SEPA
           United States
           Environmental Protection
           Agency
            Air and Radiation
            (6205J)
EPA430-R-97-023
August 1997
Champions of the World
Stratospheric Ozone
Protection Awards

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A  Note   From  the
Assistant  Administrator
     It is entirely fitting that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
     (EPA) recognize the individuals and organizations that have been champions
     of stratospheric ozone protection. Without these champions, ozone layer pro-
     tection would have been slower, more costly, and less environmentally success-
ful. Since 1990, EPA has rewarded extraordinary leadership with the Stratospheric
Ozone Protection Award. "Champions of the World" further honors these achieve-
ments with detailed descriptions of individual and team awards. These profiles of
environmental leadership impress and inspire us all to redouble our efforts to pro-
tect the earth for future generations.
   I am particularly proud of the stratospheric ozone protection milestones that
occurred during my watch as EPA Assistant Administrator of Air and Radiation.
These milestones include completing the phaseout of halons in 1993 and chloro-
fluorocarbons (CFCs) in 1995. We have also established an orderly path towards
phaseout for methyl bromide, the last major ozone-depleting compound to be
identified.
   September 16, 1997,  marks the lOdi anniversary of the, Montreal Protocol  on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Before then, manufacturers of CFCs and
many of their industrial  customers argued that CFCs had not yet been proven to
destroy stratospheric ozone, that these chemicals were irreplaceable in the many
products containing or made with them, that there were no safe substitutes, and
that potential alternatives would be ineffective and costly. Today it is clear that
these claims were invalid, but unfortunately similar claims are still being repeated
in some quarters in arguments for delaying action to protect against climate
change. Thanks to the champions described in this book, we are effectively saving
the ozone layer. And thanks to their efforts we can find reasons for technical
optimism in the daunting task of protecting the climate.
                            Mary D. Nichols
                            Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation
                            United States Environmental Protection Agency
                            November 1993 to August 1997

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 Acknowledgments
  The primary authors of this book were Dr. Stephen O. Andersen, Deputy Director,
Stratospheric Protection Division (SPD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Clayton
Freeh, Environmental Protection Specialist, SPD; and E. Thomas Morehouse, Institute for
Defense Analysis. Garren Campbell Bird and Philip Nicholas completed editing of the book while
working as EPA Interns.
  We are indebted to many other substantial contributors, including Ward Atkinson, Suntest; G.
Victor Buxton, Environment Canada; Elizabeth Cook, World Resources; Catharine Cyr, U.S.
Navy; Dr. Stephen DeCanio, University of California; David Doniger, EPA; Yuichi Fujimoto,
Japan Industrial Conference for Ozone Layer Protection; John Hoffman, EPA; Paul Horwitz,
EPA; Drusilla HufFord, EPA; Dr. William Kenyon, Global Centre for Process Change; Dr.
Lambert Kuijpers, UNEP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel; Jeffrey Levy, EPA; Jean
Lupinacci, EPA; Denise Mauzerall, Harvard University; Alan Miller, University of Maryland;
Peter Mullenhard, U.S. Navy CFC and Halon Clearinghouse; Simon Oulouhojian, Mobile Air
Conditioning Society; Sally Rand, EPA; Dr. William Rhodes, EPA; Kevin Rosseel, EPA; Stephen
Seidel, EPA; Gary Taylor, Taylor-Wagner; Dr. Helen Tope, Victoria Australia Environmental
Protection Authority; and Mia Zmud, EPA.
  We are also indebted to the individual, association, and corporate winners of the Stratospheric
Protection Award who submitted text and reviewed early drafts of this book. We particularly
thank those Award winners who contributed the quotes that appear in boxed text, including
James A. Baker, Jim Beyreis, Joseph W. Bow, Ross Bowman, Nicholas T. Castellucci, David
Chittick, Elizabeth Cook, David Doniger, Arthur D. FitzGerald, Don Grob, Kaichi Hasegawa,
John Hoffman, Robert G. Holcomb, Dr. Margaret Kerr, Alan Miller, E. Thomas Morehouse,
Tsuneya Nakamura, Dick Nusbaum, Rick Osterman, Ralph Ponce de Leon, Dr. Mostafa K.
Tolba, Stephen Seidel, Ronald W. Sibley, Gary D. Vest, and F.A. Vogelsberg.

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Contents

Hi    Foreword


iv    Acronym List

1     EPA Stratospheric Ozone Protection Awards


3     Corporate Leadership and Ozone Layer Protection
      Corporate Leadership "Firsts"

17   Military Leadership and Ozone Layer Protection

      Military-Related Awards Summaries


27   Foams
      Foam Food Packaging Phaseout
      Flexible Foam Phaseout
      Foam Insulation Products
      Foams-Related Awards Summaries


35   Halons
      Halons-Related Award Summaries

47   Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
      Recycling From Automobile A/C Systems
      HFC Substitutes for CFCA/C
      Domestic Refrigeration
      A/C and Refrigeration-Related Awards Summaries


67   Solvents
      Solvents-Related Awards Summaries
97    Other Champion Award Winners
       Aerosol Products, Sterilants, and Miscellaneous Uses Champion Award Winners
       Association Champion Award Winners
       Diplomatic and Regulatory Champion Award Winners
       Methyl Bromide Champion Award Winners
       Scientific and Medical Uses Champion Award Winners
                                                                          Contents  i

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 Contents (continued)
 109 Conclusion
 111 Appendix A: Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award Winners, 1990-1996
 121 Appendix B: Matrix of Award Winners' Affiliations
 159 Appendix C: EPAs Stratospheric Ozone Protection Team, 1985-1997
H Champions of the World

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Foreword

         Each year, a few individuals, companies, and organizations from around
         the world earn the Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award. Since the
         program began in 1990, 320 winners from 25 countries—Australia,
         Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Japan,
Kenya, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Singapore, Sweden,
Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela-
have been honored.
   The Awards program recognizes exceptional leadership, personal dedication, and
technical achievements in eliminating ozone-depleting substances  (ODSs). The
Awards distinguish those who have accomplished the extraordinary. They also serve
as reminders to stand up for beliefs,  as encouragement to take risks, and as inspira-
tion to protect the global environment.
   This report covers the impressive and varied accomplishments of the
Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award winners from 1990 to 1996. Inside you will
find a summary of each Award winner's activity, a time line detailing corporate
leadership "firsts," and essays covering industry sectors that were successful in elimi-
nating ODSs. These essays are concise illustrations; they are not intended to cover
all the sectors that have ever used ozone-depleting chemicals, or to describe  all
Award winners.
   You are encouraged to contact the winners. Ask them what they did to earn their
Award, how they did it, and what they learned. Most of them will  tell  you that they
 sacrificed significant time and energy to protect the earth, but that  it was a highlight
 of their professional and personal lives. Leadership is its own reward.

                       Dr. Stephen O. Andersen
                       Deputy Director, Environmental Protection Agency
                       Stratospheric Ozone Protection
                                                                                        Foreword  iii

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  Acronym  List
  A/C
  AEA
  AFB
  AFCAM
  AIA
  APTOC

  ARE
  ARI
  ASHRAE
  AT&T
  BP
  CANACINTRA
  CDNSWC
  CECOM
  CEITWG
  CFC
  CSIRO
  DASCEM

  DEC
  DoD
  EMPF
  EOC
  EPA
  FAA
 FDA
 FOE
 FPI
 FTOC
 HAG
 HARC
  air-conditioning
  American Electronics Association
  Air Force Base
  Association of Fluorocarbon Consumers and Manufacturers of Australia
  Aerospace Industries Association
  Aerosol Products, Sterilants, Miscellaneous Uses and Carbon Tetrachloride
  Technical Options Committee
 Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program Task Force and Technical Committee
 Air-Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute
 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers
 American Telephone and Telegraph
 British Petroleum
 Camara Nacional de la Industria de la Transformacion
 Carderock Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center
 U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command
 Countries with Economies in Transition Working Group
 chlorofluorocarbon
 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia)
 Australia's Department of Administrative Services Centre for
 Environmental Management
 Digital Equipment Corporation
 U.S. Department of Defense
 Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility
 Economics Options Committee
 U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
 U.S.Federal Aviation Administration
 U.S. Food and Drug Administration
 Friends of the Earth
 Foodservice and Packaging Institute
Foams Technical  Options Committee
U.K. Halon Users Group
Halon Alternatives Research Corporation
Iv  Champions of the World

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HBFC
HCFC
HFC
HRAI
HRBSC
HTOC
HUNG
IBM
ICBM
ICEL
ICIP
ICOLP
IIR/IIF
IMACA
IPC
 ISO
 ITRI
 IUWG
 JEMA
 JICC
 JICOP
 LAWG
 MACS
 MBTOC
 MDI
 MITI
 NAFED
 NASA
 NATO
 NAVAIR
  NAVSEA
  NFPA
hydrobromofluorocarbon
hydrochlorofluorocarbons
hydrofluorocarbon
Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Institute of Canada
Halon Recycling & Banking Support Committee
Halons Technical Option Committee
U.K. Halon Users National Consortium
International Business Machines
Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
International Cooperative for Environmental Leadership
ICI Polyurethanes
Industry Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection
International Institute of Refrigeration/Institut International Du Froid
 International Mobile Air-Conditioning Association
 Institute of Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits
 International Standards Organization
 Industrial Technology Research Institute
 Inadvertent Uses Working Group
 Japan Electrical Manufacturer s Association
 Japan Industrial Conference on Cleaning
 Japan Industrial Conference for Ozone Layer Protection
 Laboratory and Analytical Uses Working Group
 Mobile Air-Conditioning Society
 Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee
 metered-dose inhaler
 Ministry of International Trade and Industry
 National Association of Fire Equipment Distributors
 National Aeronautics and Space Administration
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization
 Naval Air Systems Command
  Naval Sea  Systems Command
  National Fire Protection Association
                                                                                     Acronym List  v  ^

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   NGO
   NOAA
   NRDC
   NRL
   ODP
   ODS
   PATF
   PAWG
   PCB
   PIMA
   PSB
  PUF
  RSES
  RTF
  RTOC
  SAE
  SAP
  SISIR
  SPO
  STOC
  TEAP
  3M
  TOC
  UL
  UNEP
  UV
 VOC
 nongovernmental organization
 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
 Natural Resources Defense Council
 U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
 ozone-depletion potential
 ozone-depleting substance
 Process Agents Task Force
 Process Agents Working Group
 printed circuit board
 Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association
 Singapore Productivity and Standards Board
 polyurethane foam
 Refrigeration Service Engineers Society
 Replenishment Task Force
 Refrigeration, Air Conditions and Heat Pump Technical Options Committee
 Society of Automotive Engineers
 Science Assessment Panel
 Singapore Institute of Standards  and Industrial Research
 System Program Office
 Solvents, Coatings, and Adhesives Technical  Options Committee
 Technology and Economic Assessment Panel
 Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing
 Technical Options  Committee
 Underwriters Laboratories
 United Nations Environment Programme
 ultraviolet
volatile organic compound
vi Champions of the World

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EPA  Stratospheric  Ozone
Protection Awards
         The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Stratospheric
         Protection Division established the Stratospheric Ozone Protection
         Awards to recognize exceptional leadership, personal dedication, and
         technical achievements in eliminating ozone-
depleting substances (ODSs). Since 1990, some 320 indi-
viduals and organizations from 25 countries have earned
this prestigious award. Winners come from Australia,
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, India,
Ireland, Japan, Kenya, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Singapore, Sweden,
Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United
States, and Venezuela.
   The ozone layer forms a thin shield in the stratosphere,
protecting life on Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV)
radiation. The strong scientific consensus is that certain
manufactured chemicals are destroying this protective layer.
These substances are transported by wind currents to the
stratosphere. There, UV radiation breaks them apart, releas-
ing chlorine and bromine atoms that destroy ozone. As the
ozone layer is destroyed, UV radiation increases the inci-
dence of skin cancer and cataracts and weakens human
immune systems. This radiation also endangers the environ-
ment by threatening important crops and natural ecosys-
tems. ODSs, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetra-
chloride, methyl bromide, and methyl chloroform, are used
widely in industry and elsewhere as fire extinguishing
agents, foams, pesticides, refrigerants, and solvents, and to
produce or operate numerous other products.                   ,
   Around the world, individuals, organizations, businesses
 and governments  are working to protect the ozone layer. Over 150 nations have
 ratified the Montreal Protocol, agreeing to phase out the production of ODSs. In
 November 1992,  the parties revised the Protocol, accelerating the phaseout of
 CFCs, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform to January 1996 and halons to
January 1994. In  December 1995, the parties  to the Montreal Protocol targeted
 methyl bromide and HCFCs for a complete phaseout by 2010.
"Tending to world environmental problems-
such as protecting the ozone layer,
preventing global warming, and developing
countermeasures for acid rain—is the com-
mon responsibility of all of us on Earth, and
is a task which should be confronted  by con-
centrating the wisdom of mankind. For the
purpose of solving the intrinsic problem, two
concepts become important: 1) that this
challenge now exceeds national borders, and
2) that countries, businesses, or even individ-
uals behave as though the problem is their
own. There are many, many problems which
mankind must overcome, but I think that the
kind of global technological cooperation
experienced during the ozone layer protec-
tion movement can serve as a valuable
model for similar activities in the future."
                            Tsuneya Nakamura
                              Former President
                        Seiko Epson Corporation
                                                     EPA Stratospheric Ozone Protection Awards 1

