa indi-
cation of the efficiency of the maintenance personnel. This allows management to assign
                                        11

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maintenance personnel to jobs for which they are best qualified and to rotate personnel
for training and overall  experience throughout the facility. Such experience provides for
continuity  during  absences or personnel changes. The information in the equipment
record system can help provide answers to the following maintenance related questions:

    1.  Is  the maintenance work on a specific item of equipment excessive in relation to
        other similar units ?

        a.  What is the cause ?

            (1)   Is  it lack of preventive maintenance?

            (2)   Is  it wrong  application  of the equipment?

            (3)   Is  breakdown result of inherent defect in the equipment?

            (4)  Is  it due to poor lubrication?

            (5)  Was the equipment  overloaded?

    2.   Is this maintenance procedure repetitive?

        a.  Can the  maintenance procedure be  simplified, improved or eliminated?

        b.  Are the  correct to'ols available?

        c.  Was an experienced craftsman assigned to the job?

        d.  Were spare parts required?

           (1)  Were the spare parts immediately available from plant inventory?

        e.  Can preventive maintenance procedures be established at less cost?

    3.  Was overtime work required?

    4.  Is the clerical time required out of proportion to the maintenance work per-
        formed ?

        a.  Is the overhead cost of  clerical work  justified for this facility?
                                        12

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    5.   Can the maintenance be done by contract with outside party?

    6.   Do  the maintenance  records help in  planning maintenance  work and
        scheduling?

        a.   Can the  cost of time and materials be reduced?

    7.   Is the data of sufficient volume for the facilities maintenance functions to
        be processed" by computer ?

Card File Systems

Various card files are  available  such as single equipment cards, a three card, system,
edge-punched cards,  and card files which are set upright or are located in a horizontal
position and have an  edge exposed on which color tabs are placed. These  tabs mark
the month and week in  which  preventive maintenance work is to be performed. These
card systems are readily  available through most office supply agencies and the systems
can be adapted to plants based on their individual needs.

The card system will require time to develop and must be done carefully and thoroughly.
Preferably it should be started when a new or improved facility  goes into operation.
The record system will be of little value if it is not kept up to date.

Single Card System

A single card system can be developed using ordinary ruled 5" x 8" cards or 8-1/2" x 11"
cards. This system is adequate for small plants where a single supervisor is responsible
for maintenance and record keeping is a duty he must perform by himself. Each item of
equipment should have a single  card either filed by  equipment number  or  filed  alpha-
betically. The equipment card face should contain the following information:

           »  Name and  location of equipment or structure

           •  Name of manufacturer, supplier, or builder

           •  Cost and installation date -

           •  Type, style, model

           *  Capacity, size, rating

            •   Serial and code numbers
                                        13

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           •   Nature and frequency of maintenance

           *   Proper lubricants, coatings

The backs of the caids are used to record the date the work is performed, the type of
work, and initials of the person performing the work. Corrective maintenance tasks may
also be noted on the back of the card to provide  a complete record of all maintenance
work performed on the item of equipment. Figure No. 1 shows the face and back of a
sample card from a single card system.

Three Card System

The three card system may  be used by large or  small facilities. Several types of three
card systems are currently available. The following is an outline of the basic information
which may be maintained on each of the three cards:

    1.  The  first card has  equipment number, description, nameplate data, vendor
        name,  cost information,  location,  mechanical and/or electrical data on the
        front of the card. A spare parts list and space for additional information
        are on the reverse side of the card.

    2,  The  second card contains equipment item, number, preventive maintenance
        tasks and their frequencies. The card should have a metal tab or some other
        method to identify when a maintenance task is to be performed.

    3,  The  third card  contains item, department, preventive maintenance work
        performed, with labor  hours, labor cost, materials, and total cost. The re-
        maining side contains corrective maintenance work  performed with man-
        hours and cost data as outlined for preventive maintenance.  The date is
        also entered to identify when the work was performed. Some standard cards
        are color coded in one corner to identify that no work is required or work
        is  required and is  being performed on  the item.

Edge-Punched  Card System

Edge-punched cards offer advantages for all  but the smallest  installations. The edge-
punched card type of record systems are available with either  a hand-sorted  punched
card filing  system or electromagnetic  filing system. The cards have rows  of holes pre-
punched along each edge. The face and back of  the card are used for a written record
of the desired data. Each hole or combination of holes  along the edges  is  assigned a
specific  meaning.

To designate, for example, a semiannual service, the paper between the edge of the card
and the hole marked "semiannual" is  removed, thus forming a notch.
                                        14

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•IAN.
        FEB.
MAR. |  | APR.
                                MAY
                                       JUHE
[JULY |  | AUG.[   [SEPT.j  I OCT.
                                                                               NOV.
DEC. |
                                   BOARD Of PUBLIC UTILITIES
                               PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
                   EQUIPMENT
                                                            ELECTRICAL. EQUIPMENT
                                              EQUIPMEHT
SERIAL NO
MACHINE NO. '
VENDOR
.MODEL
BELT SIZE NO-
MAKE >
SERIAL NO
TYPE
VOLTAGE AMPS R PM
PHASE FRAME H.P,

ITEM NO.













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FREQUENCY













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DATE














-







WORK DONE






















SIGNE0






















DATE






















WORK DONE






















SIGHED






















DATE
















WORK DOME
















SIGNED
















Courtesy of Mr. Marvin J. Miller
Plant Superintendent
Casper Sewage Treatment Plant
Casper, Wyoming
                                         FIGURE NO.  1
                                            15

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Using the hand sorted punch card system to select all "semiannual" cards from a pack of
cards, the pack is aligned in a vertical position with the desired hole in the upper edge.
As indicated in Figure No. 2, a needle similar to an ice pick is then passed through the
hole. Upon fanning out the pack and lifting it with the needle, all cards notched in the
selected position drop from the pack, while those not notched remain suspended from
the needle. This type of card record system is primarily for use in municipal wastewater
treatment systems,  but it also  has application for remote pump stations and in collection
system maintenance.

The following steps outline the procedure to establish an edge-punched card system for
preventive maintenance tasks:

    • Use the equipment number for  the file number for each item.

    • List all  equipment and  structural units  with their  respective  preventive
       maintenance  tasks,  frequencies, information on how task is  to be accom-
       plished,  length of time  required to perform task.

    * Establish a schedule for the required  tasks.

    • Transfer information to edge-punched cards.

A complete set of duplicate cards should be made and filed in a protected area. These
will make replacement easier if cards are lost or destroyed. Personnel  should be  dis-
couraged from treating cards as worksheets. Cards should  not  be permitted outside the
office  area.

Provisions should be made for collecting cards that contain  information  on deficiencies
discovered during routine maintenance  and for cards that cannot be completed after they
have  been  pulled.  These cards can be  reviewed and personnel assigned to the work
remaining.

Anywhere from one  to five cards can  be prepared for any  one item of equipment, de-
pending on the  frequencies of maintenance work required.  More effort  is required to
place data on extra cards,  but it is felt the  ease with which personnel can  identify
work  assigned on a particular day more than  compensates for  this initial work. Figure
No. 8 is a typical card for the  weekly frequency group.

In large plants or where the engineering, accounting, and maintenance shops are divided
or in  widely separated areas or distant  locations within the region served by the facility,
it may be necessary to duplicate cards and provide all departments with appropriate in-
formation. Edge-punched cards offer an infinite variety of services for scheduling and
                                         16

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                                      Courtesy of Journal Water Pollution
                                      Control Federation, Vol. 26, p. 1399
                                      (Nov. 1954)
              o  o   o\/«. o  o  o
                   oooo^ooo
                        o  o  o  o
                              SEMI ANNUAL
FIGURE 2    PRINCIPLE OF EDGE-PUNCHED CARD RECORD SYSTEM FOR
            MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS.
                         17

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ASSIGNMENT / O
MENLO PARK SANITARY DISTRICT
INSPECTION AND SERVICE RECORD - SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT
Equipment :
ITEM









WORK TO BE DONE









REF.









MACHINERY FILE NUMBER
Sf 7 4 Z I OSF742 i OSF742 I'D
ono onono o no o oonono
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FIGURE NO.  3   SAMPLE CARD FOR  THE WEEKLY FREQUENCY GROUP
                                              Courtesy of Journal Water Pollution
                                              Control Federation, Vol. 26, p. 1399
                                              (Nov.  1954}

-------
recording information. Edge-punched cards are adaptable to all parts of the waste-water
system. Cards which are 8-1/2" x  11" allow for adequate space on the back of cards
to record a long life history of the  item.

Collection System Maintenance Records

The collection system^ maintenance  records should include information on the collection
lines, any force or pressure mains or siphon systems. Any special areas should be reviewed
by the preparer of  the maintenance system to determine what maintenance information
and data should be  maintained.

Line cleaning crews should be provided with a record sheet on which is shown, a diagram
of the work area.  Provisions for  supplying the following information are also included
on the form:

           •  Distances between manholes

           *  Depth of manholes

           •  Condition  of manholes  and lines

           •  Unusual conditions (large trees and culverts)

The  line cleaning foreman collects  these record sheets each day and makes out a daily
worksheet. Figure No. 4 is a typical daily worksheet. Items listed on this sheet include:

           »  Location of work

           •  Employees used

           •  Man-hours

           »  Equipment information

The superintendent and foremen should prepare permanent collection system record cards
on a  weekly basis.  The following information  is recorded:

           "•  Location

           •  Manhole numbers and/or invert elevations and manhole lid elevations
              where branching occurs
                                        19

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Sewer Maintenance Department
Location:
         CITY OF BOULDER, COLORADO

                                 Date
 Men Used
Hours
Account
  No.
Material Used
Equipment
Used
Hours
Account
  No.
                                          Distance
                                          Depth of
                                          Depth of
                                          Distance
                                          Depth of
                                          Depth of
                                          Distance
                                          Depth of
                                          Depth of
                                 between manholes_
                                 manhole #	
                                 manhole #   	
                                 between manholes_
                                 manhole #	
                                 manhole # 	
                                 between manholes_
                                 manhole #	
                                 manhole # 	
GENERAL REMARKS:
                                FIGURE NO.  4
                                     20

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          »  Pipe size

          •  Manhole depths

          •  Distance between manholes

          •  Manhole condition

          •  Infiltration estimate

          »  Line condition

The reverse side of the permanent record card contains provisions for recording:

          •  Date of emergency call

          •  Time of call

          •  Time crew reported to call

          «  Line condition upon arrival

          »  Emergency remedy

          •  Prevention recommendations

Provisions should be made to  record emergency calls on a collection system map; after
three calls to a  given location,  the line may be repaired or replaced. The progress of the
line preventive maintenance program may also be monitored  on a collection system map
using colored tape to indicate lines that have been serviced.

Data from the permanent record cards should be compiled into  monthly and annual
reports. These  reports would  be  helpful in preparing budgets and defending budget
requests.

The equipment  record systems described for use with a plant's equipment can also be
used with the equipment at remote pumping stations in the collection system. Additional
information on  collection system maintenance records can be found in the Water Pollution
Control Federation  Manual of Practice No. 7 Sewer Maintenance.

Computerized Maintenance Program

Some facilities  may find it economical to computerize their maintenance programs.  The
decision  to  use computers in a maintenance program must consider many different
factors.
                                        21

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Of course, the availability of a computer is of primary importance. Many cities have their
own computers or have access to computer facilities. If the city does not have a computer,
a remote terminal in the plant could be used to tie the treatment facility into a computer
located in another city. Complete computerized maintenance packages are  also offered
commercially by a number of companies. These computerized maintenance packages are
either adapted to the city's computer or use a remote terminal connected to some other
computer where the necessary  computer time is purchased.

This section does not give details on the specifics of computerized maintenance programs.
Its objective is to discuss the maintenance related services that can be accomplished with
computers.

The following description outlines the capabilities and basic features of a single purpose
or multipurpose system. The system may be either a maintenance information system or
total documented control readout  system of scheduling, cost, equipment history, and
manpower requirements.

The four basic elements  of the  most fundamental types of information systems are:

    •  Input — Method of getting data to process into a computer

    •  Program — Set of computational  procedures  for processing input in a
       specified manner

    •  File — Mechanism  for storing information often used in processing data

    •  Output Reports — Feedout of information sought from computer processing
       input or file  data

The following is an  outline of the  type  of programs which may be developed:

Single Purpose,  Single File System —

This system  is  a closed system  in  the sense that only  information which is introduced
as input  may appear in the files  or in the reports. The  single purpose, single file system
is used in conjunction with manual scheduling of maintenance work.

Examples:

    •  Equipment  numbering,   descriptions and nameplate data

    •  Materials and  spare  parts inventories
                                        22

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    •  Maintenance histories

    •  Standing work orders

Multipurpose,  Single File System —

This system does not require data  to be introduced each time a  different  program  is
executed. The system is built around central computer files. An example is a perpetual
inyentory file of the material and spare parts system.

Multifile, Multipurpose  System —

This system is based  on communications between multipurpose, single file systems. The
goal of this system is  to develop a closed-loop maintenance control system that would
permit one reporting plan to furnish a total documented control readout of scheduling,
cost, equipment history, and manpower requirements.

The system is  based  on total plant rather than the area approach.  The  first  step  in
developing the system is to  establish PM requirements on each piece of equipment. This
is done considering the  following equipment parameters:

     •   Number of hours operated

     •   Severity of use

     •   Condition and age

A program coordinator must be responsible for programming each piece of equipment
into the system. He must also perform the following tasks:

     •   Ensure cards are properly printed

     •   Fieldcheck the system

     •   Monitor printouts

     •   Coordinate  with key maintenance personnel

The PM time  estimates and cost information  are  input  to the computer  to  determine
budget expenditures in relation to  services performed.  The  system would  provide  the
following functions:
                                        23

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    •  Schedules work

    «  Verifies completion of PM functions

    •  Prints out maintenance costs in labor and parts

    •  Stores current information  on materials and spare parts

    •  Maintains information on work order backlog

    •  Records  available resources (craftsmen, mobile equipment, etc.)

Work order cards are prepared in  advance by data processing and distributed to the
maintenance  section.  Upon completion of the work, the work order is returned to be
recorded. Cards are reviewed and sent to data processing  where data is placed into the
equipment maintenance record. Work orders fall into three categories:

    •  Long form (three sections: Scheduled Repair, Service, and Project)

    *  Emergency repair

    »  PM work order

This system is equipped with query-response capabilities which enable a program in one
system to ask questions and receive answers from files in adjacent systems.

Emergency work cannot be planned, but once the emergency is apparent, the system can
plan it quickly with minimum disruption to scheduled work. An extension of this system
may be an aperture card file that handles photographic information and may be retrieved
on demand and  copies  furnished to appropriate  personnel on  an on-time-and-destroy
basis.

Persons developing a computerized maintenance program must choose a  program that
satisfies the  needs of  the facility in question.  A  computerized  system that is too
sophisticated for the facility will mean the time spent in gathering input data is excessive
in relation to the benefits received from the computer maintained data. The facility that
requires a fully computerized maintenance program and  is trying to use a combination
manual-computer  system is also  in trouble.

Two factors of increasing importance which will make investigating maintenance by
computer  an important future consideration are:
                                        24

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    •  Economics

    •  Availability of manpower

Figure No. 5 is an example of the flow chart for a closed system computer maintenance
program.
                                       25

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                                         Plant  Engineering
                 Plant  Supervisors
Equipment
 Information
  Sheet
                                                                  Maintenance
                                                                   Experts
      Telephone
       Request
                                                     Equipment
                                                      Information
                                                      Sheet
                                                                          \) Data
                                                                            TI   Processing
                                                 Plant  Engineering


                                                    (Reschedule  Uncompleted PM Job Orders)
Courtesy of Mr. R. I. Oliverson
Plant Engineering
October 15, 1970
                                        Equipnent
                                        Maintenance
                                        Record
     Data
     Processing
         (Update PM System)
                   FIGURE NO. S   CLOSED SYSTEM COMPUTER MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
                                            26

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                                   SECTION Y
                 MAINTENANCE PLANNING & SCHEDULING
General
Wastewater treatment facilities do not  observe holidays and vacation shutdowns. The
facilities do experience variations in flows and maintenance work loads. Under these
conditions it is imperative that maintenance be planned and scheduled so that there is no
idle time or peak work load period. Maintenance scheduling will vary with the size and
coihplexity of the  facility and  with the  type of personnel available.  However,  proper
management  will provide a  maintenance plan no matter what the facility size.

All maintenance work must be scheduled just as  the facility's  operating routine  is
scheduled. Preventive maintenance should not be a haphazard procedure to be done  if
time permits — "or if  it rains".  Indoor and outdoor maintenance should  be scheduled  to
take advantage of open or inclement weather, low load or flow periods, and other variable
conditions beyond  the  contr.ol of the operating staff..

In planning  and  scheduling maintenance , tasks, the Program Evaluation and Review
Technique  (PERT)  and  Critical Path  Method (CPM) can be used  effectively. These
techniques  will aid in scheduling interrelated tasks. It is beyond the scope of this manual
to adequately cover PERT and CPM. For additional information, refer .to Project Man-
agement with CPM and PERT by J. J. Moder and C. R. Phillips, Reinhold Publishing
Corp. This reference lists other  sources of additional information.

Some maintenance tasks must be scheduled for the  once-a-year opportunity when the
plant load normally is at its lowest because of industrial or institutio'nal variation  or
the weather. This may be the time to drain, check, repair, and paint elarifier and  certain
underwater items  of equipment.

There are  seasonal items to be scheduled such as:

     1.   Lawn and landscaping work

     2.   Snow removal

     3.   Exterior painting

     4.   Road and  walkway repairs

,There are perennial  items  which may  occur either annually or as often as every 4 or
 5 years, such as:
                                        27

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    1.  Roofing

    2.  Paving & road repairs

    3.  Fencing

    4.  Insulating

    5.  Electrical system upgrading

    6.  Plumbing revisions

Plant management should also review job tasks and possible emergency conditions which
plant  personnel cannot handle due to either a lack of skills or proper equipment. These
tasks  should be reviewed and advanced  arrangements made with contractors or a repair
service  to handle these tasks and to be available to aid facility personnel in handling
emergency problems.

In emergency conditions  involving key units, these units should not be shut down unless
there is a need prior to the start of work. Before initiating work, the sequence of steps to
complete the task should be developed. Proper planning and scheduling will ensure that
sufficient personnel,  proper  equipment and parts  will  be available in the  work  area to
accomplish the task and minimize  the actual downtime for the item of equipment. Once
work has started, there should be no interruption that would cause any delays in placing
the unit back in service.

In planning  and  scheduling preventive and  corrective maintenance tasks, the  facility
may use a schedule  chart board, work order  system,  daily or weekly worksheets,  and
general priority  schedule sheets to forward  information to  the maintenance  staff on
what task are to be accomplished, the dates  and priorities.  A backlog develops when
scheduled work isn't accomplished. This work backlog should be reviewed and the more
critical tasks assigned the  highest priority. The daily or weekly worksheets are a listing
of maintenance tasks to be accomplished. Examples of these sheets are shown in Figures
No. 6 and 7. The general priority schedule sheet may list tasks and priorities as shown
in Figure No. 8.

Proper planning and scheduling will help in establishing  standard operating procedures
(SOP's) for the treatment  facility. The SOP's ensure that the facility is operated in an
efficient manner by placing  as many operations as possible on a routine basis. Routine
preventive maintenance tasks, such as checking oil levels and visual  inspections for noise
or excessive heat which are performed by the operators, should be included  in the SOP's.
                                         28

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                              DAILY ROUTINE
NOTE:
1.  SAFETY  FIEST  SHALL BE STRICTLY OBSERVED.
2.  WORK AREAS SHALL BE KEPT CLEAN AT ALL TIMES. -(WASHED &
   DISINFECTED)
3.  ANYTHING UNUSUAL SHOULD BE REPORTED.

