United States
                         Environmental Protection  «.
                          Air and Radiation
September 1990
  StratQspheric   Update
   An   U p d a t e  o if- 0 z o n e   P r o t e c tj a/ru P r o g r e s s
Science & Research
Casting a Wide  Net for UV  Data

       The U.'S. Environ-      fe- Monitor
       mental Protection
       Agency's (EPA's)
       Ultraviolet (UV)
Monitoring Project was in
full swing diis summer. The
program, operated in con-
junction with other federal
agencies through the U.S.
Global Change Research
Program, measures the
amount of UV radiation
reaching the eardi's surface
on a daily basis. Data col-
lected from program sites
throughout the country
provide specific information
on the UV radiation geographic distribution and trends in the United States over time. Scientists and
researchers studying the effects of UV radiation on both living beings and inanimate objects can use
the programs long-term records.

  Solar UV measurements are calculated by an automated instrument called a Brewer spectropho-
tometer. Although the measurements are detailed, they can be related to the UV Index, which
                                                        (CONTINUED ON PAGE 3)
Making the  Grade in the Shade:
SunWise  Pilot Under Way
                             This May, on the verge of another sun-
                             drenched summer, many students
                             took an important new lesson home
                             from their classrooms. Kids in 25
                       elementary schools across the country learned
                       about ozone depletion and sun safety through
                       their participation in a pilot of EPA's SunWise
                       School Program. The pilot, which will continue
                       during the 1999 to 2000 school year, invites
                                    schools to try out
                                    draft educational
                                    materials and techniques before
                                    SunWise is launched nationally in 2000.
                                      Through SunWise, a comprehensive
                                    environmental and health education program,
                                    children and their caregivers participate in

                                                        (CONTINUED ON PAGE 3)
                                                      ) Printed on paper that contains at least 30 percent postconsumer fiber.

                              Report  on the Supply  and  Demand  of CFC-12
   Casting a Wide Net for
   UVData	1
   Making the Grade in the
   Shade: SunWise Pilot
   UnderWay	1
   Report on the Supply and
   Demand of CFC-12	2
   Snap Update	4
   Labeling for Health: FDA
   Rnalizes Sunscreen
   Product Regulations	5
   Spotlight of Used CFC
   Imports	6
   Recent Enforcement
   Actions	7
   1998 ODS Petition
   Requests Decline	7
   Breathe Easy-MDIs Are
   Going CFC-Free	8
   EPA Presents 1999
   Stratospheric Ozone
   Protection and Climate
   Protection Awards	9
   Update	10
   UNEP Holds International
   Ozone Event	11
   Resources	11
        EPA recently released an update of the
        U.S. national supply of and demand
        for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12
        refrigerant (also known as R-12 or by
the brand name Freon). EPA estimates the total
of CFC-12 at the beginning of 1999 to be
between 24 and 48 million pounds. This inven-
tory marks a decline from the 1998 inventory
of 40 to 75 million pounds. The report also
estimates 1999 demand for CFC-12 at 23
million pounds, a drop of 4 million pounds
from last year's demand. According to EPA's
report, both supply and demand of CFC-12 are
expected to continue to decline between 1999
and 2005,  and supplies of CFC-12 may
disappear as early as next year. Demand is
expected to fall to  15 million pounds by 2001
and to 3 million pounds by 2005.

