&EPA
            United States
            Environmental Protection
            Agency
            Office of Water
            Program Operations (WH-595)
            Washington DC 20460
January 1981
430/9-81-003
Construction Costs
for Municipal
Wastewater Conveyance
Systems: 1973-1979

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                            EPA REVIEW NOTICE

    This report has been reviewed by the Environmental  Protection  Agency
and approved for publication.  Approval does not signify that the
contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of  the Environmental
Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial  products
constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.  In this report  there
is no attempt by EPA to evaluate the practices and methods reported.

    The three technical reports listed below were prepared in conjunction
with the 1980 Update of Needs for Municipal Wastewater Treatment
Facilities, a biennial report to the U.S. Congress.  This series  of
reports provide construction cost relationships and also related
operations and maintenance (O&M) cost relationships for existing
facilities.  The data base for all three studies is representative of the
ten regions.
    Document Number

    430/9-80-003
    FRD-11

    430/9-81-003
    FRD-21

    430/9-81-004
    FRD-22
               Title

Construction Costs for Municipal  Wastewater
Treatment Plants:  1973-1978

Construction Costs for Municipal  Wastewater
Conveyance Systems:  1973-1979

Analysis of Operations and Maintenance Costs
for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems
     These reports were prepared  under  the direction  of:

                          James A.  Chamblee,  Chief
               Priority and Needs Assessment  Branch  (WH-595)
                       Facility Requirements  Division
                     Office of Water Program  Operations
                    U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
                          Washington, D.C. 20460
                               (202) 426-4443

     Copies of these reports are  available from the  address below.
 ordering, please include the title and FRD number.
                                           When
                   General Services Administration (8FFS)
                     Centralized Mailing Lists Services
                      Bldg. 41, Denver Federal Center
                             Denver, CO  80225


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             TECHNICAL REPORT
    CONSTRUCTION COSTS FOR MUNICIPAL
WASTEWATER CONVEYANCE SYSTEMS:  1973-1979
               Prepared  For
   U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      FACILITY  REQUIREMENTS  DIVISION
         WASHINGTON,  O.C.  20460
    Project  Officer:   Dr.  Wen  H. Huang

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS
 1.0   INTRODUCTION

 2.0,   HIGHLIGHTS OF FINDINGS

 3.0   DEFINITIONS AND ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

       Definition of Terms
       Cost Updating
       Data Analysis
       Data Collection

 4.0   RESULTS OF THE DATA ANALYSIS

       Costs for Gravity Sewers
       Costs for Force Mains
       Costs for Pump Stations
       Nonconstruction Costs
       Cost Updating Procedures
       Cost Estimating Examples
 Page

 1-1

 2-1
 3-1
 3-4
 3-5
 3-6
 4-1
 4-15
 4-15
 4-19
 4-22
 4-23
APPENDIX A    COST  UPDATING AND  NORMALIZATION TECHNIQUES

              Areas of  Influence
              Cost  Updating

APPENDIX B    SIMPLIFIED COLLECTION SYSTEM COST ESTIMATING
               TECHNIQUES

              Cost  Estimating Techniques
              Cost  Estimating Examples

APPENDIX C    TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST PER FOOT OF PIPE -
               ALL PROJECTS, SMSA, NON-SMSA

APPENDIX D    TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST PER FOOT OF PIPE -
               BY  PIPE MATERIALS

APPENDIX E    TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST PER FOOT OF PIPE -
               BY DEPTH OF BURIAL

APPENDIX F   TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST PER FOOT OF PIPE -
               BY PIPE MATERIAL AND DEPTH OF BURIAL

APPENDIX G   PROJECT LIST USED FOR DATA BASE
A-l
A-2
B-l
B-6

C-l


D-l


E-l


F-l


G-l

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                            LIST OF TABLES

                                                                   Page

1.1   Regional and Community Size Distribution - All               1-3
        Projects in Data Base

1.2   Lengths of Gravity Sewer and Force Main and Number           1-5
        of Pump Stations in Data Base

4.1   Gravity Sewer Total Construction Costs ($/Foot) -            4-3
        Pipe Type, Burial Depth, and SMSA Classification
        by Diameter

4.2   Gravity Sewer Total Construction Costs ($/Foot) -            4-5
        Pipe Type and Burial Depth by Diameter

4.3   Gravity Sewer Bare-In-Pi ace Construction Costs               4-7
        ($/Foot) - Pipe Type, Burial Depth, and SMSA
        Classification by Diameter

4.4   Gravity Sewer Pipe Costs Delivered to Site  ($/Foot)          4-9

4.5   Gravity Sewer Construction Labor Costs - $/Foot of           4-10
        Pipe  Installed

4.6   Non-Pipe Construction Cost for Gravity Sewer  as              4-12
        Percentage of Bare-In-Pi ace Pipe Cost

4.7   Average Unit Construction Cost of Manholes  ($/Unit)          4-13
        by Diameter, Depth, and SMSA Classification

4.8   Average Unit Construction Cost of Drop Manholes              4-14
        ($/Unit) by Diameter, Depth, and SMSA  Classification

4.9   Force Main Bare-In-Place Construction  Costs ($/Foot)         4-16

4.10  Step 1  and Step 2  Costs as a  Fraction  of Total               4-20
        Construction Costs  -  Sanitary  Sewer  Facilities
        Only

4.11  Step 3  Nonconstruction  Costs  as  a  Fraction  of Total          4-21
        Contruction Costs  - Sanitary Sewer Facilities  Only

4.12  Complete Urban Sewer System  Cost Index (CUSS) From          4-24
        EPA
 B.I   Sanitary Sewer Sizing of Collector and Interceptor
         Sewers

 B.2   Sanitary Sewer Total In Place Costs per Linear Foot
B-3


B-4

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LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
. • - • _ - • • :... ";'.-. -
B.3. Sanitary Sewer Construction Area Multipliers
B.4 Sanitary Sewer Cultural Modifiers
C.I Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe for All
Projects - SMSA and Non-SMSA
C.2 Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe for SMSA
Projects
C.3 Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe for Non-
SMSA Projects
D.I Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe by Pine
Material - PVC Pipe ".."'
D.2 Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe by Pipe
Material - Asbestos Cement Pipe
D.3 Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe by Pipe
Material - Vitrified Clay Pipe
D.4 Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe by Pipe
Material - Cast Iron Pipe ,
D.5 Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe by Pipe
Material - Reinforced Concrete Pipe
D.6 Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe by Pipe
. Material - Ductile Iron Pipe
D.7 Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe by Pipe
Material - ABS Pipe
D.8 Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe by Pipe
Material - Other/Unknown
E.I Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Depth
Less Than 8 Feet
, E.2 Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Depth
8-15 Feet
E.3 Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Depth
, Greater Than 15 Feet
F.I Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - PVC -
Pipe - Depth Less Than 8 Feet
. . "; . * " iii . ' ; .
- . - .•-..' :
Page :
B-5
B-7
C-2
C-3
C-4
: D-2
D-3
D-4
D-5 ,
D-6
D-7'
D-8
D-9
E-2
E-3
E-4
F-2


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                      LIST OF TABLES (Continued)

                                                                   Page

F.2   Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - PVC              F-3
        Pipe - Depth 8-15 Feet

F.3   Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - PVC              F-4
        Pipe - Depth Greater Than 15 Feet

F.4   Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Asbestos         F-5
        Cement Pipe - Depth Less Than 8 Feet

F.5   Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Asbestos         F-6
        Cement Pipe - Depth 8-15 Feet

F.6   Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Asbestos         F-7
        Cement Pipe - Depth Greater Than 15 Feet

F.7   Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Vitrified        F-8
        Clay Pipe - Depth Less Than 8 Feet

F.8   Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Vitrified        F-9
        Clay Pipe - Depth 8-15 Feet

F.9   Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Vitrified        F-10
        Clay Pipe - Depth Greater Than 15 Feet

F.10  Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Cast  Iron        F-ll
        Pipe - Depth Less Than 8 Feet

F.ll  Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Cast  Iron        F-12
        Pipe - Depth 8-15 Feet

F.12  Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Cast  Iron        F-13
        Pipe - Depth Greater Than 15 Feet

F.13  Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Reinforced       F-14
        Concrete Pipe - Depth Less Than 8 Feet

F.14  Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Reinforced       F-15
        Concrete Pipe - Depth 8-15 Feet

F.15  Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Reinforced       F-16
        Concrete Pipe - Depth Greater Than 15 Feet

F.16  Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Ductile          F-17
        Iron Pipe - Depth Less Than 8 Feet

F.17  Total Construction Costs per Foot of Pipe - Ductile          F-18
        Iron Pipe - Depth 8-15 Feet
                                  IV

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                      LIST  OF  TABLES  (Concluded)
F.18  Total Construction  Costs per  Foot  of Pipe  -  Ductile
         Iron Pipe - Depth Greater Than 15  Feet
F.19  Total Construction  Costs per  Foot  of Pipe  -  ABS
         Pipe - Depth Less Than 8 Feet
F.20  Total Construction  Costs per  Foot  of Pipe  -  ABS
         Pipe - Depth 8-15 Feet
F.21  Total Construction  Costs per  Foot  of Pipe  -  ABS
         Pipe - Depth Greater Than 15 Feet
F.22  Total Construction  Costs per  Foot  of Pipe  -  Other/
        Unknown - Depth Less Than 8 Feet
F.23  Total Construction  Costs per  Foot  of Pipe  -  Other/
        Unknown - Depth 8-15 Feet
F.24  Total Construction  Costs per  Foot  of Pipe  -  Other/
        Unknown - Depth Greater Than 15  Feet
G.I   Sewer Construction  Projects in the Data  Base - Listed
        by State
 Page
 F-19

 F-20

 F-21

 F-22

 F-23

 F-24

 F-25

G-l

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                            LIST OF FIGURES

1.1   EPA Regions
4.1   Total Construction Costs for Gravity Sewers
4.2   Bare-In-Pi ace Construction Costs for Gravity Sewer
4.3   Bare-In-Pi ace Construction Costs for Force Main
4.4   Total Construction Cost Vs. Design Capacity -  Pump
        Stations
Page
1-2
4-4
4-8
4-17
4-19
A.I   EPA CUSS  Index Map With Areas of  Influence
A-3

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                              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This report was  prepared  by Sage Murphy & Associates,  Inc.,  Denver,  Colorado
under  the  direction of  Dr. Wen H.  Huang of  the  EPA Headquarters,  Facility
Requirements Division.

Sincere appreciation is extended to  EPA Construction Grants personnel  in  each
of the ten Regions.   Specific appreciation is extended to the  following
persons without  whose  cooperation  and  assistance  this  study could not  have
been conducted.                              .

Mr. Charles Bishop, EPA Region I
Mr. Phil Amicone, EPA Region II
Mr. Earl Bisher, EPA Region III
Mr. Peter McGarry, EPA Region IV
Mr. E. C. (Ted) Horn, EPA Region V
Mr. Arvel Wilson, EPA Region VI
Mr. Walter Robohn, EPA Region VII
Mr. Jerry Burke, EPA Region VIII
Mr/Robert Rock, EPA Region IX
Mr. Bob Kussman, EPA Region X
Inquiries concerning this report should be directed to:
Dr. Wen H. Huang
Facility Requirements Division
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
401 M Street, S.W.  (WH-595)
Washington, D. C.  20460
(202) 426-4443

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                              1.0  INTRODUCTION

This  report  presents the  results  of a  study of the  costs  for construction
of municipally owned wastewater  collection systems.   Collection  systems
ar,e  defined   as  gravity  collector  sewers,   interceptors,  pumping  stations,
and  associated  force  mains  necessary  to  collect  and  transport  wastewater
to a  treatment facility.  Thus,  all data  is  from gravity sewer systems,
including all those from  small communities.   The cost  data utilized in
this  report  are derived  from the  winning  bid  documents of projects funded
by the Federal Water Pollution Control  Act (P.L.  92-500)  and  its  amended
version (P.L. 95-217).   All data were  collected  from  the Construction Grant
files in the  ten EPA Regional  offices.

This report is an update and replacement of a previous report in this series,
entitled  "Construction  Costs  for   Municipal  Wastewater  Conveyance  Systems:
1973-1977," EPA 430/9-77-015,  MCD-38,  May,  1978.   The  data  base utilized in
that  report  included 455 wastewater collection system  projects funded under
P.L.  92-500.                                   ..;.'._,

Three  hundred  twenty-two  new  projects  have  been added  to  the MCD-38  data
base  mentioned  above, resulting in 777 collection  system  projects  reported
herein.   These projects had a total construction  cost  value of approximately
$2.02 billion,  adjusted  to first  quarter  1979  dollars.