                         Wailoa and Pua Pump Stations
1.  Make visual inspection
2.  Check pump packing
3,  Cheek sump pump-oil
4.  Check flo-matcher water level and  temperature
5.  Alternate  variable spee'd motors  manually
6.  Bleed air receiver tank (s)
Hilo
    1.
    2.
                          Sub Stations

Clean grating (Hose down)
Visual check: Pump packing-sump pump
Peninsula
    1.  Bleed compressor tank
    2.  Check sump pump

Keaukaha
    1.  Bleed compressor tank
    2.  Check sump pump
                                Treatment Plant
 Grit Chamber
     1.  Grind rags and wash down
     2,  Visual inspect sprayer nozzles
     3.  Remove grit once a week

 Clarifier
     1.  Hose down as required scum pit
     2.  Hose down
     3,  Pump out

 Sludge Pump Building
     1,  Check sump pump
     2.  Visual check
     3.  Check sludge pump-oil level
                                        Courtesy of Mr. Harold Sugiyama
                                        Bureau of Sewers & Sanitation
                                        Hilo Sewage Treatment Plant
                                        Hilo, Hawaii
                                FIGURE  NO. 6
                                      29

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           ROUTINE DUTIES —TO  BE  SCHEDULED  BY  FOREMAN
                                     Weekly

Grit Chamber
    Remove sediments and floating solids

Sludge Centrifuge Building
    1.  Check centrifuge torque converter oil level
    2.  Remove sludge  (Run centrifuge with water if sludge is not removed)

                                    Monthly
Sludge Pump Building
    1.  Grease air compressor bearings
    2.  Clean air filter

Wailoa Pump Station
    1.  Check compressor oil level
    2.  Clean air filter
                                  General Duties
January and July
Pua Station
    Grease—all bearings
        1.  Electric motor bearing
        2.  Drive shaft bearing
        3.  Pump bearing
        4.  Change packing as required  (complete)
        5.  Exercise all valves — grease shaft
        6,  Wash floors as required

Sludge Centrifuge Building
    Grease all bearings

February and August
Wailoa Pump Station                              Courtesy of Mr. Harold Sugiyama
    Grease all bearings                            Bureau of Sewers & Sanitation
        1,  Electric motor                        Hilo Sewage Treatment Plant
        2.  Pump drive shaft                      Hilo, Hawaii
        8.  Pump
        4.  Change packing as required  (complete)
        5.  Exercise all valves — grease shaft
        6.  Wash floors as required
                                 FIGURE NO.  7
                                       30

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             Form 1
                                       MAINTENANCE  SECTION  GENERAL PRIORITY SCHEDULE
to
ORDER DATE








1

PRIORITY



•





•
JOB DESCRIPTION




«
* !


COMPLETION DATE




.



Courtesy of Mr. L. W. Ketcham
Plant Superintendent
Central Treatment Plant
, . Tacoma, Washington
                      NOTE:   The  Maintenance  Section will  generally pursue the highest priority
                             assignment  unless  specifically  instructed  otherwise by a supervisor.
                             When conditions  are not favorable  to  work  on a higher" assignment
                             they may  drop  back  to  the  next  lower  one.

                                                                        SUPERVISOR, TREATMENT PXANTS
                                                       FIGURE NO.  8

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Schedule Chart Board

A maintenance plan involves time, personnel, equipment, schedules, costs and work orders.
A schedule chart with subjects, personnel and time is a convenient aid to reduce impulse
searches for work for idle personnel. A schedule chart board may be divided into weekly,
monthly, and yearly sections so that the entire range  of maintenance functions can be
observed. Color tabs and labels can be coded to account for all personnel and their duties
at a specific point in time. The removal of the tag from the schedule chart board indicates
the work is underway or has been completed. The chart board can reduce the  time re-
quired to instruct or search for personnel to perform maintenance functions.  The board
also provides a graphic  indication  of progress and manpower usage and of tasks that are
running1 behind. The size, method of use and detail of the schedule  chart board depend
upon  the facility's scheduling requirements.

In  small plants,  the superintendent  or chief operator  must consider using all three
operating shifts to accomplish required maintenance activities. This requires proper plan-
ning,  scheduling and controlling of the activities of the operators and all outside repair
services performing maintenance tasks.

Work Order  System

A work order system should be used to initiate all preventive maintenance and corrective
maintenance tasks. There are two basic types of work orders. The first type is  a standard
work  order and generally covers repetitive work to be done in a given area, such  as a
preventive  maintenance  task. The second type work orders are written job orders. They
may originate in the area where the work is to be performed and constitute the authority
to carry out specific corrective maintenance tasks. They can also be originated by the
maintenance  supervisor to perform corrective  maintenance tasks  identified  either by
verbal reports or conditions noted where performing preventive maintenance tasks.  The
following are the basic  features a  good  work order system should contain:

    1,  The work order form should contain  the following  minimum information:
        date; work  order  number; location of work to be performed;  nature of
        problem; the work required; the desired timing for accomplishing the job,
        such as emergency, as soon as possible, when convenient, or  during  equip-
        ment shutdown; space to  write information on actual  work accomplished
        and comments; and space for supervisory signature.

    2.  The work order becomes a record of repairs and a history of the equipment
        requiring repair. It also provides a method for comparing  similar items of
        equipment with respect to their maintenance requirements.
                                        32

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   3.  The work  order  establishes a  comparative guide for the cost of repetitive
       repairs; the cost  of similar jobs can be checked for cost overruns.

  . 4.  The work  order  should  not be financed from petty  cash but included -in
       budget considerations.

   5.  The work order should be a guide for cost and materials expended.

   6.  The work  order  should  define the work to be performed, the materials
       required, and the schedule to be followed for a particular job.

   7.  Only special emergency work should be performed without first preparing
       a work order. For emergency repairs, a work order should be filed to com-
       plete the maintenance records.

   8.  The cause  of the needed repair should be reported on the  work order.

   9.  The work order should be a complete record of the repair service.

    10. The work  order  should  be signed only by authorized persons.

    11. 'The work order system should  help to reduce equipment downtime.

    12. The work  order  records whether the repair could have been avoided with
       adequate preventive maintenance.

    13. The work  order  should "be used whenever a  repair requires  new  parts,
       equipment shutdown, or  outside repair service.  Routine maintenance below
       a preestablished  time limit does not have to be placed on work orders.

    14. With the work completed, the work order  should be used to  note the task
       on  the equipment record for  the particular item of equipment. The task  .
       description, work order number, and the cost data with date should be noted
       in the record system. The work order number will provide access to locating
       the w.ork order should the need arise.

    15. The work orders should  be filed by work order number and kept as a history
       record of work performed.

Figures No. 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13  are example work order forms which can be developed
and used. Figures  No.  9  and 10 are the type of forms  which a small facility may find
                                        33

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                             WORK ORDER
WORK ORDER NO.
WORK TO BE PERFORMED:
MATERIALS  REQUIRED:
WORK PERFORMED BY:
     2.
     3.
     4.
WORK COMPLETED:







SIGNED:   	





DATE:
DATE;
                                                             HOURS
                    HOURS
                    HOURS
                    HOURS
COMMENTS:
             FIGURE  NO.    9   SAMPLE  WORK  ORDER
                               34

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                                                        MAINTENANCE WORK ORDER
co
01
ELECTRICAL:
REPORTED BY:
MECHANICAL:

OTHER:

ATTENTION OF:
DATE:
BUILDING:
EQUIP. NO.
JOB ORDER NO,:
,

        COMPLAINT:
        WORK DONE:
WORK ASSIGNED BY:
WORK ASSIGNED TO:

DATE STARTED:
DATE 'FINISHED:

        Courtesy of Mr. Carl M. 'Schwing

        Charles County Community College

        LaPlata, Maryland    ,
                                                             FISURE NO,  10

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GO
                 Location
                 Requested By
                Description  of Work
                 Work Accomplished & Comments
                 Approved  By
                 Completed  By
                 Remarks
                                                                   Work Order
                                                                              Order No.
                                                                      (Phone)
                     Priority
                                                                            Title
Date of Completion
                                                                                                                      Date
r~j Emergency
Q Action
D told
                                      Job Estimate

                                      labor   $	

                                      Material$	
                                                                                                                   Drawings Attached
                                                                                                                    Survey Required
                                          Date
                                      Job Cost

                                      Labor   $-
                                      Mater ial$_
                                                                    FIGURE NO.  11

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                                                                    Date.
                        Work Order No.
 Location
                   Requested By:
                                               (Phone)
Priority:
              Mame
                           No.
                     Q  Inspect     r~j  Replace

                     r~\  Repair      r~j  Overhaul
                                                                    D
                                                                        Service.
                                                                       Paint
                                     Work Description
                                      Work Performed/Comments
  Job Estimate

  Labor          $.
  Material
$
                                                         Maintenance Superintendent
                                    Work Record
Personnel Assigned








Total .
Manhours









Date


-





Work Done








Parts & Materials









Work Completed By
Work Accepted By
                                                  Date
                                                 _D?te
                                    FIGURE NO.  12
                                SAMPLE:   WORK  ORDER
                                       37

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                          WORK ORDER
                                                                No.
                                                               Date
  Location
                   Work To Be Performed
  Priority  -
  Labor     $_
  Estimate
Material  ?_
Estimate
                     .Requested by.
                        Phone
     Record Hours of Labor, Travel Time and Equipment Time Used
             Materials Used
                        Labor, Truck and Equipment Time
             Item
                      Ouan.
                             Unit
                             Price
          Total
                       Total
Name










Total
Hot
R











jrs
O.T.











Rate











Total


	







  Remarks
Work. Completed By.

Work Accepted By  .
                                          Date

                                          Date
                                   FIGURE NO.  13
                                       38

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sufficient for their needs. Figures No. 11 and 12 are forms which a large facility could
use to provide and maintain more information.

Preventive Maintenance
Preventive maintenance requirements must be determined and  incorporated - in  a pre-
ventive maintenance program to allow  these tasks to be planned and scheduled into the
normal flow of work.                        .                   •

Preventive maintenance can be defined as work done to prevent breakdown, reduce wear,
improve efficiency, and  extend ,the life  of  equipment  and  structures.  The  greatest
reliability and dependability of equipment are experienced only when a well-planned and
organized preventive  maintenance  program is carried out. Another  reason  for  setting
up a preventive  maintenance program is  that emergency repair costs- are much  higher
than the routine repairs that are required to prevent "breakdowns.

A good  preventive maintenance program consists of three basic parts:

     1.  A method of periodic inspection, lubrication, adjustment and/or other ser-
        vicing of machinery, equipment  and  structures.

     2.  A record of repairs, alterations  and  replacements.        "                  .

     3.  A method of cost accounting for the different parts of the preventive main-
        tenance program.

All three parts  of the preventive maintenance program  should  be simple, reliable and
accurate.  A sound preventive m'aintenance  program need  not be elaborate to affect'
reductions in downtime and expensive and untimely repairs arid replacements.

The following items will help in establishing  an  efficient preventive maintenance pro-
gram:

     1.  A simple and comprehensive preventive maintenance inspection  form.

     2.   Inspection of equipment and structures on a. regularly scheduled basis.

     3.   Proper  servicing of equipment. -

     4.  Accurate recording of work performed.

     5.   Notification of proper supervisor when repairs are beyond preventive main-
         tenance team  capability.      .               *                     -
                                         39

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    6.  Adequate planning and proper assignment of duties.

    7.  Efficient execution of task.

    8.  A balanced work load.

    9.  Complete system of cost accounting.

The following are advantages  of establishing a preventive maintenance system in any
size treatment facility:

    1.  More efficient scheduling of personnel time.

    2.  Better scheduling of parts and material deliveries.

    3.  Seduction in travel time.

    4  Better use of personnel skills.

    5.  More efficient execution of work orders.

Management must accomplish the  following to ensure a successful preventive main-
tenance program:

    1.  Determine preventive  maintenance needs by inspection.

    2.  Organize maintenance forces.

    3.  Schedule and prepare work orders.

    4.  Record necessary data.

    5.  Prepare  repetitive standards  to control  costs.

In order to establish  a preventive maintenance program, data must be collected on all of
the items to be included in the program. Typically the data collected should contain such
information as manufacturer, model, type, size, serial number, location and horsepower.
Another important step is the  formulation of servicing procedures and checklists.

Scheduling is another important part  of any preventive maintenance program. Establish-
ing an efficient schedule requires knowledge  of servicing procedures and a knowledge
                                        40

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of the function  each item of equipment plays in the overall performance of the plant.
The following is an outline of the basic steps required to. effectively schedule preventive
maintenance  activities:

Step  1 — List all equipment requiring preventive maintenance.  Use equipment catalog
                                    s-                      ,
          for this step.

Step  2 — Determine the preventive maintenance requirements  and their respective
          frequencies for each item of equipment. This information  should be  in  the
          equipment card or computer file.

Step  3 — Estimate the time and skills required to perform each preventive maintenance
          task.

Step  4 — List all preventive maintenance tasks  in the weekly frequency group. Total
          the maintenance time requirements and compare this  total with the available
          man-hours  in  the maintenance work  week.                           _ ;
                                                              r
Step  5 — Establish a preventive  maintenance schedule for a typical work week. This
          schedule  must  be  adjusted for corrective maintenance requirements, monthly,
          quarterly, semiannual, and annual preventive maintenance requirements,  and
          any other items that would take maintenance time away from  weekly pre-
,   ,       ventive maintenance activities.

Step  6 — On a yearly  calendar select tentative dates for performing all  monthly,
          quarterly, semiannual, and annual maintenance.

Step  7 — The typical work week schedule now becomes the basic maintenance schedule
          for planning each week's maintenance activities.

Step  8 — Each week the basic schedule is modified as required to handle preventive
          maintenance tasks other than those  in  the weekly frequency  group.  The
          schedule  must  also be adjusted for work priority changes due to jobs being
          carried over from the previous week.

Step  9 — Planning and  scheduling preventive maintenance is  a continuous  function.
          Planning must take contingencies into account and scheduling must be flexible
           enough to handle maintenance emergencies.

Step  10 — Using  a  basic schedule  for  planning each week's preventive maintenance
           activities will  help ensure the maintenance effort is properly coordinated and
           directed.  Management must  emphasize the  need  for proper scheduling if
           maintenance objectives  are to be  realized.
                                         41

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The schedule of inspections on plant equipment is dependent on the following factors:

    1.  Availability of standby equipment

    2.  Manufacturer's recommendations

    3.  Operating conditions

    4.  Management experience

    5.  Operating schedule of equipment

An accurate cost accounting system is also necessary to determine the cost of repairs,
replacements and preventive maintenance  performed on each item of equipment.

The  equipment  manufacturer's maintenance manual is generally the best maintenance
guide for any  particular item of equipment. However, the adequacy of the manufac-
turer's information should be verified. Most equipment is mass produced on a competitive
basis  and the costs of its maintenance should be consistent with its value, life expectancy,
and replacement cost. Equipment should  be rated as to its critical position in the plant
operating system and its maintenance priority.  This information will  aid management
in determining the maintenance  expense which will be consistent with an item's value,
life expectancy, and replacement cost. The following is an example of how the equipment
may be broken down into categories:

    Category A:
    Small dollar value items ($25 or less), such  as spark plugs, fluorescent lamps,
    and other similar items, should be replaced  at appropriate intervals of opera-
    tion unless a breakdown will not interfere  with normal plant operations.

    Category B:
    Intermediate  value equipment ($25 to $100) justifies preventive  maintenance
    when there are little labor  and material costs involved. This  includes minor
    repairs and replacement of parts for lawn  movers, fork lifts, small motors and
    similar items which the operator or maintenance personnel can replace promptly
    with no major downtime involved.

    Category C:
    Equipment  such as  large pump motors and compressors must have adequately
    scheduled preventive maintenance.  The breakdown of a minor part may cause
    the failure  of a major component of the item of equipment. Major components
                                        42

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    of equipment are not ordinarily carried in stock, either at the treatment facility
    or by the manufacturer. For this reason,'minor spare parts-Should be available
    at the treatment facility for rapid installation. Likewise, proper lubrication and
    adequate preventive maintenance on this category of equipment must be per-
    formed. Maintenance cost records can be used to plot cost curves or make cost
    analyses.  Such curves will show whether repairs  are  due to poor preventive
    maintenance,  inappropriate equipment,  overloading,  and  will also show the
    economical point for replacement of the unit.

Unnecessary  ,or too frequent  preventive maintenance can be as wasteful as improper
maintenance  procedures. Treatment system management must determine the optimum
preventive  maintenance  schedule and replacement  program.

Preventive  Maintenance  Servicing Procedure and Checklist

It has been shown that the preparation  of a preventive maintenance servicing procedure
and checklist for each item  of equipment can be of  significant value to maintenance per-
sonnel in performing difficult maintenance tasks. In preparing such a- procedure,  only
those items applying to  the particular item of equipment should be included. Directions
appearing on the  procedure should never be of a  general nature. .A preventive main-
tenance procedure  eliminates  the  wasted time that results when maintenance personnel
try to follow  poorly prepared maintenance directions. The servicing procedures normally
follow the manufacturer's  recommended  preventive maintenance schedule. Valuable
servicing procedures information is also made  available through professional organiza-
tions and  maintenance  specialists. A  checklist virtually  rules out the possibility  of
personnel accidently overlooking an important preventive maintenance check. The check-
list can be modified and  added to over the years to make it more complete and functional.

Corrective  Maintenance

Planning and scheduling of maintenance work must  also  make  provisions to  handle
corrective maintenance tasks. Corrective maintenance can be defined as work required
for  repairs and nonroutine maintenance  functions. The maintenance personnel must
always be  ready to handle  these work  tasks as equipment failures occur and emergency
conditions arise. A review of equipment will aid in determining what failures may occur.
A review of  these potential failures will aid in determining spare parts and equipment
required to correct these problems, should  they arise.  In planning for corrective main-
tenance, provisions^ should^  be made with  outside  repair services or contractors  for
assistance  should  major problems occur.

Corrective  maintenance  tasks should not be  initiated without  a work order unless the
problem is an emergency and immediate action is required.  Even, for emergency work, a
work order should be completed. It should identify the work for record purposes  even if
                                         43

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the job has been completed.  The work order will provide a record of repairs, cost data,
and a history of the equipment requiring repairs. The use of the work order should help
reduce equipment  downtime  and should provide information on whether the repairs
could have been avoided with adequate preventive maintenance.

Procedures for performing corrective maintenance tasks should follow the manufacturers'
recommendations for disassembling and assembling their items of equipment. Manufac-
turers frequently provide trouble-shooting checklists for use with their equipment.  These
trouble-shooting guides should be readily available to persons performing corrective
maintenance tasks.

Manpower Utilization

As management upgrades its  maintenance staff, it must also improve the planning  and
scheduling of maintenance tasks to obtain maximum manpower utilization.

Manpower management techniques can often result in substantial savings when applied
to maintenance activities. The savings can be  realized by  continuing to provide the
existing level of service, by reducing the maintenance forces, or by  keeping the  main-
tenance forces  at present levels and  increasing the amount of work and service. Any
plan designed to improve manpower utilization  must have the full  support  and cooper-
ation of top management.  Manpower  utilization techniques include:

     •  The planning  of maintenance  crew sizes and  composition.

     •  The proper selection of tools and equipment.

     •  The preplanning of travel routes  to work areas.

     •  The improvement of maintenance techniques.

     •  Control reports to stimulate the  reaching of objectives.

The first step  in establishing such a system is to select a method of work measurement.
The simplest form of work measurement is estimating how long a given  job will take.
Estimating, however,  is an  inconsistent  method.  Work measurement based on  prede-
termined  time  standards and detailed operational standard time data is  more reliable.
Standard time  data exists for operation such as:

     •  Using tools
                                        44

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    •  Handling parts                               .                .    ;

    •  Lubricating

    •  Moving about the job

    •  Climbing ladders                 •                            _       .   '

    •  Assembling and disassembling                                      ,

  •  •  Rigging                                 ~     *

    •  Making adjustments

Many of these operations are applicable to the daily maintenance tasks performed within
a municipal wastewater treatment system.