   Motor vehicle air-conditioning accounts for
82 percent of the annual demand for CFC-12.
Automakers such as Ford, General  Motors, and
Chrysler hold the largest stockpiles of CFC-12
currently in distribution. These supplies are
used to service cars and trucks using CFC-12
that might still be under warranty.  Refrigerant
packagers and reclaimers, and wholesalers in the
stationary air-conditioning and commercial
refrigeration sectors, also hold large quantities.
    Demand for CFC-12 by
                                                  Commercial Refrigeration
                                                  Cold Storage CSSS*
                                                   Commercial Refrigeration
                                                        Industrial Process
                                                        Refrigeration 4fjj^i

  CFC-12 Supply and Demand
     The supply of CFC-12 depends largely
  upon how much is available in stockpiles
  around the nation and how much is recycled
  or reclaimed from existing equipment.
  Demand for CFC-12 depends upon the num-
  ber of air-conditioning and refrigeration sys-
  tems that require refrigerant to replace
  CFC-12 lost through leakage and during ser-
  vicing. Supplies for certain uses of CFC-12,
  such as Department of Defense critical uses
  and propellants for metered-dose inhalers
  used by asthma patients, are not included in
  the estimates.
   Other highlights of EPA's report include:
•  Spot shortages of CFC-12 for 1999 are
   highly unlikely, although perceived shortages
   might occur due to distribution problems.
 •  Reclamation efforts for CFC-12 have
   become more efficient, but the levels of
   reclamation are not increasing as rapidly as
   expected. This is likely due to many of
   CFC-12 users recovering and recycling the
   refrigerant for reuse rather than sending it
   out to reclaimers.
•  CFC-12 chillers are being  converted and
   replaced at slower rates than  originally antici-
   pated. This could create an increase in
   demand for CFC-12 and a strong market for
•  Crackdowns on illegal imports of CFC-12
   have been highly successful. (See "Enforce-
   ment Activities Intensify,"  p.  6).
   To obtain a copy of the report, you can
access it online at  or call EPA's
Stratospheric Ozone Information Hotline
at 800 296-1996.
                                                    Appliances ^
2   Stratospheric Update

U V Data         provides a daily forecast of the inten-
                     sity of die sun's radiation for 58 com-
                     munities across the United States.
                     The Brewer spectrophotometer also
infers the amount of protective ozone in a column of air
stretching from the earths surface through the upper atmos-
phere. Depletion of the ozone layer would result, for exam-
ple, in increased UV levels at the surface of the earth.
   There are 21 Brewer spectrophotometer sites throughout
the United States. Seven are located in urban areas, while the
remaining 14 are operated in national parks in cooperation
with the Park Research and Intensive Monitoring of Ecosys-
tems Network. Daily measurements from these sites are
reported and placed on UV Net, the project's Web site.
   "The information is great for scientists and researchers,"
says EPA's Dr. Gary Collins, data manager for the project.
"We've had great feedback from the professional community,
including NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration. They've been very impressed with the Web
site," Collins reported.
   Monitoring data is accessible from the program's Inter-
net site  in graph, report, or electronic file format at
. For more information about the
UV Monitoring Project, call Dr.  Jack Shreffler at
919 541-2194 or Dr. Gary Collins at 513 569-7174.
                                                                        Monitor Sites
                                                                   ^sjJectrophotometers are located
                                                                                |§, including:

