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    Over 8 million refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners, dehumidifiers, and other refrigerated appliances are
discarded each year in the United States, releasing an estimated 4 million pounds of chlorofluorocarbons and
hydrochlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere annually. These releases contribute to one of today's greatest envi-
ronmental threats—die destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer.
    On July 1, 1992, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 required EPA to prohibit individuals from know-
ingly venting ozone-depleting compounds used as refrigerants into the atmosphere while maintaining, servicing,
repairing, or disposing of air-conditioning or refrigeration equipment. This prohibition on venting presents com-
munities across the United States with a new challenge: practicing environmentally sound and cost-effective waste
disposal. Many solid waste managers and other policymakers are already developing innovative programs and poli-
cies for recovering ozone-depleting refrigerants from discarded appliances. Others have only just begun.

    This booklet is designed to serve as a practical tool for understanding this issue and forging a national net-
work for sharing ideas, solutions, and resources. It includes:
•   An oudine of Clean Air Act requirements for disposing of appliances containing refrigerant.

•   Case studies highlighting existing or developing programs throughout the country.
•   An overview of the technical issues associated with refrigerant recovery.

    In looking ahead to  expanding and improving efforts in  the area of appliance disposal, we welcome your
response to this booklet. Please send your questions or comments, as well as any information regarding successes
and problems in developing refrigerant-recovery initiatives in your community to:
    Refrigerant Recovery Programs (Disposal)
    U.S. EPA
    401 M Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20460
    EPA would like to acknowledge the invaluable contributions and assistance provided by governmental and
private-sector representatives profiled in this brochure.


Strengthening the
Ozone  Shield: The
Clean Air Act and the
Montreal  Protocol

    Stratospheric ozone shields the Earth's surface
from dangerous ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation.
Mounting scientific evidence indicates that certain
human-made compounds are depleting ozone in
the stratosphere, allowing increased levels of UV-B
radiation to pierce the atmosphere. Scientific stud-
ies indicate that higher UV-B radiation levels can
affect human health, increasing the incidence of
certain skin cancers and cataracts and suppressing
the immune system.  Higher UV-B radiation levels
can also cause environmental harm on a global
scale, damaging crops and aquatic organisms, accel-
erating weathering of outdoor plastics, and increas-
ing the formation of ground-level ozone (or smog).

    Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of
1990 advances the U.S. policy to combat strat-
ospheric ozone depletion by:
•   Restricting the production, use, emission, and
    disposal of ozone-depleting chemicals.

•   Mandating the phaseout of the production of
    ozone-depleting chemicals.

•   Requiring the recycling of refrigerants in air-
    conditioning and refrigeration equipment.

•   Requiring the development and approval of
    substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
    and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

•   Establishing a ban on nonessential products
    containing ozone-depleting chemicals.

•   Requiring warning labels for consumers on
    products containing or made with ozone-
    depleting substances.

    Through the Clean Air Act, the United States
is meeting—and exceeding—its international com-
mitments to protect the ozone layer. In  1987,  23
countries, including the United States, signed the
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the
Ozone Layer, an international agreement to cut the
Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful gases that trap heat in the lower atmosphere. When they float to the
upper part of the atmosphere, they destroy the protective layer of ozone that surrounds the earth. As a
result, some harmful UV-B radiation passes through the ozone shield into the lower atmosphere, rather
than being reflected by the earth and the atmosphere.

production of these substances in half by 1998.
Since then, the Protocol has been amended to
totally phase out production of ozone-depleting
substances by the year 2000 and has been signed
by an additional 100 countries. In light of further
evidence of potential ozone depletion in northern
and middle latitudes, the Parties to the Protocol
rccendy agreed to accelerate the phaseout of CFCs
to the end of 1995, and to advance the phaseout of
other ozone-destroying chemicals.