A job analysis must be conducted for each  maintenance task. The job analysis describes
the following:

    •  The recommended method broken down into step by step  procedures.

    •  The number of men required to perform each step.

A time range is developed for use with maintenance  work. This time range is necessary
because of the variability of conditions surrounding maintenance work. The standard
time  used when planning maintenance jobs is the  average of the range.

Manpower utilization studies often reveal  that the majority of jobs can be performed
most economically  with a reduced crew size. To compensate for unscheduled absenteeism,
provisions should be made for transferring men from a manpower pool.

Crew manpower savings can be made:

     1.  by having crews report  directly to job sites,  and

     2.  by paying an equipment operator overtime  to pick up  equipment  prior to
        starting time and to return the equipment to a central  yard after quitting
        time.
                                        45

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Travel time can be a big nonproductive cost. In the case of specialized crews, travel is an
important cost factor. To help alleviate the travel  problem,  the following  should be
considered:

    •  Arrange crew sizes on a day-by-day basis to match the work requirements,

    •  Eliminate the specialized crew concept to allow jobs in many categories to
       be  handled by a single crew. Work is  provided in a more concentrated
       geographical area and travel time reduced.

    •  Permit a backlog of noncritical jobs.

Prior to initiating a plan to improve manpower  utilization,  a  standard must be  estab-
lished. This standard  serves  as  a base from which the new plan may be  evaluated.
Reports should be provided to key personnel so the progress of the plan can be monitored.
The parameters  covered by these reports should  include:

    •  Plan coverage

    «  Plan performance

    •  Travel

    •  Manning

The planners developing the work assignme nts for the maintenance crews must consider
the following;

    «  Job priority

    •  Time job should take

    •  Availability of equipment

    •  Crew size

    •  Routing for minimum travel time
                                        46

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Maintenance Labor Standards   •._-'.„

In conjunction with  manpower utilization,  maintenance  labor  standards should  be
developed.  Maintenance labor standards can  be helpful  in  preparing accurate work
estimates. These work estimates are essential in the planning and scheduling of main-
tenance work. A labor standard can be defined as the sum of a group" of elemental time
values. The values which are used are the times  required to perform defined elements of
work in a specific maintenance job. Maintenance labor standards can  increase efficiency
in scheduling, manpower utilization, and productivity. The average level of effectiveness
of maintenance crews can be as low as 30-40 percent. Through careful organization,
accurate measurement and rigid control, the level of effectiveness of maintenance crews
can be raised to an effective work time of S0% or approximately 6.4 hours for an eight
hour  shift.

Maintenance labor standards are  most frequently applied to repetitive  jobs.  A well
designed work order  system is  essential to applying work measurement  techniques to
maintenance jobs.  From  a maintenance measuring standpoint,-  the  job  order should
contain the following minimum information: date; location of work to be performed;
nature of the problem; what work is required; the desired timing for accomplishing the
job, such as  emergency, as-soon-as-possible, when convenient, or during equipment shut-
down; work accomplished; man-hours; and  supervisor  signature.  The work orders
provide information on the man-hours required to  perform certain maintenance tasks
A review of these man-hours can be used to develop maintenance, labor standards. The
labor standards will  provide a  task description and give the man-hours required to
perform the task.
                                                                *             »
Many organizations currently  employing some form of  maintenance  labor standards
developed their standards internally. Maintenance Labor Standards have been  developed
by the Armed Forces for many tasks;  the Navy has Engineered Performance Standard
Public Works Maintenance, a guide -which covers a broad range of maintenance tasks and
which can be used as an aid in developing standards.  Outside consulting  services can
be used to establish  or  to  aid  in establishing maintenance labor standards.  The most
common way of  setting'standards is through supervisor estimates;  this  method, how-
ever, is probably the least effective way to establish labor  standards. Advantages can be
gained,by  using a responsible person in the maintenance  planning area who is familiar
with  all facets of the  trade being studied and  who has the ability to  estimate all main-
tenance  jobs. Obviously, not many individuals can meet all of these requirements. This
points out the need for a training program for estimators. There are four basic types of
systems that  can  be  used for measuring  maintenance  performance;  historical  perfor-
mance; statistical; checker; and analyst. When initiating a maintenance  performance
measuring system, jobs of more than eight man-hours  are used and 50-60 % of all work
will be covered. Gradually the program should be expanded to include jobs of less than
eight hours and cover 85-90% of all work. Jobs of less than two man-hours generally are
not measured.
                                        47

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A sound and economical approach to maintenance Labor Standards has been developed
in a technique commonly called Universal  Maintenance Standards  (UMS). UMS was
developed specifically to solve the work measurement problems of nonrepetitive jobs in
maintenance operations.

If the normal techniques of time study, standard data, and historical records are too
exact for your plant, then Universal Maintenance Standards should be considered. These
standards are based upon a range of time. For example, a mechanic will not accept as
fact that a  standard for replacing valve in a line is 28-1/2  minutes. They will  agree
that such a  job can be performed in, say, between 20  and 40 minutes. Thus, we  can
follow this principle to set in advance a reliable standard based upon sound engineering
data, and the standard will be correct a high percentage of the time.

This concept can best be described as establishing time slots for which a time range in
hours has been established for each slot. For example:

                            Slotl,  .15—  ,25    Average .20
                            Slot 2,  .25—  .50    Average .40
                            SlotS,  .50—  .90    Average .70
                            Slot 4,  .90 — 1.50    Average 1.20
                            Slot 5,1.50 — 2.50    Average 2.00

Slots can be developed for as many time ranges as are required.

The job  of the analyst  is to take work orders and place them in the proper slot.  This
procedure is followed  until every maintenance job has been slotted, and, as a result,
universal maintenance  standards have  been developed.

These standards can then be used in the conventional manner to schedule work and control
maintenance productivity.

The supervisor plays  a major role in  any maintenance measurement system. He must
report to the job estimator any unforeseen deviations in the planned job. He must also
ensure methods improvements  are promptly measured and the new values  included in
the standards manual.  The tradesmen must also receive training in the philosophy and
techniques of measurement of  maintenance performance. Measurement in no way de-
tracts from  the tradesmen's skills; in fact, it emphasizes their effective use. Remember:
to apply measurement  without  reporting results to those  participating impairs human
relations.

Some type of maintenance  labor standards have been  in use by some organizations for
over twenty years. There appears to be no consensus on the subject of labor standards
among maintenance management people in industry. However, management must surely
look to maintenance if it is to reduce costs in the future.
                                        48

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                                  SECTION VI
                   STOREROOM  AND  INVENTORY  SYSTEM
Central Storeroom
A central storeroom for spare parts, equipment, special tools, and supplies should be
established. This will ensure these items are available for the repairs and maintenance
work required to keep the plant operating efficiently.

The inventory of supplies, materials, equipment, special tools, parts, and space  required
for storage will be determined by the overall characteristics of the wastewater treatment
system. The treatment system may include the following:
                        •f                       r                '  ~-
     I.  Collection lines

     2.  Trunk sewers and interceptors
                *        '  ,         ;    '                ''      •*

     3.  Pumping stations and force mains

     4.  Treatment facilities

For the purpose of developing a maintenance inventory, the treatment system may be
divided into  the  following .categories.  These categories will ensure supplies. used for
maintenance work can be readily identified.
                                               *
     1.  Construction

     2.  Maintenance

     3.  Operation

The .necessary inventory and purchase order scheduling will vary with  the categories
and combinations of treatment system features cited above. The question of inventory
amount should be answered by the facility management and  should be determined from
the nature of the equipment on hand and the sources of  supply. A review of the equip-
ment and the manufacturer's recommendations will aid in determining what spare parts
and miscellaneous supplies should be maintained. Spare pumping and compressor capacity
equal to that required by the largest  unit should be provided. An  intermediate sized
spare unit for lower demands should also be provided. Failure to  carry an inventory of
items which are used on a routine basis can be considered poof management. Conversely,
maintaining  a supply of readily available and/or  seldom used items is wasteful. The
deli very, time required for items such as valves, bearings, or other wearing parts, must
                                        49

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be considered when deciding what items should be carried in an inventory. Maintenance
paint supplies should be  ordered as needed. The paint should be used promptly  and
not kept in stock to age. Special coatings may have  to be  ordered  in advance of their
anticipated use.

The more often an item is used or replaced, the more  important a supply  inventory
becomes. Certain items can be bought cheaper in quantity lots; by sharing orders with
other departments, a savings can be realized.

Storeroom System
The storage area may be only a small room with the plant operator having the key and
a log book in which to record items and their uses.  As the plant size  and complexity
increase, the quantity of materials will require a  storeroom  and storeroom clerk to
maintain it. A system  for  arranging items in the storeroom should be established to aid
in locating items. This system should ensure that all storage compartments are properly
labeled and that item location is correctly identified in the storeroom catalog.

For a large storeroom,  an accounting system should be  established to  maintain infor-
mation on items purchased, stock on hand, cost, and supplier. The accounting system  also
should provide a checkout procedure to identify the use and location of special tools  and
equipment. This will aid in locating equipment needed for emergency jobs or needed for
reassignment to jobs with a higher priority. The items must be  numbered  to aid in
identification; this numbering system may have like items or a family of items within a
range of numbers, or items may be numbered corresponding to equipment in a particular
area. The item numbers will provide a means of identifying and locating the material. A
storeroom catalog should be developed listing each item number, description, location,
and vendor information. .A central storeroom may be  used with other municipal divisions
with spare parts for the wastewater plant, filtration plant, and streets divisions.

Inventory System
A card file system should be used to maintain inventory,  parts description, cost, date,
supplier  and the minimum and maximum quantities to be maintained. The  inventory
cards should be filed by the identification number of the item. For items which may be
long lead items, a reorder point should be established to  aid in resupply.  A  storeroom
withdrawal ticket should be used to provide information about and a record of material
drawn from stock. The storeroom ticket should  provide space for item  number,  des-
cription, quantity required, job, and who obtained  item. A storeroom ticket or with-
drawal slip should be completed when  any  item is used.  The ticket will be a record
showing when the items were used and for  what purpose. This information will  help
determine when to reorder. This system will provide an inventory of items currently in
stock. Facilities with computers can include  this system in their computer and obtain
printouts as required. Figures No. 14 and 15 are examples  of a storeroom  inventory
card and a storeroom ticket respectively.
                                        50

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STOREROOM INVENTORY CARD
Item Description -
          Item No.
          Isle No.
          Bin No.
Quantity Maximum
         Reorder
Minimum
                          INVENTORY INFORMATION
Quantity
Used
or
Stocked
-
Date

-- Signed --
-
Quanti ty
on
Hand
„
USAGE OR SUPPLY INFORMATION
Usage - Work Order No. -
Supply - Purchase Order No.
*
                 FIGURE NO.  U    SAMPLE  INVENTORY CARD
                                  51

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      DATE
COST CODE NO. ,
mm ORDER NO.
WORK DESCRIPTION
                            STOREROOM TICKET
     EMPLOYEE
                                 FOREMAN
DEPT.
                                  DEPT.
ITEM NO.

DESCRIPTION

QUANTITY

UNIT COST

TOTAL COST

MATERIAL PROVIDED

MATERIAL RECEIVED
[Signature Storeroom  Cleric}
                                   (Signature)
    (Date)
                                       (Date)
                  FIGURE NO. 15  SAMPLE STOREROOM TICKET
                                  52

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Items considered as consumables do  not require withdrawal slips. An inventory card Is
used to maintain a record of usage of these items. The cards are reviewed periodically to
determine when reorder is necessary.

Computer control of the ordering of supplies and replacement parts should be investi-
gated. Time sharing as a computer service may  be an economical  alternative. In any
case, the  inventory system is  a management task that must be developed using sound
judgment.
                         "                "                   -/•"•/
Purchase  Order System

A purchase order system should be established to obtain items required and to replenish
the stock of consumable items as the quantity is depleted. Although purchasing for the
facility  will  usually  be handled by a central municipal  division, the facility should
develop a system to provide the necessary purchasing information or to initiate the pre-
liminary  order. The  system  should  provide a record for the date items were ordered,
when they were received, the quantity, the unit cost; the total cost, the supplier, item
destination  (maintenance or operation) and  space for comments,  such as  results  of
receipt inspection or a shipping problem encountered. Standing purchase orders can be
used effectively to  spread out delivery of large  quantities of supplies. The purchase
order should contain  the following information:

     1.  Purchase order number

     2.  Work order number (if applicable),

     3.  Date initiated

     4.  Date required

     5.  Shipping information

     6.  Information on terms of payment

     7.  Information on item to be obtained such as quantity, stock number, descrip-
        tion, cost per unit, total cost.

     &.  Specifications or other requirements for the purchase items. (There may be
        attached information to which the user may be referred.)

     9.  If a vendor is to supply drawings,  information  lists, operation and  main-
        tenance instructions, these should also  be noted.

-------
Upon receipt of material, all specifications,  drawings, documents,  and  purchase order
information should be available to the person or persons responsible for receipt inspection
to assure the vendor has met all requirements of the purchasing department. All material
shipments should be inspected for possible shipping damage, and a check of quantities
should be performed for comparison with  shipper's forwarding documents. As discrep-
ancies are noted at receipt inspection, they should be noted and action taken to  correct
any problems.

Purchase orders will include but  are not limited to the following items:

    1.  Fuel

    2.  Pipe, valves, fittings and other line  materials

    3.  Chemicals and lubricants

    4.  Expendable items (drill bits, flares, barricade materials, etc.)

    5.  Small tools and appliances

    6.  Wearing parts

    7.  Janitorial supplies  and other miscellaneous items

Figure No.  16  is provided as a sample purchase order.
                                         54

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 TO
 SHIP TO
                   IMPORTANT
_0ur Purchase Order Number  must appear on
 Invoices,  Packages and  Correspondence,
                    PURCHASE ORDER NO.

                    WORK ORDER NO.  _

                    DATE INITIATED  _

                    DATE REQUIRED   _

                    SHIP VIA  	

                    F.O.B.  	

                    TERMS
   QUANTITY
STOCK NUMBER/DESCRIPTION
PRICE
PER
TOTAL
 APPROVED BY
                              DATE
                                                       SHEET
                                         OF
                     FIGURE NO, 16  SAMPLE PURCHASE ORDER
                                       55

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                         '"  "     SECTION VII
              MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL AND ORGANIZATION
General
Regardless of the care which goes into the development of a maintenance management
system, the system cannot  attain  its  full  value  without qualified personnel.  The
Environmental Protection Agency has developed two manuals entitled "Estimating Staff-
ing for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities", Contract Number 68-01-0828, and
"Estimating Costs  and Manpower Requirements for Conventional Wastewater Treat-
ment Facilities", Contract Number 14-12-462,  to provide assistance in estimating the
maintenance personnel  requirements. To adequately  prepare manpower  recommenda-
tions, a task analysis of each job  within the maintenance, system should be made.

Maintenance Personnel
         i
The  maintenance personnel for a wastewater treatment plant .will vary in number and
specific job tasks. Job descriptions should be developed as outlined in,,the EPA report
entitled, "Estimating Costs and  Manpower Requirements for Conventional Wastewater
Treatment Facilities," Contract Number  14-12-462. The  job titles given below are taken
from the EPA report cited above. The maintenance functions for each job title also are
given and  are excerpted from the complete job descriptions, (operation and  mainten-
ance) to assist manual users in developing their maintenance systems,

     Superintendent — Responsibile for  maintenance of entire plant and review of
     maintenance functions.

     Assistant Superintendent — Assists superintendent in  review of maintenance
     functions and planning special maintenance tasks and alterations.

     Clerk Typist — Clerical  duties  as  typing  and  filing  purchase information,
     maintenance information, and work  orders.

     Operations Supervisor — Supervises and coordinates activities of plant operators,
     laborers, custodians, and other plant personnel. Prepares work schedules subject
     to  the superintendent's  approval,   Inspects plant to determine maintenance
     requirements,

     Shift  Foreman — Supervises operation  of  plant,  under general direction of
     supervisors. Performs duties of operations  or maintenance supervisors in their
     absence. Replaces maintenance worker during emergency.
                                        57

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Operator II — Performs routine  maintenance functions and custodial  duties.
Operates and maintains power generating equipment and incinerators.

Operator I — Assists Operator  II  in performing  the  maintenance duties  as.
outlined  or  shall perform tasks  as requested.

Maintenance  Supervisor — Supervises all preventive and corrective  mainten-
ance on entire plant. Plans, schedules, and directs  all maintenance work.  Su-
pervises and instructs maintenance  workers. Supervises inspections of contract
maintenance and submits maintenance budget requests, Responsible for main-
tenance records.
Mechanical  Maintenance  Foreman — Supervises mechanical maintenance crew
in performance of  maintenance  and repair tasks  on machinery, equipment,
buildings, structures and  grounds.  Supervises and instructs maintenance per-
sonnel on routine and emergency tasks.  Consults supervisors regarding pre-
ventive maintenance program,  Establisnes and operates preventive mainten-
ance program. Performs  inspections and  determines  repair  methods.  Works
with contractors and manufacturer's representatives on difficult tasks. Main-
tains maintenance records,

Maintenance Mechanic II — Performs preventive and corrective maintenance on
mechanical and electromechanical  machinery and equipment, under direction of
superior. Assists in  keeping maintenance records and  installs and sets up new
equipment. Supervises, instructs, and inspects work of Mechanic I, Maintenance
Helper, or Laborer to ensure proper performance  of  maintenance  work or re-
pairs.

Maintenance Mechanic I — Under the direction of Mechanic II,  Foreman, or
Supervisor,  performs or assists in performance  of  preventive and corrective
maintenance. These tasks may also include limited laborer and custodial duties.
Also,  assists in keeping  maintenance records.

Automotive Equipment Operator-—Operates automotive equipment such  as
trucks, tractors, or  fork  lifts. Assists in loading and  unloading of equipment.
Operates equipment to cut grass and weeds, bulldoze  soil, or  remove snow. Per-
forms  maintenance on the equipment.

Electrician II — Performs corrective and  preventive maintenance  on electrical
or electronic operating and control systems.  Performs task  using independent
judgment in solving problems  and  under general supervision of maintenance
supervisor  or  assistant  superintendent.  Maintains maintenance records and
supervises  Electrician I,  Maintenance Helper, and/or Laborer.
                                    58

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-Electrician I — Assists  Electrician II . or  performs corrective and  preventive ,
'maintenance, on electrical systems, fixtures, or, equipment. Performs. tasks based ,
 upon  oral and written instructions including specifications, codes and wiring
 diagrams. The work is  frequently performed independently and inspected by
 supervisor".' Maintains maintenance *re"eords "and supervises "maTnfenance" Helper
"an'3/oi* laborer.  * '"    ...... " " ' "" "" •--«-"«""*" «..-.--• .1- «..   i    >     . •  -  i» tt

 Maintenance Helper — Assists maintenance mechanic in maintaining and repair-
 ing 'equipment,  machinery, buildings and grounds. Duties also may  include
rt-i *.H<-'iy ,• rtt, ip .t*f? ^',"Ji  '.-urr-ws  arfi j*.. -, il , vt   :.; .-« -• • -*••-."•  '<• "i  ', -'•    • -" '
• maintaining  simple maintenance records  and performing laborer tasks as re-
 ,    _„  -•-=,-- -   .,<•-  ,  .  --  „  ,f, -, ;, -  fjs't'.^ -_ «••
 quired.
                                                        ,
     Laborer — Performs  general  tasks  such 'as  cleaning equipment,  maintaining
     buildings and grounds, performing custodian Tasks and carries or holds material,
    'sufpplies, or tools to assist1 operating and/or maintenance personnel.
   j^™-4i» Jm'lz. :'.iiaJUiV:-sfrt r ^{."iiJ-St rr-^'jjy.i  ^%0fy'jut  ?^r.r -j;yj i«i !-^»,..j.».  •' ..",.
     Painter -^- Prepares surfaces for painting such _as  scraping,  washing, burning,
     sanding, sandblasting, puttying and caulking. Matches,  mixes, and blends vari-
     ous interior or exterior paints or wall covers and applies them. Erects and uses
     maintain, clean, and store tools and equipment; and clean or have arrangements
   ._ made for, Jaborer tp^clean the^work site%   ^tt>rL   ;.-?e
   '-••* "-/-J r*^C /o*^ ^-j-* * ^ "-"*• H~* *'i rt y'iu T*j&*»f".< 3'1 * *iv>l ,*#Fi u_*ru o?-<  ^ ,,   ,.*.-«,<-
   "«Sforekee'per-^-_ Requisitions^ receives,  inspects, "^verifiesj" "stores,' ~ 'and __ issues
   "'materials, supijlies, tdols,4 and equipment. Maintains" irivenfory'records; controls
     material;  and reports material  used,  spoilage "or'^otfiier' losses,  inventory-
     adjustments,  and refusal of shipment. Responsible for determining method of
     storage, identification and location of stock. Divides stock quantities into portions"
   -to fill orders and identifies when reorder is required.    - :::,,.,"/_..;  ~-.v  -?.-sv

   .^Custodian —-.Cleans.alLor. designated portions of .wastewater. treatment plant.
     and .grounds. .Performs general'custodial  duties such as-cleaning restrooms,
     maintaining supplies, emptying waste cans and ashtrays, maintaining grounds,
   1  picking up lifter, sweeping 'walks,  and shoveling snow of cutting grass. Re-
   • ports" aify'rep^afrs  or Adjustments 'required.
Maintenance Organizatior

The plant head should  review the job  descriptions, facility's maintenance force and
personnel performing'maintenance functions. Based  upon this, review and guidance pro-
vided by" the EPA.repoTrts on, staff ing previously mentioned, a maintenance organization-
•alrehart should be developed for the plant. Depending upon .plant  size and type, tills

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chart may outline each employee by job title or particular groups such as Maintenance
Mechanic II or I. Figures No. 17 and 18 are  examples of maintenance  organizational
charts.