                                                                          , ..„,,, „_..-_ ,.,...•'•!j£'x*j&:^-LgE^x?'^r"j^^ra""T''^f*VB?'"-5S, T™ 1;^
                                                                RSsearc   fjaagie rf rP(RTP),
                                                                     ..  "•-?,'»!     ; . ' - v:^?4
                                                                    -»«"             "	
                                                                   ^8**5;-': :   .^JJ%Sf!»A,tJ3S;«ll!«
                                                             The l^gtionaj pi|K(NP) sites include:
                                                                Denali NP, Alaska
                                                            »<*. Everglades NP, Honda
                                                                Glacier NP, Montana
                                                                Great Smoky Mountains NP, Tennessee
                                                            ~ „Hawaii Volcanoes IMP, Hawaii
                                                            fc-^Olympic NP, Washington* ^
                                                            -f- , Rocky Mountain NP, Colorado
                                                            ^T  ^, „•*! fV   -fffi f* WS    &&%f*f f&lfWI V*~± «* **Z~& id& H«. >»]««.
                                                           *kwv-Seqyota NP, California
                                                                 heriarTdo^fi N^ Virginia" ^"
                                                                Theodore Roosevelt NP, North Dakota
                                                           „., ^Virgin  Islands NP, Virgm Islands
& Research
SunWise Pilot
classroom, school, and community projects that teach them about the health risks of overexposure to
the sun, as well as the science behind ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ozone depletion. SunWise schools
can choose to  participate in a wide range of activities such as monitoring the daily weather forecast
and UV Index on the SunWise Web site, measuring UV radiation, participating in cross-curricuiar
classroom science and health activities, enhancing school sun-safety policies and practices, and
sponsoring guest speakers and partnerships.
   Though largely preventable, skin cancer has grown to become the most common form of cancer in
America, with more than one million cases diagnosed each year. Overexposure to UV radiation also
contributes to premature aging of the skin, cataracts, and other health effects. Since most of the typical
American's lifetime sun exposure happens before the age of 18, children's attitudes and behavior about
sun safety are particularly important. In developing the SunWise Program, EPA has worked with
dozens of national and local organizations, teachers, health professionals, and parents.
   SunWise is one of several EPA Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and
Community Tracking (EMPACT) Projects. Visit  for more infor-
mation or contact Maura Cantor, SunWise Program Director, at 202 564-9096. Also, see
the Resources section beginning on page 11.
                                                                                                       Stratospheric Update    3

                               SNAP Update
  Types of

  EPA continues to review
  new submissions for SNAP
  listings across a variety of
  industrial sectors
  • refrigeration and air-
  • foam blowing
  • solvents cleaning
  • fire suppression
    and explosion
  • aerosols
  * adhesives, coatings,
    and inks
        PA's Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program evaluates alternatives to ozone-
        depleting substances (ODSs) and determines their acceptability for use. Since the last
        update in 1998, the SNAP program has published several new decisions regarding ODS
        alternatives. Among the most noteworthy of the new decisions are:
•  Chlorobromomethane is an unacceptable alternative in the solvents cleaning; adhesives,
   coatings, and inks; fire suppression; and aerosols sectors.
•  HFC-4310mee is an acceptable alternative in the solvents cleaning and aerosols sectors.

•  HFC-236fa is an acceptable alternative (with restrictions) in the fire suppression sector.

   EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) for the compound
n-propyl bromide (nPB) on February 18, 1999  (64 PR 8043). The ANPRM identified the signifi-
cant uncertainties surrounding policy decisions on nPB, specifically the ozone-depletion potential
and human lexicological risks, and gave the public an opportunity to send additional data. EPA
received a wide range of comments on nPB. The Agency is currently in the process of reviewing
them and hopes  to issue proposed rulemaking in 2000.

   For more information about the SNAP program, contact Kelly Davis of EPA at
 or 202 564-2303, or the Stratospheric Ozone Information Hotline
at 800 296-1996,
                                    SNAP on the Web

                                    Check out the SNAP Web site at  for the latest news. For specific
                                    information go to the following sites:
                                    • . This portion
                                      of the SNAP Web site has all of the latest determina-
                                      tions on  the comprehensive list of alternatives.
                                    • . Check
                                      out EPA's updated SNAP fact sheets, including revised
                                      questions and answers on the fire suppression and
                                      solvents  cleaning sectors.
                                    • . For the
                                      SNAP program to review alternative chemicals, tech-
                                      nologies, or manufacturing processes, a SNAP Infor-
                                      mation Notice Application must be submitted. The
                                      SNAP application is now available online at this loca-
                                      tion in WordPerfect or PDF formats.
4   Stratospheric Update

Labeling  for Health: FDA Finalizes
Sunscreen Product  Regulations
         Consumers planning to rub out the
         chance of sun-related skin damage by
         rubbing on lotions and balms will soon
         have new information to consider
before choosing their outdoor protection.

