., .           -  • 	. v -^.rT" ".-"
                          fe^a'chemical pesticide used by ji^i.'
           , the agrifc.^lfJjA;comniunity to cbjatirdt'itis^cts^'-"1"
           neffiatodes,'"^eefs; pathbgens.'ahd other pests. It fs'J"'.''_'"':
           used to fumigaKsotbefore planting, commoditiesji	
                 est, storage facilities, and transport-vehicles. :."...
        MethylJBjpniideTfused in the production of oyer 100
	-. crops* including-tomatoes in Florida and strawberries iff
  California: However^ inethyl bromide depletes stratospheric"  •,
-JbzSQs, and-the United States and other industrial countries will
 phase out productionbyj2005. jlhe U.S. Environmental Protection-   .
 Agency (EPA) is worJdng.wjth's^akeholders to ensure the agricultural
 community has viable alternatives before methyl bromide is-
- unavailable. The alternatives briefly described in this brochure
, .show gSod-pr^mise to replace methyl bromide in a number of pest
 control applications. While no single alternative pest control mate-
        riafor method will substitute for methyl bromide on a
               one-to-one basis, similar pest control can be
                      achieved with a combination of alterna-
                            tives,;materials', methods, and ~
                                  . .application practices.
 (Telone) is. a soil
 fumigant that has the
'potential to  replace
 methyl bromide
 when combined with
 chloropicrin for the
 production of straw-
 berries in California and appears to be promising
 when applied with drip irrigation under gas
 impermeable plastic tarps. A combination of Telone
 and chloropicrin  and an herbicide, such as pebulate
 (Tillam), has the potential to replace methyl bromide
 in the production of tomatoes in Florida. In addition
 to suppressing pests  in tomatoes, strawberries, and
. peppers, Telone.has;effectively;protected rffcfrethan
 1(3.0; other'crops. Hb^eyer, additionalfeseareh and
 development will be.rieededtO'addfess current
 product use restrictions in some states.
 ; •   The energy of
   the sun is used
  '' .to heat soil to
  •••  . iernperatufes'
  • that destroy or
  Inhibit most pest-
organisms and can
 eliminate the need
 for furqigation with.
  . methyl bromide.
                                                                                                 The production''
                                                                                                 can be accom- .- .
                                                                                                 plished without .';'•
                                                                                                 •methyl- bronjld.e.by:
                                                                                                 using" registered  .
                                                                                                 pesticides.,. ;, ' ;'•;
  Strawberries can
   '   be produced
 without the use of.
   methyl bromide
      'through crop
   rotations, organic
  • amendments, or
  non-ozone deplet-
    . ing'pesticides.
                                 Reforestation need
                                 not be dependent
                                 on methyl bromide;
                                 alternatives, Includ-
                                 ing both chemical
                                 and non-chemical
                                 pesticides, can be
                                 used to produce
                                 strong and
                                 viable trees.

    Solarization is a method
    in which clear plastic is
    laid on the soil surface
    to trap solar radiation
    and heat the soil. It
    can be used in place    ,
    of applying methyl
   >, crags,
    toes, peppers, and
    strawberries. However,
    this pest control tool can only be used in areas where
    the sun shines for long periods uninterrupted by
    clouds, and the land can be fallow for one to three
    months. The efficacy of solarization can be signif-
    icantly improved (especially in cloudy areas) by •
             tig this method with low doses of chemical
             :s, biological control agents, or appropriate
*„.     •#&£
&     %%.
                                 Sulfuryl fluoride
                                 (Vikane) is a good
                                 pest control alternative
                                 to methyl bromide for
                                 use in buildings such
                                 as homes, museums,
                                 rare book libraries,
                                 historic landmarks,
                                 and government
                                 archives. Since 1961, it
                                 has been used in more
                                 than one million build-
                                 ings. Vikane works
                                 against a wide array
    of pests, including termites, cockroaches, bed bugs,
 , .,.\v;3pd rodents;:'ttri?.enetratesisttucturaL;materials.jnore  .
/;'"' rapidly rnei&nethyl bromide andleaVes noiresidues;;''
V.'-  afteraeratio'h. Sulfuryl fluoride is currently:being   •.;,.
,;'•'•.-  evaluated for control of pests in stored food.
                                                                                                                    I  - •

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       • «• • iX ** *™     ,r           •     ...,••..     -      .
       t .iJslMetanpfsodiumvcan be an effective soil fumlgant'fpr
            eed contra}. aiKJ. general pest management- Metam.
            idiiinj is a yetSatile pesticide that has been uSedfor;  .
            .ore.mafrfour decades iii-California'to^prote.cttoma-
         V-*S~ ~'t 'V -''••'•I  :»\  lu', ,,',     '       ,.    '    *\" •"-•&'?••• '
                   erryijaiid'pSpper crops from weeds,;plant
                  > and soil'pathogens. It has:also been i|s,ed'in  :
                    :plpridalo:'protect tomatoes;from similar^ •
                       ,caii ti.e'iised in the production of-the
          ^k|o^.ty-^f .crisps where methyl promise'is n