The job  titles used in these organizational charts are based upon the EPA reports dis-
cussed previously. The numbers in parentheses beside each job title identify the possible
number of employees of each job title a plant in this size range may have.

Figure No. 17 outlines two organizational charts for plants 10 MGD or less.  Mainten-
ance organizational chart number 1 outlines the maintenance  staff with  a plant super-
intendent.  Chart  number 2 has the organizational outline for a smaller  plant  with  the
chief operator as the head. Figures  No. 18, 19, and 20 outline the organizational charts
for plants  10 MGD to 50 MGD, 50 MGD to 100 MGD,  and 100 MGD and greater, re-
spectively. The possible number of  employees  for plants 100 MGD and greater were
not included,  for this number will  depend upon the particular plant. There  are rela-
tively few facilities in this size category and each facility's maintenance staff must be
tailored to its particular  needs. Organizational charts should outline the chain of com-
mand for the maintenance work force.

Job  descriptions  should be developed, and this information,  along with the organiza-
tional chart for  the facility, will help eliminate problems involving responsibilities for
maintenance work.

Rating maintenance personnel and evaluating maintenance jobs are important in order to
establish salaries and a wage structure for the plant organization. It is beyond the scope
of this manual to cover adequately this topic. For additional information refer to Main-
tenance Engineering Handbook by L. C. Morrow, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Maintenance Personnel Training

As wastewater treatment plants expand and new equipment is obtained, the maintenance
tasks and problems increase. To perform the corrective and preventive maintenance tasks,
the maintenance force must be trained and upgraded to handle  these problems. An effec-
tive maintenance staff is  always improving its ability to handle present  tasks.

Maintenance training can be considered to perform two basic functions. First,  it can be
used as a cure for existing deficiencies. Second, it can be used as a preventive measure to
help eliminate potential future problems. For  any maintenance training  program to be
successful, it  should be aimed at meeting the  plant  maintenance needs and should be-
come an essential part of the overall plant maintenance effort.

Before  initiating a maintenance training program  to correct  deficiencies in  certain
maintenance jobs, the specific job should be thoroughly analyzed. The job should be broken
down step by step to  determine if, in fact, training and not some other factor is the
                                         60

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     MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONAL CHART NO. 1
                                           [Superintendent (0.5-1)
[Operator  II  (1-4)|    | Maintenance Mechanic II (0-1)|     [Electrician  II  (0-1)  |
[Operator  I  (1-6) |     | Maintenance Mechanic I (0-1)|
Auto. Equipment Operator (0-1)
Laborer (0-2)
                       Maintenance Helper  (0-2)
    MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONAL CHART NO. 2
                                             I Operator II (1-2)
                                     [Operator I (1-4.)
                                                             Maintenance Helper  (0-1)
                                                             Auto. Equipment Operator  (0-1)
                                                             Laborer  (0-1)
               Figure No.  1?   Maintenance Organizational  Charts  -  Plant Size;   10 MGD or Less

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ro
      [OPERATIONS SUPERVISOR
        [SHIFT FOREMAN (o-2)|-
        [OPERATOR n (i-n)l
        [OPERATOR  i
                                                        [SUPERINTENDENT (1)
                                                   [ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT (0-1)]-
                                                                                         ICLERK TYPIST (0-2)1
                                           [MAINTENANCE SUPERVISOR ((Pf)]
                                                          I
                              IMECH.  MAINTENANCE FOREMAN (o-i)|     [ELECTRICIAN n (o-i)|
                                       L "    "--in nnr •_ _ tri      ^~~*~~~.^—*
AUTO EQUIPMENT OPERATOR (0-4)
       LABORER (1-5)
                                       CUSTODIAN (0-1)
 MAINTENANCE MECHANIC II (.5-2)1     [ELECTRICIAN I (0-1)|
[MAINTENANCE MECHANIC  I
                                     MAINTENANCE HELPER
                         Figure No.18   Maintenance Organizational Chart - Plant Size:  10 MGD to 50 M6D

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Ch
oo
                                                           SUPERINTENDENT (1)
                                                    [ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT (i)h
                                                                  lOUJVll
                                                                                         | CLERK JTYPISTi i (1.5-4)1
       OPERATIONS, SUPERVISOR (0-1)
         SHIFT FOREMAN (0-5)
                                                     MAINTENANCE SUPERVISOR (0-1)[
           OPERATOR II <6-17)|
           [OPERATOR  i (8-25)|-  l
AUTO EQUIPMENT OPERATOR (1-6)


                  -   .Ml <' I
LABORER (4-8)
i I !,[(•>

E FOREMAN (0-3)|
• <; !
ECHANIC II (1-3)|

i
[ELECTRICIAN
I-- i ;••?. u
ELECTRICIAN
                                                                   ik
MAINTENANCE MECHANIC  I Q-;3)|
                                                                        MAINTENANCE HELPER'{2-6)1,' V1''
                                                                                       1   '      "
STOREKEEPER»(0-1)
                                                                   'PAINTER'(o-i)
                                                                                                      'CUSTODIAN (1)
                    Figure No. 19   Maintenance Organizational  Chart ..Plant Size:  50 MGD to 100 H.GD.

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O1
-Pa
                                                     (SUPERINTENDENT!
                                                ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT
                                                                             ICLERK TYPIST
           OPERATIONS  SUPERVISOR
                    [MAINTENANCE SUPERVISOR
                                                 MECH. MAINTENANCE FOREMAN
                                 AUTO. EQUIP-
                                 MENT OPERATOR

                                 LABORER
MAINTENANCE MECHANIC II
MAINTENANCE MECHANIC I
                                                    MAINTENANCE HELPER
                                        ELECTRICIAN II
       ELECTRICIAN I
STOREKEEPER


PAINTER


CUSTODIAN
                 FIGURE  NO. 20  MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONAL CHART    PLANT SIZE;  10QMGD AND GREATER

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ingredient that must be improved to achieve the desired efficiency.  If the job analysis
shows that maintenance training is required, the first  step should be to establish re-
alistic objectives.

Realistic criteria for measuring these objectives must also be provided. If adequate labor
standards exist for the maintenance tasks personnel are being trained for, these standards
can  be used  to  measure training  objectives.  Inexperience must be considered when
evaluating any newly trained maintenance employee's performance.  The level at which
the maintenance training should be initiated must also be defined. The type of training
program that -will best  accomplish the stated objectives must be selected. The types of
maintenance training programs include on-the-job training, classroom instruction, and
programmed  instruction.  Maintenance training programs instituted by other organiza-
tions should be studied for both general and  specific  training techniques  employed.
Trainees should be given standardized screening  tests to  provide  indication of their
technical  levels  and to give the  instructor an indication of any potential student weak-
nesses.  If required, basic and advanced courses could be held on a  continuous basis. It
.is important  that class sizes  be  limited to  give  students individual  attention, Class
times of two hours per day, two  days per week have been shown to be most effective.
Certificates of completion should be awarded to all individuals who successfully complete
the maintenance training program.

Training classes are available through Federal and State  Water Pollution  Control Agen-
cies.  Several  large industries offer correspondence  courses  in maintenance subjects,
and suppliers of  wastewater treatment equipment also  provide  training  classes  on
maintaining their equipment. All of these potential sources of maintenance training
should  be investigated and programs selected to help satisfy the facility's maintenance
training requirements.
                                         65

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      _______________________ ........ _ ^SECTION -VIII ••;
           COSTS AND BUDGETS  FOR MAINTENANCE OPERATION'S -i,t E

Maintenance Costs ^  aur-ivi%  j>yfn  iroir£St:s.4SiQ- S3ne«0ifff£fn • 9.1T
Maintenance costs,,can Jje^a, ^significant percentage of a wjastewater treatmjent, plant sjptal
operation and maintenance budget. Because maintenance costs in general have, increased
to become such a large part of the total yearly operating cost, plant superintendents have
been  required-, to,. take- positive' action.. It is - important .that -.sufficient information be
      -i^ ,,  '   ;np siirti.'t* «*..»-a3i iteuiU  ij^ftftorti ,}.. ,.>fyajjtt,'f>iii »ju<>x  fi — * \ilitf< lauRdli
maintained to  permit proper monitoring and control of, maintenance .costs and the ,main-
         ••-»"!i>jf-, jt i.,>J,r™iAi>i»j ij  «, Mj<3&i jl?-- -Ml.,  jjuawi* 3*JB# JeSliii* alt  .iJUWllJ iU »R»aJ3«4AS
tenance
                                                           sts
       -•-;r'i&fcjK3riJ ttvotami gi^TO'// sni ql^ffiaum 9»i fefia
Before an accurate estimate of maintenance costs can be made or a sound maintenance
budgetjan be prepared, JJ js- n|cefsary tg ^Y^^M^JaWBt^PSf
service .cal^^ri^^^^pt^^,^^^,^^^,^ |f
      •£'0..._*  u; ,r..'?-'"-fi&J.§'»Ft^s'"jess3io!i: dcf TiSfff eeasff'j'isjtj bujj *J9jjl3osJ Jsdi
    Preventive maintenance. jsitl}e_in,ainj;enanc(e." >f pnctip.ns^, .that ,_can^ generally.. be"
    perfprmed 'jyjule. the .plant , is, in. -operation ^operat
    roujbine. inspection of equipment,, lubrication,  and minpr: jquipmeni,
                                                 ,h9csr0i9.fat" sd birroris s^oes srf} ,»IB
     Corrective maintenance is the repairs performed while the plant is in operation
 T3"LQ!cWith,arnijnim,um o.f equipment dpsntime,.iTJ\esj3jm,ajnteji^^                    5,iT
 »ieirpacking,  pumps,., changing  belts;  and repl.a,cmg,bearing~s,.- brushes; ej;(:,.,.Th>ey,lare ;«jyj
 i?30 sflnietimes, - performed, , by . operating ipersonne] , but-nin,Qst - -often, ;by_ ; plaijt T
 * ;5,;ten.anc,e men_.QrJby-being%(;ontracte,d,'put.  ^-ff^j^o
 ..zsiri +8O3 lujot aril sffttiotoMol rf*  *»irj'3!'"f .jffernoosfq^i  '*o virrfcilucfsi iol tiwo& Jorig.ai It oiotsd ot
_sr;7rN*' 'iff .""<: arwf rr 'fit hf*9r?-<::vrl h'f""/**  TVi1' «"' '"f'- fffffi^i firro?* ,fij«f«  a<»rf »'»,'* '•rt'fsrff  P  *O  '>ffT'5'rK"
With' mamtenance"operations~ defined by service  categories,' the maintenance manager s
  »,,,-. ,.ir-,  •^ftorrftfvrnj-f.fclt  o* "ifsno'fl +.-,-«* r->n*/^{•  "->?' * -.-.rfTfr-r'ACi f r-» •zn*i'trrtt>?  onrrart^trrfRfTr •«rrfp<'ff'>Trff%  «rn1 . o^rf]'5rTr«rt'*9«
the equipment record system,  work order system, storeroom system" and  contract main-'
tenance. A good maintenance  manager should  realize  that an  overall sustained  plan
base'cl-' on -accurate  records'" is the'- key to 'any type of' cost" re>ductibrh7The;f6116wihg'ltSms^
should be'-'e8hsidere'dnby &e 'roSt'  donicioi&:ina^^ni»Taffiff^er^*s?joa"JiOft5» rro, h^tinost f+f«s«j**voionit_fR
     Work  Order System" — The  work order system  should ensure that the specific
  s\'o otiuj- 93nts09Jfji,Cff»  "fj&y*''  ,r)Bkr0't f&.bnsfl. iswaofs-j  R ;anMsficfR!T?9 vd
     maintenance task is  defined  accurately. It should spell  out how the maintenance
                                            67

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    task is to be done; the forms should provide space for time data and calculated
    cost information.

    Organization — The  maintenance  organization  must  provide  a method  to
    communicate work requests quickly, accurately, and simply. The responsibilities,
    accountability, and function of all personnel in the organization must be clearly
    denned.

    Leadership — A good maintenance manager must let his workers know what is
    expected of them. He must give them the necessary training and equipment to
    perform the tasks they are assigned. He must provide them with  some means to
    measure their performance and he must help the  workers improve themselves.

    Control — The  key to maintaining control of the wastewater treatment system
    maintenance functions is based on records which keep the management so well
    informed that budgets and purchases may be forecast accurately. The minimum
    records necessary to maintain control are the work order, storeroom requisition,
    schedules, equipment history, and time sheets. Periodic reviews should be made
    to ensure the maintenance expenses are not exceeding the budget, and,  if they
    are, the cause should be determined.

The equipment history record should contain a detailed description of the item and register
total  maintenance hours  and cost.  An  additional form can  also be used to establish
maintenance cost trends.  This form should provide for recording  preventive maintenance
and repair labor hours, equipment operating hours, labor costs per operating hour, total
labor and material cost per operating hour, and a graph for plotting the total cost index.
The  cost index plotted over a period- of months is  helpful in determining when main-
tenance costs  on an item are  becoming excessive. This form is a good tool for manage-
ment to use to determine the  normal operating expense for an  item of equipment. An
abrupt change from the  normal will  indicate a problem which  should be  investigated.
This same plot is helpful in estimating the length of time any item should be allowed to
operate before it is shut  down for rebuilding  or replacement.  Figure No. 21  is an ex-
ample of  a maintenance cost trend form. This form could be used  to prepare budgets
for maintenance operations  and to  illustrate  cost  trends to  management  personnel
responsible for  purchasing maintenance supplies and equipment items.

In budgeting maintenance and operating costs certain needs  inevitably occur  that cannot
be readily anticipated, Examples of  this type of expenditure  would be major  emer-
gency repairs  such as those caused by floods or other c;«tastrophies or unscheduled minor
capital improvements required on short notices. Needs of this type can be handled effec-
tively by establishing a renewal fund or replacement and heavy  maintenance fund over
                                        68

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                         MAINTENANCE COST TREND  FORM
o
3:

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and above the  normal maintenance budget. Money is generally allocated to such funds
on an annual basis and if not used carried over to .the next year.

Maintenance Budget

The plant superintendent or head of the facility should be responsible for the development
of the maintenance budget. If a system of records is established using guidelines pre-
viously outlined, the data from past cost reports will be used to develop the proposed
maintenance budget. The following is a checklist of items which should be included in
the proposed budget:

    •   Preventive Maintenance 7— including PM man-hours, s'upphes, lubricants, and
        related cost.

    «   Corrective Maintenance — including information from work orders  on CM
        man-hours, supplies, and parts.

    •   Major Repairs or Alterations — Estimated cost of proposed major tasks and
        capital improvements.

    »   Contract Maintenance or  Repair Services — All cost related to maintenance
        services provided by outside maintenance personnel,

    »   Special Project  Cost — Maintenance  cost related to  experimental  projects
        such as proposed treatment alterations; these might be  such alterations as
        chemical addition or a- trial change  of a trickling filter to high rate.

The preventive maintenance and corrective maintenance budgets are computed in si similar
manner. The man-hours and supplies used should be broken down by craft. The previous
year's maintenance man-hours can be determined based upon a review of time sheets  and
jobs performed with  information on filed  work orders. Man-hours can be converted to
dollars using  next year's projected standard man-hour rate with an extension to cover
fringe benefits cost. The man-hour figure should be adjusted for  an anticipated increase
or decrease in  equipment. An additional 0.5  to 1.0 percent should be included with  last
year's man-hour totals to cover wear and tear  on equipment. The average percent increase
or decrease in  the cost of supplies and lubricants should be obtained from the purchasing
department. The percent increase  or decrease  in storeroom operating overhead should be
noted  as well  as  any anticipated change in freight rates. This information should be
consolidated into one percentage figure and the lubricant and supply dollars computed by
craft. The preventive maintenance  budget will  be the total of the labor and supply dollars.
The corrective maintenance  budget is also  determined by totaling the-labor and supply
dollars assigned to it.
                                         70

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To obtain the major repair and alterations budget, remo₯e the.eosts.of jobs, performed last

year that will not be repeated this year. The cost of projects in-active backlog which will

span the new year should be addedcThe, major .repair and;alteraMons,wiiieli have received

approval should also be listed. To these items must be added the forecast" of "next year's

needs. This includes_ equipment  overhauls, m_2di|icationSj;any Alterations; and^building

repairs. A total of the items listed under maj olFTeliialr^M^terations wilTyielcrthe budget
-".£".* "frvsA  qwons ?f «•'»'> -ym'jH&A  fiOKteluolsj j&y&rj^ MM ot 'uiUmis i£yfJ>.Wj'.ft, ) ",o.Hj/,
request for that maintenance service category.
                                     " . .r  • i*,^  "*.oj :.3vs£
The importance of adequate maintenance budgets cannot be overstated. AJaek,,of funds is

detrimental to any maintenance system. The information in the,equipment record system
                                                      ~"5*iCC^J^ — J*ZJ*^t™
on work performed, work contracted out. items used from storeroomTstocjE'and purchased.
       ,   -   ,        -     ,          .,:, _,i>»f<'  •Hbcxti  "jnouorf — OuO.otJ-    <
and a breakdown  of man-hours provide information on maintenance costs. Using these

costs and making allowances for equipment replacement, expansion, and information on
         -------       -                          T-^T M TV? rnACfWff '.T'tlA'VT
maintenance history for the plant, the maintenance budget  can-be-developedi- A— sample

maintenance budget calculation follows:  --'JMOT I zionL i^e-i — 00u,05    I

                    - :r='i gttij  b:»tfifio">Y 'oo

 _,_"„    ,  _   ,  T^  , __  **  -        '  ;>:'.: ;.l5-,-s& dd nsau^s&jf
 PM Supply Costs Last Year


&. j- &&~,"£d5!'',{W'F}c5ff«S339i)io'}8"i iXi O'JKO B^tjud fans J?C*D s&nsnajnffim )«iw afdsisla-uj si II
2£*sW sib 0f ftff««i ad UJ53 *5!n|T9jiE» i«dn!ioo3a  no
_A*aaj5,%, to, Coyer Increases, In Costs of Supplies & Lubricants. „
~!j8- ^3i*!i\O'jh> JO^S^jib^.Jm^^^'J^^.^ff 9rjjLZf^ i AU tg^aaj*.. 
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         $   126,000 — Labor
           -{- 15,750 — Supplies
         $   141,750 — Preventive Maintenance Budget
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE BUDGET
NOTE: Calculation similar to PM budget calculation. Assume costs shown below were
determined using procedure given for PM budget.