   In May 1999, the Food and Drug Administra-
tion (FDA) finalized new labeling requirements
for over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen products.
They simplify and streamline sunscreen labels by
restricting the language of product claims,
controlling active ingredients, and categorizing
protection levels.

   The most notable change in label lingo is the use
of FDA's three new sun protection categories, devel-
oped to clarify sun protection factor (SPF) levels for
consumers. Optional protection rankings will

•  Minimal —SPF levels from 2 to under 12.

•  Moderate —SPF levels from 12 to under  30.

•  High—SPF levels of 30 and higher.

The SPF number also will be required on
sunscreen labels.

   Other requirements under the new regulations
direct manufacturers of OTC sunscreens, includ-
ing cosmetic products carrying sun protection
claims, to discontinue the use of unsupported or
misleading terms such as  "sunblock" and  "water-
proof" on product labels. Label-conscious con-
sumers might also notice an FDA-approved "sun
alert" statement, discussing the important role of
sunscreen in overall sun-related health protection.
Seeking to reduce consumer misunderstanding
concerning all sun-related products, the new
FDA regulations target tanning products  as well.
Labels  on these lotions, which do not contain sun-
screen ingredients, must feature a warning about
their lack of protection against sun exposure.

   FDA encourages all manufacturers to comply with
the new labeling standards as soon as possible, but
demands compliance within two years  for sunscreen
   As powerful influences on
consumer behavior, product
labels relating to health issues
usually meet with intense scrutiny. FDA's new
sunscreen regulations are no exception and are
already attracting criticism. While FDA contends
that its SPF categories are intended to eliminate
consumer confusion, some organizations have
expressed concern about their impact.
   According to Joyce Weisbach Ayoub, with the
Skin Cancer Foundation, "We contend that SPFs of
at least 15 are necessary for adequate protection
against the sun's harmful UV rays. Thus, the entire
SPF range in FDA's "minimal" category and part of
the SPF range in the "moderate" category would be
inadequate for effective protection."
   In addition, Ayoub worries that the "high" cate-
gory, by referring to "SPF 30 and up," puts a cap on
high-level  skin care protection and doesn't provide
for the important extra  protection provided by SPFs
as high as 45 or 50.
   In response, FDA reminds concerned parties that
use of the new SPF categories is optional and the reg-
ulations still require the display of the product's specif-
ic SPF number. In addition, an FDA spokesperson
disagrees with arguments about the "capping" of SPF
levels, explaining: 'The increased percentage of protec-
tion offered by sunscreens with an SPF over 30 is so
small, it's quite difficult to measure. Since there's no
way of scientifically proving the claims of additional
protection provided by SPFs higher than 30, our new
categories use 30 as their high-level marker."
  products, and within one year for tanning products.
  Product claims concerning ultraviolet A (UV-A) pro-
  tection will continue as previously required until fur-
  ther notice from FDA.

    For more information on die new sunscreen regu-
  lations, consult FDA's Web site at .
                                                                                                  Stratospheric Update   5


                 l!ii||i|i|!i|i|i|||||||l|iliini"!i!	I	n	H'l'iili'"'	pPM|	!!!!	!l»IH|if,R»|i|IW!ll!	"Ill	«!	™' »"• • i1
                 potlight   on   Used  CFC
                 SK"1; •:. ••   /..    '"GVL :..•	

                 Ilegal irnpairts of previously used ODSs
                        ;,£ititailed thanks to the success
                         gent activities. Working
                           IS.,Customs, the Depart-
                               ;r relevant agencies,
                            ; efforts to minimize illegal
                         aofl to ensure those who do
                               t and convicted.
                            e Y^lurne of illegal sub-
                            SHt Smuggling cases
                            , fifieir companies can
                            || for illegally importing or
fete get Gxujm,conwcted,  fined, and put
....... ff'        ..... I ........ !I ...... VVUHMV  r , T
          e message should be dear to
                        •    "        .....
                        Jaw— don't try it"