Changing Old
Practices With  New

     Section 608 of the Clean Air Act, the National
Recycling and Emissions Reduction Program,
requires that EPA develop regulations to reduce
CFC and HCFC emissions from all refrigeration
and air-conditioning sectors to the "lowest achiev-
able level." On May 14, 1993, EPA published final
regulations diat establish:
*    Required service practices to be used during
     the maintenance and repair of air-condition-
     ing and refrigeration equipment.
•    Certification requirements for recovery and
     recycling equipment, technicians, and
•    Restriction of refrigerant sales to certified
     technicians only.
•    Safe disposal requirements to ensure the re-
     moval of ozone-depleting refrigerants from
     goods diat enter the waste stream with die
     refrigerant charge intact (e.g., motor vehicle
     air conditioners, home refrigerators, and room
     air conditioners).
     Section 608 of the Act prohibits individuals
from knowingly releasing ozone-depleting com-
pounds used as refrigerants into  the atmosphere
while maintaining, servicing, repairing, or disposing
of air-conditioning or refrigeration equipment. The
environmental and financial penalties for violating
this prohibition on venting are high: EPA is autho-
rized to assess fines of up to $25,000 per day per vio-
lation of die Act.

    Under the final regulations, EPA has estab-
lished safe disposal requirements to ensure recovery
of refrigerants from goods that enter the waste
stream with the charge intact (e.g., motor vehicle air
conditioners, home refrigerators, and room air con-
ditioners). To allow for flexibility in complying with
these regulations, die rule does not require that re-
covery take place at any specific point along die dis-
posal chain. However, in order to ensure that refrig-
erants are removed from appliances before disposal,
the rule does require that "final processors" (e.g.,
scrap metal processing facilities or landfills) verify-
that the refrigerant has been recovered from discard-
ed appliances or remove die refrigerant diemselves.

    Where final processors choose not to recover
die refrigerant, they may accept a signed statement
widi the name and address of die person delivering
die appliance and the date die refrigerant was recov-
ered. They may also choose to establish contracts for
refrigerant removal with suppliers.  EPA recom-
mends that final processors and entities recovering
refrigerant develop a method for indicating that
refrigerant had been removed; diey are not, howev-
er, required to develop any kind of specific marking.
Similar mediods are already in place in some areas
for the removal of capacitors containing polychlori-
nated biphenyls (PCBs) from refrigeration units.
    Under the rule, whoever provides refrigerant-
recovery services would be required to recover at least
90 percent of die refrigerant contained in household
appliances and room air conditioners. They must also
register their equipment with the appropriate EPA
Regional Office.

Recovery, Recycling,  and
    Refrigerators, freezers, dehumidifiers, and odier
refrigerated appliances use CFCs as the cooling

fluid, while window air conditioners typically use
HCFCs. Although both chemicals are generally
nontoxic, nonflammable, and nonhazardous, both
CFCs and HCFCs deplete the ozone layer. Besides
preventing harmful releases of CFCs and HCFCs,
recovering refrigerant also allows air-conditioning
and  refrigeration equipment  owners to develop a
supply of usable refrigerant to service their equip-
ment when production of new refrigerants is halted
as required by the Montreal Protocol.
     Although  the procedures  for recovering refrig-
erants from appliances are relatively straightforward,
technicians recovering refrigerant should have some
experience working with CFCs and HCFCs in air-
conditioning and refrigeration equipment.  They
should also be familiar with the techniques and
equipment for refrigerant recovery, however, formal
technician certification is not  a requirement for
individuals removing refrigerant  from equipment in
the waste stream.
     In the course of general use,  refrigerant can
often become  contaminated with acids, moisture,
and  oil. These  impurities can affect the performance
of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment.
Concerns about buying and selling used refrigerant
with unknown contaminants led the Air  Con-
ditioning and  Refrigeration Institute (ARI) to de-
velop a standard of purity for refrigerant called the
                                                    ARI-700 standard. This standard sets maximum
                                                    contaminant levels acceptable for refrigerant used in
                                                    air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment.
                                                    Purified refrigerant that is chemically tested to verify-
                                                    that it meets the ARI-700  standard is termed
                                                    "reclaimed refrigerant."