         $   70,000 — Labor
             25,000 — Supplies
         $   95,000 — Routine  Repair  Budget

MAJOR REPAIR BUDGET
         $   50,000 — Last Year's Projects
           —85,000 — Projects  that will not be repeated this year
         |   15,000
             20,000 — Projects  in active backlog which will span
                      the new year
             25,000 — Projects  approved for next year
          -j-  5,000 — Forecast  of next year's needs
         |   65,000 — Major  Repair Budgat

TOTAL MAINTENANCE BUDGET
         $  141,750 — PM Budget
             95,000 — Corrective  Maintenance Budget
            _65,000— Major  Repair Budgat
         $  201,750 — TOTAL MAINTENANCE BUDGET
NOTE:   The example above has been simplified to  illustrate only  the  basic steps  in
         preparing a maintenance budget. However, using costs determined in the manner
         illustrated  and  making allowances  for  equipment  replacement,  contract
         maintenance  work, and  the  maintenance  history  for  the  plant,  a sound
         maintenance budget can be developed.

It is preferable that maintenance cost and budget data be recorded and transferred to a
central utility accounting system from which it can be recalled; however, if this cannot be
accomplished the data must be maintained informally in logs in a "cuff system" by plant
personnel. Additional information on  accounting systems can be found in the Water
Pollution Control Federation Manual of Practice No. 10 Uniform System of Accounts for
Wastewater Utilities.
                                       72

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A cost coding system should be developed to permit labor hours to be assigned to normal
operations,  preventive maintenance, ^corrective maintenance,  and major  repairs  or
"alterations. The coding system also permits time charged to sick leave, vacation and holi-
days to be recorded. Typical cost coding systems include the following:

          Code                              Description
          00                             Unassigned
          01                             Vacation
          02                             Sickness
          03                    .         Holidays
          04                             Normal Operations
          05                             Preventive Maintenance
          06                             Corrective Maintenance
          Of                             Major .Repairs or Alterations
          08                             Training

NOTE:   For example, changing oil, a PM task, could be assigned the Code No. 05-7. This
          would permit similar PM tasks to be  grouped within the general PM task head-
          ing.

For plants  in which most personnel  are performing certain maintenance duties,  the
man-hours for each employee should be broken into each half hour of the work shift with"
charge numbers established to cover operations and maintenance work,

There are several factors which maintenance managers should be aware of in developing
their budgets. The method of sludge processing  generally produces  the greatest single  im-
pact on total plant costs for a  given type plant. As more sophisticated means are used to
upgrade the treatment of wastewater, 0  &  M costs can  be expected to  rise sharply.
0 & M costs are also greatly affected by cost  of labor and supervision; any changes that
affect manpower (wage increases and training) will markedly affect  O &  M costs. To
determine the yearly change  in total maintenance cost, costs of maintenance based up-
on flow volume can be used as indicator.
                                         73

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                                  SECTION IX
             CORRELATION  OF  THE BASIC  SYSTEM FEATURES
         INTO A WORKING MAINTENANCE  MANAGEMENT  SYSTEM
General
This section provides examples of maintenance  management systems for various size
plants. The following three examples are for a small facility, a middle size facility, and a
large facility. The examples assume all facilities  are properly staffed and are operating
continuously. The example maintenance systems for the three size facilities are all work-
able systems. However, they are not intended to be rigid formats for all facilities within
a given size range. In developing a system for a  particular plant, a person may use any
combination of the feature techniques from  larger or  smaller  plants and may" adapt
them to his particular plant. Because various procedures can be used in a variety of
plants, no size range has been assigned to these  examples. A person preparing a  new
system or updating an existing system can use these examples to help develop the main-
tenance management system which best fits  his  particular plant.

Each example is broken down into the five basic features of a maintenance management
system. This breakdown corresponds to this manual's format which has a separate section
on each of these five basic features. This permits  persons reviewing these examples of
maintenance management systems to quickly refer to the appropriate section in this man-
ual for a discussion of any item described in the examples.
                                        75

-------
                                          EXAMPLE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
           SMALL FACILITY
        MIDDLE SIZE FACILITY
                                                  LARGE FACILITY
 Genera!

 This example is based upon a facility with a
 superintendent and several operators having
 to perform the  operations and maintenance
 work and keep  the maintenance  records.
 General

 This example is for a middle size plant with
 a  maintenance staff performing the major
 maintenance tasks and a clerk typist to assist
 in record keeping. The operators will be re-
 quired to  perform minor preventive main-
 tenance on some equipment.
                                       General

                                       Because of the size and the number of per-
                                       sonnel required  to efficiently operate a large
                                       plant,  its  maintenance management system
                                       must be tailored for that  particular plant
                                       The following is an example using a closed
                                       system computer approach
Equipment Record System

To develop  the  equipment record  system,
each item of equipment is  numbered. For a
small plant,  the first equipment item in the
pretreatment area is given the number one.
AH other equipment is numbered consecu-
tively following the wastewater flow through
the facility Multicomponent items are brok-
en down  and numbers  are  assigned  to each
component requiring any type maintenance
tasks. After  numbering equipment following
the wastewater flow, the numbering is con-
tinued to cover all  sludge handling equip-
ment  The consecutive numbering was chosen
because the number of items in a small plant
is  usually less than one hundred and the
system is simple  to apply  The following is
a  sample of  this  equipment  numbering
system

Number   Equipment Description
 1         Mechanically Cleaned Bar
          Screen
 2         Comrainutor
 3         Raw Wastewater Pump  No 1
Equipment Record System

To develop the equipment record system, each
item of equipment is numbered.  All  items
of equipment are numbered with the equip-
ment in a  specified area  or building  being
within a range of numbers Multicomponent
items are broken down and numbers are as-
signed to each component requiring any type
maintenance tasks  The numbering sequence
follows the flow through  the  plant and is
continued to cover all sludge handling equip-
ment  The  following is  a sample of this
equipment numbering system"

Number   Equipment Description
1-25      Pretreatment Structure
 1        Mechanically Cleaned Bar Screen
 2        Commmutor
 3          •
26-100
 26
                                                  27
                                                  28
Primary Treatment Structure
Primary Sedimentation Tank
 No  1
Manifold Valve No 1
                                       Equipment Record System

                                       To develop  the  equipment record  system,
                                       each item of equipnient is numbered. The
                                       equipment numbering system  assigns 1000
                                       numbers to each major stage  of the treat-
                                       msnt plant Multicomponent items are brok-
                                       en down and numbers are  assigned to each
                                       component requiring  any type maintenance
                                       tasks  The following  is a  sample  of this
                                       numbering system

                                       Number   Equipment Description
1000
1100
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1200
1210
1211
1300
1810
1311
Pretreatment Structures
Raw Sewage Pump Station
Bar Screen Eoom
Influent Bypass Valve
Influent Diversion Gate
Commmutor No 1
«
Control Eoom
Pump Motor Control Panel
*
Pump Room
Raw Sewage Pump No 1
*

-------
                                        EXAMPLE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
                                                              (Continued)
          SMALL FACILITY

Number  , Equipment Description
10        Primary Sedimentation Tank
11        Sludge Collection
           Mechanism
35        Aeration Tank
36       ' Aerator No. 1
42        Final Clarjfler
43        Sludge Collection
           Mechanism
49        Chlorine Contact Tank
58        Raw Sludge Pump No. 1
63     '   Primary Digester
64        Primary Digester Stirring
           Mechanism
72        Sludge Drying Beds
       MIDDLE SIZE  FACILITY
Number   Equipment Description
          Aeration Tanks
          Aeration Tank No, 1
          Mechanical Mixer No. 1
          Final Clanfiers
          Final Clarifier No. 1
          Sludge Collection
           Mechanism
           LARGE  FACILITY
Number   Equipment Description
                                                 153
176-250    Operations Building
251-275    Chlorine Contact Tank
 251        •
   *         *
276-300    Sludge Thickener
 276        .
   *  ' >     *
301-325 •   Digester and Sludge Gas
           System
 ,301
   *         •
826-850   ' Centrifuges
 326        «
2000
 2100
  2110
  2120

  2121
  2122
  2130

.  2131
  2132
 2200
  2210

  2211
  2212
  2213
  2220

  2221

  2222
 2300
  2810

  2320
  2321
Primary Treatment Structure
 Primary Sedimentation
  Influent Manifold
  Primary Sedimentation
   Tank No. 1
  Valve No. 1
  •
  Primary Sedimentation
   Tank No. 2
 Boiler Room
  Raw Sludge and Scum,
 Pumping System
  Raw Sludge Pump No 1
  Digested Sludge
  Recirculation System
   Sludge Recirculation
    Pump No. 1
     •
 Control Room
  Motor Control Center
   No 1
  High Pressure Air System
  Compressor

-------
                                            EXAMPLE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
                                                                  (Continued)
            SMALL FACILITY

 NOTE:  The consecutive numbering system
 is not flexible with respect to equipment ad-
 ditions and omissions.  Therefore, considera-
 tion might be given to alternating equipment
 numbers  (1, 3, 6, 7,  9, etc.)  or using an
 alphabetical suffix (12A, 12B, 12C, etc.)  to
 handle this problem.

 The list  of equipment numbers along with
 their corresponding equipment descriptions
 are kept in a folder. This folder is filed and
 used  as an equipment  catalog  This catalog
 provides  a convenient list of equipment num-
 bers  and  their  corresponding  equipment
 descriptions.

 In  a  small plant  with the superintendent
 and/or chief operator having to plan, sched-
 ule, perform and record maintenance  tasks,
 the equipment  record  system  selected is a
 single card  file system  Figure No. 23 is a
 sample single  card containing nameplate
 data and  preventive maintenance  tasks on
 the front and  a record  of repairs on the
 reverse side. These equipment record  cards
 are set upright in  a file holder with the top
 edge exposed A metal  tab is  placed on the
 week  of the month in  which  the next pre-
ventive maintenance task is  to be accom-
plished
        MIDDLE  SIZE FACILITY

 A list of the equipment numbers and their
 corresponding item descriptions are kept in
 a notebook. This notebook serves as an equip-
 ment catalog. This catalog provides a con-
 venient list of equipment numbers and their
 corresponding equipment descriptions.

 A three card system  is used as the  plant's
 equipment record system. Figure  No.  22
 shows samples  of the cards  used  in this
 three card system. The first card contains
 the equipment  description, nameplate data,
 and  spare parts list  The second card is a
 combination work order form and preventive
 maintenance list PM frequencies also appear
 on this card.

 The  card is removed  and  copied when pre-
 ventive work is scheduled  The copy is as-
 signed  a work  order  number  and   the
 preventive maintenance  tasks  to  be  per-
 formed are circled The third card contains
 a history record of repairs. When a history
 record card  is  filled with information,  the
 completed card  is removed and placed  in
 permanent history record and a new card is
 placed in the file These  cards are main-
 tained in a horizontal tray with the bottom
edge of the  third  card exposed  The third
card  has a sliding progressive  signal posi-
tioned on the month for the next scheduled
PM inspection,  when the  inspection  is com-
pleted, the signal  is  moved to the  month
designated for the next inspection  The card
also  contains  a  four window multicard
           LARGE FACILITY

 Number   Equipment Description
   2322      Holding Tank
  2400      Chlormator Room
   2410      Scales
   2420        .
 3000      Aeration Tanks
  3100      Aeration Tank No 1
   3110      Mechanical Mixer No. 1
   3120       •
   3130       •
 Equipment numbers,  item  descriptions and
 nameplate  data  are input to the computer.
 An up-to-date printout of  this information
 is bound and used as  an equipment catalog
 Additions or deletions  of equipment items are
 made with a computer data card. The com-
 puter can be keyed to  reproduce any desired
 portion or  all  of  the equipment  catalog
 information.

 A multifile, multipurpose computer system is
 used for the equipment record system. The
 preventive  maintenance tasks  and frequen-
 cies are input into the computer files  Ad-
 ditional information on planning and sched-
 uling  and  cost  data  are  also  filed.  The
 system provides a closed-loop maintenance
control system  that permits  one reporting
plan  The  system provides a total docu-
mented control  readout  of scheduling! cost,
equipment history, and  manpower require-
ments

-------
•xl
            TAG NO
                                           EQUIPMENT
                                                                   RECORD
                                                                 BSE
                                                                                                   • *MM]
           . LOOTION

            MFC
            MFC SERIAL NO
Bobbins & Myers, IncT
                                                              VENDOR   Motor *• U. S. Motors
                                DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT
                                                              SPARE PARTS IN STOCK
            Centrifuge Feed Pump'No.2
       'RMS COURTESY OF
       Acme Visible Records, Inc.
        •,  Virginia
                                       FIGURE  NO.  22  SAMPLE THREE CARD SYSTEM
                                                                 SHEET I  of 3

-------
O3
O
                   No.
                 - Centrifuge Feed  Pump No.  2

                                                                  WO»K ODDCI NO
            HO [ OPERATION (00 OHtr THOSt tHCHaiB)
                                                              WORK  ORDER
10
                 Operate  all  valves
                                                                                    10 m
                 Check oil  level  Inmotor gear case
                                                                                    10m
                 Operate  variable speed unit through entire range
                                                                                    10 m
                 Operate  gland seal  water shut-off valves, clean  strainer and check operation
                 of  solenoid  valve
                                                                                    30 m
                 Check  drive belt tension and condition
                 Removebelt guard and check separation of back  stop
                 Check  varidrlve belt condition, lubricate splined  shaft
                   Q  or  Ev.  of 250 hrs.
     Change oil in motor  gear case
                 Repack motor bearing and flush and relubricate  pump bearing
                 Clean  entire unit and retouch paint
             MAINU*
             «**€£
             SCHCBUIC
                                                                                                   Jl
                                                                                                   jn.
                                                                                                    m
fl.
IL.
JL.
                                                                                                      IL.
                                                                                         IL
                                                                                                        ANNUAL
                                                                                                       • SEMIANNUAL
                                                                                                       48 4* 50 SI 8Z
                                         FIGURE NO,  22  SAMPLE THREE CARD SYSTEM
             FORMS COURTESY OF
               Aceme Visible Records,  Inc.
               Crozet, Virginia
                                                                                  SHEET 2 of 3

-------
                                                  HISTORY OF REPAIRS
                                                                                          mm-
00
DATE
/7/73
tW7\
/15/7

















W O. NO
1 981
i 1031

J 1190













.






iJ\G NO

DESCRIPIICN OF REPAIRS
Change oil in motor gear case
Repack motor, flush and relubricate pump bearing
Check drive tension and condition


















-.
.
,

DESCRIPTION

-; V;'j\'i".H
Centrifuge Feed Pump No. 2 ;
DOWN
TIME
1
4
h

hr

hrs.
hr





<












MAN >
HOURS
lij hr.
4 hrs.
h hr.

















MATERIAL.
COST
^
10
1













-




—






1
'
nil
oc











,






MONTHLY INSPECTION CONTHOU


'







I I I
I I I

JL,




                                    PIQURE NO. 22  SAMPLE THREE CARD SYSTEM
          FORMS COURTESY OP
           A,oewe Vusble Records,- Inc.
           '>ozat, Vtrginta
SHEtf 3 of 3

-------
JAM.
1234
reu.
1234
HAR.
1234
APR.
1234
HAY
1234
Preventive Maintenance Progran
JUI1C
1234
JULY
1234
AUG.
1234
SEPT. OCT.
1234 1234
NOV. OEC.
1234 1234
Lqulpr.ient Record lluaber 	 :>
EQUIPMEHT UCSCRIPTIOtl
Itame
Comsinutor
Serial llo. 1-432-607
Vendor
ynrthiiwiton Coro.
Vctiilor Aildross
?on»Ior Rep. jphn
Initial Cost 	
Dqe

Phone
Date




ELECTRICAL OR HECKAKICAL DATA
Size
Ik HP

Model U1824PK71
Type
K




IJORK TO HE UOIIE
Cutting surface should be
Cutting surfaces should be
inspected
and adjusted
checked for sharpness
Lubricate communitor with Grease #1
Change gear motor
oil - SAE

10 (Winter) - SAE
SAE 30 (Fall

40 (Summer) -




S Spring)
Inspect for unusual noise or heat
Inspect coiibs, cutter teeth



, shear bars, and base seal





FREQUENCY
(Juarterly
Semiannual ly
Biweekly
Quarterly

Daily
Biweekly

TIME








DATL























IfflRK DCKIE

















•





SIGNED























DATE























UOKK DOIIf























SIGHfcO























DATE























mm DOIIE























SIG1IEI)























FIGURE NO. 23  SAMPLE EQUIPMENT RECORD CARD
                82

-------
                                            EXAMPLE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
                                                                  (Continued)
           SMALL FACILITY
 Maintenance'Planning and Scheduling

 The required preventive maintenance tasks.
 are  listed  on the equipment  record  cards
 with their frequencies         ,
                           I   '        i
 Bach week tha  superintendent reviews., all
 the  equipment  record  cards jwith  tabs  de-
 noting work to be performed! m the coming
 week He  uses these cards  to prepare  the
 PM  work  orders for the coming  week" A
 work order priority  list is then developed
 This priority list includes work orders* which-
 will  not be completed  during the  present
 week and must be carried over to next week, i
 Figure No 25 is a sample work order form
 and  Figuie No 26 is! a sample work order
 priority list Current work orders are main-
 tained in a log book with the priority  lifct  '
 as the first- page Each Friday, all completed
 work orders are taken out of the log by  the
superintendent, applicable information is re-
corded on  equipment record cards and  the
 work orders are  placed in a file. This  file
 becomes  a  history of work accomplished at
the facility        .\          '    '

Before an  operator or  maintenance helper
starts to work on a work order, he reviews _
the notebook containing the preventive main-
tenance  procedures and checklists  Preven- '
live  maintenance  procedures and checklists
are  typed  on  Si'/'xll"  pages with   file
          MIDDLE SIZE FACILITY

   signal to designate the four weeks in each
   month  A signal is lowered to denote the
   specific week in which  the task is  to  be
   accomplished.                 *

   Maintenance Planning and Scheduling

i   The preventive maintenance tasks and fre-
   quencies are listed on the second card  of the
;   equipment record system.

   The clerk typist reviews the card system
 ,  weekly  and remove^ the work order  cards
   (second  card) for  all  equipment requiring
   PM work in the coming week. Copies of this
   card  are  made,  a work order number as-
   signed,  and required PM items, circled

   The work orders are forwarded to the  main-
   tenance supervisor  for his  review .and  to
   have  work priorities established. The work
   orders and priority list are forwarded, to
   the mechanical maintenance foreman who
   assigns the work. When the  work is. 'accom-
   plished, "the work order form i.s completed
   and returned to the clerk typi.st. He records
   pertinent  information  and  flies  the  work
   order in a history file of work orders.

  The mechanical  maintenance foreman  le-
 " views all the work orders prior to assigning '
  them to the maintenance staffs He then pro-
  vides each crew with the PM  procedures, and
  checklist for the particular  task assigned  '
  The PM procedure  and checklist are  typed j
  on  8i'/'xll" pages and have file numbers
                                                                                                                 LARGE FACILITY
 Maintenance Planning and Scheduling

 All  corrective  and preventive maintenance
 tasks are initiated by work orders Figure
 No  24 is an example, of the type work order
 used    '
 A weekly computer printout  provides' a list-
 ing  of  preventive maintenance  tasks to be
 performed in the coming  week.,The main-
 tenance rclerk  use*, this listing to prepare
 preventive maintenance work orders  The
 preventive maintenance  work  orders  are
 then foi warded to the maintenance foreman
 who assigns the  work  The records  clerk
 also piepares  the corrective  maintenance
 work orders  The maintenance  supeivisor
 reviews all  corrective  maintenance work
 orders and approves them before forwarding
 them'to the maintenance foreman.