	,i	i
                         Assistant AgjTimistrator for
              Enlsrcement and Cornpliance Assurance
                                              Since the 1996 phaseout of ODSs began,
                                            approximately two million pounds of illegally
                                            imported CFCs and other ODSs have been
                                            seized and impounded and more than 90
                                            individuals and businesses have been charged
                                            with smuggling.
  !	;;!:	r	:;	:"s
       ODS Import Regulations
          In 1990, Title VI of the Clean Air Act authorized EPA to restrict the use, import, and disposal of
       ODSs. Since that time, EPA has implemented policies and taken action to curtail the illegal import
       of OpSs into the United States. EPA bans the import of ODSs most destructive to the ozone layer,
          i as CFCs and halons. Certain exemptions exist, however, for chemicals that have been used and
          rioyedI from operating equipment Allowing the import of these used substances helps optimize
          use^of existing supplies, discourages the production of virgin material, discourages venting of
       the substance to the f.tmosphere, and prevents shortages in sectors that still rely on these sub-
       staffces. EP.A set up a petition process so the Agency could independently verify that substances a
       person Wishes to import have, in fact, been previously used. Companies that want to import used
       jOQSs submit petitions to EPA detailing the country of origin and the facility where the substance
       was originally used.

    Smuggling of CFCs is not anticipated to
 increase in the next few years, but is likely to
 continue due to the potential for significant
 financial gain. Legal importers of CFCs pay an
 excise tax of $7.15 per pound of material, and
 this amount increases  by $0.45 per year. Illegal
importers avoid this excise tax and can sell
CFCs below market price while making a
profit. EPA's success in catching and prosecut-
ing smugglers is expected to continue to
increase due to greater awareness by the indus-
try and efforts from the enforcement agencies.
1998  OPS Petition  Requests  Decline

        he number of petitions submitted to EPA to import previously used ODSs has fallen for
        the first time since the 1996 phaseout of ODSs. In 1998, EPA approved 161 petitions to
        import ODSs, which is less than the 182 petitions received in 1997, but still substantially
        more than the 73 petitions received in 1996. So far in 1999, EPA has received 52 petitions
to import ODSs. Under the 1998 petitions 1,312,739 kilograms of CFCs and other ODSs were
legally imported into the United States. In 1999,  the petitions so far have brought 919,696 kilo-
grams of used ODSs into the country.

  Under the Montreal Protocol, developing countries can still produce virgin ODSs until January
1, 2010. For companies and individuals in the United States, however, it is illegal to import any of
the newly produced or virgin ODSs from these or any other country.
For more information
about EPA's enforcement
activities, Title VI
regulations, and EPA's
petition process, or if you
suspect someone is
attempting to illegally
import ODSs, contact
Brian Ng of EPA at 202
564-9295 or
You also can call the
 Stratospheric Ozone
Information Hotline at
800 296-1996 or visit
the Web site at
                                                                                                 Stratospheric Update    7

                              Breathe   Easy
                             Are  Going  C
                             ^^^    yi  illions of people who suffer from
                               I %   f M  asthma or chronic pulmonary
                               I % i  I  conditions rely on metered-dose
                               I  If   8  inhalers (MDIs) to live healthy,
                             comfortable lives. In the past, all MDIs used
                             CFCs as propellants to deliver medicine into
                             the patient's lungs. Recently, however, the first
                             CFC-free MDI was introduced in the United
                             States, and more are expected to be added to
                             the marketplace beginning in 2000. In fact,
                             all major pharmaceutical companies are cur-
                             rently working to reformulate their MDIs to
                             be CFC-free.