All ten EPA Regions are  represented  in  the  data  base.   In  fact,  all  of
the 48 contiguous  States   are represented  with  the  exception   of  Kentucky.
The EPA Regions  are  shown on Figure  1.1.    Table  1.1 presents  a  Regional/
demographic distribution  of the communities  in  which  projects used  in  the
data  base  fall.   Appendix  G lists  each  project by grant  number,  name, city,
State, and county.

Over  3.0 percent of  the projects in the  data base received  grants  to assist
communities with  a  population of  less  than  2,500 people.   Sixty-eight  pro-
jects, or  8.75 percent of  the  data base,  are classified as "indeterminate" for
population purposes.  The  population of  these communities or authorities was
                                     1-1

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unable to be discerned through  available census figures.  Most, if not all,
of these  projects  are thought  to  be for small communities, certainly most
with populations  less than 5,000 people.

The true  magnitude  of  the data base is only  partially expressed  by the
777 bid  documents examined.   Table 1.2 illustrates  that 4,737  miles  of
gravity sewers,  702  miles  of force mains,  and 1,165 pump stations are con-
tained  in the bid documents.  These represent considerable  construction
expenditures.   Perhaps of  greater  significance  is  the number  of  individual
bid items utilized  in  the analyses presented  in  this report.   Each bid
document  contains a single lump sum construction cost.   This  total con-
struction cost is made up  of many  separate  bid items,  often dozens.   For  a
sewerage project it  is unusual  that  all  the pipe to be laid will be  of the
same diameter.    Each size is  itemized separately in the bid.  Likewise, many
appurtenances   (manholes,   stream crossings,  special bedding,  etc.)  are bid
separately.  Over 11,500  individual  bid  items  for  gravity  sewers  alone were
available for analysis.   Over 15,000 individual  bid items  make  up  the  sample
used to  derive  the  results  found  in this report.   This  information is cer-
tainly  the most comprehensive empirical  analysis of sewer  construction
costs available for the United States to date.

All costs  presented  in the  main body of  this  report have  been  normalized to
Kansas City, Missouri and  updated  to the first  quarter  of  1979.   Appendix  A
describes the procedures used  for updating costs.

Simplified collection  system  cost estimating techniques were developed
using  a substantial portion of the  data base  included  in  this report.
These  techniques were used  for cost  estimating  in the 1980  Needs  Survey.
They are included in  this  report as Appendix B.

Only data  for  the contiguous  48 States have been presented.  Alaska,  Hawaii,
Puerto Rico,  and  the Pacific  territories  are atypical  of  the mainland.
Inclusion of data from  these  locations would severely  bias national and
regional averages and trends.
                                    1-4

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                    TABLE 1.2.

   LENGTHS OF GRAVITY SEWER AND FORCE MAIN
   AND NUMBER OF  PUMP STATIONS IN DATA .BASE

State
Al abama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
^New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Length of Gravity
Sewers (Miles)
54.36
52.53
100.57
300.93 •
59.79
61.92
78.25
1.45
75.81
37.95
93.55
282.04
21.78
23.90
287.70
13.60
104.74
49.83
396.54
37.84
30.41
57.24
0.44
20.94
56.87
65.60
407.69
58.46
115.52
51.09
17.14
275.15
73.65
36.56
565.11
8.20
82.91
43.47
18.95
155.76
118.59
18.95
125.04
76.89
87.68
22.91
10.75
Length of Force
Main (Miles)
19.01
4.82 •
13.09
41.24
1.13
5.10
34.06 .
8.89
13.37
7.50
12.62
39.12 ,' .'
4.50
7.43
44.66
4.42
11.42
7.52
28.95
17.62
4.41
27.00
0.00
4.89
7.55
4.58
62.12
2.19
13.28
. 14.04
8.25
31.42
14.33
4.22
41.09
1.20
15.81
7.41 .
13.85
24.13
1.39
4.57
28.17
18.71
11.32
8.92
0.34
No. of Pump
Stations
9
7
18
-35
0
24
18
4
12
7
18
: 69
8
17
98
18
36
29
85
43
5
30
0
6
12
12
83
5
48
5 ,
7 •
53
16
13
80
9
15
, - 8
9
37
3
22
64
30
31
5- -.
2
TOTALS
                4737.05
                                701.66
                                            1165
                       1-5

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Two  important  purposes  are served by the  results  contained  herein.   First,
an historical record of a  significant number of wastewater collection system
cost data  is  made  available  to administrators  and managers of the Construc-
tion Grants  Program  at both the  Federal and State levels.   The information
should be valuable  in managing  this Program.

The  second  purpose  for which  this  document  is  intended will be  its use in
preliminary estimation of  construction  costs for  collection systems by
engineers, planners,  sewerage  authorities,  and interested laymen.   The
reader  is  cautioned  that  the  costs  stated herein are  not  a substitute for
normal  engineering estimating procedures, but  are  only averages  for the
specific data  collected.   Furthermore,  unless  the specific  item  being ad-
dressed has a substantial  number of data points,  site specific characteristics
can cause highly under  or  over-stated values for  that item.
                                     1-6

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                      2.0. HIGHLIGHTS OF FINDINGS


Results obtained from  the  analysis of the  large  data base gathered by this
effort fall  within  the  normal range to be expected.  The types  of projects  and

their  geographic diversity  tend to  cause  some unexpected  variation.   Some
trends are  also  surprising,  but most are  explained  when  the  number of data

points is  co'n's;1derecf.'  tfre" fifงh'Ttghts  presented  in this section are  for
various items which tiaye sufficient data  to be considered  accur.ate,  but which
may  seem  to be anomalies.   Some  items  are  verification of suspected  but

undocumented trends.   The items  discussed are  by no means a complete  list.   It

is anticipated each reader  will  find similar cases upon detailed study of  the
data presented.  These  highlights  are not  presented  in any order of apparent

importance or significance.

     Reinforced concrete was  the most commonly used  pipe,  followed closely by
     vitrified clay.   At diameters less  than 16  inches, the  latter  was more
     prevalent.

     ABS  (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) was the  type  least  commonly
     used.

     Relatively small  differences  in  costs were  noted for  pipes buried:
     less than 8  feet deep compared with those buried  between 8-15 feet
     deep.

     Pipes buried greater than 15 feet deep were significantly more  expensive
     than those in  the 8-15 feet deep  range.

     The cost of pipe delivered  to  the construction site was more expensive at
     construction  sites  located within  a  Standard  Metropolitan  Statistical
     Area (SMSA) for diameters of 21  inches and  less than for non-SMSA (rural)
     areas.   This trend was reversed  for larger  diameters.

     The  cost of  labor for gravity sewer construction  within SMSA's  was
     significantly more  expensive  than  in  non-SMSA's, as  would  be  expected.

     Average Step 3  nonconstruction costs  (engineering, administrative,
     legal,  etc.) are approximately ten  percent  higher in  non-SMSA areas than
     in SMSA's.  This  is probably  due to the fact that non-SMSA projects  are
     of smaller  magnitude  and.,  thus, these  fees  and expenses  are  a greater
     percentage of the total  construction costs.

     Step 1  costs  are  nearly twice  as  high  in SMSA areas than  in non-SMSA
     areas.   This is attributed  to  the probable  greater number  of alternatives
     which must be considered in an urban area for Step 1 planning.
                                     2-1

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Step 2  costs  are higher in non-SMSA areas as .a  percentage  of the con-
struction costs  than  in  SMSA's.  This is probably  due  to  the  smaller size
projects in the  more rural  areas,  and the  normal  experience  of engineer-
ing fees being a higher  percentage for the smaller projects.

The unit construction costs for manholes were found to be  less expensive
for those  8-15  feet deep  than  for  those  less than  8  feet  deep within
SMSA's,  and nationally.

Manholes 72 inches in diameter were  more expensive in non-SMSA's than in
SMSA's,  probably because a  unit  of  that  size is  a special  situation in
the more rural areas.

Bare-in-place  construction  costs for force mains  smaller than 21 inches
in diameter are  significantly  less expensive than  equivalent  size gravity
sewers.   This is explained by the fact that less attention  to grade is
required for the former, making construction faster with the use of less
skilled  labor.

Relatively few  projects  for only  sanitary sewer  construction  were
available  for analysis.  Most  sewer projects  were included  as  part
of collection  and treatment projects, at least for Step 1 grants. '

The bid items for  cast iron pipe  averaged  less  than  500 feet  each,
based upon dividing  total length  in the data  base by the  number of
individual  bid  items.   This  result  indicates that many of  these  items
were for special  situations  such  as road  or  stream  crossings or  short
reaches  of  shallow burial.  For instance,  of 85 bid  items for 8 inch cast
iron pipe, the  average  length  per bid  item  was 390 feet.   For the same
diameter reinforced concrete  pipe  and
lengths were 1,906  feet and 4,457 feet,
vitrified  clay
respectively.
pipe,  the average
Type  of  pipe was  not specified  for approximately 25 percent  of the
bid  items.    Undoubtedly  these were  cases where  the contractor had
a choice of  materials and  in the  bid  proposal did  not specify the
type to be used.

The  depth of burial of  sewer pipe was,  on the average, greater in
cities than  in non-SMSA  areas.
                               2-2

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               3.0  DEFINITIONS AND ANALYSIS PROCEDURES
This section of the report defines the terms used throughout.   An overview of
the data  analysis  techniques  is  presented.   Data  collection  methodology  and
cost updating techniques are also  described.   More specific discussions
relating to individual  cost  items  are contained in Section 4.0, Results of  the
Data Analysis.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

All projects used in this  report were partially funded by the EPA Construction
Grants Program under P.L. 92-500  and  P.L.  95-217.   The rules  and regulations
pertaining to these  laws  are  quite specific  as  they relate to procedures  for
design  and  construction  of  the  facilities  in  question.   They  are  applied
uniformly  across  the  nation,  thus  adding  further credibility  to  the data
base.

The rules and regulations require  that all projects go  through  specific
steps  prior to proceeding.  These  steps are  all grant  eligible, and  are
all part  of the cost  of the planning,  engineering, and  constructing  the
facility  in  question.    These steps  are  referred  to throughout  the  report.
Their definitions are as follows:

Step 1 - Facilities Planning.   This is basically  the  preliminary engineering
[feasibility analysis)  which demonstrates  the need  for the project and a cost
effective analysis  of alternative  solutions.

Step 2 - Construction Drawings and Specifications.   This  step  is the detailed
design of the selected  alternative, including all documents necessary to allow
competitive bidding on  the project.

Step 3 - Actual  Construction  of the Facility.  The monies associated  with this
step are  those necessary to construct the  facility.   These  monies  include
certain nonconstruction items as described below.
                                    3-1

-------
The total costs associated with the above three  steps of  the Grants procedure
were collected and reported on herein.  However, the bid  documents from which
the construction costs were obtained do not  include Step  1, Step  2, or Step 3
nonconstruction cost  items.   These  data  were obtained from  other EPA grant
files when available,  which  was  most of the time.  Therefore, the total cost
of a project  includes these  items.  They have been  accounted  for in the
various  tables and analyses  presented in  this  volume and explained in the
following paragraphs.

The  definitions  of the  various  costs associated  with  the  construction  of
sewerage projects  are presented below.   The reader  should be  completely
familiar  with  these terms  prior to  utilizing the cost  data  for estimation
purposes.

Total Project Cost.   A "project"  is  defined  as  the  construction associated
with a single contract.  A project for this  study consists of the construction
of gravity sewers,  force  mains,  and pump stations.   It may include only one of
these items,  all  three,  or any  combination.   The Total  Project  Cost is the
total monies  spent  to  put  the facility into  operation.   This is the sum of all
planning  costs (Step  1 and  Step 2),  Step  3  construction costs,  and Step 3
nonconstruction costs.    Each  of  these  components  is  more  fully described
below.

Total Construction  Cost.    The Total  Construction  Cost,  as  defined  in  this
report,   is the total  of all  construction  bid  items plus the nonconstruction
costs directly associated  with the construction phase of the project.

     Construction  Costs.    Construction costs  are  the  sum of  all individual
     items submitted in the successful contractor's winning bid.   This report
     has  separated these  bid  items into broad categories of  gravity sewers,
     force mains,  and  pump stations.   These  are further  defined below.

          Gravity Sewers.   The cost  to construct gravity sewers  includes the
          pipe  itself, its  placement,  and various non-pipe construction
          costs.   These are:
                                     3-2

-------
     Bare-In-Place' Costs v" The bare-in-place" pipe  cost  for gravity
     sewers  is  the sum  of  the costs  for  the  labor  and  materials

     necessary to  install^a  gravity sewer.  These costs include only
     the.costs of  the pipe delivered  to the site plus all  trenching

     and backfilling.   National   average costs  are  summarized  for
     these  items.