                                                        Not all refrigerants need to be reclaimed for
                                                    effective use. Under the final regulations, service
                                                    technicians may recover refrigerant and then simply
                                                    return it to the same unit or another unit owned
                                                    by the same entity. Technicians may also recycle
                                                    refrigerant—clean the refrigerant without chem-
                                                    ically analyzing it to determine its level of purity.
                                                    Recycled refrigerant may also be returned to the
                                                    original equipment or other equipment owned by
                                                    the same person. In all cases where refrigerant is
                                                    recovered and resold, however, the proposal would
                                                    require that refrigerant be reclaimed to the ARI-700
                                                    standard and that it be chemically tested to verify
                                                    that it met that standard. Most, if not all, refriger-
                                                    ant recovered from household appliances would
                                                    need to be reclaimed for resale.
                                                         Reclaimers must acquire certification from EPA.
                                                    To become a reclaimer, a facility must purchase equip-
                                                    ment that can purify refrigerant to the ARI-700  stan-
                                                    dard and chemically analyze its purity. EPA's certifica-
                                                    tion requirements are based on the reclaimers' ability to
                                                    meet these criteria.
      	. ». ^~^ $•

      v    *?-•«»&*%&£
Refrigerator 8k
 Window Unit
 CFCs and HCFCs are removed from refrigerators and window air conditioners using recovery equipment.
 A recovery unit draws out distinct refrigerants into tanks that are then transported to a reclaim center for
 purification. Once reclaimed to the ARI-700 standard, these refrigerants can be resold for safe reuse.



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    At this time there is no national network of ap-
proved reclamation centers. Until EPA's requirements
for certification of reclamation centers take effect in
August, 1993, municipalities may want to contact
local air-conditioning or refrigeration technicians,
refrigerant distributors, or wholesalers for information
about the availability of reclaiming services. Some
municipalities may also consider establishing their
own reclamation centers.

Using Appropriate Equipment

    Manufacturers  have  developed refrigerant-
recovery equipment  to draw out ozone-depleting
refrigerants (in both liquid  and gaseous states) from
air-conditioning and  refrigeration equipment. EPA
has established a certification requirement for equip-
ment used during servicing and repair of air-condi-
tioning and refrigeration equipment. Recovery-only
equipment used on appliances headed for disposal
are exempt from this requirement, provided it meets
a "performance standard" based on the equipment's
ability to draw a vacuum. For small appliances, the
recover equipment performance requirements are 90
percent efficiency when the appliance compressor is
operational and 80  percent efficiency when the
appliance compressor is not operational. For dis-
posed vehicles, the performance standard is 102 mm
of mercury vacuum.
    EPA established  the exemption from laborato-
ry testing to encourage technicians to develop  new
equipment and innovative technologies  that can
improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of
recovery from household  appliances without
adding the burden of government certification. In
all cases where refrigerant changes ownership, how-
ever, recovered refrigerant must still be reclaimed
to the ARI-700 standard before being resold.

    Equipment used to recover refrigerant must
be registered with the appropriate EPA Regional
office by August 12, 1993. A sample form  is
included at the end of this booklet.
 Developing a
 Refrigerant Recovery
 Program: Case Studies

    Local governments can address the appliance
 disposal issue in several ways. One simple approach is
 to force consumers to pay appliance retailers or gen-
 eral service technicians  to remove refrigerants from
 units before disposal. This option requires individu-
 als to recover refrigerants from one  unit at a time,
 and will generally cost consumers between $40 and
 $50 a unit, depending on the price of labor. This
 strategy poses obvious problems. First, high disposal
 costs are likely to discourage consumers from com-
 plying with the law. Second,  this approach could
 aggravate an already complicated disposal process by
 requiring haulers to verify that refrigerants had been
 removed from individual units.

    Local governments have other options. They
 can provide recovery services themselves or in
partnerships with private businesses.  Perhaps the
most important decision in developing cost-effec-
 tive programs is determining the scope of the
recycling project. In some cases, a program oper-
ated by a  few individuals targeted exclusively at
removing refrigerant at some point along the
waste stream may prove most economical. In oth-
ers, it  may make more economic and environ-
mental sense to integrate refrigerant-recovery
programs into large-scale, multipurpose appliance-
recycling  programs. As landfill space shrinks,
many  communities  in the  United States are
already recycling home appliances to be resold for
scrap metal,  and are extending their programs to
recover refrigerant at only a marginal cost.