                                In 1996, MDIs were designated as an "essen-
                             tial use" under the Montreal Protocol, which
                             means they are exempt from the production and
                             import bans of CFCs and other ODSs stipu-
                             lated under the Protocol. At that time,
                             CFC-free MDIs were not available, and the Par-
                             ties to the Protocol recognized their importance
                             in treating serious respiratory diseases; however,
                             they did not intend for them to be permanently
                             exempted and expected substitutes for the
                             ODSs used in exempted products to be devel-
                             oped. Pharmaceutical companies worldwide,
                             therefore, have been trying to find alternative
                             substances for MDI propellants.
                                The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
                             is responsible for writing regulations to establish
the framework for a safe and orderly transition
to CFC-free MDIs. In March 1997, the FDA
issued an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rule-
making outlining the criteria or guidelines FDA
will follow when considering if particular CFC
MDIs should retain their status as an "essential
use." FDA will be publishing a proposed rule-
making later this year.
   In the meantime, EPA is continuing out-
reach efforts to patients, parents of young
patients, and health care professionals to ensure
a successful transition to CFC-free MDIs. EPA
recognizes the importance of educating patients
about the reliability and performance of the
new MDIs, dispelling rumors, and minimizing
anxieties about the transition. EPA, in coopera-
tion with the FDA, the National Institutes of
Health, industry,  and several patient health care
organizations, has already developed a brochure
entitled Your Metered Dose Inhaler Will Be
Changing... Here Are the Facts. Copies of the
brochure are available by calling EPA's Strato-
spheric Ozone Information Hotline at 800 296-
1996 or through EPA's Web site at
   For more information contact Erin Birgfeld
of EPA at 202 564-9079 or .
8   Stratospheric Update

EPA  Presents  1999  Stratospheric  Ozone
Protection  and Climate Protection Awards
      In 1999, EPA will present its annual Stratospheric Ozone Protection and Climate Protection
      Awards to individuals, associations, and corporations that have demonstrated exceptional
      leadership, personal ^dedication, and technical achievements. Since 1990, over 398 Stratos-
      pheric Ozone Protection Awards_have been presented. Winners have come from 29 countries
including Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Dominican Republic, France, Germany,
Hungary, India, Ireland, Japan, Kenya, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and
Venezuela. EPA established the Climate Protection Awards last year and presented them to 18 win-
ners from  7 countries including Australia, Brazil, China, Swedens United Kingdom, United States,
and one award to a global partnership.
  This yearTEPA is presenting its Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award to 14 individuals and orga-
nizations.  Climate Protection Awards will be presented to 10 individuals and organizations. Both
awards will be presented at the upcoming Earth Technologies Forum in Washington, DC, Septem-
ber 27 through 29, 1999.
1999 Stratospheric Ozone
Protection Award Winners
  Per M. Bakken
  David Clare
  Sheila Jones
  Ingrid Kokeritz
  Robert T. Wickham
  Theresia Indrawanti Pudiyanto           tr.
  Jacinthe Seguin                   "*_".
  James Shevlin
  The Cannon Group ,	
  Canadian Forces Fire Marshal, Department of
    National Defence
  Idaho Army National Guard, Combined Support
    Maintenance Shop
  Project Management Office for Bradley Fighting
    Vehicle Systems
  Wei T'o Associates and the National Library of
1999 Climate Protection
Award Winners
  Dr. Rosina M. Bierbaum
  Dr. Mack McFarland
  Eugene L. Smithart, P.E.
  Applied Materials
  Annapolis Detachment of the Carderock
    Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center
  The Polyisocyanurate Insulation
    Manufacturers Association
  Texas Industries, Inc.
                                                                                           Stratospheric Update   9

Regulatory/Policy Update

Regulatory Movement on Methyl Bromide
       Last year, Congress mandated that EPA conform its methyl bromide phaseout schedule, quar-
       antine and preshipment, and relevant critical use exemptions to those laid out in the
       Montreal Protocol. Specifically, this includes a phaseout date of January 1, 2005, instead of
       the 2001 date in the current regulation, and phasedowns from the 1991 baseline of 25
percent in 1999, 50 percent in 2001, and 70 percent in 2003. EPA promulgated the first 25 percent
phasedown on February 25 of this year. According to the Protocol, "quarantine" and "preshipment"
uses of methyl bromide are to be exempt from the baseline.  EPA is currently developing a regulation
to allow for these exemptions. A second rule in progress is intended to lay out the remaining phase-
down and phaseout schedule as well as a structure that could allow for critical uses in the future.
For more information, con tact Tom Land at 202 564-9185.