 The maintenance foreman prepares a correc-
 tive  maintenance work estimate  before issu-
 ing the work order to the maintenance staff
 Upon completion  of  the work  orders  the
 clerk forwards the forim  to the  computer
 center   Here the  cost  information  on  the
 work orders  is input to the  computer  The
computer program lists equipment number,
description, total co^t-of maintenance, pre-
ventive  maintenance cost,  corrective  main-
tenance cost,-total  man-hours and cost of

-------
                                                    8/7/73
Work Order
Location
Pretreatment Structures
Euulwnent Name
Communitor No. 1









No.
1114


"






Job Estimate
Tlf,V»- « 260.00
Material $ 0

^ 738

Requested By: Priority:
J. D. 	 7
(Phone)
g] Inspect r~j Replace r~j Service
[""I Repair r~\ Overhaul r~\ Paint
Work Description
Inspect and adjust cutting surfaces.
Work Performed/Comments
Cutting surfaces were inspected and adjusted.
It was required to sharpen some surfaces.
John Jones
Maintenance Superintendent
               Work Record
Personnel Assigned
C, 6. Doe
D. Smith






| Total
Manhour s
20
20






40
Date
8/16/73







Work Done
Adjusted and shar-
pened cutters






Parts & Materials

None







Work Completed By     D. Smith
Work Accepted By
ilnhn
 Date    8/16/73
_Date    8/17/73
              FIGURE NO. 24
          SAMPLE:   WORK ORDER
                     84

-------
                              WORK ORDER
WORK ORDER NO.
           452
DATE:
8/9/73
WORK TO BE  PERFORMED:

     Aerator No. 1   Equipment No. 36
     Lubricate motor bearings.
MATERIALS  REQUIRED:

     Grease #2



WORK PERFORMED BY:
1. Jack Smith
2.
3.
4.
2 HOURS
HOURS
HOURS
HOURS
WORK COMPLETED:
SIGNED:      Jack Smith
DATE:
8/13/73
COMMENTS:
              FIGURE NO.  25    SAMPLE WORK  ORDER
                              85

-------
           Form 1
                                     MAINTENANCE SECTION GENERAL PRIORITY SCHEDULE
CO
ORDER DATE
8/14/73

8/10/73

8/10/73

8/10/73
8/3/73


PRIORITY
1

2

3

4
•
5


JOB DESCRIPTION
Work Order No. 572 - Replace flexible connections to the
chlorine cylinders
Work Order No. 569 - Inspect and adjust cutting surfaces
of cotnmunitor
Work order No. 571 - Lubricate worm gear and speed reducer
on Clarifier No. 1
Work Order No. 570 - Lubricate aerator motor bearings
Work Order No. 550 - Paint rear entrance si cms. aates. and
Courtesy
post. Plant Sue
central 1
Tacotna, h
COMPLETION DATE

8/17/73

8/24/73

8/24/73
8/24/73
8/31/73
of Mr. L. W. Kctcham
erintendcnt
reatment Plant
ashington
                    NOTE:  The Maintenance Section will generally pursue the highest priority
                           assignment unless specifically instructed otherwise by a supervisor.
                           When conditions are not favorable to work on a higher assignment
                           they may drop back to the next lower one.

                                                                      SUPERVISOR, TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                       FIGURE NO.  26

-------
                                           EXAMPLE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
                                                                 (Continued)
           SMALL FACILITY

numbers corresponding to the  equipment
number of  the item the procedure was de-
veloped for. The notebook is located with the
work order log book. The preventive main-
tenance procedures are removed and placed
on a clipboard for use in the work area When
preventive  maintenance procedures, are re-
moved,  a  card is -placed in  the notebook
identifying who is using the procedure. Upon
completion  of work, the  procedure  is re-
placed  and  the card is removed.
Storeroom and  Inventory System

A  storeroom  is provided to maintain parts
and supplies.  Each shift operator maintains
a key to the storeroom. All storeroom items
are numbered and listed in a storeroom cata-
log A reference to the item's location in the
storeroom is  also  included in the catalog
The  storeroom has consecutively numbered
shelves and b'tns for storing supplies.

To maintain an inventory of each item, a card
file is used. The card file has an index card
for each item and the cards are filed by item
number. The  card -contains the  information
as shown on the sample form, Figure No. 27
As items are removed  from  stock, a store-
room withdrawal  slip,  (see Figure No,  28)
is  completed. The withdrawal slip is used
       MIDDLE SIZE  FACILITY

corresponding  to  equipment  numbers.  A
sign-out sheet is provided and initialed when
a procedure has been removed from the PM
procedures'file. Upon completion of the work,
the procedure* is returned  and the sign-out
sheet updated.
Storeroom and Inventory System

A  storeroom  is provided for maintaining
parts and supplieb  The clerk typist main-
tains the storeroom and controls access to it.

All storeroom items are numbered and listed
in  a storeroom catalog. The materials  aie
stored on shelves and in bins. Their location
is  noted in the storeroom  catalog.

To maintain  an inventory of each  item, a
card file is used. This card file has an index
card for each item and the cards are filed by
item number. A sample index card is shown
in  Figure No, 27 As  items  are  withdrawn
from stock, a storeroom withdrawal slip is
completed The clerk typibt revises the index
           LARGE FACILITY

supplies The work orders are then filed and
become a history of work accomplished.

Comprehensive preventive maintenance pro-
cedures  and checklists have been developed
for each item of equipment. These procedures
are based upon  the manufacturers' recom-
mendations. These procedures are bound in-
to a maintenance manual and each operating
section has a copy of  the manual.  The pro-
cedures  are indexed' and referenced to  the
equipment number. As a procedure is needed,
a copy of the procedure is made and  given
to the mechanics  who  are  to perform  the
PM tasks

Storeroom and Inventory System

The storeroom catalog is maintained on the
computer. The computer printout lists item
number,  description,   vendor (information,
cost data, location in  the storeroom,  maxi-
mum  and minimum quantities and reorder
point  The  storeroom  catalog  printout is
placed in a binder for easy use in the  store-
room

The storeroom clerk issues supplies using a
storeroom ticket such as the sample shown
in Figure No 28. The clerk will record the
information from  the storeroom ticket on
the inventory form for  the equipment item
Items considered as consumables do not re-
quire  withdrawal slips. The record card is
used to  maintain information on quantities
consumed,  The  clerk  will  inventory  these
items  periodically to   determine  when  re-
order  is required.  The  Inventory system is

-------
STOREROOM INVENTORY CARD

Item Description -    Set of Gaskets
   Part  No.  U-21247
   For Wallace  & Tiernam Chlorinator
   Series A-741
Quantity Maximum

         Reorder
          Item No. 	87_

          Aisle No.	1

          Bin No.      18
Minimum
                          INVENTORY INFORMATION
Quantity
Used
or
Stocked
2

1

1

Date
I/IS/
73
2/21/
73
3/18/
73
Signed

J. D.

B. G.

J. D.
Quanti ty
on
Hand

2

1

2
USAGE OR SUPPLY INFORMATION
Usage - Work Order No.
Supply - Purchase Order No.

P. 0, Ho. 55

W. 0. No. 212

P. 0. No, 197
                  FIGURE NO. 27  SAMPLE INVENTORY CARD

-------
                            STOREROOM TICKET
      8/7/73
      DATE
COST CODE NO.
P25
WORK ORDER NO.   792
           Joe Smith
₯
               EMPLOYEE
                            John  Jones
                                 FOREMAN
WORK DESCRIPTION     Change oil  In  gear  box
Mai ntenanpf
    DEPT.



Maintenance
    DEPT.
ITEM NO.
47

DESCRIPTION
SAE 40 Motor Oil
nondetergent
QUANTITY
8 qt. '

UN IT, COST '
0.79/qt.

TOTAL COST
$6.32
-
MATERIAL PROVIDED
MATERIAL RECEIVED
               E. White '
           ^Signature Storeroom Clerk)

               J. Smith '
                               8/7/73
         ft
                                (Date)

                               8/7/73
                                                                   (Date)
                  FIGURE NO.  28 SAMPLE STOREROOM TICKET
                                   89

-------
                                             EXAMPLE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
                                                                   (Continued)
            SMALL FACILITY

 by  the  superintendent to keep  the index
 card file up to date. The withdrawal slips are
 maintained in a file as a record of items
 withdrawn from stock.

 Items  considered as consumables  do not re-
 quire withdrawal slips. The  superintendent
 inventories these items periodically and up-
 dates the inventory cards to determine when
 reorder is  necessary.

 When the quantity in stock drops to the re-
 order point, the  superintendent provides  a
 list of items, descriptions, and quantities to
 the  municipal purchasing  department  to
 initiate reorder of supplies.
Maintenance Personnel and Organization

The  following  is  a  sample  organizational
chart for a  small plant. The number  in
parentheses  identifies the number  of em-
ployees for each job title:
              SUPERIKTEHDEKr (1)|
             |  OPERATOR II (4)


KAINTEMNCE
HELPER
(1)
        MIDDLE SIZE FACILITY

 cards  with information  obtained  from the
 withdrawal slips.  The withdrawal slips are
 placed in a permanent file for a  record of
 supplies consumed. Figure No. 28 shows a
 sample withdrawal slip. Items considered as
 consumables do not require withdrawal slips.
 The inventory card  is used  to maintain a
 record of  usage  of  these items.  The clerk
 typist  inventories these  items periodically
 and updates the  inventory cards  to  deter-
 mine when reorder is necessary.

 The clerk  reviews the index  cards as they
 are updated to determine if the reorder, of
 supplies is  necessary. The items required are
 listed and  given to the maintenance super-
 visor for his review and to be forwarded to
 the municipal  purchasing  department.

 Maintenance Personnel and Organization

 The  following  is  a  sample  organizational
chart for a middle size facility The number
in parentheses identifies the number of em-
ployees for each job title:
            LARGE FACILITY

 kept up to  date by the storeroom clerk. A
 sample of the inventory card used is shown
 in Figure No. 27. When the storeroom clerk
 determines a reorder is required, he prepares
 the  purchase order and forwards it to the
 city purchasing department. Figure  No. 29
 is a sample  of the type of purchase order
 used.

 Items in the storeroom are located using an
 aisle and bin designation. This location infor-
 mation is on the storeroom catalog printout.

 The storeroom  clerk also checks out  special
 tools and keeps information on the cost of
 general supplies not chargeable to corrective
 or preventive maintenance  work.
Maintenance Personnel and Organization

The  following  is  a  sample  organizational
chart for a large facility. The  number in
parentheses  identifies the  number  of em-
ployees for each job  title:
IsupttiirTEioc
(»s

WTIOKS SUPERVISOR (1
1
[SHIFT FOftENU (li | —
[OPERATOR II (10)|
(OPERATOR"! TisTl

AUTO eguinen
iLMOROt (10)
ISTAJCE SUPOI I

1
-i 	 l*tlt Ht

*T (IK 	 1
TOCOCT ClU


laERK TTP1ST UK
IMAIKTEHMCE SUPCRVISM (1)1

MCE NCCMXIC 11 (4)4
INAINTEMNCE NECHAHIC i (su
i IMINTEMKE «.«i (7)1

OPEMTOR (Z}\

	 1
[Eucnucu* i tjjj
QBTCP1AM U) |

-------
TO
Progress Pump Corp.
       88 Worthington Drive
       St. Louis, Missouri  63043
SHIP TO    Lynchburg STP	
           1005 River Road	
           Lynchburg, Virginia 24502
                  IMPORTANT
Out Purchase, Order. Number must appetr on
Invoices, Packages and Correspondence,
PURCHASE ORDER NO.
WORK ORDER NO.  	
DATE INITIATED  	
DATE REQUIRED   	
SHIP VIA  	
F.O.B. 	
TERMS
972
                                                            585
                                                          8/9/73
                                                          8/27/73
QUANTITY
1

1

NOTE
Parts for p
Frame type
Serial Numb
STOCK NUMBER/DESCRIPTION
Drive shaft
Cat. No. 26501
Connecting rod
Cat. No. 26502

jmp 8" - 5444C
>A5
;r 70 42 89
PRICE








PER








TOTAL








APPROVED BY       J. A.  Jones
                                               DATE
                     8/10/73
                                                      SHEET  1   OF  1
                      FIGURE NO. 29  SAMPLE PURCHASE ORDER
                                      91

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                                             EXAMPLE MAINTENANCE  MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
                                                                  (Continued)
            SMALL FACILITY

 The superintendent does not have an assis-
 tant The second and  third shift have only
 an Operator II on duty.

 On the day  shift, the superintendent will re-
 view operations and maintenance work. The
 Operator II, in addition to normal operations
 and maintenance tasks, assigns maintenance
 tasks to the maintenance helper.

 The small plant, because of its limited main-
 tenance  capability,  must contract out elec-
 trical repairs and major mechanical repairs

 The small plant depends on outside sources
 for training courses to upgrade their staff.
 The state sponsored operator training schools
 and short courses sponsored by the Environ-
 mental Protection Agency are used to meet
 the plant's training needs.

 The operators  must perform maintenance
 tasks, clerical duties, and record keeping in
 addition  to  their normal operating tasks.
The superintendent follows operations and
maintenance closely to  help in planning and
scheduling work
        MIDDLE SIZE  FACILITY

 The  superintendent has responsibility for
 overall plant operations and maintenance.
 The maintenance foreman is responsible for
 maintenance planning and  scheduling  and
 reviewing maintenance tasks  to  be accom-
 plished. The clerk typist is responsible for
 recording  maintenance information in the
 equipment record system and maintaining
 the  storeroom  and  inventory system.  The
 maintenance mechanics  perform  the pre-
 ventive and corrective  maintenance  tasks,
 The  operations  section  only  performs the
 minor maintenance required during the nor-
 mal operation of the equipment.

 The maintenance  foreman continuously re-
 views his  maintenance  staff  and provides
 training  to  upgrade  their  qualifications.
 Maintenance men  are sent to  short courses
 or take correspondence  courses offered by
 the State and Federal Water Pollution Con-
 trol Agencies.

 The  superintendent  and mechanical  main-
tenance foreman review  all  preventive and
corrective  maintenance tasks  with respect
to staff size and capabilities. They then de-
cide  what tasks must be contracted to out-
side repair services Arrangements are made
with private contractors  or service agencies
to perform all tasks beyond the capability of
facility personnel.
            LARGE FACILITY

 The  superintendent has responsibility  for
 overall plant operations and  maintenance.
 The  maintenance supervisor  is responsible
 for maintenance operations and keeps  the
 superintendent informed of the status of the
 maintenance  program.  The  maintenance
 supervisor is responsible for reviewing main-
 tenance tasks and planning and scheduling
 the work. The records clerk maintains equip-
 ment records and prepares the work orders.

 The storeroom clerk maintains the storeroom
 and  inventory  system, keeps  all  related
 records and initiates purchase orders.  The
 Electrician II aids in planning and schedul-
 ing electrical tasks. The  operation  section
 correlates  operations with required  main-
 tenance tasks and only performs the minor
 maintenance required  during the  normal
 operation of the equipment.

 The maintenance foremen continuously  re-
 view the maintenance operations and report
 to  the  maintenance  supervisor. They also
 review the maintenance staff and recommend
 training to  upgrade  their  qualifications.
 The facility management provides training
 courses for the maintenance  personnel  at
 the facility in addition  to  courses provided
 by  high schools, colleges, and  State Water
 Pollution Control Agency The maintenance
 supervisor  reviews all preventive  and cor-
 rective maintenance  tasks  with respect  to
 staff size  and capabilities. A  list  of tasks
 which must be contracted to outside repair
service  has been prepared. Arrangements
have  been  made  with  private contractors

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            SMALL FACILITY
EXAMPLE  MAINTENANCE  MANAGEMENT  SYSTEM
                      (Continued)

              MIDDLE SIZE FACILITY
            LARGE FACILITY

  and service  agencies to perform all tasks
  beyond the capability of the facility staff
 Costs and Budgets for Maintenance Opera-
 tions

 The  cost information from  the equipment
 record system,  work orders,  storeroom  in-
 ventory cards and  the  maintenance  man-
 hours are used  to develop the maintenance
 budget To  aid in determining maintenance
 man-hours,  a cost coding system breaks an
 employee's eight hour shift down into time
 spent performing various types of work The
 coding system uses 01 as the charge code for
 normal operations,  02 for  preventive main-
'tenance and 03  for corrective maintenance
 The municipal accounting department main-
 tains  these  man-hours and  provides cost
 summaries  to the superintendent   He uses
 these totals to determine if maintenance man-
 hours are excessive and to compare corrective
 maintenance man-hours to preventive main-
 tenance man-hours  This helps the  superin-
 tendent  to   determine  if  his  preventive
 maintenance program is  being performed
 satisfactorily  (NOTE' See  Section  VIII,
 Costs and Budgets  for Maintenance Opera-
 tions,  for additional  information on  main-
 tenance budget preparation.)

 The user  of this manual should review his
 particular plant's requirements and develop
 his own  s>ystem  using  this  example as a
 guide
       Costs and Budgets for Maintenance Opera-
       tions

       The superintendent and maintenance super-
       visor  review the cost information in the
       equipment record system, work orders, store-
       room inventory cards, and the maintenance
       man-hours  to  help  them develop  a main-
       tenance budget To aid in determining main-
       tenance  man-hours,  a  cost  coding system
       breaks an employee's eight hour shift down
       into time spent performing various types of
       work  The coding system uses 002 for sick
       leave, 001 for vacation, 003 for holidays,
       004 series  numbers  for normal  operation
       tasks, 005 series for PM work and 006 series
       for  corrective  maintenance  work.  Only
       breaking  the man-hours between  operations
       and maintenance is sufficient for budget pur-
       poses, but the breakdown  on  maintenance
       man-hours helps the  supervisor in establish-
       ing time requirements for performing repeti-
       tive maintenance  tasks In addition, he uses
       these man-hours and'cost summaries to de-
       termine if maintenance man-hours are exces-
       sive and  to compare  corrective maintenance
       man-hours to preventive maintenance man-
       hours  This helps the superintendent deter-
       mine if his preventive maintenance program
       is being  performed satisfactorily  (NOTE.
       See Section  VIII, Costs and Budgets for
  Costs and  Budgets for Maintenance Opera-
  tions

  The sources of information on maintenance
  costs include computer files, storeroom cards,
  work orders and maintenance contracts  The
  maintenance supervisor assists the superin-
  tendent in developing a maintenance budget.
  The computer has the cost data on preventive
  and corrective maintenance on file, and  this
  information is  used  in  evaluating mainten-
  ance work

  In addition, maintenance costs for an indi-
  vidual  item of equipment  can be obtained
  from the computer to determine if mainten-
  ance costs are excessive in relation to original
  cost.

 To aid in determmg maintenance man-hours,
  a cost coding  system breaks an employee's
 eight hour  shift down into time spent per-
 forming  various types  of work.  A sample
 coding  system  provides  codes  as V01  for
 vacation, S02 for sickness, H03 for holidays,
 N04 series  for normal operations  tasks,
 N05 series  for  preventive maintenance and
' NOG series for  corrective maintenance  work
 Breaking the man-hours between operations
 and maintenance is sufficient for budget pur-
 poses, but the  breakdown  on  maintenance
 man-houis  helps  the  superintendent  and

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                               EXAMPLE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
                                                    (Continued)

SMALL FACILITY                           MIDDLE SIZE FACILITY                            LARGE FACILITY

                                      Maintenance Operations, for additional in-         maintenance  supervisor  establish  time  re-
                                      formation  on  maintenance budget prepara-         quirements for performing repetitive inani-
                                      tion.)                                            tenanee tasks. (NOTE:  See Section  VIII,
                                                                                      Costs and Budgets for Maintenance Opera-
                                      A person developing a system for a middle         tions, for additional  information on main-
                                      size plant should review his particular plant's         tenance budget preparation.)
                                      requirements and develop his  own  system
                                      using this  example as a guide.                     A person developing a system for a  large
                                                                                      plant should  review  his particular plant's
                                                                                      requirements  and  develop a  system  com-
                                                                                      patible using  this example as a guide.