    Another important component  influencing
the scope of a refrigerant-recovery program is the
potential for recovering CFCs and HCFCs from a
collected stockpile of refrigerators and other appli-
ances. The feasibility of dropping appliances off at
a single collection site  can affect a  municipality's

flexibility in defining the scope of a refrigerant-
recovery program.

    Refrigerant recovery from  motor vehicle air
conditioners is also an important component of safe
disposal. Because the market structure and waste
stream for cars differ significantly from those for
home appliances, EPA intends to develop separate
guidance documents for recycling refrigerants with-
in the automobile industry.

Case Studies
    Several options exist for recovering refrigerant
from home appliances before their  disposal. Local
governments will want to determine where to target
their program based on the particular circumstances
of their waste streams in their community. Counties
and municipalities may wish to consider the follow-
ing recovery options:

•   Recovery at disposal.

•   Midstream recovery—using appliance recy-
    cling centers.

Recovery at Disposal

    Trained  technicians can recover refrigerant on
site at a scrap processing facility or at a munici-
pal or privately owned landfill—usually the two
final processors of home appliances. Many local
                                   Orange County, California
         Orange County initiated its recovery program in conjunction with the July 1 prohibition on vent-
     ' ing. At the county landfill, haulers are asked to separate household appliances from the general waste.
      Landfill workers also attempt to retrieve refrigerators that are mixed in with other dumped goods. The
      refrigerant in the stockpiled units is recovered by a trained staff and is resold to a CFC wholesaler. The
      coufity estimatsrthat it will handle 250 appliances a month and up to 3,000 appliances a year.
      Contact: Scott Craile
      X?range County
      714 568-4160
                                       Newark, New Jersey
         The City of Newark plans to enter into a full-service contract for the recovery and reclamation of
      refrigerants from appliances,, such as refrigerators, freezers, water copiers, air conditioners, and other
      equipment that contains CFC refrigerants. Under the proposed contract, Newark would use owned or':
      leased equipment to collect and transport'the appliances to a location designated by the city. The con-
      tractors; would be contractually and legally responsible for recovering the refrigerants in appliances,
      would be required to provide documentation to the city stating the amount and type of refrigerant
      recovered, and would have to supply monthly reports to the city indicating the number of pounds of
      refrigerant reclaimed and  the narne of the reclaimer who purchased the refrigerant. The City would
      then be responsible for transporting the appliances to a recycling market.
      Contact:-prank Sudol
      Department of Engineering, City of Newark          ..•'••'-:                 :
      201733-8520             •'"/'''    :   :/   . .':  ''      ;V   .  .'•"'    ,' 'V  '•••"-    . V ..;,   '

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                               Loudoun County, Virginia
   Loudoun County provides a collection point at the County landfill for scrap metal (including
refrigerated appliances, home air conditioners, and other equipment containing CFCs and HCFC
refrigerant). Loudoun County accepts scrap metal from residents, businesses, and haulers. The "tip
fee" for appliances is currendy $3.00 apiece.
   In July 1992, die county hired a firm to recover the refrigerant from die stockpiled appliances. The
firm dien sells die recovered refrigerant to a reclamation center for purification and resale.
Contact; Steve Carfora
Virginia Department of Environmental Resources
703 771-5215                                              '
                                 Eau Claire, Wisconsin
   In Eau Claire, an appliance recycler recovers refrigerant widiin a scrap-processing facility. Under die
agreement, a scrap metal recycler, Max Phillips and Sons, accepts refrigerators for a fee from appliance
owners. These appliances are then directed to JR's Recycling, a leased area within the scrap yard. The
refrigerant is recovered and reclaimed, PCB capacitors are removed, and the processed units are returned
to die scrap yard for metal recycling. JR's Recycling is licensed by Wisconsin Department of Resources
for refrigerant and by EPA to generate hazardous waste.
Contact: Terry Zeien
JR's Recycling
                                      Austin, Texas
   The Environmental and Conservation Service of the City of Austin works with Ecology Action, a non-
profit organization, to recover refrigerant from appliances before disposal. Ecology Action operates a recy-
cling center at die entrance of die municipal landfill. Trained technicians using leased equipment recover
refrigerant from units before landfilling. The City of Austin provide? free space and electricity to die Ecology
Action staff". Ecology Action pays for the equipment by returning recovered refrigerant to die distributor
providing the machine. The distributor can dien reclaim and resell this refrigerant.
   In addition, die City of Austin surpasses the federal prohibition on venting by calling for leak detec-
tion and repair of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment and by requiring technicians to acquire
permits to handle refrigerants.
Contact: Kevin Bart
Residential Program Manager, Environmental and Conservation  Service
Ciry of Austin