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                            Tide VI of the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act mandates a comprehensive national
                         program to protect the ozone layer. Since then, EPA has accelerated this effort and
                         eliminated the production of most ODSs (with limited exceptions for essential
                         uses). EPA has also implemented other programs to protect the ozone layer,
                         including recycling refrigerants, labeling products, banning nonessential uses, and
                         reviewing compound substitutes to determine their environmental acceptability.
                            Applicants for the Stratospheric Protection Award must demonstrate originality
                         and public purpose, persuasive moral and/or organizational leadership, and must
                         actually eliminate chemical emissions. Nominations are reviewed by the past win-
                         ners, who make recommendations to EPA. Candidates may be from
                         anywhere in the world and can come from the public or private sector.
2  Champions of the World

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Corporate  Leadership  and
Ozone  Layer Protection
        Before the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, much public debate
        arose about whether CFG emissions were depleting the ozone layer.
        Initially, CFC manufacturers and many of their industrial customers
        aggressively fought against controls to restrict
CFCs. They argued that scientists had not yet proven that
CFCs destroyed stratospheric ozone, that no safe substitutes
existed, that potential substitutes would be ineffective and
costly, and that the products made with or containing
CFCs were absolutely vital to society.
  The DuPont company began changing its position in
1986 and by 1987 was advocating a global solution to
stratospheric ozone protection. In September 1987, 16
founding countries signed the Montreal Protocol on
Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (the Protocol).
At the Montreal meeting, however, only the U.S. Air Force
and a few small businesses expressed technical optimism
that sufficient alternatives and substitutes could be success-
fully implemented to satisfy the 50 percent reduction in
CFC use and freeze in halon production prescribed by the
1987 protocol.
   By 1988, the ozone trends panel report by the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), and the World Meteorological Organization conclusively linked ozone
depletion to ODSs, including CFCs and halons. The parties to the Protocol
decided that technically and economically feasible steps should be taken to phase
out ODSs. The availability of technical solutions and corporate support allowed the
parties to make strong political decisions.
                                                      1
   Corporate leadership played a key role in the negotiation of the original and
subsequent Montreal Protocol phaseout schedules. Private and public leaders
commercialized and implemented new technology eliminating the need for
ODSs. As a result of this leadership, regulatory phaseout targets were more easily
strengthened and achieved.
"Protection of the ozone layer was judged
technically impossible until industry rolled up
its sleeves and made it a priority. The
Awards are a testimony to those who
worked the hardest and accomplished the
impossible. When you read about the
extraordinary people and organizations you
will begin to understand why and how
business and environmental strategy can be
merged. You will be inspired to join efforts
to protect the global environment, including
its fragile climate."
                    Margaret Kerr (Award 1990)
                               Vice President
                       Nortel/Northern Telecom
                                                                     Corporate Leadership  3

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                         Corporate Leadership "Firsts"
                         j rf-% i*™j £--*  -pke £jrst j[nstance of U.S. corporate leadership for protection of
                         I ^y /  '~J  the stratospheric ozone layer award occurred on June 18, 1975,
                                        when the S.C. Johnson company announced its plan of a corpo-
                         rate phaseout of CFCs as aerosol product propellants. This action preceded the
                         Montreal Protocol by 12 years and was 2 years sooner than the May 1977
                         announcement by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Consumer
                         Product Safety Commission, and EPA that most CFC-based aerosol products
                         would be banned in the United States. S.C. Johnson demonstrated that hydrocar-
                         bon propellants were more economical and that their customers preferred products
                         that were protective of the ozone layer. By March 1978, when EPA banned CFCs
                         as propellants in cosmetic products, consumers had already virtually halted the pur-
                         chase of products  that contained CFCs.

                        wl f"\ '""J f")  The United States banned the manufacture and sale of most cos-
                         I ^7 /  {j  metic products containing CFCs.  Following the U.S. action,
                                        Canada banned production and import, and Norway and Sweden
                         (nonproducing, importing countries) banned import.
                        1985
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was held.
"Through the 20-plus year history of
the stratospheric ozone issue, DuPont
has been on the receiving end from many
organizations due to our significant involve-
ment in the manufacture  and sale of ozone-
depleting substances. DuPont's involvement
has not always been praised, so we were
very proud to have been an active leader in
the CFC industry effort to phase out CFCs in
a time frame that most of industry believed
was unattainable."

                       F.A. (Tony) Vogelsberg,  Jr.
                        Environmental Manager
                          DuPont Fluoroproducts
        «4 /"\ f\  f'  The Natural Resources Defense
         1 J/ Cj O Council (NRDC) brought suit
                        against EPA for failing to discharge
         its responsibility under the Clean Air Act to protect the
         ozone layer. EPA agreed to take unilateral action unless
         an international agreement could be reached. This
         motivated U.S. industry to support an international
         agreement.

        *f O Q 7  By 1987' scientific evidence of
         1 ^/ C3 I    potential ozone depletion from con-
                        tinued growth in CFC emissions and
         predictions of the ecological and human health conse-
         quences increased to the point that DuPont (Award
         1990) and the Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy
         (Award 1990) began the international approach to pro-
         tecting stratospheric ozone. This action encouraged and
         motivated CFC manufacturers and customers to reeval-
         uate their corporate positions.
   4 Champions of the world

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   In May 1987, an EPA-sponsored panel of experts from Germany, Japan, the
United Kingdom, and the United States concluded that the absence of a market for
higher priced chemicals—rather than technical or environmental issues—was the
principal barrier to commercialization of less harmful replacement chemicals.
   Dr. Masaaki Yamabe (Award 1993) announced that Asahi Glass (Award 1994)
could produce  HCFC-225 as a replacement for CFC-113.
   The U.S. Air Force, with the technical support of Major E. Thomas Morehouse,
Jr., (Award  1991), was principally responsible for including halons in the 1987
Protocol through its leadership in developing technologies for reducing halon use,
eliminating discharges from testing and training, and reducing accidental discharges.
   The Montreal Protocol of Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed
by the following 24 nations and the Economic Union on September 16, 1987:
   Belgium
   Canada
   Denmark
   Egypt
   Finland
   France
   Germany
   Ghana
Italy
Japan
Kenya
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Panama
Poland
Senegal
Sweden
Switzerland
Togo
United Kingdom
United States of America
Venezuela
               I*1 January 1988 at the Conservation Foundation/EPA/
               Environment Canada "International Conference on Alternatives
               and Substitutes to CFCs and Halons," AT&T (Award 1992)—
with the leadership of David Chittick (Award 1990) and Dr. Leslie Guth (Award
1990)—and Petroferm and inventor Dr. Michael Hayes (Award 1993) announced
a new semi-aqueous solvent made from oranges that cleaned as well as, or better
than, CFC-113. This announcement signaled that CFCs were no longer essential
for sophisticated electronics manufacturing and launched a global quest for new
manufacturing processes. Electronics corporations began to take decisive action.
   Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) (Award 1990) successfully used aqueous
cleaning techniques and then actively distributed the "how-to" information.
   Dr. Mostafa Tolba (Award 1993), G. Victor Buxton (Award 1996), and Dr.
Stephen O. Andersen organized the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) Technical Conference in The Hague, Netherlands, to demonstrate the
importance of industry participation in assessing the feasibility of better protecting
the ozone layer.                         ,
   The Foodservice and Packaging Institute (FPI) (Award 1990), with the leader-
ship  of Jack Buffington from Dolco Packaging (Award 1990) and the support of
Elizabeth Cook (Friends of the Earth [FOE], Award 1991), David Doniger
(NRDC, Award 1991), and Alan Miller (World Resources Institute, Award 1992),
announced that U.S. foodservice packaging companies would phase out CFC use
                                                      Corporate Leadership  5

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 "Because AT&T was the first to take a lead-
 ership role in the elimination of CFC solvents
 in its manufacturing processes, I had the
 special honor of being among the initial win-
 ners of this prestigious award. The Award
 was for leadership that was built on our con-
 fidence  in the path-breaking work of engi-
 neers in the manufacturing  facilities and at
 AT&T's Bell Laboratories. There are teams of
 unsung  heroes around the world who
 helped protect the global environment. It
 gave me enormous pleasure to  have been a
 part of this important work."

                      David Chittick (Award 1990)
                                  Vice President
                                         AT&T
                            by December 1988, the world's first voluntary
                            national CFC phaseout.
                              Under the Leadership of Dr. Margaret Kerr
                            (Award 1990) and Arthur FitzGerald (Award 1990),
                            Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991) and Seiko
                            Epson (Awards 1992 and  1995) under the leader-
                            ship of Hideaki Yasukawa (Award 1994), Yasuo
                            Mitsugi (Award 1993), and Kaichi Hasegawa
                            (Award 1996) announced  corporate goals of a com-
                            plete CFC-113 phaseout on accelerated schedules.
                              The Institute of Interconnecting and Packaging
                            Electronic Circuits (IPC)  (Award 1990) helped orga-
                            nize the benchmarking of CFC-113 solvent cleaning
                            and the test protocol for substitute solvents. EPA
                            agreed that new technology must clean "as good or
                            better" than CFC and that the U.S. Department of
                            Defense (DoD) would have final authority over its
                            acceptance of any new technology.
                              Arthur FitzGerald (Award 1990) and Dr.
                            Margaret Kerr  (Award 1990) organized the
  Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991) program for phasing out ODS solvents
  and chemicals, as well as the company's outreach program.

                By 1989, the Mobile Air-Conditioning  Society (MACS) (Award
A ^\ O (j 1990) led by Simon Oulouhojian (Award 1990); the Society of
 J[ 3r  \*J ^/  Automobile Engineers led by Ward Atkinson (Award 1990);  auto-
                motive manufacturers, led by James Baker (Award 1990); and
  EPA, led by headquarters and Research Triangle Park scientists, developed a CFC
  recycling standard. Alfa Romeo, Aston Martin Lagonda, Audi, Austin Rover,
  BMW, Chrysler Corporation (Award 1992), Daihatsu, Excalibur, Ford (Awards
  1992 and 1994), Freightliner, General Motors (Award 1994), Grumman Olson,
  Honda, Hyundai, Isuzu, Jaguar, Maserati, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz (Award 1992),
  Mitsubishi,  Navistar, Nissan Motor Company (Award 1991), Paccar, Peugeot,
  Porsche, Rolls-Royce, Rover, Saab, Subaru, Suzuki, Toyota (Award 1994),
  Volkswagen, Volvo (Award 1993), and Yugo accepted the recycling standard for
  servicing cars and light trucks under factory warranties. Chrysler Corporation
  (Award 1992), Ford (Awards 1992 and 1994), General Motors (Award 1994),
  Mercedes-Benz (Award 1992), Toyota (Award 1994), and Nissan Motor Company
  (Award 1991) announced that their franchised dealers would employ the new recy-
  cling technology.

    In August 1989, Nissan Motor Company (Award 1991) became the first
  automobile manufacturer to announce its commitment to phase out all CFC use.
    In July 1989, Woolworths Australia set a goal of halting the use of CFC refrigerants.
6  Champions of the World

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   In October 1989, IPC (Award 1990) published the solvent test plan IPC-
TR-580, which included the Phase 1 Benchmark test results that could be used
to compare alternative cleaning processes. U.K. and Nordic verification teams
patterned their efforts on the work of the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvent
Working Group. Dr. Leslie Guth (Award 1990) became chair of the Test
Monitoring and Validation Team and monitored testing of new solvents.
AlliedSignal (Award 1993), led by Joel E. Rodgers, submitted the first solvent
for testing and earned the honor of being first to pass—cleaning "as good or
better" than CFC-113. Twenty other solvents were tested and approved within
the next year.
   Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and the United Kingdom hosted the
global conference to encourage corporate and government leadership in pro-
tecting the ozone layer. U.S. President Ronald Reagan consulted with Prime
Minister Thatcher.
   The First Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol was held from
May 2 to 5 in Helsinki, Finland.
   The first UNEP Technology Assessment Panel, including five Technical
Options Committees (TOCs), was formed by 110 experts from 22  countries
(Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt,  France,
Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden,
Switzerland, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom, United
States, and Venezuela).
   The Industry Cooperative  for Ozone Layer Protection (ICOLP), now
reorganized as the International Cooperative for Environmental Leadership
(ICEL) (Awards 1991 and 1993), was founded to cooperate in eliminating
ozone-depleting solvents. Founding members were AT&T  (Award 1992), The
Boeing Company (Awards  1992 and 1993), DEC (Award  1990), Ford
(Awards 1992 and 1994), General Electric, Honeywell (Award 1994),
Motorola (Awards 1991 and 1993), Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991),
and Texas Instruments (Awards 1993 and 1995). Gary J. Shapiro (Electronics
Industries Association) and Braden Allenby (AT&T) masterminded the orga-
nization under the little-used National Cooperative Research Act of 1984. The
first chair was David Chittick  of AT&T.
   The Halon Alternatives Research Corporation (HARC) (Award 1992) was
founded by Gary D. Vest—then Deputy Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Air
Force (Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health) (Award 1993)—and Dr.
Stephen O. Andersen to encourage and coordinate the search for fire  protection
alternatives to halons. Daniel Piliero (Piliero, Tobin & Mazza) developed the
legal framework under the National Cooperative Research Act of 1994'.
   Japanese industrial organizations established the Conference for Promotion
of the Rational Use of Specified CFCs, which in 1990 was renamed the Japan
Industrial Conference for Ozone Layer Protection (JICOP) (Award 1993). By
the end of 1996 JICOP had 61 industrial organizations as members.
                                                                             Corporate Leadership  7

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"1 began my career as an environmentalist in
the 1970s fighting with companies making
and using CFCs. It was not a pleasant experi-
ence. In contrast, the spirit of cooperation
engendered by the  Montreal Protocol has
been extremely rewarding and provides
many lasting lessons. When people stop
fighting and accept a common challenge,
there is nothing we cannot accomplish. The
greatest barriers are not technical or eco-
nomic, but our beliefs and attitudes."