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                                  SECTION  X
   MAINTENANCE  MANAGEMENT  SYSTEM EVALUATION GUIDELINES

This section is to aid persons developing maintenance management systems by providing
a checklist for evaluating a proposed system and- to aid treatment plant management in
evaluating an existing maintenance management system. The evaluation guidelines are
broken down  into the five basic maintenance features  considered essential to a mainte-
nance management system. A maximum of two hundred  (200) points have been allotted
to each feature, thus a maximum score of one thousand  (1000) points is possible. In re-
viewing a system, the evaluator must remember these guidelines apply to all types and
sizes of treatment plants. Due to the range of plant sizes  and their complexities, no mini-
mum passing score has been given. The purpose of these guidelines is to aid in locating
problem areas so they may be corrected or improved.  An individual using these evalua-
tion  guidelines will  generally find the maintenance system he is  analyzing does possess
most of the features  outlined in the  Guidelines. However, there  will probably be many
qualifications accompanying each positive response to the questions in the Guidelines.
This is true because the features of  many maintenance systems are either incomplete
or are incapable of  performing their intended function.  Each question in the Evaluation
Guidelines  should be  carefully weighed and given a rating commensurate with the fea-
ture's ability to perform its role in the total maintenance management system.
                        EQUIPMENT RECORD SYSTEM
           EVALUATION GUIDELINES
MAX.
RATING
YOUR
RATING
 1.  Do you have an equipment numbering or other
    identification system to aid in locating and identi-
    fying all major'items of equipment?

 2.  Do you have a system for maintaining nameplate
    data and other essential information on all major
    equipment items  within the treatment system?

 3.  Does your maintenance record system provide for
    listing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks, giving
    their frequency  and recording the PM work per-
    formed ?
   20
   50
    30
                                        95

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                        EQUIPMENT RECORD SYSTEM
                                 (CONTINUED)
         EVALUATION GUIDELINES
MAX.
RATING
YOUE
RATING
4.   Does your maintenance record system provide for
    recording  corrective  maintenance  work  per-
    formed?

5.   Does your maintenance record system provide for
    recording such information as maintenance man-
    hours, spare parts or components  used in repair
    and name of individual performing each job?

6.   Does your maintenance record system provide for
    recording all maintenance related  costs and  can
    these costs be readily compiled for use in mainte-
    nance budget preparation ?

7.   Are miscellaneous maintenance related documents
    such as as-built drawings, construction specifica-
    tions and photos, shop drawings  and manufac-
    turers' literature properly filed and  indexed  and
    readily available to maintenance staff?
                                          TOTAL
   20
   30
   20
  200
                        PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
          EVALUATION GUIDELINES
MAX.
RATING
YOUR
RATING
1.   Is some form of schedule chart or priority list pro-
    vided to assist maintenance supervisors in con-
    trolling maintenance tasks ?

2.   Do you plan and schedule preventive maintenance
    (PM) tasks for all major equipment items within
    the treatment system?
   20
   SO
                                       96

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                         PLANNING  & SCHEDULING
                                (CONTINUED)
          EVALUATION GUIDELINES
MAX.
RATING
YOUR
RATING
   a.  Are  PM  frequencies  based  upon manufac-
       turers' recommendations and by inspection?

   b.  Does  the  existing maintenance  organization
       permit the proper scheduling  of required PM
       and take into  account the corrective mainte-
       nance demands on the maintenance force ?

3.  Are potential corrective maintenance tasks ade-
   quately considered in maintenance planning ?

4.  Do you have a work order system that satisfies the
   treatment system's maintenance requirements ?

5.  Are manpower management techniques used effec-
   tively to obtain maximum utilization?

6.  Do  you  have some  form of labor standards to
   assist  in  preparing  accurate work  estimates for
   repetitive maintenance jobs?

7.  Have  you contracted for maintenance tasks be-
   yond the  capability of your staff and determined
   the availability of this support?

                                          TOTAL
   10
    10
   20
   30
   30
    30
    20
   200
                                       97

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                   STOREROOM AND  INVENTORY SYSTEM
          EVALUATION GUIDELINES
MAX.
RATING
YOUR
RATING
1.   Have you provided a storeroom or storage area to
    assist in controlling the flow of spare parts, com-
    ponents and maintenance supplies ?

2.   Have you reviewed manufacturers' recommenda-
    tions and studied each major equipment  item's
    maintenance  requirements  to  determine  what
    maintenance items should be maintained ?

    a.  Have you  developed a system to monitor quan-
       tities of all maintenance items kept  in stock?

    b.  Have you  established minimum and maximum
       quantities for all maintenance items kept in
       stock?

    c.  Do you have a  purchase order system that
       adequately controls the procuring of mainte-
       nance items ?

3.   Do you have  system for locating a given item in
    the storeroom ?

4.   Do you  have  a  catalog or  index system  to assist
    in identifying and locating  a  given item  in the
    storeroom ?

5.   Do you have a storeroom ticket or withdrawal slip
    to use when  maintenance  items  are taken from
    stock?
   40
   40
   20
   20
    20
    20
    20
    20
                                          TOTAL
   200
                                        98

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MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION & PERSONNEL

EVALUATION GUIDELINES
1. Do ^you have a maintenance organization chart
that satisfies treatment system requirements ?
2. Is your maintenance organization chart reviewed
and updated as required?
3. Do you have job descriptions for each job title
within your maintenance organization?
4. Are job descriptions kept up to date and made
available to maintenance personnel as required ?
5. Prior to initiating any program to correct defi-
ciencies in a maintenance job, is a thorough anal-
ysis of this job performed?
6. Do you have a maintenance training program that
satisfies the maintenance objectives of the treat-
ment system?
TOTAL
MAX.
RATING
30
' 20
30
20^
50
50.
200

YOUR
RATING




-


** - v
COST AND BUDGETS FOR MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
-- _t,_ _„ * -,.* ^ ,
EVALUATION GUIDELINES
1. Are maintenance .costs broken down by mainte-
nance categories such as preventive maintenance,
corrective maintenance and major repairs' or
alterations ?
2. Do you have a system of cost codes or charge
numbers for allocating labor and materials to
specific maintenance jobs?
MAX.
RATING
50 '
40
YOUR
RATING
•

                   99

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          COST AND BUDGETS FOR  MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
                                 (CONTINUED)
          EVALUATION  GUIDELINES
MAX.
RATING
YOUR
RATING
3.   Do you have a system for recording the mainte-
    nance cost history of all major equipment items?

4.   Do you have a system for compiling cost informa-
    tion for use in budget preparation and mainte-
    nance cost studies ?

5.   Do you have a system for recording contract main-
    tenance costs  so they can be used in  preparing
    maintenance budgets?
                                          TOTAL
   30
   '50
   30
  200
Persons using these Evaluation Guidelines should follow up the evaluation with a review
of the areas receiving the lowest ratings. It should be remembered that an apparent weak
area may be due to another system feature performing poorly and pulling the weak area
down.

The questions in the Evaluation Guidelines are grouped into the five basic maintenance
features. Individuals can review the section of the manual which discusses each basic
feature when they find deficiencies in the maintenance system they are analyzing. The in-
formation contained in the manual should  assist persons in correcting the weaknesses in
their maintenance management system.

It should be recognized that several of the questions in the  Evaluation Guidelines deal
with items that are absolutely essential to the success of any maintenance management
system.  These critical items include an equipment identification  system, planning and
scheduling  preventive maintenance tasks,  control of spare parts and supplies, and a sys-
tem for preparing maintenance budgets. Maintenance management systems that  receive
low ratings in any of these critical areas  should be considered deficient and appropriate
corrective actions taken.
                                       100

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                                  SECTION X!
                             ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .

The  data reeieved through personal communications with management and maintenance
staff  personnel  in  both  wastewater  treatment facilities  and  industry  is  gratefully
acknowledged.

The  support  of the project by  the Office  of  Water  Programs  Operations,  U.  S.
Environmental Protection Agency, and the help provided by the staff of the Municipal
Operations Branch is acknowledged with appreciation.
                                        101

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                                 SECTION XII
                                 REFERENCES
The following two references are basic handbooks which provide information on each of
the basic system features:

1. L.  C.' Morrow,  Maintenance Engineering Handbook, Second  Edition,  McGraw-Hill,
   Inc., 1966.

2. W. Staniar, Plant Engineering Handbook, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1959.

The following  list  of references provides information  in developing each of the basic
features of a maintenance management system,
                                     *                                £•
EQUIPMENT  RECORD SYSTEM

1. R,  E. Deem, "Maintenance Record Systems." A paper presented on May 2, 1968 at
   the AWWA Pennsylvania Section Meeting, Philadelphia.

2. D.  P. Backmeyer and A. E. Schmer, Jr., "Maintenance - Control  with Card  System,""
   Sewage and Industrial Wastes, Vol.  28, No. 9, p. 1187 (Sept.  1956).

3. M. B, McKinne, W,  R. Uhte, M. J. Wise, and E, E. Ross, "Card Record Systems for
   Preventive Maintenance," Sewage and Industrial Wastes, Vol. 26, No. 11, p.  1399
    (Nov. 19S4).

4. E.  Hamilton, "Maintenance  Records for Sewers and Lift Stations," Journal WPCF,
   Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 427 (Apr. 1960).
MAINTENANCE PLANNING AND SCHEDULING

1.  E. H, Kittner, "Planning and Scheduling of Maintenance in a  Small  Plant," P|ant
    Engineering, March 5,1970.

2.  R, P. Baronet, "To Meet Today's Maintenance Needs—Formal  Scheduling a Must,"
    Plant Engineering, Jan. 21, 1971.

3.  S. J. Fuehs, "Planning Guidelines for a Small Plant Work Order System," Plant
    Engineering, Dec. 24, 1970.
  -  -   i~ .         _.
4.  R. L.  Oliverson, "Planning and Scheduling Boards," Plant Engineering, p. 45, July
    8, 1971.           .                                                 "
                                      103

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STOBEROOM AND INVENTORY SYSTEM

1.   Jack Wu, "Controlling Maintenance Stores," Plant Engineering, p. 89, April 6, 1972.

2.   G, M. McCourt, "Controlling PM Work and Spare Parts Inventory," Plant Engineer-
    ing, p. 70, February 24, 1972.
MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL AND ORGANIZATION

1.   M. M.  Broadwell, "Planning — Key to  Successful Maintenance  Training," Plant
    Engineering, p. 107, April 18, 1968.

2,   "The Payoff in Maintenance  Training,"  Plant Engineering, p. 90, March 23, 1972.

3.   William A.  Hasfurther, "Operator Training and Certification — Past, Present and
    Future," Journal  WPCF, Vol. 37,  No. 1,  p. 71 (January 1965).


COSTS  AND BUDGETS FOR MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS

1.   B. Carson and J. E. Mailhos, "Plan Carefully for a  Sound Maintenance Budget,"
    Plant Engineering, March 7, 1968.

2.   J. E. Koop, "Controlling Runaway Maintenance Costs," Plant  Engineering, p.  52,
    (May 28,  1970).

3.   E. I. Bowen, "Winning the Maintenance  Cost Battle,"  Plant Engineering, p. 76, Dec.
    19, 1971.

4.   J. E. Koop,  "Measuring the  Progress of Maintenance Cost Reduction Program,"
    Plant Engineering, p. 60, June 24, 1971.

The following references are provided as sources for information.

1.   Fourth Worldwide Maintenance Management Conferences, San Francisco, California
    8-11 May  1962 — USAF.

2.   AFM 66-12  Depot, Field and  Organizational Maintenance. Vehicle Management and
    Maintenance 1 March 67.  Dept. of the Air Force.

3.   Communications — Electronics  Maintenance Programs (CEMP)  AFSCFM 66-1.
                                      104

-------
4.  AFM 66-1 PACAF Supplement 1Maintenance Management.

5.  SAC Manual 66-14. ProductionControl for Aircraft ..Maintenance.

6.  SAC Manual 66-12, Specialized Aircraft Maintenance Management Manual.

7.  SAC Manual 65-2. Supply Support of Specialized Aircraft Maintenance.

8.  ADCM 66-2. Consolidated Aircraft Maintenance.

9.  The Usage Deficiencies of the Maintenance Data Collection System. NavShips System
   Command.

10. Grumman —• Gulfstream II Computerized Aircraft Maintenance Program.

11. NAVSHIPYDNOR Instructions 4790.1 — 3M Depot Level Maintenance Reporting;
   procedures for.

12. Air Force — Satellite Control Facility Maintenance Plan — AFSCF Pamphlet 66-2.

13. AFM66-1 Maintenance Management,  Depot, Field and Organizational Maintenance.

14. NavShips Instruction 4790 — 3M Depot Level  Maintenance Reporting; SupShip pro-
    cedures for.

15. NavShips Instruction 4700. 14, 3-M Depot Level Maintenance,Reporting'.

16. ADC Supplement 1, AFM66-1,  Maintenance Management Depot, Field and Organi-
    zational Maintenance.

17. Federal Guidelines, Design, Operation, and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment
    Facilities, Department of the Interior, September 1970.

18. R. S.  Vida,  "Modernizing Maintenance Techniques," Plant Engineering,  Sept. 17,
    1970.                                                             ~

19. E. H.  Eittner, "Planning and Scheduling of Maintenance in a Small Plant," Plant
    Engineering, March 5, 1970.

20. R. P. Baronet, "To Meet Today's Maintenance Needs—Formal Scheduling a Must,"
    Plant Engineering, Jan. 21, 1971.
                                      105

-------
21. B, Carson and J. E. Mailhos, "Plan Carefully for a Sound  Maintenance Budget,"
    Plant Engineering, March 7, 1968.

22. S.  J. Fuchs, "Planning Guidelines for a Small Plant Work Order System," Plant
    Engineering, Dec. 24, 1970.

23. R. L. Michel, A. L. Pelmoter, and R. C.  Palange,  "Operation and Maintenance of
    Municipal Wastewater Treatment Faclities," Journal WPCF, 41, 3, Part I, 335-354
    (March 1969).

24. R. L.  Michel, "Costs and  Manpower for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant
    Operation and Maintenance, 1965-1968," Journal WPCF,  42, 11, 1883-1910  (Nov.
    1970).

25. W. F. Garber, "Treatment Plant Equipment and Facilities Maintenance," Journal
    WFCF, 42, 10, 1740-1770 (Oct. 1970).

26. J. A. Sullivan, "Contractor's View of Contract Maintenance," AICLE Paper 96, 63rd
    Annual Meeting, Chicago, Nov. 29-Dec. 3, 1970.

27. J. W.  Sarappo, "Contract Maintenance: Its  Place in Chemical Plants," Chem. Eng.
    76, 25, 264 (Nov. 17, 1969).

28. M. V. Antropov and A. A. Zuev, "System  of Optimum Scheduling of Repairs for
    Basic  Equipment of Chemical Factories," Chem.  & Petroleum  Engineering  News,
    11-12, Nov. — Dec. 1968, p.  928-31.

29. L. M. Buttery, "Maintenance Planning System Designed for Process Plants," Oil &
    Gas, J. 66, 17,190-3 (Apr. 22,1968).

30. E. James, "Successful Maintenance Reorganization," Hydrocarbon Processing 46,  3,
    191-4  (March 1967).

31. C. H. Edmonson, F. P. Flesca,  and J. A. Sullivan, "Cost and  Control of Mainte-
    nance," Chem. Eng. Progress 62, 5, 33-8 (May 1966).

32. C. F. Hooper, "Maintenance of Chemical Plants," Chem. & Process Eng. 46, 2, 61-8
    (Feb. 1965).

33. R. L. Dodds, "Streamlining Maintenance Paperwork," Chem. Eng. 70, 19, 200  (Sept.
    16,1963).
                                       106

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34. R. Smith, "Cost of Conventional and Advanced Treatment of Wastewater," Journal
   WPCF, 40, 1546 (1968).

35. C. M. Loucks, "Chemical Problems in Water System Maintenance,"  Plant Engineer-
   ing, p. 61 (April 4,1968).

36. M. Hilmer, "Avoid Coil Freezeups — Use Traps in Piping Hookup," Plant Engineer-
   ing, p. 84 (April 4, 1968).

37. B.Carson and J. Looney, "Maintenance Standards Can Be Established," Plant Engi-
   neering, p. 87 (April 4, 1968).

38. R. A. Smith, "Developing an In-Piant Electronics Maintenance Training Program,"
   Plant Engineering, p. 92, April 16,  1970.

39. D. M.  Farnsworth, "Preventative Maintenance Checklist," Plant Engineering,  p. 80
    (Feb. 10,1972).

40. E.  B.  Skubik, "At Bristol  Laboratories Maintenance is a Vital Ingredient," Plant
   Engineering, p. 54 (August 22, 1968).

41. M. M.  Broadwell, "Planning — Key to  Successful Maintenance Training," Plant
   Engineering, p. 107 (April 18, 1968).

42. E.  Jansen, "What Plant Engineers Think  of Maintenance Labor Standards," Plant
   Engineering, p. 96 (March 7, 1968).

43. J. E, Koop,  "Controlling Runaway Maintenance Costs," Plant Engineering, p. 52
    (May 28, 1970).

44. Grounds  Maintenance, 1972 Weed Control'Record Guide.

45. L. E. Harvill, "Preventative Maintenance: A Key to Cost Cutting," Deeds & Data,
   WPCF Publication, D-7 (Feb. 1972).                              ,

46. R.  E.  Deem, "Maintenance Record Systems." A paper presented on May 2, 1968 at
   the AWWA  Pennsylvania  Section Meeting, Philadelphia.

47.  S. S. Baxter and R.  E. Deem, "Manpower-Utilization Studies." A  paper  presented
   on June 23, 1970, at the AWWA Annual Conference.
                                       107

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48.  J. W. Jardine, "Computer Assures Pinpoint Water Control," The American City, p.
    82 (September 1971).

49.  FWPCA Sewage Treatment Plant Operation and  Maintenance Questionnaire.

50.  "Recommendations  for Minimum Personnel, Laboratory  Control and Records for
    Municipal Waste Treatment Works." A paper presented at 38th Annual Meeting, Con-
    ference of State Sanitary Engineers (June 1963).

51.  J. R. Franzmath.es, "Operational Costs of Trickling Filters  in the Southeast," Jour-
    nal WPCF, 41, 814 (1969).

52.  J.  A. Logan, W. D. Hatfleld, G. S. Russel, and W. R. Lynn, "An Analysis of the
    Economics of Wastewater Treatment," Journal WPCF, 34, 9, 860 (Sept. 1962).

53.  C. L. Swanson,  "Unit Process Operating and  Maintenance  Costs for Conventional
    Sewage Treatment  Processes," Internal FWPCA  Memorandum (Aug. 1966).

54.  "Estimating Costs and Manpower Requirements for Conventional Wastewater Treat-
    ment Facilities," EPA Report, Contract No. 14-12-462.

55.  "Need  for  Improved Operation  & Maintenance  of  Municipal  Waste  Treatment
    Plants," FWQA, Report to the Congress.

56.  R. C. Thayer, "Mechanical,Maintenance Program," Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
    Vol. 30, No. 9, p. 1194 (Sept. 1958).

57.  "Operation  of Wastewater Treatment Plants," WPCF MOP No. 11.

58.  C. Jones, "Preventative Maintenance of Diesel  Electric Generator Sets,"  Plant Engi-
    neering, p. 58 (Dec. 24, 1970).

59.  C. Jones, "Preventative Maintenance of Diesel  Electric Generators," Plant Engineer-
    ing, p. 85 (Jan. 21, 1971).

60.  R. Jansen, "First Interchangeability Lube Chart," Plant Engineering, p. 63, August
    22, 1968.

61.  M. L. Hurt and G. H. Seaae, "Computer Scheduling Improves Plant Lube Programs,"
    Plant Engineering, p. 78, March 5, 1970.
                                       108

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62.  Dr.  H. J. Kiefer,  "PPM — Planne'd Paint Maintenance," Plant Engineering, p. 104
    (April 16, 1970).