governments are developing plans to issue con-
tracts to landfill and scrap  facility operators to
recover refrigerant.

    Landfill and scrap facility operators may want
to consider establishing joint ventures with air-con-
ditioning and refrigeration technicians. In this
option, final processors and technicians share facili-
ty space in order to remove the refrigerant from
appliances before processing.

Midstream Recovery: Appliance
Recycling Programs

    Some municipalities and counties may choose to
develop their own appliance recycling programs or may
develop contracts with privately-owned recyclers. The
appliance collection services are generally provided by
private companies. Their facilities are often equipped
to handle very high volumes of appliances, accepting
approximately 1,000 appliances a week. Appliance
recyclers generally remove potentially hazardous PCB
capacitors and recover refrigerant before transporting
these appliances to scrap metal dealers. In addition,
some scrap dealers also require removal of compres-
sors, used oil, motors, insulation, mercury switches,
and other components. Some facilities are also devel-
oping recycling processes for the foam insulation in
these appliances, which generally contains CFC-11.
    Appliance recycling programs reduce the volume
of waste headed for landfills and reduce CFC and
HCFC emissions. Although these are important bene-
fits, the most aggressive participants in appliance recy-
cling programs have a different objective in mind—
saving energy. Many utilities facing spiraling energy
demands are turning to energy conservation programs
(also known as demand-side management programs)
instead of building  new and costly power plants. In
the case of home appliances, utilities realized that con-
sumers usually continue using old and inefficient
refrigerators after purchasing new ones. In response,
some companies have developed programs to pick
these units up at no cost to the consumer.

Other Technical Issues
in Refrigerant

Identifying Refrigerants
    Technicians repairing and disposing of appli-
ances today may encounter equipment containing
refrigerants other than CFCs and HCFCs. Sulfur
dioxide (R-764), ammonia  (R-717), methyl for-
mate (R-611), and methyl  chloride (R-40) were
commonly used in household  refrigerators and
home air conditioners as late as the 1950's.
                                          New England
        Northeast Utilities, the largest electric utility system in New England, instituted an appliance-pickup pro-
     _gram. The recyder under contract to the utility recovers refrigerant, removes PCB capacitors and mercury
     ,- switches, and resells the metal to a, scrap recycler. Over a 2-year period, the program collected 31,142 working
      refrigerators and freezers from consumers, saving over 17 million kilowatt hours of electricity—-enough to
      meet the annual energy needs of 28,000 homes. In addition, over 3 million pounds of scrap metal have been
      resold, and over 8,000 pounds of refrigerants have been recovered and purified for resale. Two large appliance
      recyders working with utilities are die Appliance .RecyclingCenters ofAmerica and Planergy, Inc..        ':..
      ARCA: 800 452-8680
      Planergy: 800531-5114                                        :.    "'   ; :; [..  . ;  .:.:: '•''.: ;;":