                        Alan Miller (Award 1992)
                          University of Maryland
                    1990
              Ford (Awards 1992 and 1994) and IBM
            (Awards 1992 and 1993) established aggressive
            goals to eliminate CFCs from their worldwide
            manufacturing processes and products (Ford by
            1993, IBM by year-end 1993).
              The American Electronics Association unani-
            mously adopted industry-wide goals to reduce
            CFG emissions 50 percent by 1993—5 years earli-
            er than the 1987 Montreal Protocol—and to elimi-
            nate CFC emissions by 2000. They also pledged to
            reduce methyl chloroform emissions 40 percent by
            2000.
              The Australian Governments, with the leader-
            ship of the Association of Fluorocarbon
            Consumers and Manufacturers of Australia
            (AFCAM) (Award 1996), decided that halon pro-
            duction and import would be phased out by
            December 31, 1995.
The first EPA Stratospheric Ozone Protection Awards
were presented.
                        The Second Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol was held from June
                     27 to 29 in London, England. Amendments and Adjustments were passed that man-
                     dated a CFC phaseout in 2000 and a 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform)
                     phaseout in 2005.
                        The DoD/EPA Ad Hoc Solvents Working Group, a panel of over 230 experts
                     from industry and government, tested and certified that an Allied-Signal (Awards
                     1993 and 1996)-Genesolv/Baron Blakeslee HCFC cleaning solution is capable of
                     cleaning printed circuit boards as well or better than CFC-113. The panel recom-
                     mended that DoD specifications be revised to allow the use of products passing their
                     cleaning performance test.
                        The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) (Award 1990) eliminated halon
                     testing requirements, clarified that training with halon was not required, and acceler-
                     ated the acceptance of new alternatives.
                        DEC (Award 1990), with the encouragement of Polly T. Strife and Ann
                     Fullerton, generously donated patented aqueous cleaning technology to the public
                     domain in order to speed CFC elimination.
8  Champions of the World

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1991
Daikin, DuPont (Award 1990), ICI, and Showa Denko became
the first companies to produce commercially HFC-134a, an alter-
native for automobile air-conditioning (A/C) and refrigeration.
    Asahi Glass (Award 1994) completes the world's first HCFC-225 production plant.
    In April 1991 Mercedes-Benz (Award 1992) became die world's first automobile
  manufacturer to introduce CFC-free A/C, a full year ahead of the competition.
  Honda, Mazda, and Mercedes-Benz (Award 1992) joined Nissan Motor Company
  (Award 1991) in pledging CFC-free automobile manufacturing.
    "The First International North Adantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Conference
  on the Role of the Military in Protecting the Ozone Layer" was held in Williamsburg,
  Virginia, from September 11 to 13.
    The Royal Norwegian Navy Material Command (Award 1992) announced the
  first military acceptance of alternatives for halons used on combat vessels. The
  announcement and subsequent work with NATO helped build necessary confidence
  in alternatives.
    DoD, with the guidance and leadership of Joe Felty (Award 1990) of Texas
  Instruments, adopted MIL-STD-2000 (Revision A) permitting new and existing
  contracts to use non-ozone depleting solvents and cleaning processes for most elec-
  tronics assemblies. DoD also recommended that CFC solvents "be phased out" by
  contractors and military maintenance organizations.
    By 1991 the following electronics and precision products manufacturers had
  pledged CFC phaseouts: Apple Computer, Asahi Optical, Canon, Copol, Ericsson,
  Fujitsu, Hewlett Packard (Award 1994), Hitachi (Award 1991),  Honeywell (Award
  1994), IBM (Awards 1992 and 1993), Intel, Konica, Litton,  Minolta, Mitsubishi
  Electric (Award 1994), Motorola (Awards  1991 and 1993), Nikon, Nippon Electric,
  Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991), Olympus, Raytheon, Sanyo Electric
  (Award 1995), Seiko Epson (Awards 1992 and 1995), Sharp  (Award 1995),
  Shiseido, Sony, Texas Instruments (Awards 1993 and 1995), 3M (Award 1991),
  and Toshiba (Award 1995).
    The first United States-Japan-Russia Environmental Executive Leadership
  "Workshop was  held in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, to promote technological cooper-
  ation between the nations on behalf of stratospheric ozone layer protection.
    The Third Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol was held from June 19
  to 21 in Nairobi, Kenya.
    IBM (Awards 1992 and 1993) established a goal to eliminate  methyl chloroform
  from its manufacturing processes and products worldwide by year-end 1995.
    In December 1991 Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991) became the first
  multinational telecommunications company in the world to eliminate CFC-113 from
  its global manufacturing operations.
                                                        Corporate Leadership 9   ,*

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                          Camara Nacional de la Industria de la Transformacion (CANACINTRA) (Award
                        1992), Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991), ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and
                        1993), and EPA formed a partnership to phase out CFCs in Mexico by 2000. This
                        leadership inspired odier developing countries to consider the advantages of rapid
                        technical progress as an alternative to the grace period under the Montreal Protocol.
                          The Refrigeration Service Engineers Society (RSES) became the first major
                        organization to establish voluntary certification of heating, ventilating, and A/C
                        technicians in refrigerant recovery and recycling.

                      JL /"\ /*\ '""\  NATO took the unprecedented step of writing directly to  UNEP
                        I ^7 T/ S  Executive Director Mostafa Tolba (Award 1993) supporting the
                                       proposed accelerated phaseout of ODSs. NATO also endorsed
                        technology cooperation, exchange of information regarding halon banks, and the
                        harmonization of standards to promote production and maintenance of military
                        equipment without the use of chemicals that deplete the ozone layer.

                          The Fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol was held from
                        November 23 to 25 in Copenhagen, Denmark. The Copenhagen Amendments and
                        Adjustments required developed countries to phase out halon by 1994; to phase out
                        CFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride by 1996; and to freeze methyl
                        bromide production.
                          Seiko Epson (Awards  1992 and 1995) became the first global precision instrument
                        and electronic company to eliminate CFC-113 from its manufacturing operations.
                          General Dynamics (Award 1992), now Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft
                        Systems, was the first company to eliminate virtually all ozone-depleting solvents
                        from aircraft manufacture (the F-16 fighter), and Lufthansa (Award 1993) became
                        the first commercial airline to halt the use of most ozone-depleting solvents in aircraft
                        maintenance.
                          The U.S. Undersecretary of Defense directed the military to rapidly eliminate the
                        use of ODSs from all weapons acquisition programs and directed the Defense
                        Logistics Agency (Award 1993) to establish and manage  a reserve of ODSs for mis-
                        sion-critical uses.
                           Military, scientific, and commercial space programs—pushing die envelope of
                        technical feasibility—began solvent elimination from sophisticated and critical sys-
                        tems. Thiokol (Award 1993), under the leadership of Ross Bowman and Rick P.
                        Golde, and NASA, under the leadership of J. Steven Newman and Paul Goozh,
                        announced phaseout strategies. ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993) asked all the
                        rocket manufacturers to cooperate by contributing technical information to its aero-
                        space solvent alternatives project.
                          By 1992, additional electronics and precision products manufacturers pledged
                        CFC phaseouts. Citizens Watch, Fuji Electric, Matsushita Electric (Award 1993),
                        NEC, Honda, Nissan Motor Company (Award 1991), Mazda, and Toyota (Award
                        1994) pledged phaseouts of CFCs used in foaming and/or cleaning.
10  Champions of the World

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   Toyota (Award 1994) pledged CFC-free automobile manufacturing (phaseout of
ozone-depleting solvents, foam, and A/C).
   The Japan Electrical Manufacturers Association (JEMA) (Award 1991) and
JICOP (Award 1993), with die leadership of the Ministry of International Trade
and Industry of Japan (MITI) and EPA,  organized the Thailand Leadership Initiative
of companies diat pledged to eliminate rapidly the use of ODSs from their operations
in Thailand. Leadership companies included AT&T (Award 1992), Dai-Ichi
Densikogyo, DEC (Award 1990), Ford (Awards 1992 and 1994), Fujikura Cable,
Fujitsu, Hitachi (Award 1991), Honda, Honeywell (Award 1994), IBM (Awards
1992 and 1993), INOAC, Matsushita (Award 1993), Minebea (Award 1993),
Mitsubishi Electric (Award 1994), Motorola (Awards 1991 and 1993), NEC, NHK
Spring, Nippondenso, Nissan Motor Company (Award 1991), Nissin Electric,
Nitsuko, Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991), Philips Semiconductor,
Signetics, Sanyo (Award 1995), Seiko Epson (Awards 1992 and 1995), Sharp (Award
1995), Sundstrand, Texas Instruments (Awards 1993 and 1995), 3M (Award 1991),
Toshiba (Award 1995), Toyota (Award 1994), Yamaha, and ZEXEL.
   In July 1992, IBM (Awards 1992 and  1993) eliminated CFC-113 from its disk
drive manufacturing facility in San Jose, California, and received an EPA
Administrators Pollution Prevention Award from William Reilly. This facility pio-
neered the use of aqueous cleaning technology for the disk drive industry and con-
tributed to EPA's publication on  "Alternatives for CFC-113 and 1,1,1-
trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) in Metal Cleaning." They hosted more dian 75
other companies, including direct competitors, for discussions and demonstrations of
the aqueous cleaning technology  at the site and
authorized marketing of key cleaning technology to
other companies.
   Nissan Motor Company (Award  1991) was the
first automobile manufacturer to  complete conver-
sion of all models to HFC-134a A/C.
   The Coca-Cola Company (Award 1993) halted
the purchase of CFC refrigerated equipment. Other
beverage companies soon followed. Coca-Cola lead-
ership, with its market clout, rapidly mobilized man-
ufacturers in developed and developing countries to
meet new customer demands.
   The second United States-Japan Executive
Environmental Leadership "Workshop was held at
Yauntville, California, to organize multinational
technology cooperation and to promote the respon-
sible sourcing of products and components made
with and containing ODSs.
   The European Community regulation scheduled
the phaseout of CFCs and carbon tetrachloride for
January 1, 1995—one full year faster than the
Montreal Protocol.
"Eliminating ozone-depleting substances
from the processes used to manufacture
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors was a
great challenge to the NASA-Thiokol team.
With the outstanding help from the U.S.
EPA, industry leaders, and the Montreal
Protocol Solvents Technical Options
Committee, a plan was prepared and is
being implemented. The excellent results
were possible due to great teamwork on the
part of many government and industry lead-
ers who are dedicated to protecting the
Stratospheric Ozone Layer. We appreciate
their unselfish sharing of information and
technology."

