&EPA
                    United States
                    Environmental Protection
                    Agency
                Air and Radiation
                6202J
EPA 430-N-95-009
October 1995
Green  Lights &      (
Energy Star Update
                                                      X w ,/ EPA
                                                     k  WGreen
                                                       ^ Lights
                 Upgrade Financing Made Easy
                        See Pg. 14
                  401 M STREET, SW (6202J), WASHINGTON, DC 20460
                   ENERGY STAR FAX. LINE SYSTEM • 202 233-9659
             GREEN LIGHTS/ENERGY STAR HOTLINE 202 77S-6650 • FAX 202 775-6680

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lalscL teiaciiie:,::arnew -aie:


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          L.L.Beanf
   Upgrades  at L.L.  Bean's  Freeport,
Maine  retail  store  prove that  Green
Lights can improve  lighting quality. In
January 1993, the company began replac-
ing fixtures and ballasts in the oldest sec-
tion  of the  store.  In  the  footwear
department, L.L.  Bean  upgraded from
four-lamp fixtures with standard ballasts
and energy-saving lamps to four-lamp T8
electronic ballasts with  reflectors. This
made a very dark floorspace 40 percent
brighter. In the Fishing/Hunting depart-
ment,  2x4-four-lamp   trotters  were
switched to 2x4-three-lamp T8 parabolic
fixtures. This  upgrade made the whole
area brighter and allowed the items on
display to stand out better. "All areas of
the retail store have always been better off
after a Green Lights upgrade project,"
said Ron Jacques, lighting specialist for
L.L. Bean. Not only did lighting quality
increase, so did the savings. L.L. Bean
saves more  than 71,000  kWh and over
$6,800 annually from this upgrade.
    The  outfitter  is  in  the process of
upgrading the rest of the Freeport retail
 store as well as its North Conway factory
 store. Jacques said employee and customer
 reactions to these projects were extremely
 positive. "Everyone I've spoken to said the
 areas were better lit and that the items on
 display stood out more clearly." The com-
 pany's  Concord,  New  Hampshire  and
 Rehoboth Beach, Delaware factory stores
 were  built  with  energy efficiency  and
 visual comfort in mind in accordance with
 ASHRAE 90.1 standards.

              LOWE'S
    It seems appropriate for a store dedi-
 cated to home improvement projects  to
 also be dedicated to  energy-efficient store
                   Inside LL Bean's Freeport Maine retail store.
construction.  All
Lowe's stores meet
the     minimum
requirements   of
the Green Lights
Memorandum of
Understanding
when   they  are
built. Even before
joining    Green
Lights  in  1993,
Lowe's was  installing  energy-efficient
equipment  and fixtures.  For  example,
Lowe's has  been installing 400-watt,
metal halide lights in its sales areas since
1980.  Many  Lowe's stores were being
constructed with higher ceilings and, as a
result, designers found they had to install
more fluorescent  lights in  order for  the
light to adequately reach the floor. Because
of the stores' high display racks, lighting
designers needed to be concerned with
vertical as well as horizontal footcandles,
explained Frank Patterson, Lowe's envi-
ronmental systems manager. "Metal halide
lamps make good business sense because
you get more light  for less money  and
energy," said Patterson. Out of more than
21 million square feet of sales space, over
95 percent uses energy-efficient  metal
halide lighting.
    In  addition, Lowe's began  installing
building manage-
                                       The building management system utilizes
                                       time-of-day, demand limiting and photo-
                                       cell control strategies to reduce energy
                                       usage. The company also uses high-effi-
                                       ciency rooftop  HVAC systems to heat
                                       and cool the sales areas as well as a unique
                                       "nighttime purge" method to pre-cool the
                                       stores.  "Energy conservation  is very
                                       important to Lowe's senior management,"
                                       said Patterson.  "By building efficiently
                                       and utilizing available technology, we are
                                       being energy-conscious from Day 1."
                                          Longs Drugs Stores, a retail drug chain
                                       with almost 300 stores in the western U.S.,
                                       understands  what lighting quality and
                                       design  can  mean  to  business.  After
                                       research showed  that customers  who
                                                            continued on page 4
ment systems  in
all new  stores  in
1986. The systems
are  programmed
and    monitored
at Lowe's general
office in N.Wilkes-
boro, North Caro-
lina and control all
store lighting and
electrical  loads.
                   Longs Drugs store in Hilo, Hawaii.
                                                              October 1995 • 3

-------
   G   L   &   E   5
 cmtmuedjmm page 3
 couldn't sec the indoor lamps thought the
 fadlity was dosed, Longs upgraded to fix-
 tures that were visible from outside of the
 store* Since 1992, Longs has upgraded fix-
 tures in more than  150 stores. These
 buildings used open strip fixtures which
 are common to many retail stores* Open
 Strip fixtures  provide a  direct/indirect
 combination of lighting that is effective at
 illuminating retail spaces, but has a high
 power density that uses  excess electricity,
 In addition, these fixtures produced a glare
 that drew the customer's eye, away from
 merchandise and towards the ceiling. The
 new Extures provide optimum light dis-
 persal and maximize light in the vertical
 plane.   Light  is  evenly  distributed
 throughout the sales area without hurting
 lighting levels on the bottom shelves. "For
 retail lighting, many factors must be taken
 into consideration/ said  Dave Alexander,
 facilities manager for Longs Drug Stores.
 "Color  rendition,  attractive  fixtures,
 removal and control of shadows, and ease
 of maintenance are all important areas to
 address lor effective retail lighting,17
   Longs  successfully upgraded more
 than 100 of its stores and is now saving
 SI.5 million  annually and  32  million
 kWh per year. Approximately 27,000 fix-