63.  H. P.  Grubb, "Coordinated^Lubrication Assures Equipment Reliability," Plant Engi-
    neering, p. 58  (Jan. 23, 1969).

64.  M. P. Hunt, "Priority System Replaces Across-the-B6ard Motor Maintenance Pro-
    gram," Plant Engineering, p. 38, April 2,  1970.

65.  L. D. Worsted, "Maintenance Craft Training — Do It Yourself!", Plant Engineer-
    ing, p. 52, October 29, 1970.

66.  Editorial, "Housekeeping," Plant Engineering, p.  95, May 14,  1970.

67.  W. Colebrook Cooling, "Controlling Maintenance in a Small Plant," Plant Engineer-
    ing, p. 102, October 14, 1971.
                - r                - •         -

68.  H. A. Wright, "Overload Protection of Three Phase Motors," Plant Engineering, p.
    98, October 14, 1971.

69.  NEM*A  Standards MG  1-14.33, Unbalanced Voltage — Polyphase Motors, 1971.

70.' J. A.  DeVille, "The Leader: Key to Maintenance Labor Efficiency," Plant Engineer-
    ing, p. 116, October 14, 1971.

71.  Frank J. Prince and  Robert G. Hammond, "Maintaining  Motor Control  Centers,"
    Plant Engineering, p. 128, September 16, 1971.

72. W.  H. Weiss, "Getting the Plant Ready for Winter," Plant Engineering, p. 107, Sep-
    tember 16, 1971.

73. S. A. Vargo,  "Installing the Right Lube Program," Plant Engineering, p. 55, Sep-
    tember 2, 1971.

74. L. H. Spence, "Preventing Pump Damage from Piping Strain," Plant Engineering, p.
    72,  Sept. 2, 1971.

75. F. Herbathy, "How To Write Maintenance Instructions for  Optimum Results," Plant
    Engineering, p. 86, May 4, 1972.
                                        109

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76.  Colebrook Cooling, "Controlling Maintenance in  Small Plant," Plant Engineering,
    p. 60, August 19, 1971.

77.  Jack Wu, "Controlling- Maintenance Stores," Plant Engineering, p. 89, April 6, 1972.

78.  Fred J. Hammerstein, "Controlling Contamination in Circulating Lube System  . .  .
    With a Continuous Settling Tank," Plant Engineering, p. 92, April 6, 1972.

79.  K, A. Grunert, "Protecting Instruments  and  Controls with  Surge Suppressors,"
    Plant Engineering, p. 86, March 23, 1972.

80.  Donald D. Walls, "Checklist of Good Lubrication Practices," Plant Engineering, p. 88,
    March 23, 1972.

81.  "The Payoff in Maintenance Training," Plant Engineering, p. 90, March 23, 1972.

82.  E. W. Perry, Jr.  and H. B.  Gibson,  "Terminating Aluminum Conductors," Plant
    Engineering, p. 101, March 23, 1972.

83.  "Good Roofing Practice Begins at the  Structural  Deck,"' Plant Engineering, p.  105,
   'March 23, 1972.

84.  G. M. McCourt, "Controlling PM Work and Spare  Parts Inventory," Plant Engineer-
    ing, p. 70, February 24,1972.

85.  P. D. Tomlingson,  "Minimizing the Problems of Maintenance Department Changes,"
    Plant Engineering, p. 42, Jan. 27,1972.

86.  John Campbell, "Drying Out Compressed  Air," Plant Engineering, p. 138, Jan. 13,
    1972.

87.  P. D. Tomlingson, "Preventive Maintenance Musts,"  Plant Engineering, p. 39,  Dec.
    23,1971.

88.  E. I. Bowen, "Winning the Maintenance Cost Battle," Plant Engineering, p. 76,  Dec.
    19,1971.

89.  E. M. Stolberg, "Economic Principles of Equipment Replacement," Plant Engineer-
    ing, p. 78, Dec, 9,1971.
                                       110

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90.  J. D. Dacquisto, "Beating Those Power  Demand Charges," Plant Engineering, p. 88,
    Nov. 11, 1971.

91.  A. I. Sippola, "Minimize Downtime by  Employing the Right Lubricant Program,''
    Plant Engineering, p. 73, Nov. 27, 1970.

92.  "Applying the 4th M to Routine Maintenance-Methods!", Plant Engineering, p. 84,
    Nov. 12, 1970.

93.  Colebrook Cooling, "Controlling Maintenance in* a Small Plant," Plant Engineering,
    p. 66, August 5, 1971.

94.  Colebrook Cooling, "Controlling Maintenance in a Small Plant," Plant Engineering,
    p. 56, July 22, 1971.
                                                              *
95.  D. E. Nourse, "You and the Motor Repair Shop," Plant Engineering,  p. 70, July 22,
    1971.

96.  D. E. Nourse, "You and the Motor Repair Shop," Plant Engineering,.p. 58, May 27,
    1971.

97.  R. L. Oliverson, "Planning and Scheduling Boards," Plant Engineering, p. 45, July
    8, 1971.

98.  J. E. Koop, "Measuring  the Progress  of  Maintenance Cost Reduction Program,"
    Plant Engineering, p. 60, June 24, 1971.

99.  J. J. Wilkenson and  J. L. Lowe, "A Computerized Maintenance Information Sys-
    tem That Works," Plant Engineering,  p. 94, May 31, 1971.
      *           ~              r-      r                              *•
100. L. M. Buttery, "Key to Profit Improvements — Maintenance by Computer," Plant
    Engineering, p. 63, April 15, 1971.

101. Editorial, "Getting Compressed Air in Shape," Plant Engineering, p. 72, April 15,
    1971.

102. P. J. Heaney, "Getting Compressed Air in Shape," Plant Engineering, p. 36, April
    1, 1971.

103. P. J. Heaney, "Getting Compressed Air in Shape," Plant Engineering, p. 60, March
    18, 1971.
                                       Ill

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104. D, W. Leader,  "Care of Worn Gear Speed  Reducers," Plant  Engineering, p. 60,
    October 29, 1970.

105. American Gear Manufacturers Association Standard 250.22, "Lubrication of Indus-
    trial Enclosed Gearing,"

106. R. L. Oliverson, "Plant PM and Lubricant  Program Are Computerized  for Close
    Control," Plant Engineering, p. 98, October  15, 1970,

107. L. H. Spence, "Avoid Cavitation in Centrifugal  Pumps," Plant Engineering, p. 110,
    October 15, 1970.

108, "Appropriate Packing Reduces Pump Maintenance," Public Works, p. 68, June, 1971.

109. "Inspecting and Maintaining Portable Fire Extinguishers," Plant Engineering, p. 52,
    December 23, 1971.

110, National Fire Protection Association Booklet NFPA No. 10A, "Recommended Good
    Practice for the Maintenance and Use of Portable Fire Extinguishers."

111. W. T. Conner,  "What Are  You Doing  To  Help Your Maintenance Department,"
    Plant Engineering, p. 52, September 3, 1970.

112. R. L. Oliverson, "Meet Maintenance Needs on a Contract Basis," Plant Engineering,
    p. 62, August 20, 1970.

113. J. A. Shrapshire, "Lubricate Maintenance Problems Away . . . Automatically," Plant
    Engineering, p. 74, August 20, 1970.

114. "Do It Yourself Forced Feed Lube System,"  Plant Engineering, p. 50, December 23,
    1971.

115. E. F. Monroe, "Grinding's Growing Role in Plant Maintenance," Plant Engineering,
    p. 76, August 20,1970.

116. W. H. Weiss, "In Plant Maintenance — Craft or Area Supervision," Plant Engineer-
    ing, p. 54, August 6, 1970.

117. D. P. Norris, "Techniques for  Formalization of Maintenance Procedures," AWWA
    Journal, Vol. 54, No. 8, p. 935.
                                       112

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118. Technical Manual TM5-661, U. S. Dept, of War, 1945, "Inspection and Preventive
    Maintenance Services — Water Supply Systems at Fixed Installations."

119.  R. E. Morris,  Jr., "Preventive Maintenance Program at Dallas,"  AWWA Journal,
    Vol. 56, No. 5, p. 579.

120. 0. M. Kristy, "Preventive Maintenance of Plumbing Units," AWWA Journal, Vol.
    51, No. 2, p. 191.

121. Panel Discussion, "Preventive Maintenance for Water Works," AWWA Journal, Vol.
    48, No. 8, p. 281.                        '  "•          ~    -

122. G. J, Hopkins and D. Hurlbert, "Organizing and Planning for Sewer Maintenance,"
    Journal WPCF, Vol. 39, No. 3, p. 281 (March 1956).

123. M. K. Nelson, "Operation and Maintenance - A Responsibility of the Design Engi-
    neer," Journal WPCF,  Vol. 36, No. 11, p. 1415 (Feb. 1967).

124. William Schneider,  "Preventive Maintenance of Electrical Equipment,"  Journal
    WPCF, Vol. 36. No. 1. p. 118 (Jan. 1964).  -                 "'             :

125. Panel Discussion, "Plant Maintenance," Journal WPCF, Vol. 31, No. 4, p. 485 (April
    1959).                                                      -....-.

126. A. E. Holcomb, "Personnel, Tools, and Equipment for Sewer Maintenance," Jour-
    nal WPCF, Vol. 32,  No. 4, p. 430 (April 1960).

127. N. S. Bubbis,  "Comminutor Maintenance,"- Journal  WPCF,  Vol. 32, No. 4, p.  487
     (April 1960).

128. D. P. Backmeyer and A. E.  Schmer, Jr., "Maintenance Control with Card System,"*
    Sewage and Industrial  Wastes, Vol 28, No. 9, p. 1187 (Sept. 1956).

129. J. A. Croes, "Identification Please," Sewage and Industrial Wastes, Vol. 28, No. 7,
    p. 937 (July 1956).

130. M. B. McKinne, W.  R.  Uhte, M, J. Wise, and E. E. Ross, "Card Record Systems for
    Preventive Maintenance," Sewage and Industrial Wastes,  Vol. 26, No. 11, p. 1399
     (Nov. 1954).
                                       118

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131. E. Hamilton, "Maintenance Records for Sewers and Lift Stations," Journal WPCF,
    Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 427 (Apr. 1960).

1E2. "General Handbook,"  Engineered Performance  Standards, Public Works Mainte-
    nance, NAVDOCKS P-701.0, June, 1964.

133. "Pipefitting,  Plumbing  Handbook," Engineered Performance  Standards,  Public
    Works Maintenance, NAVDOCKS P-711.0, November 1966.

134. "Electric, Electronic Handbook,"  Engineered Performance Standards, Public Works
    Maintenance, NAVPAC P-703.0, November 1966.

135. Technical Practice Committee, "Paints and Protective Coatings for Wastewater
    Treatment Facilities MOP 17," Journal WPCF, Vol. 39,  No. 10, Part 1, p.  1715
    (Oct.  1967).

136. Technical Practice Committee, "Paints and Protective Coatings for Wastewater
    Treatment Facilities MOP 17," Journal  WPCF. Vol. 39, No. 11, p. 1896 (Nov. 1967).

137. Technical Practice Committee, "Paints and Protective Coatings for Wastewater
    Treatment Facilities MOP 17," Journal WPCF, Vol. 39, No. 9, p. 1504 (Sept. 1967).

138. Herman R.  Zablatzky and Stanley  A. Peterson, "Anaerobic Digestion Failures,"
    Journal WPGF, Vol. 40,  No. 4, p. 581 (April 1968).

139. James M. Fassel, "The  Care and Feeding of Small  Pumping  Stations," Journal
    WPOF. Vol. 39, No. 4.

140. Glen  J. Hopkins and  Don Hulbert,  "Organizing and Planning  for Sewer Mainte-
    nance," Journal WPCF. Vol. 39, No.  2, p.  230  (Feb. 1967).

141. "Pumping Station Operations,"  Journal  WPCF, Vol. 38, No. 3, Part 1,  p.  464
    (March 1960).

142, George M. Ely, Jr., "Wastewater Pumping Station Design Criteria," Journal WPCF,
    Vol. 37, No. 10, p. 1437 (Oct. 1965).

143. David P. Backmeyer, "Gas Engine Tube — Oil and Gasket — Water  Cooling Prob-
    lems," Journal WPCF, Vol. 37, No.  3, Part 1, p. 407 (March 1965).

144. Glen  J. Hopkins, O. C.  Hopkins  and Fred  L. Kramer, "Catching up on Deferred
    Maintenance  at Kansas City, Missouri," Journal WPCF, Vol. 37, No. 2, p. 236 (Feb.
    1965).
                                      114

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145. Harold A. Pfreimer, "Preventive Maintenance of Air Force Sewage Works," Sewage
    and Industrial Waste, Vol. 29, No. 3, p. 309 (March 1957).

146. Ralph A.  Garno, "Cleaning Digesters at Niles, Michigan," Journal WPCF, Vol. 33,
    No. 9, p. 996 (Sept. 1961).       '                .   '

147. Willis Van Huevelen, Jack K. Smith, and  Glen J. Hopkins,  "Waste Stabilization
    Lagoons — Design,  Construction,  and Operation Practices Among Missouri Basin
    States," Journal WPCF, Vol. 32, No. 9, p. 909  (Sept. 1960).

148. John R. Wolfs, "Explosion Prevention," Journal WPCF, Vol. 31, No. 3, p. 321 (Mar.
    1959).

149. "Economical Practices in Sewage Treatment Plant Operations," Journal WPCF, Vol.
    31, No. 6, p. 753 (June 1959).

150. Frank Short, "Small Plant Safety Hazards,"  Journal WPCF, Vol. 30, No. 1, p. 93
    (Jan. 1958).

151. Stephen  H. Goodman, "Sewer  Maintenance  in  Santa Clara County, California,"
    Journal WPCF. Vol. 30, No.'l, p. 101 (Jan. 1958).    -   -

152. "Small Engine Overhaul Guide," Grounds Maintenance, Vol.  7, No. 3, p. 36 (Mar.
    1971).
   *

153. James S. Mattson and Frank W. Kennedy, "Evaluation Criteria for Granular Acti-
    vated Carbon," Journal WPCF. Vol. 43, No. 11, p. 2210 (Nov. 1971).

154. R. M. Bremmer, "InJPlace. Lining of Small Sewers," Journal WPCF, Vol. 43, No. 7,
    p. 1444 (July 1971).

155. Gillman  J. Lachy,  "Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel, Image & Training,"
    Journal WPCF, Vol. 43, No. 7, p. 1439  (July 1971).

156. C. F. Logino, Jr., C. S. Green, III and  C. F. Kauffman, "Sewage Treatment or Pol-
  " lution Control — Trainees View Their  Jobs,"  Journal WPCF, Vol. 44, No. 1, p. 41
    (Jan. 1972).                                              -           ,

157. Plant Engineering, Vol.  26, No.  22, " Measuring Maintenance Improvements" by
    George  Fremont, p.  59, November 2, 1972.
                                       115

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158. William F. Garber, "Treatment Plant Equipment & Facilities Maintenance," Journal
    WPCF. Vol. 42,  No,  10, p.  1740  (Oct. 1970).

159. William B. Bustard,  "Electrical Maintenance in Sewage Treatment Plants," Journ-
    nal WPCF. Vol.  32, No. 1, p. 99  (January 1960).

160. Kerwin L. Mick,  "Plants and Painting," Journal WPGF, Vol. 32, No. 1, p. 104 (Jan-
    uary 1960).

161. N. L. Hadley and E. 0. Potthoff, "Electric Power Reliability in the Sewage Plant,"
    Sewage and Industrial  Wastes, Vol. 27, No. 4, p. 393  (April 1955).

162, George  Strudgeon, "Operation and Maintenance of Sewage Pumps," Sewage  and
    Industrial Wastes. Vol. 27, No. 4, p. 506 (April 1955).

163. "Piping Color Codes,"  Sewage and Industrial Wastes, Vol. 28, No. b, p. 813  (June
    1956).

164. Leo Krapp, "Pump Bearing Maintenance," Sewage & Industrial Wastes, Vol. 29, No.
    11, p. 1313  (November 1957).

165. Paul  Ehrenfest,  "Sewage  Pump Bearings and Packing," Sewage  and Industrial
    Wastes. Vol. 29,  No.  10, p. 1199 (October 1957).

166. "Proper Pump Maintenance," Sewage and Industrial Wastes, Vol. 29, No. 10, p, 1203
    (October 1957).

167. Melvin Bowers, "Tips on Sludge Drying Bed Care," Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
    Vol. 29, No. 7, p. 835  (July 1957).

168. Anthony E, Bell, "Digester Cleaning  Experience,"  Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
    Vol. 30, No. 10, p. 1312  (October 1958).

169. P. P. Rowan, K. L. Jenkins, and D. H.  Howells, "Estimating  Sewage Treatment
    Plant Operation  and Maintenance Costs," Journal WPCF, Vol.  33, No. 2,  p.  Ill
    (February 1961).

170. William A. Hasfurther, "Operator Training and Certification — Past, Present  and
    Future," Journal WPCF, Vol. 37,  No. 1, p. 71 (January 1965).
                                      116

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171. C. E. Spainhour, "Organizing a Formal Plant Lube Program," Plant Engineering,
    p. 82, September 7,1972.

172. George Fremont, "Maintenance Management — How's. It Doing?",  Plant Engineer-
    ing, p. 82, September 7,1972.

173. "Scheduled Service Keeps Contractor's  Fleet Working," Roads & Streets, p. 74, Sep-
    tember, 1972.

174. "Peirce Takes New Cinch on Equipment Maintenance," Roads & Streets, p. 82_, Sep-
    tember, 1972.

175. "Farm Out Routine Maintenance — Keep Tough Jobs in Shop," Roads & Streets, p.
    90, September, 1972.

176. Charles Saunders, "Computerized Maintenance System Gives All Data to All Who
    Need It," Roads & Streets, p. 96, September,  1972.

177. James Beatty, "Scheduling Repetitive Maintenance Jobs," Plant Engineering, p.  53,
    July 27, 1972.

178. Robert M.  Blanchard, "Four-Year Maintenance  Estimate  Helps Program Funds,
    Manpower," Roads, p. 22, April, 1972.

179. Journal WPCF, Vol. 30, No. 9 "Mechanical Maintenance Program" by R. C, Thayer,
    p. 1194, Sept. 1958.

18°- Journal WPCF, Vol. 35, No.  4 "Safety Aspects of Sewer Maintenance" by Elmer 1.
    Ross, p. 469, April 1963.

181. Journal WPCF, Vol. 35,  No. 8 "Records  &  Reports For Wastewater Treatment
    Plants" by James D. Goff, p.  1017, Aug." 1963.

182. Journal WPCF, Vol. 34, No. 2 "Lubrication of  Equipment" by Harold B. Hemphill, p.
    145, Feb. 1962.

183. Journal WPCF, Vol. 34, No. 6 "Pump Operation and Maintenance" by R. C. Thayer,
    p. 616, June, 1962.

184. Journal WPCF. Vol. 34, No. 12 "Settling Tank Maintenance  and Hyperion" by Glenn
    W. Thwaytes, p. 1235, Dec. 1962.
                                      117

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185. Journal WPCF, Vol. 35, No. 1 "Maintenance of Collectors and Conveyor Equipment"
    by R. A. Kronewitter, p. 123, Jan. 1963.

186. Plant Engineering, Vol. 26,  No. 25 "Developing a Sound Maintenance Concept" by
    Paul D. Tomlingson,  p. 102, Dec. 14, 1972.

187. Plant Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 24 "Updating a Standby Power System" by D. D,
    Bluhm, D. H. Birlingmair and R. W. Fisher, p. 82, Nov. 30, 1972.

188. Plant  Engineering, Vol.  26,  No. 19 "Front Line for Cost Control — The  Main-
    tenance Supervisor," p. 91, Sept. 21, 1972.
                                      US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1981— 677-094/1124Hsglon No 8


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