                                  Ross Bowman
                               Space Operations
                 Thiokol Corporation (Award  1993)

                         Corporate Leadership  11

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 "Who could have imagined that so many
 companies would phase out CFCs and halons
 faster than required. The real winners are
 those who discovered that solutions can have
 multiple benefits for the environment and
 the bottom line. When motivated, the
 human spirit can do almost anything."
                Cadbur7 (Award 1993), J. Sainsbury (Award 1993), and
                Woolworth's Limited Australia (Award 1993) completed con-
                version of their food stores to non-CFC alternatives. Shaw's
Supermarkets (Award 1993) was the first U.S. company to completely retrofit
to non-CFC equipment.
   Military phaseout programs were so successful by 1993 that Awards were
earned by the Defense Supply Center Columbus (formerly the Defense
Electronics Supply Center) (Award 1993) Defense Logistics Agency (Award
1993), U.S. Chief of Naval Operations, Hill Air Force Base (AFB) (Award 1993)
Kelly AFB (Award 1993) Cherry Point Naval Aviation Depot (Award 1993),
Norfolk Naval Aviation Depot (Award 1993),  Rockwell International/U.S. Air-
to-Ground Missile Systems  (Award 1993), and the U.S. Air Force Air Base Fire
Protection and Crash Rescue Systems (Award  1993).
   Australia's Department of Administrative Services Centre for Environmental
Management (DASCEM) (Award 1995) established a National Halon Bank.
   In May 1993 Motorola (Awards 1991 and 1993) completely eliminated ODSs
from its manufacturing processes.
   JEMA (Award 1991), JICOP (Award 1993), ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and
1993), MITI, and EPA organized the Malaysia-US-Japan Technical Meeting on
Protecting the Ozone Layer. Motorola (Awards 1991 and 1993) volunteered to man-
age a local network of experts to speed the phaseout of ozone-depleting solvents.
   The Third Japan-United States Environmental Executive Leadership
Conference was held at Osaka, Japan, during the "New Earth '93" Global
Technology Conference to promote alternatives and substitutes to ODSs and to
explore business opportunities for "green" technology.
   IBM (Awards 1992 and 1993) eliminated CFCs and methyl chloroform from
its worldwide manufacturing processes and products in August 1993—four
                         months ahead of its CFC phaseout goal and  two
                         years ahead of its methyl chloroform phaseout goal.
                           Matsushita (Award 1993) was die first major
                         multinational company to manufacture diversified
                         household consumer equipment (kitchen appliances,
                         entertainment, air conditioners, and other products)
                         without the use of CFCs.
                      Elizabeth Cook (Award 1991)
                                 Senior Associate
             Climate, Energy, and Pollution Program
                         World Resources Institute
                           The Fifth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal
                         Protocol was held from November 17 to 19 in
                         Bangkok, Thailand.

                           Minebea (Award 1993), the company previously
                         consuming the largest quantities of ODS in Thailand,
                         completely eliminated those substances at the end of
                         March 1993.
12  Champions of the World

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    Nissan Motor Company (Award 1991) and Volvo (Award 1993) introduced
  their first CFC-free air conditioning.
    Bosch-Siemens completed its phaseout.
    In October 1993, the first 12 organizations were approved by EPA under its
  mandatory air conditioning technician certification program.
1994
 On January 1, 1994, halon production halted in
developed countries.
    On January 24 and 25, 1994, "The Second International NATO Conference
  on the Role of the Military in Protecting the Ozone Layer" was held in Brussels,
  Belgium. The conference was organized by DoD; U.S. EPA Stratospheric
  Protection Division, EPA Office of International Activities; Center for Global
  Change, University of Maryland; NASA; Aerospace Industries Association
  (AIA); American Electronics Association (AEA); Electronics Industry
  Association; and ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993). Participants from
  Algeria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary,
  India, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal,
  Romania, Russia, Spain, Slovakia, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, Netherlands,
  Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay attended.
    Virtually every new automobile air conditioning system used HFC-134a.
    JEMA (Award 1991), JICOP (Award 1993), ICOLP (Awards 1991 and
  1993), MITI, and EPA organized the Indonesia-United States-Japan Technical
  Meeting on Protecting the Ozone Layer and the first progress meeting on the
  Thailand Leadership Initiative.
    A Japan-United States team conducted preparatory meetings in Vietnam.
     The Sixth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol was held from
  October 6 to 7 in Nairobi, Kenya.
     The U.S. Air Force Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center (Award
  1994), the Boeing Company (Awards 1992 and 1993), Hughes Aircraft (Award
  1993), Lockheed Martin (Awards  1994 and 1996), Martin Marietta (Awards
  1993 and 1994), Northrop Grumman (Award 1994), Saab-Scania (Award 1994),
  and the U.S. Air Force Wright Patterson Aeronautical Systems Center (Award
  1994) each contributed significant technologies to the aerospace phaseout. Their
  leadership was particularly influential in building confidence in alternatives for
  complex ODS uses involving flight and human safety systems.
     The U.S. Air Force Titan Launch Vehicle Program (Award 1995), under the
  leadership of Lt. Col. Douglas A. Van Mullem, Maj. Rockford Reiners, and Lt.
  Col. John Joseph Shirtz (U.S. Air Force), embarked on a project with NASA to
  communicate and cross-feed ODS reduction activities and technologies for space
  vehicle launch systems. These reductions involved critical processes and proce-
  dures requiring  extensive material qualification testing to ensure that the integrity
  of the space vehicle was not compromised. This was critical when reducing
                                                                              Corporate Leadership  13

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                           methyl chloroform in the critical bonds of large solid rocket motors where bond
                           failure would have catastrophic results.
                             The United States began an extensive, worldwide effort to eliminate all
                           CFC-12 based air-conditioners from tactical communications and electronics
                           shelters by 1995.
                         1995
On January 1, 1995, CFC production for all but export and
essential uses was halted in the European Union.
                             The fourth Japan-United States Environmental Executive Leadership
                           Conference was held in Nara, Japan, to promote cooperation between the United
                           States and Japan on industrial activities, research and development, support for
                           developing nations, and other matters that affect the global environment, includ-
                           ing ozone layer protection.
                             JEMA (Award 1991) and JICOP (Award 1993), ICOLP (Awards 1991 and
                           1993), MITI, and EPA organized the Vietnam-United States-Japan Technical
                           Meeting on Protecting the Ozone Layer.
                             With  encouragement from Dr. Nguyen Due Ngu and Dr. Dao Due Tuan
                           (Hydrometeorological Service of Vietnam), Dr. Stephen O. Andersen, Yuichi
                           Fujimoto (Award 1993), Dr. Margaret Kerr (Award 1990), and Dr. Viraj
                           Vithoontien (UNEP Regional Network Coordinator) organized more than 40
                           multinational companies from seven countries to pledge to help, the Government
                           of Vietnam protect the ozone layer by investing only in modern, environmentally
                           acceptable technology in their Vietnam projects. These companies are: Asahi
                           Glass (Award 1994), Asea Brown Boveri, AT&T (Award 1992), British
                           Petroleum, British Petroleum Vietnam, Carrier (Award 1994), The Coca-Cola
                           Company (Award 1993), Daihatsu, DuPont (Award 1990), Ford (Awards 1992
                           and 1994), Fuji Electric, Fuji Heavy Industries, Hewlett-Packard (Award 1994),
                           Hino, Hitachi (Award  1991), Honda, Honeywell (Award  1994),  ICI (Award
                           1992), Isuzu, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Lufthansa (Award 1993), Matsushita
                           Electric (Award 1993), Mazda, Meidensha, 3M (Award 1991), Mitsubishi
                           Electric (Award 1994), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Motors,
                           Motorola (Awards 1991 and 1993), Nissan Motor Company (Award 1991),
                           Nissan Diesel, Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991), Sanyo (Award 1995),
                           Seiko Epson (Awards 1992 and 1995), Sharp (Award 1995), Suzuki, Taiwan
                           Fertilizer Company, Toshiba (Award 1995), Toyota (Award 1994), Trane
                           (Award 1992), Yamaha, Yaskawa, Vulcan Materials, and UNISYS.
                             3M launched the worlds first CFC-free metered-dose inhaler (MDI).
                             Dr. Paul Crutzen, Dr. Mario Molina, and Dr. Sherwood Rowland (Award
                           1993) received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their ground-breaking work  in
                           the 1970s on the process of stratospheric ozone depletion.
                             UNEP presented its first Stratospheric Protection Awards honoring 20 individ-
                           uals and three organizations "...who have made outstanding contributions towards
14  Champions of the World

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 the success of ozone layer protection." Individual award winners were Dr. Daniel
 L. Albritton (Award 1994), Dr. Stephen O. Andersen, Dr. Rumen D. Bojkov,
 Ms. Eileen Claussen (Award 1993), Dr. Paul Crutzen, Dr. Joe Farman, Mr. Tang
 Meng Leng, Mr. Juan Antonio Mateos, Dr. Mario Molina, Dr. Sherwood
 Rowland (Award 1993), Mr. Patrick Szell, Mr. Gary Taylor (Award 1990), Dr.
 Manfred Tevini, Dr. Jan C. Van der Leun, Dr. Robert Watson (Award 1994), and
 Mr. John Whitelaw. Organizations winning the award were Alternative
 Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) and Programme for
 Alternative Fluorocarbon Toxicity Testing, FOE Canada, and JEMA (Award
 1991).
    The Seventh Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol was held from
 November 28 to December 7 in Vienna, Austria.
    The final "Strategic Guidance and Planning for Eliminating Ozone-
 Depleting Chemicals from U.S. Army Applications" was published just one
 year after it was first proposed.
1996
On January 1, 1996, CFC and methyl chloroform production
was halted in  developed countries (with exceptions for exports
to Article 5[1] Parties and for essentials and feedstock use).
    Six Japanese companies (Hitachi, Matsushita Electric Industrial, Mitsubishi
 Electric, Sanyo Electric, Sharp, and Toshiba) with a total of seven joint ventures
 (Hitachi Consumer Products, A.P. National, Kang Yong Electric, Sanyo
 Universal Electric, Sharp Appliances, Toshiba Consumer Products, and Thai
 Toshiba Electric Industries) to produce refrigerators in Thailand announced diey
 will halt by January 1997 the manufacture of CFC refrigerators in Thailand. The
 Government of Thailand will prohibit manufacture and import of new refrigera-
 tors containing CFCs as insulating foam or refrigeration. Thailand is also the first
 developing country in the world to use trade controls to protect the global envi-
 ronment. This achievement was the result of the Japan-USA-Thailand Trilateral
 Leadership Initiative undertaken in 1991. Organizers of the leadership initiative
 included the Department of Industrial Works of Thailand, MITI, EPA, JEMA
 (Award 1991), JICOP (Award 1993), ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993),
 and the Paris and Asia/Pacific offices of UNEP. Many experts contributed to the
 success including Stephen O. Andersen, Tadatoshi Banse, Yuichi Fujimoto
  (Award 1993), Takuichirou Nakajima, Masaharu Tanahasi, Tetsuo Nishide,
 Wiraphon Rajadanuraks, Rajendra M. Shende, Kamol Upalanond, Takashi
 Ueda, Viraj Vithoontien, and Kiyoshige Yokoi (Award 1996).
    The Eighth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol was held from
 November 25 to 27 in San Jose, Costa Rica.
                                                                             Corporate Leadership  15   ^

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Military  Leadership  and
Ozone  Layer  Protection
         The first ODSs identified as significant to the military were halons. At
         the time, the U.S. military used a significant proportion of the U.S.
         national halon production to protect its facilities, aircraft, ships, and
         tanks. By 1987, however, the military—primarily the Air Force Air
Base Fire Protection and Crash Rescue Systems Branch (Award 1993)—was
already leading the effort to identify, adopt, and publicize halon alternatives, mainly
for economic reasons. Captain E. Thomas Morehouse, Jr., (Award 1991) attended
the Montreal Protocol negotiations and presented a display of technologies under
development by the U.S. Air Force to reduce dependence on halons.
  Gary Vest (Award 1993), then Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force, real-
ized the significance of this issue and the responsibility the Air Force had to elimi-
nate its use of ODSs. Under his leadership, the Air Force became the first federal
agency to join  ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993). Gary Vest also led the Air
Force in  cofounding HARC (Award 1992). He gave his full support to the techni-
cal and policy initiatives to protect the ozone layer and advanced the cause immea-
surably.
  The search for halon alternatives quickly became a joint effort among all the
military services and the private sector. Much of the theoretical work and empirical
testing to find new total flooding fire suppression agents was done by the Navy
Technology Center for Safety and Survivability of the Naval Research Laboratory
(Award 1995). Beginning in the  1970s, the U.S. Navy began investigating many
alternatives, such as inert gases, fine water mists, and fine solid aerosols. These
efforts included computer modeling and laboratory- and full-scale fire tests utiliz-
ing a wide range of candidate agents. The  technology to recycle halons, an impor-
tant step in the process that enabled an early phaseout under the Protocol, was
developed and commercialized by the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division
in Lakehurst, New Jersey (Award 1992). Franklin Sheppard, Jr., (Award 1994),
Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Safety and Occupational Health Division,
and Chief Warrant Officer Leroy "Sandy" Sanderson, U.S. Marine Corps, were
among the key leaders who not only worked with private industry to ensure com-
mercialization of the equipment but also traveled to many developing countries to
demonstrate its use.
  When the lack of accepted specifications initially prevented the use of recycled
halons in military systems, Dr. Daniel Verdonik (Award 1995), U.S. Army, spear-
headed an effort with industry to establish a new international standard for recy-
                                                                          Military Leadership 17  J