                store Jp Mtoml Florida,
 tures were upgraded with specular reflec-
 tors, electronic ballasts, and 41QOK lamps.
 Alexander said  that  customers  have
 noticed the upgrades too. "I get comments
 such as "I can see deeper into the store
 now' and that colors appear brighter and
 products look clearer."
   Service Merchandise is using a two-
 phase approach for implementing Green
 Lights, The  first  phase is upgrading.
 Service Merchandise has contracted with
 Sylvania  Lighting  Services  (SLS)>  a
 Lighting Management Company Ally, to
 upgrade approximately 50 stores a year.
 SLS is removing all T12s and incandes-
 cent lamps and replacing them with T8s
 and compact fluorescents.
   The   second   phase   of  Service
 Merchandise's Green Lights implementa-
 tion is in new  coastruction,. Lighting
 Distributor Ally E, Sam Jones, is working
 to provide allTSs, electronic ballasts, and
 PAR halogen lamps for highlighting the
jewelry display cases, Two- and four-lamp
T8 combinations in a variety of fixtures
 highlight  all of the products that Service
Merchandise has to offer. More than 60
stores have already been built with them.
                       "The Green Lights
                       upgrades   have
                       received  an A*
                       from all  of our
                       employees, rang-
                      ing from people
                      in the warehous-
                      es to people on
                      the  sales  floor,"
                      said Terry Mayo,
                      assistant     vice
                      president    for
                      maintenance and
                      facility services
 at Service Merchandise. KDue to the
 improved light levels and color rendering
 of the T8 lamps, the appearance of the
 store has improved 100 percent."

             JCPenney
    Lighting may not be the most tangible
 part of retailing but it is one of the largest
 components  of general expense next to
 labor or salary costs and it can have a posi-
 tive effect on sales, "Retail is a very compet-
 itive business and typically retailers would
 rather spend money on new merchandising
 fixtures than new light fixtures," said Alan
 Rose,  energy programs manager for JC
 Penney, "Lighting is  an integral part of
 merchandising presentation and I suspect
 not all retailers realize that fact."
   JC Pennsys general lighting upgrades
 have included changing HID metal halide
 lamps with magnetic  ballasts to compact
 fluorescent T5 lamps, These upgrades to
 high-efficiency  fixtures have significantly
 improved the color rendering index (CR1)
 in the stores. The higher the CRI^the more
 natural the light inside the store becomes.
 This translates into colors appearing more
 'true to life' for consumers, JC Penneys
 upgrades have greatly  improved illumina-
 tion levels and also improved the CRT from
 65 to 81 or 82 in its stores. Rose said that
 customer comments range  from knowing
 'something's different' to fewer complaints
 that merchandise colors look different out-
 side of the store.
   One area of JC Penney that has expe-
 rienced a marked difference in  lighting
 are the  hair styling salons. According to
 Rose, both stylists and customers have
 noticed  the  improvements  from the
upgrades. Improved illumination is espe-
cially important for stylists when coloring
hair because it allows them to perceive
colors better.
   Green Lights represents an excellent
4  • October 1995

-------
                                                                                                    iii
money-saving opportunity for retailers,
according to  Rose.  "Retail is ripe for
Green Lights. Many retail facilities were
built over 20 years ago, using a lot of inef-
ficient lighting and, therefore, have the
potential to save large amounts of energy."
JC Penney is a prime example. Its stores
in which the program has been  imple-
mented are saving JC Penney more than
$4 million annually in energy  costs and
reducing electricity usage by 56,884,000
kWh per year.

            gjSAFEWAY
   When grocery shopping, there is noth-
ing worse than a dark store where shelves
are so poorly lit that it's hard to tell the dif-
ference between apples and oranges. That
is why when Safeway upgrades one of its
stores, the first consideration is always the
presentation of the product. According to
Corporate  Maintenance  and  Utility
Manager Randy McAdam, when Safeway
decides to  upgrade, it is  tasked with
improving or at the very least not reducing
light levels in its stores. McAdam  has
found that by using newer triphosphate
lamps, Safeway is able to get excellent light
 quality as well as energy-efficient lighting.
To date, Safeway has upgraded 355 stores
 across the U.S., equaling about 12.5 mil-
 lion  square  feet. And  customers and
 employees  have  noticed the  upgrades,
 added McAdam.  "Employees  have com-
 mented on the color rendition and cus-
 tomers like the improved brightness."
              New
  Retail Participants
  |Dayton Hudson Corporation -
   ^Department Stores Division
                       JC Penney
   According to McAdam,
Green Lights is an ideal
program  for  supermar-
kets looking  to reduce
energy costs  and con-
sumption. Supermarkets
generally  operate on  a
slim profit margin. Next
to the cost of food sold
and the  cost of labor,
energy is their largest
expense.  It  is  not  unusual for grocery
stores to report profits in the range of 1.5
to 2 cents on the dollar. With those types
of margins it takes $50.00 in grocery sales
to pay for one dollar of electricity. Green
Lights upgrades will typically reduce elec-
trical consumption in a store  by about
eight to 10 percent.  McAdam said  that
programs such  as Green Lights,  which
can show how to significantly reduce elec-
tricity expenses are very attractive to his
company's senior management.  "Green
Lights upgrades can  save us millions of
dollars. That's an opportunity  not to be
missed."