     Non-Pipe  Construction Costs.   In any  project there  are  a

     number  of/non-pipe,  appurtenance, and  special costs associated
     with  the  construction.   These construction  items are separately

     itemized  in the bid  documents.   The majority are listed below:


     Appurtenances (tees,  wyes, valves, gates, etc.)
     Bedding/Backfill  (special)
     Drop  Manholes
     Manholes
     Miscellaneous
     Mobilization
     Pavement  Replacement
     Rock  Excavation
     Stream  Crossings
     Thoroughfare  Crossings
     Utility Reconnection or Relocation

Force Mains.    As  in the  case  of  gravity sewers, the cost to con-
struct force mains  is  the pipe itself,  its  placement,  and various
non-pipe construction  costs.  These are:


  "•-"' Bare^In-Place Costs.    The  bare-in-place  costs  for  force
     mains  are  the sum  of  the costs  for  the  labor  and  materials
     necessary to  install a force main.   These costs  include only

     the costs of the.pipe delivered  to the site plus all trenching
     and'backfill ing.                     •.. •                   ''••


     Non-Pipe  Construction Costs.    Force mains,  like  gravity

     sewers,  require  appurtenances  and special  construction in

     addition  to  the  actual construction of  the main.    These  are

     similar to those  itemized above  for gravity sewers.   However,
     in most projects they  make up a  lower percentage of  the total

   •  work.                                       '      .
                           3-3

-------
          Pump Stations.   In most  cases pump  stations are bid  as a  single

          item.  Little or no other construction costs (i.e., non-pump  station

          construction costs) are associated with their construction.


     Step 3 Nonconstruction Costs.   Step 3 nonconstruction costs are  defined

     as those monies spent during the  construction of a project  which  are  not

     directly  paid  to the contractor  but which must  be borne by the  owner.

     They are considered to  be  part  of the  Total  Construction  Cost.  The most

     common nonconstruction costs found  in the  Step  3 phase of a project are:


     Administrative/Legal Fees
     Preliminary (preconstruction planning)
     Land, Structures, and Right-of-Way
     Architect/Engineer Basic Fees
     Project Inspection
     Land Development
     Relocation Expenses
     Relocation Payments
     Demolition and Removal
     Bond Interest
     Contingencies
     Indirect Costs
     Miscellaneous
     Equipment

(The reader  is reminded that  Step 1  and  Step  2 costs  must be  added  to the

Total Construction Cost to estimate the Total  Project Cost.)


The  results presented  in  Section  4.0 and  in the  Appendices  detail most

of the construction and nonconstruction costs  discussed above.


COST UPDATING


All  costs  initially  were  updated  to   first  quarter 1979 dollars  using the

updating procedure described in Appendix A.   Step 1  and 2  planning  and  design

costs were updated from  their respective grant  award  date, while  Step  3 costs

were updated from the project bid date.


The  updating  procedure described  in Appendix A uses  the  EPA  Complete Urban

Sewer System  Index (CUSS) for  25 cities  in  the contiguous 46  States.  The
areas  each of  these cities have  a predominant  influence  over  were also
                                     3-4

-------
 developed.   The cos't  informat'ion'for each  project, was  updated using the
 -* .,,  -        „       ,„, \ „-,.,!, T,'-1'^^ V -**1* vr f 1^ *  • ;-- •. '-  ' --:" 'f^3'-.'-^^r-'-^,!''~^':-^ f "•              =
 approp'riate1 index'foih the  city having'influence  in  the  area.   Although
 the  CUSS Index"applies to  urban  areas,' and therefore by inference to SMSA's,
 it was  used  for  all projects whether urban or rural.  Other available indexes
 were  investigated for these  normalizing calculations but none  resulted  in as
 accurate or  consistent  results  as did the CUSS Index.

 All  data were normalized  to a single  location - Kansas  City,  Missouri.   The
 index  for the' city in question  and  that  for  Kansas City for first quarter
 1979  were used  to  adjust  all  cost data to  Kansas  City costs.   This  proce-
 dure was utilized to  allow data analysis in a mathematical  and logical  manner
 for the  complete  data base,  not just by region or city of influence.  Examples
 of  adjusting  data  to  a  specific  location  are  provided in  Section 4.0 and
 Appendix C.                                               •            ,

 DATA ANALYSIS

 The  more than 15,000 bid  items available  from  the  777  projects  in  the  data
 base lend,themselves to a  vast array  of analyses.   A large  number of analyses
 were  performed.   Those which had  sufficient  data  elements to  be considered
 statistically reasonable have been included in this  publication.

 Both  nonconstruction  and construction costs  were developed  for gravity
 sewers,  force  mains,, pump stations, and common  appurtenances.   Bare-in-piace
 pipe costs for various depths  and .-diameters  of  pipe were calculated and are
 included  in this  report.

 Non-pipe  costs,  as well  as Step 3 nonconstruction  costs,  were added to  the
 unit costs for-bare-in-place pipe using a ratio of the volume  of each  bid  item
 for pipe in  each project  to  the total  volume of pipe  in each project.   All
 non-pipe costs not specifically related  to force  mains or  pump  stations  in the
 bid tabulations were assumed  to relate  to  the gravity sewer portion  and  were
 apportioned  accordingly.   Volume of  pipe was  used in  these  calculations
 because  it  is influenced  less by  special  construction   items  and proved to
yield statistically.better  results.    Volume  of pipe was  calculated by  the
                                     3-5

-------
pipe's cross sectional area  in  square feet (using the nominal pipe diameter)
times the length, in feet of pipe,  for that bid  item.

Linear regression  relationships  of design flow and  total  dynamic head (TDH)
versus costs  were  determined  for  pump  stations.   These  costs  included  all
costs for  the  basic pump  station  in addition to any  other  bid  items speci-
fically  related  to the  pump  station.   When  more than  one  pump station was
present  in a single project, all related  costs  were  apportioned  among  each of
the pump stations in a project on the basis of a ratio  of the  cost for  each to
the total cost for  all pump  stations.   A computerized  statistics package  (The
Biomedical  Computer Program developed  by the  University  of  California,  Los
Angeles) was utilized to determine the significance  of  these relationships and
to plot  the resulting linear regression curves.

DATA COLLECTION

Construction  cost data from  wastewater  collection  system projects  were
collected from  the EPA  Construction  Grant files  in all ten  Regional  EPA
offices.   All  data were collected  from  active or  recently completed Step  3
projects.  Costs were  derived from  the winning  contract  bid tabulations
plus the costs associated with all change orders issued up  to  the time  of  data
collection.  All  information was collected on specially designed  forms  using  a
coding  system.   Contractor personnel  performed  all  data  collection  in the
Regional offices  and  had access to the complete project files,  including  most
of the backup  engineering  information.

The  data base  includes projects providing new  collection  systems,  as  well  as
projects to enlarge or extend existing collection  systems.   Many  projects  also
 include  the construction or modification of wastewater treatment plants.  The
wastewater  treatment  plant portion  of  such  projects,  however, was  segregated
 into  a separate  data  base  which  was  used  to compile a companion report to  this
document,  entitled  "Construction   Costs  for  Municipal  Wastewater  Treatment
Facilities:  1973-1978,"  EPA 430/9-80-003, FRD-11, April 1980.

As  previously  mentioned  in Section 1.0, the data  base now includes a total  of
 777  sanitary  sewer projects which  started construction between 1973 and  1978.
                                      3-6

-------
A total of 348 of these  projects have  a contract award date of January 1977 or
later.  All  of the projects resulted from  grants  awarded  in accordance with
P.I. 92-500 and its successor,  P.L.  95-217.

Following a quality assurance check at the contractor's home office, the data
were  entered  into  an  ADP file.   The format  of  the data  base used  in  the
original MCD-38 report was  adjusted to conform with  the newly acquired data,
after which the two files  were  merged.
                                     3-7

-------

-------
                   4.0  RESULTS OF THE DATA ANALYSIS

The  results  of the  analyses  of  777 municipal  wastewater collection  system
projects funded by the  EPA Construction Grants Program  are presented  in  this
section.   These  data constitute  a  significant portion of the  total  projects
funded by the Program.

The  data base  includes  information concerning  the type, size, and depths  of
gravity sewer  pipe  and  force main  and the  number and  capacity of  pumping
stations.   All costs  associated with  the construction  of these  facilities are
a part  of  the  data base.   Most commonly used  types of pipe and appurtenances
are  present  in the  data  base and have  been  analyzed  and  presented  in  the
following pages.

The  construction  cost  data were  identified  as  to whether  the  project  was
located in a metropolitan  or a rural  area.   The basis  for this  designation is
the  Bureau  of  Census defined  Standard  Metropolitan Statistical  Area  (SMSA).
Most populated urbanized areas in  the country have been made an  SMSA.   Much of
the  cost  data was  analyzed to judge trends between  urban  and  rural  areas.
This factor will have increasing  significance as more facilities are  planned
for the smaller communities throughout the  country.  SMSA's have the county as
the  smallest area!  delineation.   Some  Targe counties  are very densely popu-
lated in one section, yet  are  truly rural  in another.   The data base  does not
differentiate between these  extremes, all  facilities being considered  in  the
SMSA.

The  national  averages shown for  the various pipe  diameters  are  without
regard  to  type of  pipe material,  depth  of  burial,  or  whether  in  an SMSA.

COSTS FOR GRAVITY SEWERS ,

Cost data for  gravity sewers  were the most  voluminous  and readily available.
Nearly  12,000  individual bid  items  make up the sample  analyzed.  Results  are
presented detailing total  construction costs,  bare-in-place pipe  costs, labor
and  material component  costs,  and Step 3  non-pipe construction  costs.   Each
series of analyses  is presented"with discussions below.
                                     4-1

-------
Total Construction Costs

Table  4.1  summarizes the total  construction costs  for gravity sewers.
Step  1 and Step  2 costs  are not  included, as  explained  in  Section 3.0.
Average Step  3 nonconstruction costs  were added  to bare-in-place costs
(see Table 4.3) to arrive at these cost figures.

The  data presented in  Table 4.1 have  been segregated into  three  different
groupings:  pipe type (the material  the pipe  is  made of), depth of burial,  and
by SMSA classification.   Each bid  item did not have all data elements avail-
able.   If type of pipe was not specified,  the cost data were accumulated under
the heading "other/unknown."

Figure 4.1 presents this same data in a  graphical format to permit  the
reader to judge basic trends.  Only  national  data  are  shown.

The  unit cost  presented  for each individual  item  is the average cost per foot
of  pipe for that item.   The cost  per  foot of pipe  for  each bid  item  was
calculated,  and then averaged  with  all  the other  items of  the same nature.

This  same data base was  used to develop  Table  4.2,  which presents the cost by
pipe  type and  depth of burial for each pipe diameter.   This table is  a summary
of  a  more  detailed printout  which  is located  in Appendix F.  This printout
 itemizes the  unit costs,  non-pipe  costs, Step  3 nonconstruction  costs,  and
 sample footage for each  item.   There was sufficient documentation for 8,274
 bid  items to be included  in this subset of data.

 It  should be stressed that the  data presented for total  construction  costs are
 based upon average pipe  costs  to  which are added average costs for  appurte-
 nances and nonconstruction items.  These costs represent accurate averages for
 the national  base.   However,  if,  for a  particular  project, the  reader has
 sufficient knowledge  to be  able to  estimate appurtenance costs, it  is recom-
 mended the bare-in-place costs plus individual  appurtenance  costs be used for
 estimation purposes.
                                      4-2

-------
                                      TABLE 4.1

             GRAVITY  SEWER TOTAL CONSTRUCTION  COSTS* ($/FOOT.)
     PIPE TYPE,  BURIAL  DEPTH,  AND SMSA  CLASSIFICATION  BY  DIAMETER
BY PIPE TYPE:
Diameter . PVC
Asbestos
Cement
04 15.36 ( 18) 10.01
06 13.96 ( 43) 18.79
08 38.29 (392) 38.17
10 44.44 (252) 49.70
12 55.73 (169) 60.64
15 50.01 (
16 	
18 37.66 (
21 78.12 (
24 82.54 (
27 ' — -
30
36
42
48
54 	
60 . • — •
66 —
72
78 	
84
90 ---
96 ' —
102
Total No
82) 120.65
88.77
1) 63.65
3) 98.19
3) 82.13
34.48
32.16
- —
—
	
—
--
—
- . —
. ...

.
—
—

378*
229
174
88
40
132
45
50
ซ
3













of Bid Items 963 H62

BY PIPE DEPTH: .. , .