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                        cled halons. Army managers cleverly encouraged the International Standards
                        Organization (ISO) to publish an international standard of purity for recycled
                        halons and rapidly cited that standard for military operations. Dr. Verdonik's efforts
                        cleared the way for halon banking as a viable technique for managing existing
                        halon. Under this concept, new halon production could be phased out, and recy-
                        cled halon could be used to satisfy remaining critical uses. Thomas A. Bush (Award
                        1996) initially managed the  Ozone-Depleting Chemicals Elimination Program of
                        the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command, where he was responsible
                        for replacing halon 1301 handheld fire extinguishers and CFC-12 air conditioners
                        from critical command and control communications systems. Later he implement-
                        ed the halon banking program envisioned by Dr.  Daniel Verdonik (Award 1995).
                           Some halon is still being used today because alternatives have not yet been devel-
                        oped. One significant critical use has been halon used onboard aircraft. To solve
                        this problem, die military, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) under
                        die leadership of Richard Hill, the International Civil Aviation Organization, and
                        the private sector organized by Robert E. Glaser and Richard Shafer (Walter Kidde
                        Aerospace) came togedier in 1992 to begin a program with the goal of enabling
                        aircraft to obtain airworthiness certification without the use of halon. The Wright
                        Laboratory Aircraft Halon Replacement Team (Award 1994) uses instrumented
                        aircraft engines, nacelle mockups, and  other test machinery to develop new agents
                        and delivery systems under die Joint Military Service Aircraft Halon Replacement
                        Program. Odier critical military uses include armored personnel carriers, main bat-
                        de tanks, fighting vehicles, munition resupply vehicles, shipboard machinery
                        spaces, and gas turbine engine/generator modules. The U.S. Army Tank-
                        Automotive Research, Development, & Engineering Center's Halon Replacement
                        Team (Award 1996) spearheads the effort to eliminate halon 1301 use in Army
                        ground combat vehicles. The team's work will result in the recovery of 225 metric
                        tonnes of halon 1301. Without their efforts, die Army would have purchased addi-
                        tional halon. Their verification of alternatives will eliminate the Army's current use
                        of halon 1301 and will also directly influence choices of halon replacement agents
                        by odier militaries. The Aberdeen Test Center of the U.S. Army (Award 1995) is
                        developing new technologies to evaluate potential agents coupled with sophisticated
                        delivery systems. It is standardizing test fixtures for engine and crew area compart-
                        ments, instrumentation to measure agent concentration levels, temperature, pres-
                        sure, toxic byproducts, and fire suppression effectiveness to thoroughly evaluate
                        new agent/system combinations. The new fire suppression technologies being
                        developed for armored combat vehicles and troop carriers include alternate gases,
                        liquids, powders, gels, and water mists; delivery systems such as polytechnic gas
                        generators, which are similar to air bag safety devices in automobiles, are being
                        used to disperse the agents. The latest evaluation techniques are also being used for
                        odier applications including Army aircraft, watercraft, and shelters.
                          The U.S. Navy is also conducting a very aggressive program to replace halon in
                        its aircraft. In 1995, the Navy announced that the new fighter/attack aircraft, the
                        F/A 18-E/F  and the V-22 aircraft, would use inert gas generators for engine nacelle
                        and dry bay fire protection instead of halon  1301. These systems use solid
18  Champions of the World

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propellant materials to produce large quantities of inert gas to fill unoccupied com-
partments. In 1995, skeptics claimed that technology would never be able to
replace halon 1301 on an aircraft; by early 1996, these inert gas generators were
already installed and flying on a pre-production F/A-18-E/F.
  After a multiyear research and testing program, which included everything from
small-scale cup-burner testing in a laboratory to real-scale test fires on the navy test
ship EX-SHADWELL, the U.S. Navy announced its two newest ships—the
amphibious transport ship LPD-17 and the aircraft carrier CVN-76—would use
non-halon systems such as fine water mist and HFC-227ea as refrigerants.
  In India, the Defence Institute for Fire Research (Award 1995), under the
direction of H.S. Kaprawan, has been a leader in adopting halon alternatives with-
in the military in India and has guided the establishment of new standards for dry
chemical, foam, and other alternatives for use in the private sector.
  Until additional technologies are developed, recycled halons are still necessary
for  certain fire protection uses. The halon banking concept was established to
match used halon sellers with buyers. In the United Kingdom, Marion McQuaide
(Award 1994) of the U.K. Ministry of Defence established one of the first reserves
of recycled halons, solvents, and refrigerants for military  uses. The United States
established the world's most extensive physical reserve under the leadership of
Ronald Sibley (Award 1994) at the Defense Logistics Agency (Award 1993).
Minimizing the need for halons is critical to sound management of the halon bank.
The Falcon Halon Team (Award 1994) developed
policies and strategies to reduce the use of halons in
the U.S. Air Force F-16, which is one of the greatest
offenders; the U.S. Navy also ceased conducting fire-
suppression discharge testing with halon, reducing
consumption by 60 percent.
  After the Protocol was signed, the magnitude of
military influence over the use of ODSs as solvents
also became evident. Based  on a survey of industrial
solvent uses, particularly in  high technology areas
such as electronics, it was discovered that the U.S.
military not only used significant quantities of ozone-
depleting solvents, but that military specifications
and standards prescribing ODSs had been adopted as de facto industry standards
around the world. The Navy Avionics  Center in Indianapolis is the principal U.S.
military organization responsible for these technical standards. Under the leadership
of Robin Sellers (Award 1990), it led in revising these standards to make them
more performance-based and to allow the use of alternatives. Other military organi-
zations responsible for prescribing solvent use joined the effort to help define stan-
dards for cleanliness and materials compatibility that the new alternatives would
have to meet. "With help from Dr. John Fischer (Award 1993) of the Naval Air
Warfare Center, a unique partnership was formed between DoD, private industry,
and EPA to identify and verify the acceptability of non-ODS solvents for military
uses. The Defense Logistics Agency (Award 1993) and the Defense Electronics
"Winning the EPA Award has contributed
to the credibility of Department of
Defense and Defense Logistics Agency's
efforts and  illustrates the cooperative
spirit  among the civilian agencies and
the DoD."

                    Ronald W. Sibley (Award 1994)
                               Program Manager
               Department of Defense ODS Reserve
                                                                               Military Leadership  19

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                        Supply Center (Award 1993), were leaders in changing the military specifications
                        and standards for electronic components and products to remove ODS require-
                        ments.
                          Some processes proved to be particularly difficult to execute without ODSs,
                        such as cleaning oxygen life support systems on board aircraft, submarines, and div-
                        ing applications. These systems consist of long runs of thin tubes, assorted valves,
                        and complex geometries. Any contamination posed possible flammability problems
                        because of the oxygen-enriched atmosphere. Neil Antin (Award 1995) of the Naval
                        Sea Systems Command led an effort to find a solution. In June 1995 the Naval
                        Sea Systems Command and OCTAGON Process received a joint patent for a non-
                        flammable, non-ODS cleaner, that is easily recycled and disposed of. Thanks in
                        large part to this technology, Naval Sea Systems Command was able to reduce its
                        CFC-113 consumption from over 455 metric tonnes per year to 32 metric tonnes
                        per year—a 93 percent reduction.
                          Testing alternatives in the laboratory did not guarantee acceptance in the field, so a
                        handful of brave experts tried them on the production line. They came from both
                        industry and the military, believing that protecting the ozone layer was critical and
                        that their individual efforts could make a difference. One of the early successes was at
                        the Air Force Guidance and Metrology Center (Award 1994), where, with the
                        encouragement of Don E. Hunt, delicate and complex inertial guidance systems were
                        cleaned to the most demanding standards. They proved the viability of aqueous
                        cleaners to replace CFC-113. The Naval Aviation Depot at Cherry Point (Award
                        1993) under the leadership of Mary Beth Fennell (Award 1994), the Naval Aviation
                        Depot at Norfolk (Award 1993), and the depots at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) in
                        Utah (Award 1993) under the leadership of Steve Rasmussen (Award 1994) and
                        Kelly AFB in Texas (Award 1993) under the leadership of Terry Schaumberg (Award
                        1993) made similar extraordinary breakthroughs in non-ODS cleaning of sophisticat-
                        ed electrical optical and precision components. MarkV Stanga (Litton) and Mary
                        Morningstar (Lockheed Martin) conceived the plan to require DoD to report phase-
                        out progress to Congress and to identify barriers to prompt action, allowing the
                        military to solve most problems before the time of reporting.
                          After the Clean Air Act was amended in November 1990, The Titan Launch
                        Vehicle Program created the Titan W Program ODS Reduction Team (Award
                        1995) to address the use of ODSs in the manufacture and launching of space vehi-
                        cles. This  team, composed of military and civilian experts, included all Titan
                        vehicle contractors. The team coordinated its efforts with the NASA, Space
                        Shuttle, Delta, and Atlas programs. They reduced ODS use in manufacture and
                        launch programs by 46 percent from 1989 to 1993. By August of 1995, the use of
                        ODSs in these programs had been reduced  to 1 percent of 1989 levels. The Titan
                        IV Program ODS Reduction Team—with DoD, EPA, ICOLP/ICEL (Awards
                        1991 and 1993), and NASA—subsequently published a handbook entitled
                        Eliminating Use of Ozone Depleting Substances in Solid Rocket Manufacturing
                        (1996). They have made their work available worldwide as a guide to reducing
                        the use of ODSs in rocket motors.
20  Champions of the World

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   These efforts led to measurable successes. At the Air Force depot responsible for
refurbishing B-52s, Captain Cynthia Lingg (Award 1995) led a team that imple-
mented new alternatives and reduced the use of ODSs on the B-52 airframe by 2.5
metric tonnes per year. Defense contractors also took the lead to eliminate ozone-
depleting solvents from their production lines, often taking risks to convince their
military customers to accept the changes they proposed. "With leadership from
Stephen P. Evanoff III (Award 1992) and Tony Phillips (Award 1992), General
Dynamics' Fort Worth Division (now Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems)
(Award 1992) rapidly eliminated more than 90 percent of their ozone-depleting
solvent use from their F-16 production line by painstakingly testing alternatives
until they found one which met all their performance requirements. They devel-
oped and implemented the non-ODS technologies for cleaning of gaseous oxygen
and hydraulic tubing for aircraft and space launch  systems; later, they eliminated all
ODS use. Technologies developed by Lockheed-Martin (Awards 1996) have been
implemented at major manufacturing facilities around the world.
   The military also played a significant role in  the phaseout of ozone-depleting
chemicals as refrigerants. The U.S. Navy began a fleet-wide conversion program to
change shipboard A/C and refrigeration systems from CFC-12 to HFC-134a.
Military leadership was particularly influential in the ODS phaseout challenge.
Although civilian companies faced many difficult technical challenges, the military
often faced even greater challenges due to the need for equipment to perform and
maintain reliability in the harshest of wartime conditions aboard mobile weapon
platforms such as ships, aircraft, and armored vehicles. In addition to the normal
facility A/C and refrigeration systems, cooling is required onboard aircraft, ships,
and armored personnel carriers to keep critical weapons control and communica-
tions systems functioning.
   The Navy faced a particular challenge. Many of its systems were designed to use
CFC-114 because it provided quiet operation to escape submarine detection,
reduced equipment volume,  and compatibility with existing submarine atmosphere
control equipment—all critical features for warship systems. Since CFC-114 was
not used extensively by the private sector for refrigeration, there was little incentive
for commercial  companies to develop alternative refrigerants to replace it. Also,
since the primary use of CFC-114 by the private sector was for foam-blowing
applications, once the foam industry converted to other alternatives, the availability
of CFC-114 to  support existing systems became a major concern. To solve this
problem, the Carderock Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center
(CDNSWC)  (Award 1995) began work with the Naval Sea Systems Command
(NAVSEA) to identify alternative refrigerants. After work with several alternatives
proved unsuccessful, EPA's Atmospheric Protection Branch and the National
Institute for Standards and Testing identified HFC-236fa as an alternative to
CFC-114 for use in existing  equipment. CDNSWC and NAVSEA also tested and
approved HFC-134a as an alternative to CFC-12. Following this, they began a
fleetwide program to convert nearly 1,100 existing chillers and refrigeration units
on Navy ships.
                                                                               Military Leadership  21