   For new retailers, the advantage  of
building  energy efficiently in  the  first
place offers a headstart on their Green
Lights commitment. The  Home Depot,
founded in 1978, is a shining example. All
of its older stores have completed their
upgrades and all new construction meets
criteria for Green Lights. Another advan-
tage that Home Depot has is a commit-
ment by management to  support Green
Lights  and  energy  efficiency.  "Our
President is very supportive of what we
are doing and without that commitment
you go nowhere," said Jim Laird, corpo-
rate engineering manager.  "He is  the
biggest proponent of  energy  savings."
Energy costs have a big effect on the bot-
tom line, therefore, energy cost-saving
efforts  are  important  to  consider.
According to Laird, saving $1 in energy
costs is equal to almost $20 in sales.
   It is also important to Home Depot to
publicize  its efforts to its  customers. A
"We Care about the Environment"  ban-
ner, highlighting the stores' involvement
in Green Lights, recycling programs, and
other  environmentally conscious  mea-
sures, is hung in the front of all 400 stores.
To further inform the public  about  its
commitment to  energy efficiency, the
store  publishes   the  Environmental
Newsprint. This newsletter focuses on the
stores' efforts  to sell environmentally
sound products, recycle  cardboard  con-
tainers,  and perform other  important
actions, including Green Lights.
    As part of its energy-efficient lighting,
most Home Depots utilize metal halide
lights with acrylic refractor lenses for up
lighting.  The  acrylic refractor lenses
replaced metal refractor lenses, which had
given the impression of a dimly lit ceiling.
Good lighting that "opens up" the ceiling
is  important for a warehouse  store like
Home Depot because it wants to high-
light the  fact that merchandise is stocked
from floor to ceiling and, therefore, selec-
tion and value are excellent. In addition,
many stores take advantage of daylighting
 to increase footcandles when needed. Ml
                                                                                                        October 1995 • 5

-------
   UPDATE
                   WING
                  PARTICIPATIOIV
                                         Green Lights Attends APPA Conference
                                                  EPA spreads energy-efficiency message to
                                                  college and university facilities managers
 I  olleges and  universities  around the
 V^countrf learned how Green Lights and
 ENERGY STAR programs can save money
 and energy at the Association of Higher
 Education Facilities  Officers  (APPA)
 1995 Education Conference and Annual
 Meeting in  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
 APPA is an international association ded-
 icated to advancing excellence in facilities
 management in  higher education. Its
 members include more than  1,500 col-
 leges and universities worldwide.
   More than 600 top-level facilities pro-
 fessionals learned about the latest technol-
 ogy, government and regulatory policies,
 and solutions to facilities operation and
 maintenance issues. Participants learned
 how Green Lights and ENERGY STAR pro-
 grams can help higher education facilities
 lower their expenditures and save energy
 on their campuses. Attendees spoke one-
 on-one with Green Lights representatives
 Dona Canales from the U.S. EPA and
 Mindee Denmark from EPA Region III,
 A roundtable session was also held for
 Green Lights Partners and prospective
 participants to learn more about the pro-
 gram and Its benefits. HI
                                      Making the Most of Your GL Participation
                                                     Workshop addresses marketing and
                                                    communications needs of participants
 I—low do you internally market your pol-
 I  I lution prevention program? Use Green
 Lights to give your organization a com-
 petitive edge? Answers to these communi-
 cations questions and others were given at
 the first "Maximizing Your Green Lights
 Participation'1 workshop held on July 11,
 at Honeywell, Inc.  in  Minneapolis,
Minnesota, The workshop, the first in a
national series, addresses the internal mar-
keting and  external  communications
needs of Green Lights participants.
   Thirty   participants   from  the
Minneapolis/StPaul  area learned about
the communications tools and services
EPA has available to further Green Lights
marketing needs from Green Lights and
ENERGY STAR Communications Director
Sol Salinas, Attendees also received prac-
 tical guidance on ways to promote their
 Green  Lights commitment and  strate-
 gized with  their colleagues  to identify
 additional communications efforts.
   The Green Lights communications
 team will be working with participants in
 Minnesota and Wisconsin to implement
 the communications projects and activities
 outlined at the workshop, including the
 placement of articles and public service
 advertisements.
   The next "Maximizing Your Green
 Lights Participation" workshop is  tenta-
 tively scheduled  for November in Los
Angeles. For information about  future
workshops and how EPA can help you
promote your pollution prevention efforts,
contact the Green Lights/ENERGY STAR
Hotline at 202 775-6650. H
6 • October 1995

-------

                 A Whopper  of an Event
             Miami Ceremony recognizes Burger King
             and other new and established participants
It was the hottest thing to hit Miami
I since "Miami Vice," as new and estab-
lished Green  Lights  participants were
honored  for their pollution prevention
efforts at the University of Miami on July
21st. Participants in the Summer Recog-
nition Ceremony were recognized for their
Green Lights accomplishments and were
later given a tour of the University's newly
upgraded space. The  20 new Partners'
total facility space equals 75 million square
feet and a potential $14 million in savings.
   In his address  to the attendees, EPA
Regional Administrator John Hankinson
congratulated  both  new  and  existing
Green Lights Partners for their commit-
ment to help clean up the environment.
"Green  Lights proves  that environmental
stewardship can also yield significant cost
savings  through  reduced expenditures,"
said Hankinson. Other speakers included
Nichole Hefty, manager, Pollution Pre-
vention Programs, Dade County Depart-
ment   of  Environmental  Resources
Management and Vic Atherton, assistant
vice president of the University of Miami.
    Awards were  also presented  to  15
 established Green Lights Partners  and
Allies for  their excellence and commit-
 ment to the program. Many of the compa-
nies had completed all upgrades
and others were well on their way
to achieving all  of their Green
Lights goals. Certificates of merit
were  presented to: One  Enter-
prise  Center,  Cape   Canaveral
Marine  Services, Inc., Johnson
Controls World Services, Inc.,
Okeechobee School Board, Mor-
Lite, Energy Planning Associates,
First  International Asset Man-
agement, Broward County, Uni-
versity of Miami, Dade  County,
Bell South Telecommunications, Southern
Company Services, Inc., W.R. Grace &c
Company,  LTI  International, Inc.,  and
North-Shore Medical Center.
   Plans are being made for other signing
and recognition ceremonies to take place
around  the country.  Keep  reading  the
(l-r) EPA Regional Administrator John Hankinson thanks Jim
Durante of the University of Miami for hosting the 1995
Green Lights Summer Recognition Ceremony.
       Update for additional information. Green
       Lights wishes to  thank the University of
       Miami and all participants involved for
       taking time out to focus on energy effi-
       ciency and improved  bottom line, and
       good government. Hi
      "Organizations like Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corporation
         and Burger King, through their voluntary enrollment in
             Green Lights, demonstrate that business and the
               environment do not have to be miles apart."
      -John Hoffman, Director of EPA's Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division
 Congratulations to the following new participants who were recognized at the Miami Ceremony:
 2ABB PpwerT & D Co, Inc.
 gfegfe^T'" 4.^                    I  1-i
 JACME Electric Corporation
 t _ (Transformer Division)
 gtp*^,
 [Burger King Corporation
  Zoahoma Community College
   folumbia/HCA Healthcare Corporation
   bokson Fibers
 E Sam Jones Distributor, Inc.
 East Carolina University
 Florida Army National Guard
 Florida International University
 Georgia Army National Guard
 Great Smoky Mountains National Park
 Henry General Hospital
       Mississippi Army National Guard
       PattieAClay Hospftal
       Southeast Energy Technical Group
       Southern Appalachian Mountain Initiative
       Systems Solutions of Georgia, Inc.
       Tennessee Army National Guard
       The West Company
                                                                                                    October 1995 • 7