Vitrified
Clay
Cast
Iron
12.37 (16) 10.15
17.37 (119) 24.38
29.24 (784) 66.53
33.71 (421) 99.34
41.59 (420) 57.85
53.03 (284) 120.01
92.08
14
68.03 (208
.. 69.14
104
88.66 (120
116.56
135.47
154.74
79.47
132.95
—

. —
—
—
—
—
—
—
• *
22
31
18
. 3
4










2568


93.84
89.11
163.29'
188.08

114.96 (
109.61 (


	
—
—
—
.
—
—
—
—

Reinforced
Concrete
5 11.86
15 13.54
85 21.44
52 31.49
49 62.54
Ductile
Iron
4) 18.11
4) 25.32
49) 42.16
23) 44.46
56) 61.45
4 74.08 (149) 73.26
18 69.81
12
) 68.17
19 161.57 (299) 82.80
1 83.74
212
105.92
28) 116.13 (400) 107.26
117.52
2) 168.60
1) 225.90
181.06
- 209.63
313.59
349.47
360.64
416.46
415.44
559.90
444.64
369.76
583.58
— .*-••- - :-
133
357
358
187
96
152
104
39
71
—
173.36
212.61
550.52

	
—
—
—
4) 17.!
22) 24.4
252) 49. 5
99) 40.!
94) 73.9
7
112
Other/
ABS Unknown
6 2 15.36 ( 61}
6 2 21.12 (160)
3 17 32.75 (847)
7 2 36.49 (421)
2 5 42.64 (381)
110.10 ( 1) 61.79
—
109)
4
—
67.93
95.17
60.39
218
24
206
71




97) 44.60 ( 1) 92.39 (122)

48
24
11





.

	
-—
,
	
—
	
	
36)
6
3
1
1

	
—
—
.

279 2752









883

	 :.
—
—
—
,- - •


106.83 ( 51
115.81 1114
147.24
202.81
79
29




232.56 (' 27)
411.14
361.31
321.52
373.87
737.73
385.55
632.95
462.21
21
42
7
13
5
8
1







27)

--- — -."' 	
30 2935
c-
: .- . , 	 	 BY CLASSIFICATION: ,

Diameter 15 Feet
23.94 ( 10)
45.57 (441)
47.25 (231)
55.94 (234)
6!. 55 (130)
78.93 ( 38)
82.15 (176
86.17 (101)
110.57 (200)
7.72 54)
i.03 170.
1.92 159)
i :39 77)
246.29 ( 27)
383.77 ( 89)
384.11 ( 65)
314.22 { 10)
313.08 ( 26)
—
- ^ 	
—
435.23 ( 25)
—
	
2238



SMSA
16.51 ( 35)
22.31 ( 169)
44.16 (1211)
54.69 ( 714)
60.28 ( 656)
73.18
70.68
141.93
80.46
115.78
115.76
162.28'
216.42
164.78
205.04 i
335.
348.
352.
426.
^496.
481.
531.
466.
583.
	 -

74
52
90
02 i
38 (
33 (
59 I
25 1
58 (


420)
121)
504)
101)
379)
134)
344)
316)
138)
92)
148)
96)
39)
65)
41)
14)
4)
28)
1)
	
5970


Non-SHSA
13.41 ( 81
17.40 209
30.81 1493
36.79 785
43.69 695
57.88 413
78.71 99
65.32 475
72.47 289
100
103
125
168
247
225
270
357
341
372
—
	
	
	
—


.57 446
National
Averaoe
) 14.37
19.60
36.92
44.95
i ' . 51.65
64.73
74.97
106.92
76.24
109.67
.97 ( 76) 111.52 |
.02 ( 219) 151.44
.84 ( 165) r 204.37
.48 ( 92) 198.81
.85 ( 35) ' 210.09
.89 ( 25
.35 ( 50
.90 i 7
.57 ( 19





— —
5623
116)
378)
2804)
1499)
1351)
833
220
979
440
825

•
210)
563)
481)
230)
127)
326^38 '( 173
348.11
353.23
415.65
496.38
481.33
531.59
466.25
583.58
146
46
84
41
it
4
28
1








_ 	
11593
* Includes all non-Dine construction costs and Step 3 nonconstruction costs.  Steo 1 and 2 costs excluded.

 Notes:, All costs normalized to Kansas City, HO 1st Otr 1979
      ( ) Number of bid items in samole
                                          4-3

-------
    600-
o
o
DC
UJ   500
o.
CO

8


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O
CO
O
e
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o

oc
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    300-
    200-
    100-
      0-
   2OOO-
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Q

m
u.
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 UJ
 m
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            FIGURE 4.1



            TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COSTS*


            FOR GRAVITY SEWERS
             2804
          4
                                I   I   M   I   .
                                                "Includes all non-pipe construction

                                                costs and Step 3 nonconstruction

                                                costs. Stepl and 2 costs excluded.



                                                Note: All costs normalized to

                                                     Kansas City, MO 1st Qtr.1979
                12       24       36      48      60

                               PIPE DIAMETER (IN.)
f    r   i    r  •,
72      84      96
                                                                        96  102
                                       4-4

-------





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4-5

-------
Bare Pipe Costs

Bare pipe costs are defined herein to be the costs for materials  and  labor to
install  and  backfill  the  pipe.   Appurtenances,  manholes,  etc.,  and Step 3
nonconstruction  costs are not  included  in these  figures.   Step 1  and  2  costs
are  also excluded.   These  costs, therefore, are  only  one component of the
total  construction  costs  for  gravity sewers  as  presented in Tables  4.1 and
4.2.

Table  4.3 summarizes  the bare  pipe costs  by  pipe type,  depth of burial,
and  SMSA classification  in the same  manner done for total  construction
costs  in Table  4.1.   This summary includes  the identical  data base presented
previously for total construction costs.

As  would be expected,  the same  general trends are  apparent  as for the  total
construction costs.  Figure 4.2 graphically  depicts  these data to indicate the
trends for the national average costs.
         t                                              ' .  '
Some  bid documents  broke  out the  cost of  pipe  and labor  as  separate com-
ponents.  These data were  analyzed to the degree  the  sample  permitted.  Table
4.4  summarizes  the 816  bid items which  delineated the cost of the pipe
delivered to the  site.    Insufficient  data were  available  to  summarize the
results  by  type of pipe  or  depth of burial.   The sample size presents some
anomalies,  but  the  trends are consistent  with those of the  larger data base.

Somewhat more data  were  available for the labor  required  to  install the pipe.
An  analysis  was made  of  1,009 bid items in  this  category  and is summarized in
Table  4.5.   These  data  have been broken down  into depth of burial  and SMSA
classifications.  As would be  expected,  the data  reveal labor costs for
 similar  bid  items are  higher  in  the SMSA's.

 The sum  of  the pipe  and  labor   costs  (Tables 4.4  and  4.5) should equal the
 bare-in-place pipe costs (Table 4.3).   For most cases,  particularly for
 smaller  diameter  pipe, the sum is greater  than  either the bare-in-place costs
 or the total construction  costs.  The cause of this is attributed primarily to
                                      4-6

-------
                            ,.,,., TABLE 4.3

        GRAVITY  SEWER BARE-IN-PLACE  CONSTRUCTION  COSTS*  ($/FOOT)
      PIPE TYPE,  BURIAL  DEPTH,  AND SMSA  CLASSIFICATION BY DIAMETER
 IIY PIl'l TYPE:
    04
    06_
    08
    10
    12

    15
    16
    IB
    21
    24

    27
    30
    36
    42
    48

    54
    60
    66
    72
    78
   90
   96
   102


Total No.
of Bid Hems
PVC
13.46 ( 18)
9.79 ( 43)
21.81 (392)
23;76 (252)
25.52 (169)
30.18 ( 82)
12.24 ( 1)
49.17 ( 3)
44.72 ( 3)
I" .


Asbestos
Cement
8.91 ( . 6)
12.86 ( 13)
23.52 (378)
23.01 (229)
27.59 <174)
30.19 ( 88)
45 70 ( 40)
.26.67 (132)
37.54 ( 45)
38.63 ( 50)
25.34 ( 4)
•26.63'( 3)
___
".""
Vitrified"
Clay
Cast
Iron
10.22 { 16) 9.04 ( 5)
13..00 (119) 16.44 ( 15)
19.90 (784) 27.41 ( 85)
20.97 (421) 29.70 ( 52)
25.61 (420) .39.28 ( 49)
30.05 (284
33.87 ( 14
36.55 (208
41.41 (104
51.57 (120
83.38 ( 4) .
55.30 ( 18)
53.13 ( 19)
. 142.13 (1)
135.85 ( 28)
72.18 ( 22)
71.63 ( 31) 62.87 ( 2)
75.05 ( 18) 75.22 ( 1)
64.53 ( 3
71.46 ( 4

...
Reinforced Ductile
Concrete Iron
10.50
10.48
15.78
19.65
20.51
29.66
54.61
42.32 2
48.99 2
46.56 (4
4) 16.05 ( 4
4) 18.25 ( 22
49 28.21 (252
23 31.42 ( 99
56) 35.83(94
12) 40!?1 (112
99) . 49.91 (109
12) 62.60 ( 4
00) 70.57 ( 97
55.43 (133) ' —
65.58 (357) 100.34 ( 48
85.80 (358) 157.49 ( 24
111.89 (1
114.07 (
87) 434.50 ( 11
96)
A8S
) . 11.79 ( 2)
12.16 ( 2)
' 25.65 (.17)
17.97 ( 2)
) 27.58 ( 5).
33.17 ( 1)
— -
19.25 ( 1)
— -
	 ~
— - -
216.42(152) — -.-
— - —- .. — ,.. 198.31(104) — •• ' 	



— -
~"~



, •

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— _- •

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- ^ •
	

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—


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186.83 .(
248.10 (
253.21 (
352.74 (
216.52 (
239.46 (
304.47 (
39
71 — •
36
6)
3).
1) ..........
1)
— '-
— -
.

, 	
' 	 .
• —
Other/
Unknown
13.17 ( 61
11.59 (160
22.37 (847
23.18 (421
27.18 (381
38.93 (218
37.89 ( 24
35.30 (206
33.33 ( 71
51.89 (122
57.85 ( 51)
73.34 (114;
91.94 ( 79;
122.81 ( 291
147,09 (,2?;
257.19 ( 21)
249.25 ( 42]
262.04 ( 7)
230.83 ( 13)
466.25 ( 5)
318.19 ( 8)
564.33 ( 1)
366.15 ( 27)

                          1162 ,
                                                                  883
; Stei I and ? costs. Step 3 nonconstruction costs, and non-o.ipe construction .costs excluded.
BY PIPE DEPTH:. .... .. . ..'.--
. .".'."'leXer • <8 Feet 	 8=, 15 Feet
04 11.86 2) 11.17 ( 3
06 11.28 26) 12.98 ( 65
08 17.18 523J 21.14 (1233
10 17,41 224) 20.53 ( 673
12 22,27 190) 23.15 ( 553
15 22.67 (127) 27.35 ( 359
16 39.94 ( 45) 38.75 ( 83
18 31.14 (150) 33.88 ( 415
21 " 35.51 ( 57) . 49.57 ( 173
24 42.74 (95) 45.48 ( 316
27 74.11 ( 16) 49.42 ( 58
30 61.39 ( 61) . 63.49 ( 191
36 91.55 ( 24) 78.68 ( 156
42 104.57 ( 11) 121.69 ( 63
48 84.78 ( 4) 88.25 ! 20
"--. --'.- - • ' • : BY CLASSIFICATION: -
>15 Feet SMSA . Non-SMSA Ai/ปฐ"nป
18.66
33.89
33.75
38.50
40.66
50.33
51.59
47,53
63.86
61.23
74.29
99.71
169.07
129.51
54 119.50 ( 8) 176.56 ( 44) 251.57
ซฐ 470.39 ( 1) 221.12 ( 33) 226.85
66 . — 94.68 ( 1) 181.75
7| — 159.21 ( 6) 199.38
.
.84 . , — . :