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                         Navies also began developing non-CFC systems for new ships. In 1995, the U.S.
                       Navy announced that the new amphibious ship LPD-17, the aircraft carrier CVN-
                       76, and the new attack submarine NSSN would all be designed and built without
                       the use of CFCs or HCFCs. Also in 1995, the U.K. Royal Navy announced HFC-
                       134a would be used on their Trafalgar-class submarines. In 1995 and 1996, the
                       U.S. Navy provided support to Taiwan and Spain for conversion of their equip-
                       ment from CFC-12 to HFC-134a.
                         Once the technology was proven, implementing the new equipment to achieve
                       an ODS phaseout depended on military-initiated proactive efforts. The Army
                       Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM) and Tobyhanna Army Depot
                       (Award 1994) began replacing all CFC-12 air conditioners in thousands of tactical
                       shelters worldwide.
                         Officials responsible for developing new military systems also had to support the
                       new substitutes in order to prevent future dependence on ODSs. As Commander
                       of the U.S. Air Force's Aeronautical Systems Center (Award 1994), Lt. Gen.
                       James A. Fain, Jr., (Award 1994) was responsible for developing the new F-22
                       fighter aircraft and other systems. He demonstrated vision and leadership by mak-
                       ing sure the new F-22 and other new systems would be ODS-free, with the excep-
                       tion of halon  1301. The AGM-130 Systems Program Office (Award 1995) of the
                       U.S. Air Force eliminated 100 percent of the ODSs used in the manufacturing of
                       its solid rocket motors, a reduction of over 26 metric tonnes of CFC.
                         Because the military transports perishable commodities around the globe,
                       methyl bromide is also an important issue. Navy Lieutenant Commander Robert
                       Gay (Award 1995) of the Defense Logistics Agency developed a controlled atmos-
                       phere technique to replace methyl bromide use by reducing respiration, slowing
                       ethylene production, inhibiting pathogen reproduction, and killing insects within
                       the storage environment.
                         To enable all these successes,  commitment to ozone layer protection by military
                       leadership was essential. The Office of the U.S. Secretary of Defense under the
                       direction of top environmental executives from 1986 to the present (Carl Schafer,
                       William H. Parker, III, Thomas E. Baca, and Sherri W Goodman) fully support-
                       ed protection of the ozone layer. William D. Coins expertly provided the necessary
                       staff continuity. Gary Vest, Principal Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense
                       (Environmental Security) (Award  1993) was the first senior-level advocate within
                       DoD and enabled many initiatives to become successful. Joel Krinsky (Award
                       1994) of the Naval Sea Systems Command began many of the efforts that led to
                       alternatives to halon and CFC use onboard navy ships. Joel Krinsky established the
                       Navy CFC & Halon Clearinghouse (Award 1995), supporting development and
                       commercialization efforts for recycling equipment, changing military specifications
                       to allow the use of ODS alternatives, and developing the overall Navy strategy for
                       compliance with the Montreal Protocol. David Breslin (Award 1995) of the Naval
                       Sea Systems Command staff, who managed the shipboard refrigeration conversion
                       program, initiated the Navy's responsible use policy and established technical sup-
                       port that was largely responsible for the program's success. Policies by the Chief of
22  Champions of the World

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    Naval Operations (Award 1993) quickly extended many of the successful programs
    Navywide. The Army Pollution Prevention Support Office (Award 1992) enacted
    one of the most rigid policies on halon use of any of the U.S. military services. By
    defining critical uses as only those on armored combat vehicles, they increased the
    pace of conversion to alternatives. Under the leadership of James Vincent (Award
    1994) of the Aviation and Troop Command, the U.S. Army implemented the first
    halon alternative on aircraft by changing helicopter cockpit extinguishers from
    halon 1211 to carbon dioxide.
      The military had the exceptionally difficult task of not only finding suitable
    alternatives to ozone-depleting chemicals and processes, but also changing impor-
    tant safety specifications in order to implement any new technology. Although these
    obstacles were omnipresent, champions in the military, private industry, and gov-
    ernment worked together to research, approve, and use new technologies that are
    safe for stratospheric ozone.
  Military-Related Awards Summaries
The Advanced
Amphibious Assault
Vehicle, U.S. Marine
Corps
(Award 1996)
Thomas Daurn, Defense
Reutilization &
Marketing Service
(Award 1991)
Department of the Navy,
U.S. Chief of Naval
Operations
(Award 1993)
The Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle, U.S. Marine Corps, was constructed
under one of the first programs to develop an "ODS-free" design philosophy for a
sophisticated, multipurpose technology. The specifications of the Advanced
Amphibious Assault Vehicle expressly prohibit CFCs, methyl chloroform, halons,
carbon tetrachloride, HBFCs, and HCFCs. The direct reporting program manager
issued a pollution prevention policy statement that expressly prohibits ODSs in the
design of the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle and commits to fielding the
best technology in an environmentally responsible manner.

Thomas Daum, Defense Reutilization & Marketing Service, developed pro-
curement procedures to encourage the acceptance of ODS-free alternatives by
DoD.

Department of the Navy, U.S. Chief of Naval Operations, took on a leadership
role in the elimination of ODSs in military applications by issuing an ODS policy
in 1992. The policy focused on proactive replacement and responsible use of
ODSs. It established December 31, 2000, as the deadline for Navy-wide elimina-
tion of all non-mission critical shore-based ODS applications and adopted a maxi-
mum ODP of 0.05 or less for alternatives. In addition, the Chief of Naval
Operations policy called for fleetwide recovery and recycling of ODSs, a policy
which served to minimize Navy consumption and eliminate unnecessary emissions
to the atmosphere. The Department of the Navy policy was the first of its kind in
the U.S. military and is the crux of the Navy ODS Elimination Program.
                                                                                Military Leadership  23

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tCBM SPO, U.S. Air
Force
f Award 1996!
JoSm King, Manager,
DOS Removal Program,
San Antonio Air
Logistics Center,  Texas
'.Await! 1996)
      MulJenhard, U.S.
NavVi CFC & Halon
(Clearinghouse Team
t Award 1996)
ICBM SPO, U.S. Air Force, published the U.S. Air Forces first weapon system
pollution prevention program plan and screened over 35,000 SPO technical docu-
ments that govern operations, maintenance, and sustainability of ICBM weapon
systems. This program eliminated thousands of outdated technical orders and other
documents, provided the U.S. government with a significant cost savings, and
reduced the quantity of ODSs purchased by over 98 percent. The program has
been recognized as the "model weapon system pollution prevention program" by
the U.S.. Air Force Pentagon staff. An Air Force Inspector General audit found the
program's approach "an  outstanding example of how to work pollution prevention
issues on a future fielded system."

John King, Manager, ODS Removal Program, San Antonio Air Logistics Center,
Texas, initiated, coordinated, and led an effort in late 1992 to begin the identifica-
tion, removal, and replacement of ODSs used in thousands of technical orders
managed by the center. This work consolidated more than 6.5 million pages  of
information, including 45,000 technical orders, to create a database on technical
orders governing the use of ODSs in the U.S. Air Force. In 1996, the effort had
revised 94 percent of more dian 26,000 technical orders. Teaming with other ser-
vices (particularly with NAVSEA for oxygen cleaning) and industry made this suc-
cess possible. Strategies for the remaining 6 percent involving difficult halon
applications were developed and implemented and business strategies involving
refrigerants were implemented.

Peter Mullenhard, U.S. Navy's CFG & Halon Clearinghouse Team, since 1991
has provided die untiring leadership and initiative responsible for the team's
successes in providing data on alternative chemicals and processes. Under his direc-
tion, die Clearinghouse won the Stratospheric Protection Award in 1995. Each
business day, he sends an electronic bulletin called ODS NEWS, which provides
news on technical advancements to over 250 subscribers around the world.
Naval Air Warfare Center The Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division Lakehurst developed,
Aircraft Division         acquired, and implemented the first halon 1211 recycling technology.
Lakehurst                Additionally, it participated in recycling technology cooperation with dozens of
». Award  199*-)            developing countries.
Ronald Sxbley, Defense
Logistics Agency
«Award 1994)
Ronald Sibley headed the Defense Logistics Agency's efforts to establish and oper-
ate a CFC and halon reserve. The centralized management eliminated duplication
of efforts and standardized the terms and definitions of ODS recycling and bank-
ing. Mr. Sibley personally oversaw plans to create the reserve. Since then, he has led
the reserve's very successful efforts in recycling, reclamation, and reuse of ODSs.
He has also organized site visits and study tours to share operational concepts, tech-
nical approaches, and lessons learned widi high-level delegations from throughout
die world, including China and Russia.
   24  Champions of the World

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Gary D. Vest, Principal
Assistant Deputy
Undersecretary of
Defense
(Award 1993)
Gary D. Vest, Principal Assistant Deputy Undersecretary of Defense
(Environmental Security), has been the senior leadership driving the US Air Forces
and DoD's programs to phase out ODS dependence since 1987. Under his leader-
ship, DoD adopted one of the most aggressive phaseout programs inside or outside
government. He directed the establishment of the Halon Alternatives Research
Consortium, which eventually evolved into the industry-led HARC (Award 1992).
He also authorized the U.S. Air Force to provide technical support on halon alter-
natives to  the Parties  to the Protocol during initial treaty negotiations in 1987. He
signed an  agreement with the ICOLP/ICEL (Awards  1991 and 1993), making the
U.S. Air Force the first  government organization to become a member after it's
founding.  He established a contract giving all DoD access to OZONET, making
the Air Force the first institutional user of this international database on CFC alter-
natives. He directed,  organized, and chaired the "Williamsburg Conference" and
the "Brussels Conference" on the Role of the Military in Implementing the
Montreal Protocol. These meetings resulted in NATO's Committee for the
Challenges of a Modern Society sending a letter to UNEP Executive Director Dr.
Mostafa Tolba formally endorsing the proposed Copenhagen Amendments which
accelerated CFC and halon phaseout.  He also directed a variety of U.S. Air Force
policies which eliminated many of the largest uses of halons and CFCs. Many of
these policies were firsts in either the public or private sectors. They include stop-
ping the atmospheric release of halon  for firefighter training, replacing halon 1211
in flight-line crash/rescue fire vehicles with dry chemicals, mandating the use of
non-CFC  chillers, stopping the use of fixed halon systems to protect computer and
communications facilities, and eliminating the practice of halon discharge  testing.
Mr. Vest's  contributions to protecting the ozone layer are world class and world
renown. His personal commitment, history of strong  consistent leadership, and
impressive record of accomplishments make him one  of the most dedicated and
successful  public servants in the area of environmental protection.
                                                                             Champions of the World   25

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Foams
Foam Food Packaging Phaseout
          Contrary to popular beliefs, most molded foam food service packaging—
          including the familiar white foam cups—never contained CFCs. Until
          1988, however, approximately 35 percent of extruded plastic products,
          such as the McDonalds' "hot-side hot, cold-side cold" hamburger
clamshell, were manufactured with CFC-12.
  Environmental activists, including teachers, children, and international activists
at FOE, NRDC, and Environmental Defense Fund mounted increasingly effective
consumer boycotts and legislative campaigns
against foam packaging. Elizabeth Cook (Award
1991), Alan Miller (Award 1992), David Doniger
(Award 1991), and other environmental leaders
protested the destruction of the ozone layer, litter
and solid waste, and plastics in general. By 1988,
McDonalds and several other restaurant compa-
nies were becoming increasingly sensitive to these
consumer and environmental efforts and began
to negotiate with their suppliers for non-CFC
foam containers and even to consider eliminating
foam packaging.
  Foam foodservice packaging could be economically manufactured using hydro-
carbons, but only by isolating the flammable manufacturing facilities from populat-
ed areas and only in locations where smog-causing volatile organic compound
(VOC) emissions were allowed by environmental authorities. Plant relocation
would take time and money, and investments could only be recovered if restaurants
continued to use foam food packaging. Some suppliers to McDonalds were afraid
that they were about to lose their best (or only) customer.
   In January 1988, Dolco Packaging (Award 1990) and DuPont (Award 1990)
sought help from EPA. They were confident that HCFC-22 could replace CFC-12 to
make foam packaging. HCFC-22 has an ozone-depletion potential (ODP) of 0.05,
compared to an ODP of 1.0 for CFC-12. In this project, Dolco faced two daunting
problems:
                                                                          IjijffiilfwCS!';:S"f;' ?'• ,1 . S/i I" *f   ».'
                                                                          a6ftSwST.;.^>^ft">.'•• •; ••;•• . fjf.l 4   »
                                                                                                   I -V-*- - -
                                                                                         V. *&/'// \jff •.•&'• 1
                                                                          afe^^^-;^:- • :".-'- ' '  -^.ff I * •"%*": l
                                                                          ".'. '•----' - ': -"•'-•    • '  ' •   ' --'•• iff ." ---*':*%'
                                                 "The CFC phaseout effort remains one of
                                                 FPI's proudest moments and will have a last-
                                                 ing, positive legacy."

                                                                        Joseph W. Bow, President
                                                                  Foodservice & Packaging Institute
                                                                                  (Award 1990)
                                                                                      Foams  27

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                                                            Awards for Foam Food Packaging
                                                            + Dolco Packaging (Award 1990)
                                                            4- FPI (Award 1990)
                                                            *• Elizabeth Cook, (Award 1991)
                                                            *• David Doniger (Award 1991)
                                                            + Alan Miller (Award 1992)
"FPI's announcement..that U.S.  industry
would cease manufacture of containers
made with CFCs by the end of 1988 was a
positive step which helped prevent further
damage to the ozone layer. It is an act of
statesmanship and on behalf of  UNEP I
congratulate and commend your Institute
for this exemplary decision."