-------
                                                         A Lighting Upgrade Must
                                                               Parabolic luminaires provide
                                                         energy-efficient,  uniform illumination
                                          I n commercially lit space the fluorescent
                                          Iluminaire is generally accepted as the
                                         most efficient  form of illumination.
                                         Although there  are many different types
                                         of fluorescent luminaires,  the  parabolic
                                         luminaire is considered the most efficient.
                                         One common  problem in commercial
                                         offices is the frequent use of video display
                                         terminals  (VDT's) and glare caused by
                                         fluorescent luminaires. Most luminaires
                                         have little glare control, allowing the light
                                         to escape at high angles. This light is often
                                         reflected in the VDT's, making it difficult
                                         to see the screen. The parabolic reflector
                                         poses an advantage here as well. Light that
                                         is reflected  downward has almost  no
                                         chance to reflect in 'the VDT screen and,
                                   thus, glare is significantly reduced.
                                     A parabolic luminaire is named for the
                                   shape  of the reflector around the  lamp
                                   which  is in the form of a parabola. Light
                                   leaving a parabolic luminaire is focused
                                   down towards the task with little horizon-
                                   tal component. Parabolic luminaires have
                                   excellent glare control because light that
                                   would  exit at higher directions has been
                                   captured   and   directed   downward.
                                   Consequently,  as walls receive less light,
                                   the task receives more light. The improve-
                                   ment in light output reaching the task is as
                                   much as 20 percent. Therefore, a three-
                                   lamp parabolic will suffice at 75 percent of
                                   the energy where one might have used a
                                   four-lamp flat lensed luminaire for nearly
           the performance of a fouNSght
          Lrrinaiw h a     open space to
  :           when lumpnat KS are- replaced
                    using T8 lamps and
        ballasts. To nia>«mfze efficiency we
WHr        a specular fipBh^ to the luminaire
*tth        output T8 lamps md four-lamp
              electronic        tarxtem-
flri^d (te-o faturei per batladj irs a space with
m RCR cf oneVvfe *« also •assume tha the    S5?!*!^^
area fe pr«en%      (75 Foot candfes) and
              ; jevet closer to 4Q-5Q foot
                                                              Standard          Standard          Parabolic
                                                              Luminaire     Luminaire Upgraded     Luminaire
                                                           Tf2/Std Ballast    T8/Elec BaHast     TS/EIee Ballast
                                                                 11590
                                                                                   J 09=80
                                           Lumen DirectedfTask
                   ana
                   >SFC
                                                                                   TffQ
                                                                                   72 K
        472 f
       44 FC
                                                                 174
                                                                 2.45
                                                                 WA
                                      153
         S3
        L25
                  Of a fixture manufacturer
  shew a OJ for the faur-ight tensed tumrnaire
  to be ,70 and the CU far a. two-iglft specular
  parabolic to be .14
     Ai-tne     shows, the parabolic lurriname
        provides-1«     ligW tmd while sau~
  iflg, 70 percent "n        uses, TTie efficiency
  gam of the parabote lUminars      is about
        she               erf the standard
  jura-nareThB      that aiacMy ft with par-
       lJnwwes,T8 lamps, arvd electronic bai-
  iaste can, tie ut  lor half the watts per square
      tttari     in corsyentiona! itghtlrg deagis.
                          FIXTURES
 Standard 2x4 Lensed           Parabolic Fotftire or Reflector
L
   65% EFFICIENT
EFFICIENT
8  • October 199S