HCFC Allowance Allocations on the Horizon
  Following an April 5, 1999, Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on a
hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) allowance allocation system, EPA is in the process of responding
to comments in a rule expected to be published in late fall. As a Party to the Montreal Protocol, the
United States operates under an annual production and import limitation. As we move toward the
first step in the HCFC phaseout in January 2003, EPA realizes the need to allocate allowances, facil-
itate a smooth transition to substitutes, and ensure compliance with the Montreal Protocol. An
integral step toward developing an allocation system is to determine a representative baseline. EPA is
currently reviewing historical data in an attempt to  be as equitable as possible while ensuring
compliance with the cap. For more information, contact Vera Au at 202 564-2216.

Changes  Being  Made to the Class  I  Nonessential Products Ban
  EPA is drafting a final rule, based on comments received in response to the proposal of June 14,
1999, to modify the class I nonessential products ban. The proposed rule discussed removing current
exemptions from the class I ban on certain aerosols because adequate substitutes for those products are
now commercially available. It also proposed to add refrigerators containing class I refrigerants to the
ban, since substitutes are commonly used in manufacturing refrigerators in the United States and most
other countries. EPA expects to issue the final rule in the spring of 2000. EPA will begin drafting
proposed modifications to die class II ban sometime next year. For more information, contact Cindy
Newberg at 202 564-9729.

Laboratory Essential  Use Exemptions to End
  Under the Clean Air Act, the more stringent provisions of-either the Montreal Protocol or the Clean
Air Act prevail. While essential  use exemptions have been granted by the Montreal Protocol and
allowed under die Act for laboratory uses, the Protocol does not permit continuation of such an
exemption beginning in 2000. Therefore, EPA can no longer grant these exemptions for U.S. laborato-
ries as of January 1, 2000. For more information, contact Erin Birgfeld at 202 564-9079.

Grandfathering for  Refrigerant Technicians Expired
  In a recent letter to technician certification organizations under its Section 608 refrigerant recycling
program, EPA has clarified that grandfathering technicians who participate in voluntary certification
programs is no longer a legal option. The grandfathering provision was in place until May 15, 1995, to
allow technicians who voluntarily became certified before EPA's approval program was implemented to
retain diat certification, as appropriate. After that, grandfathering of programs or technicians was no
longer permitted. For more information, contact Julius Banks at 202 564-9870.
10  Stratospheric Update

UNEP  Holds  International Ozone  Event
              >ave our sky—be ozone-
              friendly." This was the message
              the United Nations Environ-
              ment Programme (UNEP)
promoted during its International Day for the
Preservation of the Ozone Layer, held on
September 16,  1999. The goal of this annual
event was to raise awareness of the issue of
ozone depletion and of the importance of
preserving the ozone layer.

   "The protection of the ozone  layer concerns
all of us—consumer, worker, investor, farmer,
neighbor, student. Small things, actions like
checking and fixing the leaks of air-conditioners
or refrigerators, contribute to saving our sky,"
said Nelson Sabogal of UNEP's Ozone
Secretariat. UNEP worked with governments
around the globe on outreach efforts such as
broadcasting radio and television programs and
encouraging nongovernmental organizations to
participate in this event.