Total No.
of Bid Items , 1564 4445
—
•i—
---__
348.35
~~~

14.68
'10) 13.99,
'441) . 23.90
251) 23.99
!234) 27.20
130) 30.09 '
38) 44.02
176) 40.27
101) 47.28
200) - ' 47.34
54) 57.88
170) 67.64
159) 83.36
77) 92.93
27) . 116.39
89) 229.57
65) 214.28
10)' 196.68
26) 255.14
279.19
333.00 (
- 303.47
25) 361.63
304.47 (

2283
35) 11.41
169) 11.20
1311) 20.96
: 714) 22.74
i 656) .27.42
( 420
: 121
504
201
379
'134
344
316
138
92
148
96
39
65
41
35.29
41.37
36.61
40.95
•58.54.
56.00'
73.65
102.33
180.80
128.57
172.83
210.42
207.13
212.18
.
14) — .
4)
,28)
1)

5970
.. • 	 • a
81) 12.40 ( 116)
209) 12.45 ( 378)
:i493) ' 22.34 (2804)
[ 785) 23.34 (1499)
( 695) " 27.31 (1351)
i 413) 32.67 ( 833
'99) . 42,83 ( 220
'. 47,5) , . 38.49 ( 979
239) . 43.84 ( 440
446) 53.39 ( 825
76) 57.20 ( 210)
219) 69.98 ( 563)
165) -• 89:87 ( 481)
92) '128.08 ( 230)
35) 119.75 ( 127) •
25) 221.37 ( 173)
50) 212.96 ( 146)
7) 198.27 (46)
19) 245.43 ( 84)
279.19 (41)
333.00 ( 14
303 47 ( 4
361.63 ( 28
304.47 ( 1

5623 11593
 Motes: All costs normalized to Kansas Citv, MO 1st Otr 1979
      (  ) Number of bid items in sanmle
                                         4-7

-------
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FIGURE 4.2
BARE -IN- PLACE CONSTRUCTION
COSTS * FOR GRAVITY SEWER






*

^

0 *

•

•
• 9

*



9
•

^.


2804





ซ Step 1 and 2 costs, Step 3 non-
construction costs, and non-pipe
construction costs excluded.

I Note: All costs normalized to
• Kansas City, MO 1st Qtr.1979
I M I T • f T 1 T T T I 1 T
i 	 1 r-M — *-f — T " T " T 1 T in ' 1 ~












1

1
•


























0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 102
PIPE DIAMETER (IN.)
4-8

-------


Diameter
04
06
08
10
12
15
16
.18
21
24
27
30
36
42
48
54
60
66
Total No.
of Bid Items
Note: All costs
— — 	

GRAVITY
DELIVERED
SMSA
8.80 ( 4)
11.05 (12)
13.25 (84)
16.21 (47)
14.96 (57)
18.44 (44)
20.07 (16)
20.91 (48)
26.60 (28)
27.77 (39)
25.22 ( 8.)
46.24 (23)
45.65 (29)
46.24 ( 8)
68.28 (13)
63.75 (13)
68.43 (20)
91.44 (18)
511
TABLE 4.4
SEWER PIPE COSTS
TO SITE ($/FOOT)
:. Non-SMSA
7.48 (11)
7.8.8 (25)
7.98 (78)
8.01 (39)
14.33 (41)
13.44 (22)
24.20 (13)
15.63 (29)
17.64 (10)
29.01 (14)
33.10 (7)
58.53 (4)
57.35 (10)
75.68 (2)
___ - '-
305 '.
normalized to Kansas City, MO 1st

:" -.' ' ' ,„ .-",• .'.,.- ...
National Average
7,83 (15)
8.91 (37)
10.71 (162) •:
12.49 (86)
14.70 ( 98)
•16.78 ( 66)
21.92 ( 29)
18.92 (77)
24.24 (38)
28.10 ( 53)
28.90 ( 15)
48.06 ( 27)
48.65 ( 39)
52.13 ( 10)
68.28 (13)
:63.75 ( 13)
68.43 ( 20)
91.44 ( 18)
, 816
Qtr 1979
4-9

-------







ฃ
8
TABLE 4.5
SEWER CONSTRUCTION LABOF
5/FOOT OF PIPE INSTALLED
i—

D:
CD






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4-10

-------
 .the'Tabor  costs.   Labor often is broken out separately on projects requiring
 special skills or inordinate time.

 Non-Pipe Costs for Gravity Sewers

 .Construction costs for non-pipe items which are part of the total  project  are
 often  itemized  separately by  the  contractors  bidding on  a  job.   Table  4.6
 summarizes the bid  items  for the ten most  common  non-pipe construction cost
 items.  These numbers  represent  the  cost; of the  items  as  a percentage  of  the
 bare-in-place pipe costs on a national basis.  If all categories were  required
..for all projects, 46 percent of the bare pipe costs would be indicated.  This
 percentage also  was calculated for  the total national  data base by adding  all
 the non-pipe  construction  costs  associated with  gravity sewers and  dividing
 that  total by all  the gravity  sewer  construction  costs.   The resulting
 number  is 43.7  percent.   Over  10,000  individual bid  items  were  used in
 this analysis.

 Considerable data on non-pipe costs are presented  in the  Appendices.  Tables
 C.I, C.2,  and C.3 have non-pipe costs by diameter of pipe  for SMSA, non-SMSA,
 and combined projects.   Tables in Appendix  D summarize  the non-pipe' construc-
 tion costs by diameter  of  pipe for  each type of  material.  Tables in Appen-
 dices  E and F present the same  data for various depths  of burial.

 The most  common  non-pipe construction bid  item in  the data base is  for
 manholes.   These data were  analyzed and  are  presented  in Table  4.7  for
 regular manholes  and Table 4.8 for drop manholes.  The data  are presented by
 depth  range  and  for SMSA  and non-SMSA  locations,  as  well  as  the  national
 averages.

 These tables  present  some anomalies when examined  in  detail.   Of these,
 the most conspicuous  is  the nearly  uniform fact that manholes  8-15 feet
 deep have,a lower  cost  than those  less than  8 feet in depth.

 Other  non-pipe construction  costs were  examined  in detail  but statistically
 valid  or useful information was not  produced.
                                    4-11

-------
                            TABLE 4.6

          NON-PIPE CONSTRUCTION COST FOR GRAVITY SEWER
            AS PERCENTAGE OF BARE-IN-PLACE PIPE COST
Category
Sanitary Sewer Appurtenances
Thoroughfare Crossings
Stream Crossings
Rock Excavation
Pavement Replacement
Utility Reconnect!' on
Special Bedding & Backfill
Mobilization & Miscellaneous
Manholes
Drop Manholes
SMSA
1
8
4
6
8
2
7
9
5
3
Non-SMSA
1
4
4
7
6
1
3
6
5
1
National
Average
1 (340)
6 (376)
4 (145)
6 (183)
7 (426)
2 ( 63)
5 (336)
8 (512)
5 (602)
2 (249)
Total No.
of Bid Items
3232
Note:  Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of bid items,
       not the number of actual units.
                               4-12

-------
                            TABLE 4.7
      AVERAGE UNIT CONSTRUCTION COST OF MANHOLES*  ($/UNIT)
           BY DIAMETER, DEPTH, AND SMSA CLASSIFICATION
Diameter
SMSA Projects:
   48
   60
   72
 , Unknown/
  Other
   <8 Feet
                                Depth of Manholes
8-15 Feet
>15 Feet
 902.46(363)   800.98   (190)   1664.82(107)
 1847.66  (118)   1709.43"( 65)   2225.71 (68)
 2179.67(29)   1621.37(22)   3156.20(20)

 2166.56  ( 40)   1982.13  ( 20)   4305.70 (11)
Non-SMSA Projects:
   48              786.21 (340)
   60             1512.58 ( 57)
   72             2504.92 ( 31)
                 868.62 (161)   1488.83 ( 64)
                1612.96 ( 26)   5633.65 (  6)
                2848.38 (9)
  Unknown/
  Other
5426.95 ( 26)   2825.49 ( 27)   3695.26 ( 18)
National Average:
   48              846.08 (703)
   60             1738.52 (175)
   72             2347.72 (  60)
                 832.01 (351)   1587.15 (171)
                1681.87 ( 91)   2502.03 ( 74)
                1977.60 ( 31)   3156.20 ( 20)
  Unknown/
  Other
3450.96 ( 66)   2466.61 ( 47)   3926.81 ( 29)
     Step 3 nonconstruction costs excluded
     Notes:  All costs normalized to Kansas City, MO 1st Qtr 1979
             Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of bid
             items, not the number of manholes.
                              4-13

-------
                            TABLE 4.8

    AVERAGE UNIT CONSTRUCTION COST OF DROP MANHOLES* ($/UNIT)
           BY DIAMETER, DEPTH, AND SMSA CLASSIFICATION
Pi ameter

SMSA Projects:

   48

   60

   72

  Unknown/
  Other
   <8 Feet
                                Depth of Manholes
1348.55 ( 49)

3367.09 (  7)

3833.00 (  1)


2070.56 ( 18)
  8-15 Feet



1169.64 ( 20)

2325.20 (  5)

1783.50 (  2)
  >15 Feet



4718.70 ( 24)

2774.85 ( 10)

4557.62 (  9)
Non-SMSA Projects:

   48             1174.11 ( 52)

   60             1870.89 ( 15)

   72             2970.17 (  1)
  Unknown/
  Other
                1100.71 ( 24)   1589.34 (   9)

                2194.83 (  3)
1573.80 (  9)   4128.50 (  2)   3508.00 (  4)
National Average:

   48             1258.74 (101)

   60             2346.95 ( 22)

   72             3401.58 (  2)
  Unknown/
  Other
                1132.04 ( 44)   3865.24 ( 33)

                2276.31 (  8)   2774.85 ( 10)

                1783.50 (  2)   4557.62 (  9)
1904.97 ( 27)   4128.50 (  2)   3508.00 (  4)
  *  Step 3 nonconstruction costs  excluded

      Notes:   All  costs normalized to Kansas City,  MO 1st Qtr  1979
              Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of bid
              items,  not the  number of drop manholes.
                               4-14

-------
COSTS FOR FORCE MAINS

The  terms force  mains  and  pressure  sewers were  used synomously and  all
data were  aggregated  under force mains.  The data  base  contains  1,085  indi-
vidual bid items  for  force mains.   These force  mains were, in all  but  a  few
cases, a  single  bid item  in  a  much  larger  project  containing  gravity  sewers
and  other  non-pipe construction costs.  Therefore,  bare-in-place force main
costs were readily obtainable.  Table 4.9 summarizes the 1,085  force main  bid
items for the nation.  Bare-in-place costs are presented for each  diameter of
force main in  place.   Figure 4.3  graphically presents  the same  information.
Because of the relatively  small  data  base,  individual  variations  in the cost
data are more  pronounced than  for those  presented  for gravity sewers.

Non-pipe  construction costs were separately  identified  in  the data base
when  available.    Analysis of  these  data resulted  in  inconclusive ratios.
In an  attempt to arrive  at  a  trend  for  the  total non-pipe construction
costs, the national  data  base  was  examined.   The total force main  bare-in-
place construction  costs were  divided  into  all non-pipe  construction  costs
associated with these mains.   The  result  indicated,  on  a national basis,  the
non-pipe construction  costs were 25.7 percent of the bare-in-place  costs.   The
fact that  this  number is.18  percentage points  lower than gravity  sewers  is
realistic since the construction of a force  main is  normally less  complicated
than a gravity sewer.

COSTS FOR PUMP STATIONS

The  total  construction  costs  of  municipal wastewater pump  stations were
often  available  from the bid  tabulations.   Figure  4.4 presents a  graph
of the pump capacity  in  gallons  per  minute  (gpm)  versus  cost in thousands  of
dollars for  three ranges  of  total dynamic  head  (TDH)  in  feet.   The costs
presented  in  Figure 4.4 include  the cost for the basic  pump station  in place,
as well as the appurtenances  and other construction  costs associated  with  the
pump station.   Step 3  nonconstruction costs and Step  1 and 2 engineering costs
are not included.

It should  be  noted that the design capacity for pump  stations  in Figure 4.4 is
defined as the  average design  capacity for  the facility  and  not the total
                                   4-15

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                      TABLE 4.9
FORCE MAIN BARE-IN-PLACE CONSTRUCTION COSTS* ($/FOOT)
    Diameter
        1
        2
        3
        4
        6
        8
       10
       12
       14
       16
       18
       20
       21
       24
       30
       36
       42
Total No.
of Bid Items
National Average Cost
      4.93 (  7)
      4.23 ( 42)
      5.77 ( 21)
     14.28 (221)
     10.39 (251)
     14.89 (172)
     14.26 ( 88)
     31.20 ( 71)
     26.00 ( 36)
     25.48 ( 41)
     29.28 ( 25)
     33.40 ( 30)
     43.06 (  1)
     51.44 ( 34)
     63.11 ( 17)
    113.30 ( 24)
    198.14 (  4)
           1085
National Average non-pipe construction cost for force
mains is 25.7 percent of bare-in-place costs.
* Step 1 and 2 costs, Step 3 nonconstruction costs, and
  non-pipe construction costs excluded.
Note:   All costs normalized to Kansas City, MO 1st Qtr
        1979.
                       4-16

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 fc
 o
    200-
i
o
o
       FIGURE 4.3

       BARE - IN - PLACE CONSTRUCTION
       COSTS* FOR  FORCE MAIN
 ซ
 o
 o
 Z
 Q  isoH
 o
    100-
 i
UJ

00
UJ
g
cc
UJ
50-
     o-
    300-
(S)
UJ

g
OQ
UL
O
cc
m
03
    200-
       Ji
                                        ป Step 1 and 2 costs, Step 3 non-
                                         construction costs, and non-pipe
                                         construction costs excluded.

                                         Note: All costs normalized to
                                              Kansas City.MO 1st Qtr.1979
                 12      18       24      30
                     PIPE DIAMETER (|N.)
                                                     36
                                                            42
                                    4-17

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                                   a.
                                   o
                                   a.
                                   q
                                   H

                                   t.
                                    ii
                                    