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GREEN LIGHTS IMPLEMENTATION REPORT
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-------
the same light level.
   Consider  this  experiment. Shine  a.
flashlight into a door mounted mirror that
is  partially opened in an otherwise dark
room. The light, which normally travels in
a straight line, is reflected by the mirror to
a particular point outside of the room. As
the door is moved inward the ray of light
comes closer to its source (the flashlight).
As the door is opened the ray of light
begins to approach a straight line. If you
had multiple  mirrors  on the  door at
increasingly open angles, the light would
be reflected in multiple directions covering
a wide swath outside the room. If, instead
of multiple mirrors,  the mirror were
curved in a seamless line, the light reflec-
tion would be wide, smooth and uniform.
   This is what happens in a luminaire. In
order  to see the work on our desks ade-
quately, our offices must have light reflect-
ed out of a housing (lighting fixture or
luminaire) containing lamps that can illu-
minate our desks uniformly. This is one of
the primary functions of a luminaire. The
other function  of a luminaire is to capture
as much light as possible to minimize the
energy required to deliver an appropriate
light level.
    To increase the efficiency of a lumi-
 naire, evaluate all rays leaving  the light
 source and ensure that each path taken
 delivers that ray to the task. For example,
 in a typical 2x4 lay-in fluorescent lumi-
 naire, there are as many as four one and a
 half inch diameter (T12)  lamps. Light
 generated  by the lamps  gets  trapped
 behind  them  and never exits the lumi-
 naire. One  way to minimize this is to
 reduce the number of lamps in the lumi-
 naire; this means that more light gets out
 per lamp. Think of this process as maxi-
 mizing the surface area of the reflector
 with  respect to each individual lamp. A
2x4 four-lamp luminaire has less surface
area of reflectance per lamp than a 2x4
two-lamp luminaire.
   A second way to improve the efficiency
is  to change the curve of the reflector to
deliver as much of the light as possible to
the task and less to non-critical areas. As
in the mirror example, by changing the
shape  of the  curve  we  can change the
direction and spread of the light. The per-
fect solution would have every ray of light
traveling directly towards the task. To do
this, a curve representing the shape of a
parabola must be employed. The interest-
ing point about the parabolic curve is that
it has  a focal point at which lines drawn
from the point and reflected at  the curve,
are all reflected in a parallel dkection.
   Improvements in efficiency in parabol-
ics begin first by limiting the number of
lamps. A two-lamp parabolic is  up to four
percent more efficient than a three-lamp
one for the same space and light level.
Also, deepening the chambers and using a
specular surface (like a  mirror) will also
increase the level of light delivered to the
task Maximizing the energy savings can
then be accomplished by employing high-
ly efficient T8 lamps and electronic bal-
lasts in the luminaires.
    The fixture industry uses two measures
 to demonstrate  the efficiency of a lumi-
 naire.  Fixture efficiency is a calculation that
 shows the percentage of luminaire light
 output against the rated light output of the,
 lamps and ballasts. Unfortunately, fixture
 efficiency does not tell where
 light  are directed. A second term,
" the coefficient of utilization (CU), projects,
 the percentage  of light that  is actually
 directed to the lighting task Because get-
 ting proper illumination on the task is not
 just a function of the luminaire but also is
 effected by reflection of light off the ceil-
ings and walls, the CU is dependent on
room dimensions. These room dimensions
are boiled down to a ratio called the room
cavity ratio (RCR). Fixture manufacturers
provide tables for each luminaire that show
the CU  at  different RCR's. Wide-open
spaces have longer room  dimensions,
which correlate to lower RCR's and fewer
light  reflections off the walls affecting the
illumination levels.  Consequently, wide
open spaces with lower RCR's will show
higher CU values for luminaires.
   Under the Green Lights MOU com-
mitment, participants agree to maximize
energy savings. When fluorescent lighting
is  in use or proposed for commercial
installations, be sure to consider parabolic
luminaires. H

        IMPLEMENTATION
          **SNAPSHOT:
          CO2, SO2 and KOX
             PrevenlEed by   ___    __
       Green Lights Upgrades
   2,500,000,000

   2,000,000,000

   1,500,000,000
a
   (,000,000,000
    500,000,000.
CO
Feb
1992
                   Jan
                   1993
            Jan     ]an  July
            1994    1995 1995
     20,000,000
Feb*'
(992
                   Ian
                   1993
            Jan  ~~\'!5n  Jtity
            1994   \I995~ 1 9.95
                                                                                                         October 1995  • 9

-------
                                                     TI|P   OF   THE   MOMTH
                                                        Scaring Away Old Lamps
                                                                  The next stage of the
                                                              Energy Policy At of 1992
                                          I s of this Halloween, some commonly
                                           ased  incandescent and  fluofescent
                                        lamps will become ghosts as the next stage
                                        of the National Energy Policy Act of 1992
                                        (EPAct)  takes effect.  On October  :31,
                                        1995, some widely used incandescent R
                                        and PAR lamps, as well as a few types:of
                                        inefficient four-foot fluorescent lamps will
                                        no longer be manufactured or imported
                                        into the United States.  Although  the
                                        lamps will no longer be available, retailers
                                        will be allowed to sell-off their existing
                                        stock  of non-compliant lamps  after
                                        October 31st.
                                          EPAct sets minimum energy efficiency
                                        standards for electric motors, heating  and
                                        cooling systems, vehicles, power transmis-
                                        sions, gas pipelines, and lighting. To comply
                                        with EPAct, lamps must meet minimum
                            EPAct Standards
                            fas of October 3 J, 1995)
Wattage
«HSQ
sf-eis
116-155
! Si-JU
Minimum
LPW
105
\ t£i
H.G
[5.0
EiuGMSKent Lamps
Lamp Wattage
HO >35
2B-35
HttU
28^35
Some Popular
LampsThat
Will Not Comply
75PAR38, FOQfMoS
l5CffiPM,73l65PAP3f.
Popular
Compliant
Lamps
Halogen PAR lamps
Haiogsn/Mrared PAR lamps
i Elliptical Reflector pi) lamps
1 j SO/! 2CBSJQS Krxpton-llied R-Lamps
7SKQ,7$PM 	 	 ""
IOOWQ, ISGR40""" " 	
200R40
Mtoimum Minimum
CRl LPW
69 75
45 75
«9 68
45 64