  For more information on UNEP's. ozone pro-
tection awareness activities, including educational
materials and posters, access the UNEP Web site
at  or link through EPA's
Web site at .
A Closer Look at OPTICS

  A new tool is helping people share information
about technologies related to ODSs. The Ozone
Protection Technologies Information
Clearinghouse System (OPTICS) is a Web database
with information on current technologies related
to ODSs. Developed by the Global Environment
and Technology Foundation under an EPA grant,
OPTICS is a user-maintained program that allows
developers of ODS technologies not only to
search, but also add and update, valuable infor-
mation about innovative methods to destroy,
recycle, reclaim, or identify specific ODSs.
  Currently, managers of the OPTICS database
are asking for assistance in collecting more infor-
mation. In addition to ODS recycling, identifica-
tion, and destruction, users may enter summaries
and full descriptions of their technologies; multi-
ple search criteria; development and licensing
status; technology needs, limitations, and costs;
and technology developer contact information.
  To access, add, or update information, visit the
OPTICS Web site at .
SunWise Behavior Brochure
   How can you protect yourself and your loved
ones from harmful UV radiation? Find out in The
Sun, UV, and You:A Guide to SunWise Behavior
                                              (EPA 430-K-99-035). This newly updated booklet
                                              presents the science behind UV radiation and
                                              stratospheric ozone and the health risks associat-
                                              ed with overexposure to the sun. It also provides
                                              steps for protecting yourself and your children,
                                              defines the UV Index, and tells where to get more
                                              information. Details about EPA's
                                              SunWise School Program also are
                                              included in the booklet.
                                                For  more information or to
                                              obtain  a copy of the booklet,
                                              contact EPA's  Stratospheric
                                              Ozone  Information Hotline at
                                              800 296-1996 or visit the
                                              Stratospheric Ozone Web site
                                              at .
                                              Report on the
                                              Supply and Demand of CFC-12
                                                EPA has released its annual report updating
                                              estimates of the supply of and demand for
                                              CFC-12 in the United States during the period
                                              1999 to 2005. Among other findings, the
                                              report concludes that both the supply and
                                              demand of CFC-12 dropped in 1998.
                                              The report can be accessed online at
                                               or can be
                                              requested through the Stratospheric Ozone
                                              Information Hotline at 800 296-1996.
                                                                       (CONTINUED ON PAGE 12)
                                                                                                Stratospheric Update  11


   Enforcement and Compliance
      EPA's Office of Enforcement and Com-
   pliance Assurance (OECA) has released its
   accomplishments report for fiscal year
   1998. it summarizes the progress OECA is
   making toward realizing its continuing
   goal of establishing and maintaining a
   strong and fair enforcement program and
   providing assistance and incentives to
   enhance compliance. Highlighted in the
   report is the work that OECA has done
   with the Department of Justice in bring-
   ing criminal charges and assessing fines
   in 1998.
      The document (EPA-200-R-99-003)
   can be obtained through the National
   Center for Environmental Publications and
   Information at 800  490-9198 and
   on the Internet at .
  Web Site Watch
SunWise School  Program

   Earlier this year, EPA introduced its new
SunWise School Program Web site. In addi-
tion to sun-safety tips and general informa-
tion on the dangers of overexposure to
ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the Web site
includes a drafVof On the Way to SunWise:
A Program Guide for Schools. This guide pro-
vides information about the SunWise School
Program, details how to become a Partner
school, describes tools available to Partner
schools, and explains how the program will
be evaluated. To make things easy, the Web
site includes an online form with which
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schools can register for the pilot program,
to be held throughout the September 1999
to June 2000 school year.

   Visitors to the site can also access the
UV database, an activity that allows stu-
dents to enter daily UV data, weather con-
ditions, and information regarding daily sun
protection practices.

Kids Express What
They've Learned

   New on EPA's Ozone Web site is the
Ozone Depletion Art Project. Currently the
site includes original drawings and paint-
ings from students from seven schools. All
artwork relates to concepts about ozone
depletion the students have  learned in
    United States
    Environmental Protection Agency
    Washington, DC 20460

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