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-installed  pumping capacity.  Since proper performance of pumping  equipment  is
 critical  to the  operation  6f; a  wastewater  collection  system, multiple  pumps
 are usually installed  in  all bat  the  smallest pump stations.  Generally the
 pump stations  in  the_ data  base  used  to Derive Figure  4.4 will  produce the
 stated  capacity with  the largest  installed  pump out  of service.

 Non-pump station construction costs for the  national  data base were calculated
 in a manner analogous to gravity  sewers and  force mains.  The  non-pump  station
 construction costs are  5.0  percent  of the pump  station construction cost's.
 This low  percentage, as compared  with  sewers,  is  expected  since  most pump
 stations  are.bid  complete,  with  only  occasional requirements for special   or
 unusual  items  bid  separately.                -

 NONCONSTRUCTION COSTS        .                                              /

 Grant eligible  nonconstruction costs  related to EPA  funded projects consist  of
 Step i  preliminary engineering costs,  Step  2  detailed  engineering costs, and
 Step 3  nonconstruction costs for engineering services and administrative fees
 related to the  construction  phase of  the project.                             ;

 Table 4.10 presents the ratios of Step  1 and  Step 2 costs to the total
 construction cost  for  the  wastewater  collection systems  in  the  data base.
 These data are taken from  projects  involving  only the construction of waste-
 water collection  systems and which had received both  a Step 1  and  2 grant.
 The data  indicate  that  the national  average Step 1  and  2  costs are approxi-
 mately  five percent  and ten  percent, respectively,  of  the  total construction
 cost for  collection  system projects.   The  reason the number of facilities  in
 the sample  is  so  low is because most  projects  have  both sewer and treatment
 plants  as  part  of  the Step 1  and/or Step 2 grants..

 The ratios  of  Step  3  nonconstruction costs;  to  the construction  costs  for
 projects in the wastewater  collection system data base are presented in Table
 4.11.   Data are. presented for facilities  inside and outside SMSA areas.   The
 data .indicate, that the national average Step 3  nonconstruction costs are equal
 to approximately  36 percent of the  total construction costs.
                                    4-19

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                            TABLE 4.10
             STEP 1 AND STEP 2 COSTS AS A FRACTION OF
     TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COSTS - SANITARY SEWER FACILITIES ONLY
Region
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
Average Stei
—
.0177
—
.3227
.0288
.0439
.0436
.0670
.0175
.0667
Average Step 2/TCC
—
.0145
—
.0457
.0961
.0525
.1219
.1335
.0337
.1116
No. of
Bid Items
0
1
0
1
5
6
10
6
4
4
TOTAL
                     37
Weighted Average:
  SMSA           .0718
  Non-SMSA       .0382
  National       .0520
 .0956
0.1384
 .0978
* Developed from data for sanitary sewer facilities with both
  Step 1 and Step 2 grants for sewer construction only.
                               4-20

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                                TABLE 4.11
               STEP 3 NONCONSTRtfCTION COSTง :AS A FRACTION OF
         TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COSTS - SANITARY SEWER FACILITIES
'Nonconstruction Item
 Admi ni strati ve/Legal
 Preliminary
 Land,  Structures,
   Right of Way
 Archi tect/Engi neer
   Basic Fees
 Other  Architect/
   Engineer Fees
 Project Inspection
 Land Development
 Relocation Expenses
 Relocation Payments
 Demolition &  Removal
 Bond Interest
 Contingencies
 Indirect Costs
 Miscellaneous
 Equipment
 Average Total
   Step 3 NCC/TCC:
    SMSA
  Average
                Non-SMSA
                 Average
.0096 ( 318)   .0114 (336)
.0093 (  35)   .0109 (  18)

.0266 (  21)   ,0176 (  24)

.0673 ( 349)   .0664 ( 308)

.0329 (174)   .0310 (181)
.0397 ( 125)   .0484 ( 152)
               .0098 (   1)
.0024 (
.0039 (
               .0296 (  11)
          1)
          2)
.0006 (    1)
.0353 (    6)
.0487 (  359)   .0441 (  341)
.0122 (   17)   .0083 (    8)
.0312 (   55)   .0158 (   36)
.0215 (   14)   .0682 (13)
 ONLY
 National
  Average
.0101 ( 654)
.0095 (  53)

.0213 (  45)

.0667 ( 657)

.0323 (' 355)
.0432 ( 277)
.0098 (   1)
.0024 (   1)
.0039 (   2)
.0006 (   1)
.0326 (  17)
.047,2 ( 700)
.0118 (  25)
.0261 (  91)
.0391 (  27)
.3372 (1477)    .3615 (1429)    .3566 (2906)
Note:   (  ) Number of projects with  nonconstruction  items  in Step  3
        grant awards
                                   4-21

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The use  of  36 percent would result  in  an excessively high value  for  Step  3
nonconstruction costs.   The individual  percentages  accurately  represent  the
cost for that  item.   However,  not all projects had all items,  thus using  the
sum of  all   is  misleading.   A  more  reasonable, but  subjective,  estimate  is
derived  by  totaling  the percentages  for the most  commonly  occurring  items:
administrative/legal  services,  A/E basic  fees,  other A/E fees,  project  in-
spection, and  contingencies.    These total  approximately  20 percent  of  the
construction costs.

An  analysis  of the complete data  base  was performed to  determine a national
trend for Step 3 nonconstruction costs.   All  Step 3 nonconstruction costs were
divided  by  all  construction costs  for the complete data base.   The resulting
number was  0.174.   Thus, 17.4  percent  of the  construction costs  is  the  na-
tional average  for Step  3  nonconstruction costs.   Similarly, 1.174 times the
construction  costs  equals  the  total construction  costs  as  defined  in this
study.   Without better  information, the  reader  should  use a  percentage  of
17.4.   If  special  or  unusual  conditions are known to exist, various noncon-
struction cost items  found  in  Table 4.11 can be added.

The total  project costs are  the sum  of the Step  1  and  2  costs  presented
in  Table 4.10,  Step 3 nonconstruction costs of  Table  4.11, or  variances
presented  above,  plus the construction costs for  pipe  or pump  stations.
Examples of  calculating these costs  are  presented  at  the end of this section.

COST UPDATING PROCEDURES

The construction  cost  data utilized  for  this  report  were  obtained from
projects with  bid  dates  falling between  1973 and  1979.  In order to make the
information  suitable for statistical  analysis,  the  costs were normalized to  a
single point  in time, the first quarter of 1979.  To account  for regional cost
variations,  all data  were  further  normalized  to  a  single  location,   Kansas
City,  Missouri.   These techniques were performed  on all  the data  before any
analysis work commenced.   The  techniques and rationale  for these  normaliza-
tions  are  explained  in  detail  in Appendix  A.  The  primary purpose of this
section  is to  explain the use of the  indexes.
                                    4-22

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 The  EPA publishes, on a  quarterly  frequency,  the Complete Urban Sewer System
 Index  (CUSS).  The Journal  of  the Water  Pollution Control  Federation routinely
                         '. -••••- • ;•*.'-;ซ'::   '   , •' '^•'v*-;:- ':'; •'-.'.  "'•"  •.   -.•     '  '          .
 publishes  this same information.   The reader using the data presented  in this
 report  will  certainly want  to make  estimates  in  present dollars, or at least
 those of the most  recent  quarter available.  The  CUSS Indexes for 1979  and the
 first  two quarters  of 1980 are presented  in Table 4.12.   Since  all costs
 presented  in  this report  were normalized to  Kansas  City first quarter 1979,
 the  CUSS  Index number upon which all data are based  is 170.  The cost  for any
 of  the other  24  cities  for  a  particular item  can be  found by using  the
 following  formula:

           Cost                 Cost  Item              CUSS Index
     (City x, Time t) = (K.C.. MO, 1st Qtr 1979) X (City x, Time t)
                             — .     -     -_       _   __   __
The  following  example  is  presented on  the use  of the  indexing procedure:
     The  total construction  cost  of  24 inch  gravity reinforced concrete
     sewer  for Atlanta,  Georgia  in the  first  quarter of  1980 is to  be de-
     termined.

     1st Qtr  1979 24" RCP Sewer Cost = $116.13/ft. (Table 4,1)
     CUSS Index, Atlanta, GA 1st Qtr 1980 = 145  (Table 4.12)
     Atlanta  Cost (1st Qtr 1980) =  ($116. 13) (145) = $99.05/ft.
                                         ~
     The same pipe in Chicago, Illinois would cost:
     Chicago Cost (1st Qtr 1980) .= ($116.13)(213) = $145.50/ft.
                                          170

The 25 CUSS  Index cities  are located in all regions of the country.  However,
most readers  will  require the cost  information for one particular  area.   An
elaborate  analysis,  explained  in Appendix  A,  was  used  to  define the  sur-
rounding geographic  area which  each of the  25 cities has a  predominant  in-
fluence over.   The map,  Figure  A.I, found  in  Appendix  A, should  be  used  to
select the city  code.   For  example, Omaha,  Nebraska is  in area  110.   Denver,
Colorado CUSS Index would be used.

COST ESTIMATING EXAMPLES                 -

A number of  examples are presented  to  illustrate the  use of  the  cost infor-
mation presented in this  report.   These cost estimating  techniques are useful
when some design information is available.                     ......  ,,
                                    4-23

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                               TABLE 4.12

              COMPLETE URBAN SEWER SYSTEM COST INDEX (CUSS)
                                FROM EPA
        City
                               1979
1980
Code

101
102
103
104
105

106
107
108
109
110

111
112
113
114
115

116
117
118
119
120

121
122
123
124
125
      Name
Atlanta, 6A
Baltimore, MD
Birmingham, AL
Boston, MA
Charolotte, NC

Chicago, IL
Cincinnati, OH
Cleveland, OH
Dallas, TX
Denver, CO

Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Kansas City, MO
Los Angeles, CA
Miami, FL

Milwaukee, WI
Minneapolis, MN
New Orleans, LA
New York, NY
Philadelphia, PA

Pittsburgh, PA
St. Louis, MO
San Francisco, CA
Seattle, WA
Trenton, NJ
1st
Qtr
127
153
122
175
92
187
178
184
113
132
184
129
170
185
136
170
154
158
210
192
172
192
176
185
177
2nd
Qtr
130
158
131
179
98
195
180
187
114
135
189
130
183
188
137
111
156
159
211
193
172
200
177
188
180
3rd
Qtr
136
160
136
180
103
207
186
195
121
151
190
133
185
203
140
187
167
162
215
199
176
205
195
191
185
4th
Qtr
137
161
137
192
106
209
186
199
123
155
190
135
187
212
144
190
167
164
222
200
180
206
197
191
187
1st
Qtr
145
165
142
191
111
213
192
205
129
159
198
140
191
214
152
195
171
168
225
203
185
213
201
194
188
2nd
Qtr
147
168
142
191
111
213
192
205
129
160
199
142
191
214
153
195
173
167
229
205
191
213
208
200
188
                                  4-24

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 Example No.  1                                                  ,

 An estimate is needed  for ^the. total consjt^ux:tion cost  of 4,000  ft.  of 8
 inch  gravity sewer in Tucson, AffBna.   The^project is in a very preliminary
 stage and  no details  are known for  appurtenances, special conditions, or depth
 of burial.                                                    .

 a.   From  Table 4.1,  cost of  8"  pipe  in an SMSA = $44.16/ft.
                    ; •    - , -   -- - . r . -. '-  "-."/-'.-.-   .,, .    •  y ,     .-:„-:,-  „;-. ..  '  -  - • ',

 b.   From  Table 4.12  and Figure  A.I,  use Denver, CO CUSS Index = 159

 c.   Tucson, AZ (1980 cost) = ($44.16)(159) = $41.30/ft.    .
:   -•       .  ..'      •-     .   -'- ,    .170       .     ..  -   .  .•  -   :. •-'.-..    •,

 d.   Total Construction  Cost = $41.30/ft. x 4,000 ft. = $165,200

      Note:   This cost  provides an  allowance  for  Step  3  nonconstruction
             costs  and  non-pipe  construction costs.   Step  1  and  Step 2 costs
          •  are excluded.

Example No.  2

A  project near  Tucson, Arizona of a very similar nature to  that in Example No.
 1  is  to be  constructed.   However, more technical information  is  known about
the project.    An estimate  of the  total project  cost is required.   The  fol-
 lowing data  are known:
Reinforced^Concrete Pipe, <8 ft. burial
Reinforced Concrete Pipe, 8-15 ft. burial
Reinforced Concrete Pipe, >15 ft. burial
Non-pipe construction costs are unknown