Some Popular Popular
LampsThat Compliant
Will Not Comply Lamps
F40CW 32*waST8
F40WVV 40-wattTfO
FWWWX 40-*attTl2* '
ROW 34-wattTi2
F40D
 efficacy (lumens per watt) and color render-
 ing requirements. Non-general  service
 lamps are exempt from EPAct, such as traf-
 fic  signal,  decorative,  impact-resistant,
 reprographic, and plant-growth lamps.
    On April 30,  1994,  EPAct outlawed
 the manufacturing and importing of inef-
 ficient eight-foot fluorescent lamps. On
 October 31, 1995, several types of com-
 monly used  PAR and  R  incandescent
 lamps and general service four-foot and
 two-foot U-hent fluorescent lamps will no
 longer be manufactured or imported. The
 table on the left provides a quick reference
 of lamps that will soon become extinct and
 those that will remain.
   EPAct sets only minimum standards
 for  efficiency,;;: but a  Green Lights
 approach will maximize energy savings.
 For example, an EPAct-compliant substi-
 tute for the 40-watt cool white fluorescent
 lamp (F4QT12) is an energy-saving 34-
 watt cool white lamp (F40T12/ES). In
 addition, an EPAct-compliant substitute
 for a IQO-watt PAR38 incandescent lamp
 would be an 85-watt PAR38 lamp with a
 krypton gas fill. Although these substi-
 tutes save energy,  they are not the most
 energy efficient. A Green Lights upgrade
 might use F32T8 fluorescent and compact
 fluorescent  lamps and other  energy effi-
cient  technologies. By using a Green
Lights upgrade instead  of a minimum
Energy Policy Act upgrade, you can save
almost 40 percent more electricity and
increase the lamps' color rendering index.
In addition to the substantial increase in
energy savings, the Green Lights upgrade
also improves lighting quality. HI
10 • October 1995

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                                                                                               i|8lttrasj!?pSi!|iS-iSft
                     T HE
                 H  T
                Whistle While You Work
                            Increasing worker
                    productivity with Green Lights
IJ educing pollution and increasing ener-
I \gy savings are two of the most widely
publicized benefits of  participating  in
Green Lights.  Yet the program  offers
many other advantages that make organi-
zations more profitable. After upgrading
their lighting,  several  Partners  have
noticed increases in worker productivity
and morale as well as improved color ren-
dering and clarity. For industries such as
manufacturing,  increased morale can
translate  into  a stronger product and
increased sales.
   One of the most overlooked aspects of
any company is office lighting. Outdated
fixtures that produce improper and unbal-
anced lighting plague most offices. In a
recent  Harris  Survey,  47 percent  of
respondents  reported eye  strain on the
job.  Eye strain limits a worker's ability to
focus, an essential part of any job requir-
ing  skilled  labor or attention to  detail.
Unfortunately, most office space compris-
 es of overhead units,  whose lighting is
 inconsistent at best. A good way to  reduce
 eye  strain is to incorporate task  lamps,
 which give users better clarity while using
 less  energy.
   While upgrading a lighting system is
 the  fastest way to save energy and  reduce
 costs, it can also significantly improve
 visual comfort. Offices  and warehouses
 that once had  harsh,  uneven or  murky
 lighting are now crystal clear, with excep-
 tional color rendition and clarity. "Green
 Lights promotes quality efficient lighting.
 This helps people  see  better,  which
 reduces mistakes, increases quality, and
boosts    productivity,"    said   Ron
Strandlund, Green  Lights Implemen-
tation  Director  for  SUPERVALU Inc.
Assembly  workers  who  enjoy quality
lighting  can produce better products.
Distractions are  no longer a  problem,
since new lighting technology has elimi-
nated age-old problems such as lights that
hum or flicker. Possibly one of the great-
est benefits of a lighting up|prade is cus-
tomization—employees can now adjust
lighting to their personal preference, not
being held hostage by general office  set-
tings. Allowing  workers to control their
environment reduces  stress  and work-
related injuries while enhancing morale.
   Improving  the working environment
through Green  Lights  upgrades  helps
generate  profits. Wellington  Sears,  a
Valley, Alabama textile manufacturer, has
upgraded  approximately  30,000 square
feet  of one  of its  facilities. Harold
Lauderdale, manager  of the company's
Langdale mill, points out, "not only do we
obtain cost-savings in electricity bills, but
our productivity has also improved."
    Boeing, one of the country's largest
 aircraft manufacturers, has  also reaped
 the many benefits of being  a  Green
 Lights Partner.  According  to  Boeing's
 Green Lights  Implementation Director
 Fay Weaver, the difference in clarity and
 color  rendition   made  by   lighting
 upgrades "is tremendous. It's like night
 and day." Allies have seen the  Green
 Lights benefits as well. "There's really no
 downside. We've improved  color, visual
 comfort  and productivity, we've saved
money, and we've helped prevent pollu-
tion," said Amy Cox, lighting consultant
for International Energy Conservation
Systems, Inc.
   One of the best steps a Green Lights
participant can take is to consult work-
ers before implementation. Publicizing
the  program  through  informational
workshops  allows  employees  to fully
understand the program and also opens
the  door for suggestions.  "Employees
have shunned the attitude of 'this isn't
my house, this isn't my money'. Instead
they have recognized that a corporate
energy efficiency initiative deserves their
support," said Daniel Stewart, principal
engineer at Rhone-Poulenc, Inc., about
educating  co-workers  about  Green
Lights.  Many participants recommend
designing two  to  four "test"  lighting
examples to help find the most effective
layout. Flexibility  to  employee  prefer-
ence is important—after all, they are the
ones who are directly affected by the
changes.
   Investing in  energy-efficient lighting
upgrades  demonstrates  management's
concern for employee comfort and safety,
which in turn generates stronger morale
throughout  the company.  So
while joining in Green Lights
will significantly reduce your
energy costs, remember that
 it can also help boost
your organization to
 the top. 11
                                                                                                      October 1995 • 11