                                                                                         '          ;' '  '"" '  "'       '" ''1 '
                                                              Madison, Wisconsin
                                The City of Madison entered into a 1-year contract with a private firm to remove PCB capacitors
                             and recover refrigerant from appliances containing refrigerant. Under die current system, the City of
                             Madison pays $10 per unit over the $48,000 flat fee paid for the general recycling service. In addition,
                             die city guarantees the contractor at least $60 per ton of scrap metal.
                                This program was developed in order to comply with  a state regulation that exceeds federal
                             requirements. Act 335 prohibits the landfilling of appliances effective January 1, 1992. In addition,
                             the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources developed the following rules:
                                                                                   f   	 -- • •                       - •• -
                             •  Appliance salvagers/dismanders must register annually with the state and certify that CFCs will
                                be recovered from discarded appliances using state-approved equipment operated by individuals
                                who Have attended state-approved training.
                             •  Any one person who transports discarded appliances that may contain CFCs must register with
                                die Department of Natural Resources annually and provide information on transport equip-
                                ment and loading procedures.
                             •  Only certified appliance salvagers/dismantlers may sell or give CFC-containing appliances to a
                                scrap  metal processor; written certification that die CFCs have been recovered is required.
                             Contact: George Dreckman
                             Street Division
                             Department of Public Works, City of Madison
                                                              Jacksonville, Florida
                                The City of Jacksonville operates a general recycling program in which municipal employees
                              process home appliances before disposal. The city recovers refrigerant and removes PCB capacitors
                              before sending the processed appliance to a scrap recycler. Recovered refrigerant is reclaimed and then
                              redistributed; CFC-12 is returned to the city motor pool for use in municipal automobile air condi-
                              tioners, while HCFC-22 is used in window air-conditioning units in housing and urban development
                              offices. The City of Jacksonville handles approximately 3,300 tons of appliances a year. This innovative
                              program currendy pays for itself through revenue from sales of scrap metal.
                              CoMact: Nelson Caswell
                              Collection and Recycling Program, City of Jacksonville
                            Refrigerators using sulfur dioxide are apparent-
                       ly the only ones found in any significant quantity.
                       For example, in an appliance recycling program
                       operated by Planergy, Inc., in New York State, only
                       2 percent of die 12,000 units processed used sulfur
                       dioxide as a refrigerant. Planergy encountered sig-
                       nificantly  fewer household appliances containing
                       mediyl formate, methyl chloride, or ammonia.
    Technicians can quickly determine the kind
of refrigerant used by checking the identification
tag on the unit. These tags are commonly found
on the bottom or front of the unit. Identifying the
refrigerant used in an appliance without using the
tag requires significant experience with refrigera-
tion. In most cases, unknown refrigerants can be
recovered and incinerated.

    Different refrigerants pose different health haz-
ards. The U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services issues occupational health guidelines for
different substances. The Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) also  sets regula-
tions for handling substances. In general terms,
how-ever, sulfur dioxide has an extremely noxious
odor that causes coughing and stinging in the eyes.
The refrigerant can be used safely because no
human or animal can stand even a small concentra-
tion of sulfur dioxide in the air. Methyl  chloride
has a sweet odor, but if breathed can have an anaes-
thetic effect and is known  to sometimes have a
delayed toxic effect. Exposure to methyl  formate
may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and
lungs. It may also cause drowsiness, and at high lev-
els, unconsciousness and death.

    Sulfur dioxide, methyl  chloride, and methyl
formate can be recovered with conventional equip-
ment and then incinerated. Ammonia in liquid form
can be neutralized with a weak acid or diluted with
large quantities of water. Although sulfur dioxide
can also be neutralized, it is generally incinerated.

Handling Used Refrigerant  Oils
    Used oils removed from air-conditioning and
refrigeration equipment usually contain a signifi-
cant quantity of CFCs. Some of these CFCs can be
removed for reclamation from the used oil using
appropriate recovery techniques.

    The new Part 279 of Title 40 of die  Code of
Federal Regulations under the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act (RCRA) establishes management
standards for  used oils. Originally, CFC-contami-
nated used oils were considered hazardous if they
exhibited a halogen level—a test for chlorine con-
tent—over 1,000 parts per million (ppm). The
new standard exempts CFC-contaminated oils if:
•   Generators and handlers of these used oils
    attempt to recover and reclaim these CFCs.

•   The used oils with residual CFCs are not
    mixed with used oils from other  sources or
    other wastes.
    Used oils with residual CFCs are still subject to
other appropriate Part 279 standards. For example,
used oils containing more than 4,000 ppm total
halogens are considered "off-specification used fuels."
    For further information about management
standards for specification and off-specification used
oils contact the U.S. EPA's RCRA Hodine at 800

Looking Toward the

    In addition to minimizing the release of exist-
ing CFCs and HCFCs through phaseout and recy-
cling rules, EPA is exploring other innovative ways
to reduce emissions of these gases in the future.