1,000 ft.
2,000 ft.
1,000 ft.
a.   Pipe Costs (Total Construction Cost) -From Table 4.2

     8" RCP, <8 ft.   = $18.57/ft.
     8" RCP, 8-15 ft. = $23.84/ft.
     8" RCP, >15 ft.  = $35.49/ft.

b.   Total Kansas City, MO 1st Qtr 1979 Construction Cost

     ($18.57)(1,000) + ($23.84) (2,000) + ($35.49)(1,000) = $101,740

c.   Using Table 4.12 and Figure A.I,  use Denver,  CO CUSS  Index  =  159

           1st Qtr 1980         m  .  7dnUl(-Qx
     Total Construction Cost  =.      f^p J^    J  =  $95,157


d.   The  above cost  excludes  Step 1  and  Step 2 planning and  engineering
     costs.    Using the  SMSA  average from  Table  4.10, these costs  are 16.7
     percent of the total construction cost.
     Total  Project Cost =($95, 157) (1.167)  -  $110,048 .
                                    4-25

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Example No. 3

A  facility near  Alliance,  Ohio  is planning  an  addition to  their sewerage
system.  The following information is known about  their  needs and the probable
materials to be utilized for construction:
 8" Vitrified Clay Pipe, 8-15 ft. burial
12" Reinforced Concrete Pipe, 8-15 ft. burial
10" Cast Iron Pipe, 8-15 ft. burial
 6" Force Main
48" Diameter Manhole, 8-15 ft. deep
Stream Crossing
Rock Excavation
Pump Station
6,200 ft.
2,150 ft.
  500 ft.
  850 ft.
   20 each
1 (12" RCP sewer)
None
1 @ 100 gpm <40 ft.
  discharge head
Using the data base presented in this report, there are a number of  approaches
possible  to  estimate this project.   The one chosen uses the most  basic  data
and builds upon it.

a.   Bare-In-Place Gravity Sewer Costs

      8"  Vitrified Clay,
          8-15 ft. (Table F.8) = $19.06/ft. x  6,200 ft. = $118,172
     12"  Reinforced Concrete Pipe,
          8-15 ft. (Table F.14) = $30.22/ft. x 2,150 ft. = $ 64,973
     10"  Cast Iron Pipe,
          8-15 ft. (Table F.ll) = $24.29/ft. x   500 ft. = $ 12.145

     Total Bare-In-Place Gravity Sewer Cost              = $195,290


b.   Force Main Bare-In-Place Costs  - From Table 4.9

     6"  Force Main =  $10.39/ft. x 850 ft. = $8,832


c.   Manhole Costs -  From Table 4.7

     48", non-SMSA,  8-15 ft. = $869.00/ea. x 20 ea. = $17,380


d.   Stream  Crossings - From Table 4.6

     4.0% of total bare-in-place pipe costs  =  ($195,290)(0.04)  = $7,812


 e.   Other  Non-Pipe  Construction Costs for Gravity  Sewers

      Rock excavation, stream crossing, and manholes  have been  accounted
     for on an  itemized basis  above.  Additional  non-pipe construction
      costs  are  judged to  be  reasonable,  and  as shown  below.  These  figures are
      percentages  of  bare-in-place  pipe costs obtained from Table 4.6.
                                    4-26

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     Appurtenances
     Rock Excavation
     Thoroughfare Crossings
     Pavement Replacement
     Utility Reconnection
     Mobilization
                          1%
                          7%
                          1%
                          6%
     Total                    25%       -

     Other Non-Pipe Construction Costs =  ($195,290)(0.25) = $48,822


     Construction Cost for Gravity Sewers
     Bare-In-Place Pipe (a)
     Manhole Costs (c)
     Stream Crossings (d)
     Other Non-Pipe Costs (e)
                                = $195,290
                                =   17,380
                                =    7,812
                                =   48,822

Gravity Sewer Construction Cost = $269,304
     Note: ...The non-pipe construction  costs  for this project are 37.9 percent
            of the bare-in-place pipe costs.  This compares with the data base
            national average of 43.7 percent.


g.   Force Main Construction Costs

     Non-pipe construction  costs  associated  with force main construction were
     found to be 25.7 percent of the bare-in-place costs (Table 4.9).

     Force Main Construction = ($8,832)(1.257) = $11,102


h.   Pump Station Costs - From Figure 4.4

     Using Equation "A":  Cost =1.59 x I03q0.59 = $24,066
            ,r    '     ''        i ""'   • ,       ,         '     -    '

     Other construction costs associated with pump stations.are five
     percent of the above figure.

     Pump Station Construction Cost = ($24,066)(1.05) = $25,269


i.   Total Construction Costs

     As  defined  herein,  total  construction  costs  include all  construction
     costs plus Step  3  nonconstruction costs.   The  above  calculations  do not
     include the Step 3 costs.
     Construction Costs:
                     Gravity Sewer
                     Force Main
                     Pump Station

                     Total
= $269,304
=   11,102
=   25,269

= $305,675
                                    4-27

-------
     From the  discussion  of Table  4.11,  the national average Step  3  noncon-
     struction costs are 17.4 percent of the construction costs.
     Total Construction Costs = ($305,675)(1.174) = $358,862

j.   Total Project Cost
     The total project cost is the total construction cost plus the Step 1 and
     Step 2 planning and engineering costs.  From Figure 4.10, these costs are
     3.82 and 13.84 percent for Step 1 and Step 2, respectively.
     Total Project Cost = ($358,862)(1.1766) = $422,237

k.   Compute  Alliance,  Ohio 1st Qtr  1980 costs - From  Table 4.12 and Figure
     A.I.
     From Figure A.I, use Cleveland, OH  (City Code 107)
     From Table 4.12, Cleveland, OH CUSS  Index = 205
     Alliance, OH Cost =  ($422,237)(205)  = $509,168
                               170

Example  No. 3 is  illustrative  of the detail  and judgment which can be  used for
estimation purposes.   If  more  information is available, more  refined estimates
may  be  provided  using  the  information  from the  tables  in the Appendices.

Also,  if type of  pipe, depth of burial,  types of non-pipe  construction  items,
and  nonconstruction items  are known,  more  definitive  estimates  may be made.
Conversely,  if none of these  factors  are known, strict national  averages may
be  applied  (using Table 4.1 for  gravity sewers).   Such  estimates  will  normally
be  accurate within  20  percent.

Simplified  estimation techniques have  been  developed for other  EPA projects.
They are presented  in Appendix B.  These should  be  considered "rule of  thumb"
methods.
                                     4-28

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                                      A  ,t
              COST  UPDATING AND NORMALIZATION TECHNIQUES
 The data base  utilized  for this  report  includes costs from  wastewater  col-
 lection  system projects  fn  47  of the. contiguous  States for the period 1973 to
 1978.  In order to achieve  a meaningful analysis of the data,  it;was  necessary
 to  normalize  all dollar values to a specific time.and location.

 To  accomplish this,  the EPA  Complete Urban  Sewer System  Index  (CUSS)  was
 used.   This  Index has  been  calculated quarterly by  EPA since  the third
 quarter of 1973  for 25 U.S.  cities ,(see  Table  4.12).  The  CUSS  Index  is
 based  on a  hypothetical  sewage  system project in  Kansas  City,  Missouri
 which  includes  the following  components:   a  gravity  collection system  con-
 sisting of  16,700  feet  of gravity sewer;  3,400 feet of  force main; and a  550
 gpm pumping  station  plus an interceptor  consisting  of 9,600 feet  of 30  inch
 diameter pipe.

 AREAS OF INFLUENCE

 EPA publishes the CUSS Index as  an  indicator of the  cost trends over  time  and
 as  a basis of comparison for one city  to  another.  The specific areas of cost
 influence relatingrto each of the 25 Index cities  are not defined. .Therefore,
 prior to  using  the Index for  updating the  costs  acquired  for  this  work,  the
 area of influence for each  of  the Index  cities was assessed and mapped.  Two
 sources of informatipn were employed in this effort  -  Bureau of Labor Statis-
 tics (BLS) Union W.ages and  Hours:  Building  Trades  1973-1978 for selected U.S.
 cities,  and  the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) map of U.S. economic areas.

 The BLS data consist  of  union labor  rates  for various building trades recorded
 annually for  65 to  70 U.S.  cities.   Some cities have been  added  and others
have been dropped  between 1973  and 1979 resulting in a total of 87  cities  for
which at least three years  of  data  were available.   In order  to utilize this
 information,  a weighted  average  of  four  building trades -  carpenter, cement
finisher, equipment  operator,  and  laborer - were calculated for  the  six
                                    A-l

-------
calendar years from 1973 to 1978.   Data from each city were compared with data
from all the  other 86 cities.   Since  all the EPA CUSS  Index  cities  are in-
cluded in the list of BLS  cities, this process permitted the BLS cities to be
related to the CUSS Index  cities, thus defining the general area of influence
for each of the CUSS Index cities.

The BEA  economic  areas  were used to set  the boundaries of economic influence
surrounding  each  EPA Index  city.  A BEA economic area  was composed of a
central  city  and  surrounding  counties  that  are economically  related  to the
central  city  as determined  by BEA.  Each  of these areas  includes  both the
place of work and  place of residence of  the  labor force.  The resulting map of
the CUSS Index city areas of influence is presented  in  Figure A.I.

COST UPDATING

In  order to  update all  costs to Kansas  City,  Missouri  as of the  first  quarter
of  1979, all  projects were  related to a specific CUSS Index city  using  the map
in  Figure A.I.   Using the  index values contained in  Table 4.12, the costs were
then normalized  according  to the following procedure:
 Construction  Cost  at x
   (City x,  Time  t)
 Kansas City,  MO
1st Qtr 1979 Index
 (City x,  Time t)
      Index
Construction Cost  at
  Kansas City,  MO
    1st Qtr 1979
 The data base  was thus  normalized  to the  base  city of the  CUSS Index.
 The effects on the results of  the analyses  of  a large  or  small quantity
 of data  from different areas  of the U.S.  or  from a  particular  time  period
 were thus minimized.
                                       A-2

-------
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                                              A-3

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                                APPENDIX B
         SIMPLIFIED COLLECTION, SYJTJM COST  ESTIMATINGTECHNIQUES
This  Appendix  presents  simplified  techniques  for the  estimation  of  the
project costs  for the construction  of new sanitary  sewers  and  pumping sta-
tions.   These  procedures  are intended  for  the  use  of State  and  municipal
officials, as well as laymen,  in  determining the approximate capital costs for
wastewater collection systems.

These  cost estimating procedures were developed  for EPA  for use  in  the
1980 Needs  Survey.   Needs Surveys are conducted  biennially  by  the  Agency in
order  to  assess  the cost  of providing  sewage  collection and  treatment  as
required by  Public  Law 95-217, and to  report the results  to  Congress.   Pre-
vious Needs Surveys  were  conducted  in  1973, 1974,  1976, and 1978.

COST ESTIMATING TECHNIQUES

The essential  elements  for  estimating the  cost of a sewerage system  are
as follows:

1.   The length of the sewers.
2.   The diameter of the  sewers.
3.   The unit cost or cost per foot of the sewers.
4.   The number and  capacity of required pump  stations.
           "'•  . -    ' •   -, '!- •.',..

Methods for estimating the above data are presented below along  with examples
of the use of estimating  techniques.
Length
The length of the  sewers  may be determined  by direct  measurement  on  a map  or
from other information  on  actual  distances to be traversed.  In the absence  of
other information,  EPA suggests the following  per  capita  lengths  be  utilized
as estimates:
                                    B-l

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Collector Sewers
Interceptor Sewers

Diameter
16 feet/capita
 1 feet/capita
The  diameter  of the sewer  is  dependent upon the  flow  required to be  trans-
ported.   Generally, collector  sewers  may be  assumed  to be  8 inches  in  di-
ameter.   Interceptor  sewer diameter  may  be estimated  from  Table B.I  which
presents  the  required  approximate diameters  for a range of wastewater  flows.
In  the absence of  better  information,  a  domestic and  commercial  wastewater
flow of  100  gallons per capita may be assumed.   Known industrial  flows  should
be  added, if  present.

Unit Cost