-------
   <"•  L  &   E   L,
   UPDATE
                                                                           CORNER
                                                             Allies Helping Allies
                                                       Grainger and Illumetek work together to
                                                           fulfill Green Lights commitment
 Catting Ml Allies!
 Careen      has     recognizing -the
:          and Implementation work
 that to          performed by high-
        you in           that are
         through the Green'
 Llgfits/ENERGY STAR Hotline, if your
          has done an outstanding Job
 of         the Green Lights program,
 or has completed upgrades far Green
                     contact the Ally
'        at 202 293-4527, If yaur com-
                would love to show-
     your         efforts In a Green
             !  studj?
    Green  Lights Allies  Grainger  and
    Illumetek, an equipment distributor
 and  a lighting management company,
 share a corporate commitment to better-
 ing our environment in ways that make
 good business sense. In 1993, Illumetek
 President Jim Pulk approached AlTierney
 of Grainger's Real Estate Department for
 a unique partnership. Two years later, 60
 upgrades are the result "We're a good
 team because we work as partners;  we
 meet and discuss things and bounce ideas
 off of one another," said Tierney.
   Grainger,  headquartered in Lincoln-
 shire, Illinois, has  successfully upgraded
 more than 200 showrooms and warehous-
 es—71 percent of its four million square
 feet. By mid-1996,50 additional Grainger
 locations are scheduled  for  completion,
 the environmental equivalent of removing
 620 cars from the road.
   Pulk approached Tierney with a pro-
 posal  to survey Grainger's showrooms,
 warehouses, and  office spaces and recom-
 mend  special design features based  on
 Grainger's  lighting requirements. Pulk
 also proposed to schedule labor, conduct
 installation, provide data for Green Lights
 reporting,  research and  help  file  for
 rebates, and coordinate recycling and dis-
 posal of lamps.
   "We provide services based on client
 need rather than on established practice,
 and at a cost-effective price," said Pulk.
 Since  the  Graiager-IUumetek  alliance
began, Illurnetek  has completed 23 show-
room  and office  upgrades and 37 ware-
house upgrades for Grainger.
   To  meet Grainger's showroom lighting
 needs, Illumetek installed T8 lamps, elec-
 tronic  ballasts,  and deep-cell parabolic
 louvers. Track lighting was installed to
 accent displays and improve color render-
 ing. After the upgrades, lighting quality
 improved  and energy consumption fell
 from approximately 3.5 to 1.5 watts per
 square foot.
   As part of a unique warehouse lighting
 plan  developed by Grainger,  Illumetek
 arranged fixtures In continuous diagonal
 rows  across the ceiling to accommodate
 relocation  of product  racks  and ensure
 even  light distribution. The  upgrade
 exceeded Grainger's warehous^ target illu-
 minance level and improved the color ren-
 dering index.
   Because Grainger's upgrades have been
 so successful,  the company is piloting a
 "Service Provider Program" to promote
 Green Lights and assist clients with light-
 ing upgrades. The program  teams the
 company's own sales force with a group of
 contractors—selected  and qualified by
 Grainger—to  provide  complete lighting
 upgrade services.
   Grainger remains "flexible and innova-
 tive, using specialized  energy-efficient
 lighting products wherever feasible," said
 Frank Muir,  Grainger's Green  Lights
 communications  director and energy pro-
 gram manager.
   In  Grainger's San  Jose,  California
 warehouse, Illumetek installed two photo
 cells to take advantage of sunlight from 54
 skylights. The use  of natural lighting
 decreased electricity use in the facility by
 70 percent by reducing the annual hours of
lighting operation from 2,860 to 800. Hi
12 • Oeioberl99S

-------

 NEW  PROGRAMS  &
  Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases
                   A new way to gain recognition
                    for environmental leadership
I n addition to Green Lights, many other
I voluntary programs exist to help protect
the environment. The Energy Information
Administration of the U.S. Department of
Energy (DOE) has begun a program for
organizations to report the emissions of
greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide,  and halogenated
substances. Increasing levels of these gases
in the atmosphere may  contribute to an
increase in global temperatures.

Why Report DOE?
   This program gives you the opportuni-
ty to record your emission reduction or car-
bon sequestration  achievements.  Your
participation will demonstrate  your  sup-
port for  achieving environmental policy
goals through voluntary efforts. The infor-
mation contained on the report forms will
contribute to an informed public debate on
the reduction of greenhouse ga.s emissions.

Who Can Report to DOE?
   You can report if you are an individual
or organization that initiates, controls, or
participates in an  activity  that  reduces
emissions of greenhouse gases.

Are There Minimum Reporting
Requirements?
   The program allows considerable flexi-
bility in defining the activities you report
and estimating the effects of those activities
on greenhouse gas emissions and sequestra-
tion. The report form is designed to mini-
mize reporting burden while meeting the
minimum information requirements.

How Do You Report Your
Emissions to DOE?
   Two forms are available for reporting
your greenhouse gas
emissions. Form EIA-
1605EZ is provided as
an alternative to the
long form EIA-1605.
The short form pro-
vides for a brief sum-
mary of your  green-
house gas reduction projects while the long
form  lets you  create an  in-depth public
record of your emissions efforts. Choose
the form that  best meets your  reporting
needs.
   If you have questions about reporting
or would like additional  information,
please contact the  Energy Information
Administration at 1 800-803-5182 or e-
mail at infoghg@eia.doe.gov. Or you can
access information  via the Internet at
http:\\www.eia.doe.gov,  under  Green-
house Gas Emissions Report. Iffi
 A New Stop  on  the Information Superhighway
                   FaciIitiesNetsu puts lighting and
            other facilities information at your fingertips
    Did you have  a  question  about  the
    newest electronic ballast on the mar-
 ket? Or want to know how another facility
 manager surveyed his building? Facilities-
 Net5*1 is a new on-line service that provides
 facilities professionals immediate access to
 this information and more. Launched in
 September at World Workplace '95, Facil-
 itiesNet™  was  created for professionals
 who design, construct, manage, and main-
 tain buildings by the publisher of Building
 Operating Management and Maintenance
 Solutions. FacilitiesNet81^ provides compre-
 hensive facilities information including in-
 depth reports about lighting, roofing and
 building automation  technologies. The
 service also provides the latest: information
 about new products  and trade  shows.
 Management and technology  electronic
 bulletin boards  are  available for users to
 post questions. Search for a job or post job
 openings  in your profession  using the
 career opportunities  bulletin  board. In
 addition, current and past issues of Build-
 ing  Operating Management and  Mainte-
 nance Solutions are available on-line.
   If you're already connected to the Inter-
 net, no  special software is required  to
 access FacilitiesNet™. For more informa-
 tion about subscribing to FacilitiesNet3",
 please call 1 800-727-7995.  Interested
 users  can  test drive  the  service  at
 http:\\www.facilitiesnet.com. H
                                                                                                 October 1995 • 13