CFC-11 Removal From
    Insulating foams in appliances often contain
CFC-11. The amount  of potentially  recoverable
refrigerant in foams is generally equivalent to the
amount of refrigerant in the equipment's cooling
system. However, there are significant technical
problems in attempting to retrieve CFC-11 from
foam. In addition, foam retrieval technology is
prohibitively expensive  for widespread use in the
United States. EPA is interested in demonstration
projects to investigate the feasibility of using this or
newer CFC-11 retrieval  technology or  foam incin-
eration projects. EPA does not at this  time intend
to require recovering CFCs in foams  from appli-
ances before disposal.

New Refrigerants
    In the 1990's, the refrigeration and air-condi-
tioning industry is taking dramatic steps toward
developing new refrigerants. Manufacturers are
exploring the use of hydrofluorocarbons, blends,
and other substances that neither deplete the ozone
layer nor contribute significandy to global warming
and that could improve equipment lifetimes and
energy efficiency.


Innovations in Energy
    EPA is also working with utilities interested in
energy conservation and manufacturers of air-con-
ditioning  and refrigeration equipment toward
another important goal: developing super-efficient
refrigerators. EPA's "Golden Carrot™" Super-
Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) brings these
diverse groups together to develop and market
CFC-free refrigerators and freezers that consume at
least 30 percent less energy than efficiency require-
ments set by the 1993 National Appliance Energy
Conservation Act (NAECA).
    This innovative program provides manufac-
turers with incentives to develop technologically
advanced, energy-efficient refrigerators at low
investment risk. A recent competition led to the
selection of Frigidaire and "Whirlpool as the final-
ists in a competition to develop a new generation
of super-efficient refrigerators and freezers. The
winner and other participants with competitive
models will be eligible for about $30 million in
incentives from participating utilities that will keep
the cost of super-efficient refrigerators and freezers
at die same level as their less efficient counterparts.
This program promises to bring high-technology,
high-efficiency, and environmentally-friendly
refrigerators and freezers to homes across America.
  :    For information concerning regu-
   lations related to stratospneric ozone  ,
   protection, call the  Stratospheric  *
   Ozone Hotline Monday through  ^
   jjifiifiay (except federal
   holidays)  at 800  296-
   1996 "between 1O am and
  ;prp|jl' fl-astern Time).

                                                                                          OMB# 2060-0256
                                                                                          Expiration Date: 5/96
                                ACQUISITION CERTIFICATION FORM
     EPA regulations require establishments that service or dispose of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment
     to certify by August 12,1993 that they have acquired recovery or recycling devices that meet EPA standards
     for such devices.  To certify that you have acquired equipment, please complete this form according to
     the instructions and mail it to the appropriate EPA Regional Office. BOTH THE INSTRUCTIONS AND
          Name of Establishment                               Street
          (Area Code) Telephone Number
                        Zip Code
          Number of Service Vehicles Based at Establishment

            Identify the type of work performed by the establishment.  Check all boxes that apply.

          D Type A -Service small appliances
          D Type B -Service refrigeration or air conditioning equipment other than small appliances
          D Type C .-Dispose of small appliances
          D Type D -Dispose of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment other than small appliances

                 Name of Device(s) Manufacturer    Model Number    Year
 Serial Number (if any)
                     Check Box if Self-


              I certify that the establishment in Part 1 has acquired the refrigerant recovery or recycling device(s) listed in
              Part 2, that the establishment is complying with Section 608 regulations, and that the information given is true
              and correct.
                Signature of Owner/Responsible Officer
Name (Please Print)
Public reporting burden for this.collection of Information is estimated to vary from 20 minutes to 60 minutes per response with an average of 10 minutes per response, including time for reviewing instructions.

searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing the collection of information. Send comments regarding ONLY the burden estimates or any other aspects of this collection

of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Chief, Information Policy Branch: EPA;401 M St., S.W. (PM-223Y); Washington, DC 20460; and to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs,

Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503, marked 'Attention: Desk Officer of EPA" DO NOT SEND THIS FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESSES. ONLY SEND COMMENTS TO THESE