Unit costs  for sewer systems are dependent upon a number of factors including
the diameter  of the sewer, burial depth, type of pipe, geographical area, and
the degree  of ubranization.

Table B.2  presents the  cost  per foot  of  installed  sanitary  sewer  for pipe
diameters from 8 to 72 inches.   The costs include all appurtenance costs and
non-pipe construction  costs and  also  include  an allowance  for Step 3  noncon-
 struction costs and Step 1 and Step  2 costs.

 The  cost data include pipe of  all  types and  all  depths  from the wastewater
 collection system  projects  in the data  base.   This is  considered  adequate for
 preliminary  estimates  since specific  information  concerning  the type  of  pipe
 required and  the  depth would  normally  not be available at this  stage  in
 planning.

 The costs shown  in Table B.2 have  been  normalized  to first  quarter  1979
 dollars  in  Kansas  City, Missouri using the cost  indexing  procedure  described
 in  Appendix  A.  In order to adjust the  unit costs for other geographical areas
 of  the  U.S., the  multipliers in  Table  B.3  must be utilized.   Multipliers are
 provided for each  of the  25  cities  accounted  for  in the EPA  CUSS Index.   The
 map in  Appendix A (Figure  A.I)  illustrates  the area  of influence for  each  of
 the CUSS Index cities.
                                       B-2

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TABLE B.
SANITARY SEWER SIZING
AND INTERCEPTOR
Pipe Diameter
(Inches)
08
10
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
36
42
48
54 ,
60
66
72
1 . •''•..'" •'.
OF COLLECTOR
SEWERS
Average Flow Range
(mgd)
0.2 or Less
0.21 - 0.3
0.31 - 0.5
0.51 - 0.7
0.71 - 1.1
1.11 - 1.5
1.51 - 2.1
2.11 - 2.8
2.81 - 3.5 :
3.51 - 5.5 I
5.51 - 7.7
7.71 - 10.1
10.11 - 12.9
12.91 - 17.2
17.21 - 2Q.6
20.61 - 26.4
B-3

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                    TABLE B.2
      SANITARY SEWER TOTAL IN PLACE COSTS*
                 PER LINEAR FOOT
Pipe Diameter
  (Inches)
    08
    10
    12
    15
    18
    21
    24
    27
    30
    36
    42
    48
    54
    60
    66
    72
Average Cost
  ($/Foot)
    35
    44
    51
    64
    83
    99
    112
    129
    139
    168
    227
    270
    315
    398
    418
    522
 * Includes associated appurtenance and nonconstruction
   costs.
   Note:  All costs normalized to Kansas City, MO 1st
          Qtr 1979
                        B-4

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                              TABLE B.3

            SANITARY SEWER CONSTRUCTION AREA MULTIPLIERS
 Area Code

    101
    102
    103
    104
    105

    106
    107
    108
    109
    110

    111
    112
    113
    114
    115

    116
    117
    118
    119
    120

    121
    122
    123
    124
    125
             Area
  Atlanta, Georgia
..  Baltimore, Maryland
  Birmingham, Alabama
  Boston, Massachusetts
  Charlotte, North Carolina

  Chicago,Illinois
  Cincinatti, Ohio
  Cleveland, Ohio
  Dallas, Texas
  Denver, Colorado

  Detroit, Michigan
  Houston, Texas
  Kansas  City,  Missouri
  Los  Angeles,  California
  Miami,  Florida

  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin
  Minneapolis,  Minnesota
  New  Orleans,  Louisiana
  New  York,  New York
  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

  Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  St.  Louis, Missouri
  San  Francisco, California
  Seattle, Washington
  Trenton, New Jersey
State and Territorial Multipliers:
                   Alaska
                   Guam
                   Hawaii
                   Puerto Rico
                   Trust Territories
Multiplier

   0.77
,  0.96
   0.75
   1.08
   0.55

   1.12
   1.09
   1.11
   0.70
   0.79

   1.10
   0.80
   1.00
   1.14
   0.83

   1.00
   0.94
  0.97
   1.28
   1.17

  1.08
  1.18
  1.08
  1.12
  1.08
                                       2.74
                                       1.40
                                       1.71
                                       0.98
                                       1.40
                               B-5

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In  order  to  account  for the  degree of  urbanization,  an additional  set  of
multipliers has been  devised.   These multipliers are presented in Table B.4.
They  should be applied  on a  county-wide basis  according  to the  degree  of
urbanization  as defined  in the table.   The multipliers were developed using
the wastewater  collection  system cost data  base and the Calvin Beale Metro/
Adjacency  Coding   System developed  by the  U.S.  Department  of Agriculture.

Depending  upon  such  factors as terrain,  length  of the  collection system,  and
flow, pump  stations can  be  a significant portion of the total  system cost.  If
the number and  design capacity of proposed  pump stations are  known, the costs
can be derived from Figure  4.4.   In most cases, however, this  information will
not be known  because  sufficient planning will not have been completed.

 In such cases, EPA  recommends  that a  rule of  thumb of one  pump station
 of 1.2 mgd capacity  for each  65,000 feet of sewer be used.   The pump  station
 is estimated  to cost  $185,000.   No pump  station cost should  be included when
 the estimated collection system length is less  than  39,000 feet.  Otherwise,  a
 ratio of the estimated  sewer  length to  the unit length of 65,000 feet may be
 used.  Thus,  the  cost may  be  estimated as follows:
 Projected Total  Sewer Length x $i85,000/Pump  Station =
 	     65,000 l-eet
 COST ESTIMATING EXAMPLES
   Cost of
Pump Stations
 The  following  examples  are presented to illustrate the  use of  the cost
 estimating procedures presented in this Appendix.  These procedures  should be
 used  when  no  additional  source  of  planning  information  is  available.   The
 costs  represent the entire  grant  eligible  portion  of the project,  including
 the  Step 1 and  Step 2 portions, and the Step 3 construction phase.

 Example No. 1
 Estimate the  total project cost to  construct  5,000 ft. of  30  inch sewer
 in Louisville,  Kentucky.
 a.    From Table B.2, cost for  30"  sewer = $139/ft.
 b.    From Table B.3 and Figure A.I, use Cincinnati, OH CUSS Index = 1.09
                                      B-6

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                              TABLE B.4
                 SANITARY-sllER CULTURAf'MjLTIPLIERS
     Cultural Definition
 Urban:
 Counties with metropolitan areas
 of 50,000 or more population
Multiplier
   1.15
 Suburban:
 Counties contiguous  to an SMSA
 and having 2,500 or  more urban
 residents.  Also counties not
 contiguous to an SMSA having
 20>000 or more urban residents
   0.90
Rural:
Counties less urbanized than
the above
  0.75
                               B-7

-------
c.   From Table B.4, use the Urban Area Multiplier  =  1.15

d.   Total Project Cost = ($139)(5,000 ft.)(1.09)(1.15)  =  $871,000

     Note:  This  cost  provides  an  allowance for  Step  3 nonconstruction
            costs and  non-pipe  construction costs.  Step  1 and Step 2 costs
            are also included.


Example No. 2

Estimate  the total  project  cost  for a wastewater  collection system  to serve  a
population of  2,500 persons in Mankato, Minnesota.

a.   Collectors

     Using a  rule  of  thumb  of  16  ft./capita for  8" collector  sewers  and
     costs from Table  B.2,  collector  costs  are estimated as follows:

     2,500 x 16 ft./capita  x  $35/ft.  =  $1,400,000

b.   Interceptors

     Since no  flow  information  is presented, a per capita flow of 100 gallons
     may be  assumed.   From Table B.I,  it is determined that a 10" interceptor
     would be necessary  to transport  the  resulting 250,000 gpd  total  flow.
     The cost  may be  determined  allowing  one linear  foot of  interceptor/capita
     and using the  unit costs from Table  B.2.

     2,500 x $44/ft.  = $110,000

 c.    Pump Station

     The total sewer length is  42,500 ft.,  thus a  pump  station should
      be estimated as follows:

      42,500 ft./65,000 ft.  x $185,000 = $121,000

 d.   Total Project Cost
      Collectors
      Interceptors
      Pump Station
= $1,400,000
     110,000
     121,000
      Total Project Cost = $1,631,000 (Kansas City, MO 1st Qtr 1979)

      Mankato, MN Cost - From Table B.3 and Figure A.I

      From  Figure A.I, use Minneapolis, MN (City Code 117) = 0.94
      From  Table B.3, use Suburban Multiplier = 0.90

      Total Project Cost = ($1,631,000)(0.94)(0.90) = $1,380,000
                                       B-8

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                                  APPENDIX C

                   TOTAL CONSTRUCTION  COST PER FOOT OF PIPE
       -;.-;;:;•    ALL PROJECTS,  SMSA, NON-SMSA

  Explanatory Notes

  Tables C.I,  C.2, and  C.3 summarize gravity  sewer construction cost data
  for all 'projects in the  data  base.   Each  table presents  the  bare-in-place
  costs,  the  non-pipe  construction costs,  the  Step 3  nonconstruction costs,  the
  total  footage,  the'sample  size,  and  the  total construction  cost for each
  diameter of pipe.  Table C.I is for all projects, while Tables C.2 and  C.3  are
  separated  into  those  projects within  an  SMSA and  those outside an SMSA,
  respectively.

  A comparison  for equivalent sewers in various sections/of the country may be
  determined  by using  the normalized figures from Tables  C.1,  C.2, or C.3 and
  the appropriate  Index city  figures found  in Figure A.I and Table  4.12.  As an
  example, to  compare  the total, construction costs per  foot  of pipe in second
  quarter 1980  dollars,  for  8 inch pipe between Atlanta and New York City, the
 following  calculation is  performed using Table C.2 (both projects  i'n  an
 SMSA):
 Atlanta,  GA (Area: 101)  =  ($44.16)(147) = $38.18/ft
       .      •   ,     . :    :     170
York, NY (Area 119); = ($44.16)(229)  = $59.49/ft.
 New
 Another  example is appropriate.   The same cost comparison as above  is  made,
 but  the projects  are  not in  the  SMSA.   Table; C.3  is .used in this  example'

 Atlanta, 6A  (Area  101) = ($30.81)(147) = $26.64/ft
-• '   '   :.                      170            ._        '.   ;    -  ••-'   .  -••

 New York, NY (Area 119) = ($30.81)(229) = $41.5Q/ft
          • , •  - '•   .../        170    ~       '"-...    -    '.   --   '  :'. •
                                     C-l

-------
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-------
                                APPENDIX  D
                 TOTAL CONSTRUCTION  COST  PER FOOT OF PIPE
                             BY PIPE MATERIAL
Explanatory Notes

Tables  D.I through D.8  summarize  gravity sewer  pipe total  construction
costs for  the various  pipe  materials  (PVC9  RCP,  etc.) by  diameter of  the
pipe.  The tables reflect  the  unit, non-pipe, and Step 3 nonconstruction  items
for  each  pipe material.   The  national  costs  are  also  summarized  in  Table
4.1.                            "'^r                        . -
                              -•il'
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                             APPENDIX E
               TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST PER FOOT OF PIPE
                          BY  DEPTH  OF BURIAL
Explanatory Notes

Tables  E.I through  E.3 are a subset of the  complete data  base (all pipe
materials) separated  into groups  based upon depth of burial  of the pipe.   The
tables reflect the unit, non-pipe, and  Step  3  nonconstruction  costs  for  each
depth range.  The national  costs  are also summarized in Table 4.1.
                                     E-l

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                                APPENDIX F
                 TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST PER FOOT"OF PIPE
                   BY PIPE MATERIAL AND DEPTH OF BURIAL
Explanatory Notes

Tables  F.I  through F.24  provide a breakdown  on  the costs of  gravity sewers
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                                APPENDIX G

                      PROJECT LIST  USED FOR DATA BASE

Explanatory Notes

Table G.I lists the projects  which  make up the data base reported upon in this
report. The projects  are  sorted alphabetically by State,  and  numerically  by
ascending grant number within each  State.   Many projects had multiple grants.
The number shown is for the  last grant associated with the project.

In addition,  the  name of the  facility,  and  the city and  county in  which
it is located,  are identified.
                                     G-l

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