-------
                                                    NEW
                                               RAM TS
                                           Green Lights Welcomes  New Participants
    dh iDBCQMESSHGSPim
            QUEBECOR PRINTING
              PROVIDENCE INC.
             TANDS' ENTf
              1 ^DlfiECT MiKCHANTS.1-^
       Joining Green Lights
       loas a natural step for
     Energy Capital Partners,
         said Wanvwright.
     "If wouldn't make sense for
     us to be financing energy
        conservation projects
       ^without taking care of
      our own energy usage."
 I  wenty-eight (28) new participants
 I  joined Green Lights in July to benefit
from energy-efficient lighting upgrades.
                                          Green Lights welcomes its new partic-
                                        ipants and looks forward to working with
                                        them.
 PARTNERS (23) Amway Corporation & Auten Technical Services E Auto Collision, Inc. H
 Bon Wit Plaza-Unit Owner's Association • Centerplex, Seattle M Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp,
 • Deaconess Hospital/Cincinnati, OH M East Carolina University • Energy Capital Partners/MA 9
 Lands'End, Inc. • Murray City Schools District • New York State Office of Mental Health  £ PPG
  Industries, Inc. - Genera! Office • Portland Public Schools m Quebecor Printing Providence, Inc. M
 Rising Sun Energy Center U Roger Associates Architects  • San Diego Model Railroad Museum •
 Springfield School District H State of Wisconsin • State University of New York System B Uintah
  Basin Medical Center M University of Minnesota-Twin Cities • ALLIES (5) M Integrated
   Building Solutions, Inc. •  Matsushita Home and Commercial Products Company B Northstar
          Diversified Technologies M Shane Industries 9 Tn-State Light & Energy, Inc.

 A  Bright Idea for Energy Project Financing
             New participant Energy Capital Partners
              lends money for energy efficiency projects
 I  ommercial companies, hospitals, univer-
 Vtfities, and the federal government now
 have a new source of capital for energy con-
 servation  projects.  Boston-based  Energy
 Capital Partners, a new Green Lights par-
 ticipant, is a financial institution dedicated
 to funding energy-saving projects that save
 money   and   valuable  environmental
 resources.
   Matthew Heller, senior vice president
 of Energy Capital Partners, said that the
 firm was formed "to offer a way to save
 energy without any up-front investment,
 Funds dedicated to financing energy con-
 servation are scarce, and manv companies
 and institutions cannot afford to set aside
valuable capital for energy conservation
measures, regardless of how cost-effective
these measures may be,"
   Through Energy Capital Partners'
shared savings lending program, a client
pays no money up front but instead shares
a percentage of the actual energy  dollars
                                      saved with the contractor after the project is
                                      completed. The program works like this: a
                                      company receives an energy audit from a
                                      lighting or mechanical contractor. The con-
                                      tractor contacts  Energy Capital Partners
                                      who finances the construction and comple-
                                      tion of the project. When the work is com-
                                      pleted, the building owner/manager pays
                                      the contractor a  percentage of the energy
                                      dollars saved annually. The contractor then
                                      repays the loan to Energy Capital Partners
                                      out of its share of those energy savings,
                                        Fred Wainwright,  vice president  of
                                      marketing, said that his company is look-
                                      ing forward to working with other Green
                                      Lights Partners. "We are very comfortable
                                      working with  Green  Lights  Partners
                                      because we know they have the right com-
                                      mitments  and that makes funding their
                                      projects much easier."
                                        For more  information  about Energy
                                      Capital Partners' lending program, please
                                      call Fred Wainwright at 61? 330-7600,1!
14 • October 1995

-------

          COM
                                               U P  G RAD E
 f
                               July Upgrades
   ongratulations to following participants who submitted implementation report forms
\»
-------
        Workshops    \  W  Online
  Lighting Upgrade Workshops are currently
being planned for the following locations.
Please note that this schedule is tentative, and
workshops/locations are subject to change or
cancellation. To find out the latest information
about confirmed workshops andfar to pre-
            call the Green Lights/ENERGY
STAR Hotline at 202 775-6650.

              Fall 1995

            • Chicago, IL
            • Albany, NY
            • Cleveland, OH
            • Trenton, NJ
            • Austin,TX
            • Los Angeles, CA
  Information about the Green Lights & ENERGY STAR programs is now available on the
Internet's World Wide Web via the EPA's Public Access Server: Program participants, poten-
tial participants and other interested Internet users can now access a wide variety of infor-
mation about programs, induding Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs), fact sheets,
software tools, and publication listings.
  All programs can be reached from the EPA home page, the Office of Air and Radiation
home page, or the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division's (APPD) home page. Pages
can also be reached directly. Our Internet addresses (all are case sensitive) are:
            EPA home: http://www.epa.gov
            APPD home: http://www.epa.gov/docs/
                        GCDOAR/OAR-APPD.html
            ES Programs: http://www.epa.gov/docs/
                         GCDOAR/EnergyStar.html
            ES Buildings: .../GCDOAR/esb-home.html
                 ES Office Equipment: .../GCDOAR/esc-home.htmI
                 Green Lights: .../GCDOAR/GreenLights.html
                                                                          More pages will be posted as
                                                                       more information is made available.
 &EPA
 United States
 Environmental Protection Agency
 Air and Radiation (6202J)
 Washington,  DC 20460
 Official Business
 Penalty for Private Use
 $300
                                               BULK RATE
                                           Postage and Fees Paid
                                                   EPA
                                                   G-35
   CD* RecyctettfBecydable
  TV <.">. IM^ w;,i, soyiCanda Iri! on papes ttel
   i-Ji^i' esn!2ir4J at feast 50% isoydsd ifcir

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