                Dr.  Mostafa K. Tolba (Award 1993)
                               Executive Director
              United Nations Environment Program
+ HCFCs would require
   approval of the FDA because
   food would be coming into
   contact with the plastic sur
   face. FDA had a backlog of
   work and it would take more
   than one year to begin
   investigations.
+ The public and McDonalds  would have to believe that the new packaging
   would not harm the ozone layer. Environmental organizations might not agree
   that a 95 percent reduction in ODP was sufficient. The public might not be
   able to distinguish foam made without CFG from CFC foam.
   The EPA stratospheric protection staff—including Dr. Stephen O. Andersen,
John Hoffman (Award 1994), Jean Lupinacci (Award 1996), Stephen Seidel
(Award 1996), and Maria Tikoff—tried to prove that in some sectors it was techni-
cally feasible to reduce CFC use and that voluntary cooperation could be more
flexible and cost effective than traditional regulation. In 1988, most CFC manufac-
turers and their customers steadfastly refused to  acknowledge technical and eco-
nomic feasibility of alternatives and reduction techniques until the science was
proven. Furthermore, EPA feared a backlash against ozone layer protection if the
public initially thought that factories using CFCs would be forced to close and jobs
would be lost.
   EPA first sought expedited approval from FDA for Dolco s (Award 1990) pro-
posed HCFC-22. The FDA food packaging specialist confirmed that the actual
review would only take a few  days if the technical submission were fully adequate
but adjustment in work priorities would require high-level approval. EPA
Administrator Lee Thomas wrote to FDA requesting prompt action. The FDA spe-
                         cialist volunteered to work nights and weekends so that
                         no other FDA actions would be affected.
                           Coming to an agreement with McDonalds and envi-
                         ronmentalists was much more difficult than motivating
                         FDA. McDonalds refused to talk to Jean Lupinacci
                         (Award 1996) about packaging. "We are hamburger
                         people," they said, "not packaging people." One critical
                         environmental organization balked at first because its
                         president was reluctant to diminish the fund-raising
                         and political success of the  overall campaign against
                         foam packaging by solving  the ozone-depletion issue.
                         Another environmental organization was concerned
                         that it would draw fire from its members for cooperat-
                         ing with the corporate "enemy." The foodservice pack-
                         aging industry was initially skeptical that EPA could
                         help at all or that environmentalists could be trusted to
                         keep their side of any potential bargain.
   28  champions of the World

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   Remarkably, by April 1988 FDA had approved the new process, and manufac-
turers and environmentalists made a ground-breaking voluntary agreement to phase
out CFCs. The agreement was signed by the FPI (Award 1990), the 12 significant
U.S. foam foodservice manufacturers, FOE, NRDC, and the Environmental
Defense Fund. Elizabeth Cook (Award 1991), David Doniger (Award 1991), and
Alan Miller (Award 1992) were instrumental in the agreement, and steadfast in
honoring and defending the compromise against critics.
   Foodservice companies agreed to phase out CFCs as soon as possible, but no later
than December 31, 1988; to utilize any new, economically feasible foam blowing
agents that offered greater stratospheric ozone layer protection than HCFC-22, assum-
ing they satisfied other safety and environmental standards; and to encourage the inter-
national foodservice disposables industry to initiate similar phaseout programs.
   The food packaging announcement of the agreement in March 1988 came just
3 months after AT&T (Award 1992) announced its new solvent to replace CFC-
113. Combined, these announcements reinforced technical optimism, encouraged
voluntary actions, proved that institutional barriers to innovation (including gov-
ernment approval) could be overcome,  and introduced the concept of a complete
phaseout using "transition" HCFC substances.
   In February 1989, FPI (Award  1990) announced the completion of its successful
CFC phaseout and published full technical descriptions to allow worldwide conver-
sion.  By 1991, virtually every facility in the world had halted CFC use for foodser-
vice packaging.


Flexible Foam Phaseout


           The flexible foam industry was forced to deal with multiple problems
           while attempting to phase out ODSs. One of the leading potential
           alternatives, methylene chloride, was not itself environmentally friendly.
           Although ideal as a blowing agent in a variety of foam applications,
many states restricted methylene chloride use because it did not meet their toxicity
requirements. Other CFC alternatives produced foams of questionable quality,
thereby adding to the phaseout dilemma.
   At the urging of EPA s Jean Lupinacci (Award 1996), the industry actively dis-
covered, tested, and considered numerous solutions, leading to innovative changes
in equipment, processes, and blowing agents. For example, the automobile industry
had early success in applying new technologies to eliminate the use of CFCs in the
manufacture of automotive flexible foam. Innovations regarding foam application
and quality also were developed for flexible foam used in furniture, bedding, and
other areas. As more and more alternatives were successfully applied, members of
the industry developed manuals to help others worldwide transform their opera-
 tions. These manuals were instrumental in the phaseout of CFCs in the flexible
 foam industry before the mandated deadline.
                                                                                          Foams 29
,€1

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                          Awards for Flexible Foam Phaseout
                          +  Ford Motor (Awards 1992 and 1994)
                          *•  Mercedes Benz (Award 1992)
                          *•  Recticel (Award 1992)
                          +  ICI Polyurethanes (Award 1994)
                          4  Craig Barkhouse (Award 1995)
Individuals, companies, and
associations all played impor-
tant roles in developing better
products to fit specific needs,
all without the use of CFCs,
ultimately leading to the early
CFC phaseout in flexible foam.
                       Foam Insulation Products
                                Because of the need to maintain or improve energy efficiency, alternatives to
                                CFCs in insulation products required careful consideration. A number of
                                cooperative projects began in order to evaluate the effectiveness of substi-
                                tute blowing agents and to protect the integrity of the final product. It
                        became clear early on that the diversity of insulation products and uses, in addition
                        to other standards, would make the ultimate choice of alternatives complex.
                          In response to diese difficulties, worldwide cooperation and information
                        exchange led quickly to the introduction of new blowing products. This spirit
                        of innovation and cooperation facilitated the rapid introduction and use of
                        CFC alternatives.
                         Awards for Foam Insulation Products
                         *• Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers' Association (Award 1993)
                         + Mike Jeffs (Award 1993)
                         •*• John Minsker (Award 1995)
30 Champions of the World

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    Foams-Related Awards Summaries
Asahi Glass
(Award 1994)
 Craig Barkhouse
 (Award 1995)
 Dixie-Narco
 (Award 1995)
 Dolco Packaging
 (Award 1990)
 Ford Motor Company
 (Awards 1992
 and1994)
 FPI (Award 1990)
Asahi Glass developed and responsibly marketed CFC alternatives for blowing
agents, as well as refrigerants and cleaning solvents. The company is a strong advo-
cate of environmental leadership and a signatory to the pledge to help the
Government of Vietnam protect the ozone layer by investing only in modern, envi-
ronmentally acceptable technology in the -company's Vietnam projects.

Craig Barkhouse played a major role in the phaseout of CFC use in the flexible
foam industry and has the distinction of being the first flexible foam industry repre-
sentative to be  nominated to the UNEP Flexible and Rigid Foams TOG. As early
as the mid-1980s, while many other industry representatives worked against con-
trols on CFCs, he documented alternatives and made the information publicly
available. After the Protocol was signed, he developed sector-specific reduction
strategies and promoted these strategies within the industry. He is past chair of the
Standing Technical Committee of the Canadian Flexible Foam Manufacturers'
Association and is current chair of the Association's CFC Subcommittee and repre-
sents the Canadian foam industry in all CFC-related international activities.

Dixie-Narco initiated a phaseout strategy in 1990 and since then has played a lead-
ing role in switching to carbon dioxide blowing agents for its foams applications. It
has also helped suppliers of foam blowing agents set criteria for performance.

Until 1988, approximately 35 percent of extruded plastic products were manufac-
tured with CFC-12. Dolco Packaging responded to public pressure for ozone layer
protection by perfecting the transitional use of HCFC-22. Its technical leadership
included a shift in thinking that inspired engineers to consider a wide variety of
alternative foam-blowing processes. The company teamed with DuPont (Award
 1990) and EPA to get approval by FDA for the use of HCFC-22 in food products,
and helped organize the first national voluntary phaseout of any CFC application.
Dolco s work formed an early link in the chain  of announcements that turned
industry opposition to industry leadership for stratospheric ozone protection.

 Ford Motor Company led in implementing alternatives for a full range of automo-
 bile uses including A/C, flexible and safety foam, and electronics and parts clean-
 ing. Ford initiated efforts to eliminate all CFC uses from its manufacturing
 processes  worldwide by the end of 1993, and its new cars and light trucks were
 CFC-free by the end of 1994. The company converted its models to HFC-134a
 air-conditioners more quickly than other companies. Ford also succeeded in elimi-
 nating CFCs in its foam blowing processes for seat cushions. Ford is a founding
 member of ICOLP/ICEL and has shared its experience as a leader  in international
 technology transfer activities.

 FPI demonstrated leadership in encouraging the phaseout of CFCs in food packag-
 ing. In addition to work in the United States that led to the elimination of CFCs in
 1989, FPI organized and published information on technical conversions,  giving
 other countries access to alternative chemicals and substitutes and thereby promot-
 ing further ODS reduction.

                                                                   Foams  31

-------
 General Motors         General Motors led in development, commercialization, and market acceptance
 (Award  1994)            of CFG recycling under new-car warranties; made technical breakthroughs in
                           foam spray and molding applications; and joined in technology cooperation
                           with corporate partners worldwide. General Motors was also instrumental in
                           finding polymers capable of containing HFC-134a and in verifying the perfor-
                           mance of HFC-134a lubricants. It was the first U.S. vehicle manufacture to
                           mandate CFC-12 recycling in its plants and dealerships, first to mandate HFC-
                           134a in its plants and dealerships,  first to mandate refrigerant contaminant
                           identifiers, and first to begin releasing CFC-12 to HFC-134a retrofit procedures
                           for vehicles under warranty.  General Motors personnel sponsored and champi-
                           oned Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE) standards and recommended prac-
                           tices for safe handling and recycling, leak detection equipment and
                           methodology, retrofit refrigeration  criteria, and other topics.

 ICI Chemicals and       ICI Chemicals and Polymers developed a wide range of CFC-free insulating
 Polymers (Award 1992}  foam alternatives.
 ICI Polyurethanes
 'ICIPi (Award 1994)
 Dr. Mike Jeffs
 i Award 1993)
Jean Lupinacci,
Atmospheric Pollution
Prevention Division,
liPA fAward 1996)
 ICI Polyurethanes (ICIP) developed an innovative flexible foam product, using
 CFC-free materials and production processes. As a replacement for CFC-11 and
 alternatives such as methylene chloride in the foaming process, ICIP created a
 product using entirely water-based foaming. The new flexible foam product (called
 "Waterily") contains no CFCs or HCFCs, uses only low-volatility chemicals, and
 uses no halogenated substances for production or for meeting flammability tests.
 The product is thus better designed for recycling and helps to promote a safer
 workplace. ICIP s research and product development represents a multilayered
 approach to ozone- and environment-friendly manufacturing.

 Dr. Mike Jeffs has led ICIP s CFC phaseout program since 1986. He actively
 worked on the issue of ozone-depletion and provided information on emerging
 alternative technologies to phase out CFCs. He made presentations on these issues
 at conferences in North and South America, Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia,
 Japan, and Australia. Dr. Jeffs worked extensively witk Chinese industry to share
 information on alternatives and new technologies, and organized and participated
 in symposia with refrigerator manufacturers, the construction industry, and the
 appliance industry. He has served as a member of the UNEP Foams TOC and has
 been the foams representative to the World Bank Ozone Operations Resource
 Group since its inception.

Jean Lupinacci, Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division, EPA, was a founding
 member of the UNEP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) and
 the founding chair of the Flexible and Rigid Foams TOC. She has encouraged pri-
vate and public sector initiatives, and made concrete developments by fostering an
atmosphere of trust.
   32  Champions of the World

-------
Mercedes-Benz
(Award  1992)
John Minsker
(Award 1995)
Nissan Motor
Company
(Award 1991)
Polyisocyanurate
Insulation
Manufacturers
Association
(PIMA) (Award. 1993)
Recticel (Award 1992)
Mercedes-Benz, began initial CFC elimination work in 1989, and in 1991 became
the world's first automaker to introduce a CFC-free model line, the 1992 S-Class.
The S-Class vehicles contained A/C systems that substituted HFC-134a for CFC-
12, foams whose production used water and other non-CFCs, and electronic parts
cleaned by aqueous and other methods. Mercedes-Benz has eliminated CFCs from
all its vehicles worldwide, preceding all other automobile manufacturers by at least
one year.

John Minsker has been a leader in the extruded polyolefin and polystyrene foam
industries for the phaseout of ozone-depleting chemicals. As the Global Foams
Technical Leader for Dow Plastics, he influenced and facilitated the company's
March 1988 announcement to eliminate CFCs in the production of these plastics.
Dow was the first foam manufacturer to announce a worldwide phaseout of CFCs
in all of its facilities. Mr. Minsker's responsibilities encompassed all technical issues
for polyolefin and polystyrene plastics from research to application issues. As a
result of his expertise, he was nominated to the UNEP Foams TOC when it was
formed in 1989 and has been a valuable contributor for over 6 years. Through his
commitment to the issue of ozone depletion, he has earned tremendous respect
from his colleagues in industry and government for being a readily accessible source
of technical knowledge, political insight, and good judgement.

Nissan Motor Company, after first announcing its  commitment to seek alternative
refrigerants in an effort to phase out CFCs in August 1989, was the first automo-
bile manufacturer to install CFC recycling equipment in its dealerships. By the end
of 1993, Nissan had converted A/C systems for all Infiniti/Nissan cars and trucks
from CFC-12 to HFC-134a and halted the use of CFCs in foams and as solvents
in their worldwide operations.

Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association (PIMA) designed a tactical
plan in the late 1980s to achieve the year-end 1993 conversion goal. PIMA took
the lead in organizing the U.S. Department of Energy, EPA, the Society of
Plastics Industry, and the National Roofing Contractors Association to phase
out the use of CFCs in polyisocyanurate insulation as soon as possible rather than
wait for its mandated elimination in the year 1996. PIMA's leadership helped to
ease the conversion process for both industry and government to the benefit of
the environment.

Recticel was the first flexible polyurethane foam (PUF) manufacturer to establish
voluntary CFC reduction programs. Recticel pioneered CFC replacement technolo-
gies for flexible foams, including activated charcoal scrubbing, manufacturing under
reduced pressure, and chemical alternatives. One of the most significant contribu-
tions was the development and disclosure of alternative blowing technology for rigid
PUF panels.
                                                                                             Foams  33

-------
Ormen C. Wkschek
-. Award 1992)
Dr, Udo Winning
• Award 1993)
Carmen C. Waschek was the senior engineer who persuaded the Coca-Cola
Company to develop a comprehensive program of CFC containment, recycling,
and banking and to purchase only CFC-free new refrigeration equipment.

Dr. Udo Wanning researched the suitability of various alternatives to CFC-11 in
appliance foams. He studied the energy efficiency implications of various substi-
tutes, as well as the performance of hydrocarbons as foam blowing agents. His
company, Bosch-Siemens, completed the changeover to pentane in August 1993.
  34  Champions of the World

-------
Halons
     In 1987, when the Montreal Protocol was signed, halons were considered the
     most irreplaceable ODS. In fact, industry experts were reluctant to include
     them in the Protocol. While CFCs were eventually scheduled for a 50 percent
     reduction, halon production was merely frozen at the base-year level. As a
result of industry and military leadership, however, halon ultimately became the first
ODS to be phased out by developed countries (January 1994). Aggressive identifica-
tion, development, validation, and implementation of alternatives, and establishing a
workable halon bank to meet recurring needs in tliose critical applications for which
alternatives had not yet been identified, made this possible. This substantial contri-
bution to ozone layer protection was achieved by a small number of ozone champi-
ons working primarily through fire protection associations, military organizations,
several multinational companies, and the fire protection community.
   In 1986, NFPA (Award 1990) planned to require mandatory discharge testing  of
new halon 1301 fire protection systems because of concern that halon systems
would be improperly designed or installed. EPA's
Dr. Stephen O. Andersen was concerned about
those emissions as well as the possibility that own-
ers of existing systems, local fire authorities, or
insurance companies might also require such test-
ing. NFPA asked Gary Taylor (Award 1990), chair
of the NFPA Halon Technical Committee, to meet
with EPA. As a result of the meeting, the NFPA
technical committee prepared comprehensive tech-
nical requirements to eliminate all non-fire related
emissions of halons and strengthen nonemissive
requirements to ensure reliable operation.
   Also in 1986, EPA started to build its relation-
ship with the military, an integral player in the
struggle to phase out halons. EPA and contracted                '
military operations expert Dr. Mike  Ryan began
working extensively with Gary Vest (Award 1993), the senior environmental policy
maker in the U.S. Air Force. Gary Vest identified Captain E. Thomas Morehouse,
Jr. (Award 1991), of the Air Base Fire Protection and Crash Rescue Systems
Branch at Tyndall AFB (Award 1993), as the point-of-contact for EPA initiatives.
Captain Morehouse worked quickly with EPA staff and with EPA
"People dedicate themselves to the fire pro-
tection profession because they believe pas-
sionately in protecting lives and property.
Once the threat halons posed to mankind
was understood, the community worked to
find solutions with that same passion they
bring to fighting fires."

            £ Thomas Morehouse, Jr. (Award 1991)
                     Institute for Defense Analyses
                                                                                        Halons  35

-------
                        contractors Dr. Mike Ryan and Dr. Donald L. Fox (University of North Carolina)
                        to develop and implement changes in U.S. Air Force halon use policy including: 1)
                        restricting use to "mission-critical essential applications," 2) prohibiting discharge
                        testing, 3) limiting training, 4) ultimately replacing noncritical uses and banking of
                        available halon for essential military uses, and 5) working with AIA and Boeing
                        Commercial Airplane Group (Award 1993) to organize a worldwide working
                        group of military and civilian aviation corporations and regulatory authorities to
                        find alternatives.
                          In 1989, the Naval Research Laboratory (Award 1995) identified and qualified
                        a suitable substitute to halon 1301  for testing halon fire-suppression systems.
                        Following recommendations made  by the Naval Research Laboratory (Award
                        1995), the Naval Sea Systems Command eliminated the use of halon 1301  in the
                        testing of shipboard fire-suppression systems in 1990. This single act reduced the
                        Navy's consumption of halon 1301 by 60 percent.
                          DASCEMs Australian National Halon Essential Uses Panel (Award 1994) was
                        set up in 1990 by the Environment Protection Authority in Victoria to limit the
                        sale and use of halons to essential uses only. As a result of its work, Australia had
                        virtually halted the use of newly manufactured halons several years prior to the
                        1994 production phaseout. The panel had support both from industry and govern-
                        ment and has been effective in halon end-use control. The Halon Essential Uses
                        Panel-EPA, Victoria, Australia (Award 1992) successfully limited the sale and use
                        of halons to essential uses  only. The panel, with widespread support from industry
                        and government, has been an effective system of halon end use control, leading to
                        the virtual halt in the use of newly  manufactured halon in Australia. Under  the
                        leadership of Dr. Hans U. Wackerlig (Award 1995) and in cooperation with Dr.
                        Walter Brunner (Award 1994), the Swiss Institute for the Promotion of Safety &
                        Security organized three international halon conferences.
                          NFPA (Award 1990) and Casey Grant (Award 1995) worked closely and quick-
                        ly with EPA. They withdrew the proposal for mandatory discharge testing and
                        approved a nonchemical pressure test as a substitute for discharge testing. They also
                        organized conferences worldwide to explain and promote the elimination of halon
                        emissions caused by testing, training, leaks, and accidental discharges. Later they
                        promoted halon substitutes by developing model consensus standards to facilitate
                        the implementation of new alternatives to halons. Specifically, they generated the
                        Standard on Clean Agent  Fire Extinguisher Systems (NFPA 2001), and the
                        Standard on "Water Mist Fire Protection Systems (NFPA 750), both of which pro-
                        vide essential design, installation, maintenance, and operation criteria for these
                        important replacement technologies. Under the direction of James Beyreis (Award
                        1990), Underwriter  Laboratories (UL) (Award 1990) changed testing procedures
                        and streamlined acceptance criteria for alternatives.
                          In another important industry section, the electronics industry, AT&T (Award
                        1992), GTE, IBM (Awards  1992 and  1993), and Nortel/Northern Telecom
                        (Award 1991) took the lead. AT&T (Award 1992) halted purchase of new halon
                        systems and designed an internal halon banking scheme. Nortel/Northern Telecom
                        (Award 1991) announced a goal of a virtual phaseout and worked with insurance
36  Champions of the World

-------
companies to design facilities that did not require halons. GTE introduced less
flammable materials such as insulating cables as a way of reducing fire risk. IBM
(Awards 1992 and 1993) had never extensively used halons and worked to prove
that electronics could be protected with water or carbon dioxide.
   Once again, the military took an active role in completing the halon phaseout.
The U.S. Army Acquisition Pollution Prevention Support Office (Award 1992),
under the leadership of Dr. Daniel P. Verdonik (Award 1995) and Carmen
DiGiandomenico, was the first of the U.S. Military Services to establish an acquisi-
tion office to address this issue and crafted a successful halon elimination and man-
agement program. These efforts led to a General Officer Steering Committee to
address ODS within -the Army. In addition, the Army worked with the American
Society of Testing and Materials, a member of ISO, to change specifications to
allow the use of recycled halons and subsequently persuaded the U.S. military to
adopt those changes. The Army was the leading service to centrally manage a com-
prehensive ODS elimination program. The Defense Logistics Agency (Award
1993), under the management of Ronald Sibley (Award 1994), developed the
worlds largest halon reserve to satisfy future mission-critical military needs, which
has become a test-bed for process management including long-term storage con-
tainer research, reclamation equipment analysis, and system cylinder handling safe-
ty procedures. The DoD Ozone Depleting Substances Reserve managed by the
Defense Logistics Agency has become a model for other countries and commercial
interests, including Russia and China, which are developing similar operations serv-
ing military and/or civilian sectors. The Army's Aberdeen Test Center (Award
1995) developed test protocols for evaluating several different types of agents,
including gases, liquids, powders, gels, foams, and
water mist as an alternative in combat vehicles,
which are one of the most technically challenging        "The U.S.  Department of Defense is a remark-
critical uses.       .                                   g^ly effectjve, mission-oriented organization.
   The Navy Technology Center for Safety &          Once eliminating halons and CFCs became part
Survivability (Award 1995) developed and approved     of the mission, the results were astounding."
alternative chemicals for discharge testing. With
team leader Franklin Sheppard, Jr.,  (Award 1994),                                Gary D  Vesf (Award
the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division          Prlndpal Assistant Deputy Under secretary of Defense
Lakehurst (Award 1992) developed, procured, and                                   (Environmental Security)
implemented the first halon 1211 recycling technol-
ogy and assisted dozens of Article 5(1) countries in
technology cooperation. Under the leadership of Joel
Krinsky (Award 1994) of the U.S. Naval Sea Systems Command, Navy
Technology Center for Safety and Survivability, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
(Award 1995) began a program to identify halon 1301 alternatives for shipboard
use. This program greatly expanded an earlier program enacted throughout the
1980s under the sponsorship of the Navy Office of Advanced Technology and the
Office of Naval Technology (both now the Office of Naval Research). In 1995,
this culminated in the selection of HFC-227 and fine water mist for use on the
amphibious ship LPD-17 and the aircraft carrier CVN-76. Joel Krinsky (Award
1994) also launched the U.S. Navy CFC/Halon Information Clearinghouse  oper-

                                                                                        Halons  37    w

-------
                       ated by GEO-CENTERS (Award 1995), under the leadership of Peter Mullenhard
                       (Award 1996). This project also guided the review of approximately 8,000 military
                       specifications that required the use of ODS. David A. Breslin (Award 1995), work-
                       ing for the Naval Sea Systems Command, managed the U.S. Navy's CFC &
                       Halon Elimination Program Office.
                          The U.S. Air Force Air Base Fire Protection and Crash Rescue Systems Branch
                       (Award 1993) was the lead DoD agency to fund significant research in the develop-
                       ment of halon 1211 replacements. Their development of a halon recycling system,
                       innovative firefighter training methods without halon 1211, and the removal and
                       replacement of all halon 1211 with dry chemical extinguishing agents on the entire
                       U.S. Air Force Crash Rescue Firefighting Vehicle Fleet eliminated over 70 percent
                       of the halon 1211 used in the Air Force. The Falcon Halon Team, Wright-
                       Patterson AFB (Award 1994) implemented halon-free in-flight fire protection. The
                       "Wright Laboratory Aircraft Halon Replacement Team (Award 1994), with fund-
                       ing and cooperation from the U.S. Army, the U.S. Navy, and FAA developed test
                       procedures and a full-scale test apparatus for joint use by military and civilian air-
                       craft designers. Thus,  the military's support and enthusiasm played an integral role
                       in the successful phaseout of halons in the United States In addition to the joint
                       aviation work with the Air Force at "Wright Laboratory, Naval Air Systems
                       Command (NAVAIR) conducted tests on an innovative new fire extinguishing
                       technology based on an offshoot of automobile air bag inflation  devices. These
                       modified air bag inflation devices, known as "inert gas generators," proved so suc-
                       cessful that NAVAIR immediately began implementing the technology in the two
                       newest aircraft being designed for the fleet. By 1996, preproduction units of the V-
                       22 medium lift aircraft and the F/A-18 E/F fighter/attack aircraft were already fly-
                       ing with the technology.
                          A number of dedicated researchers—such as Dr. Robert Tapscott (Award 1993)  of
                       the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Dr. Philip DiNenno (Award 1992)
                       of Hughes Associates, and the Naval Research Laboratory (Award 1995)—provided
                       the scientific basis for many of the breakthroughs in products and methods.
                          Important international players have also made significant contributions to the
                       halon phaseout. Outside the United States, military organizations in India,
                       Norway, and the United Kingdom were also instrumental. The Indian Defence
                       Institute of Fire Research (Award 1995) built public awareness and brought
                       together other fire protection organizations to establish standards for dry chemical
                       firefighting foams and portable extinguishers for use by industry as replacements
                       for halon. The Royal  Norwegian Navy Materiel Command (Award 1992)
                       approved the use of foam to replace water halon in combat ships. Under the leader-
                       ship of Marion McQuaide (Award 1994), the United Kingdom  pioneered military
                       halon banking, established one of the first national commercial halon banks, and
                       prohibited many halon applications.
                          Nonmilitary government organizations and civilian associations also took proac-
                       tive stances throughout the world. Under the leadership of Dr. Barbara
                       Kucnerowicz-Polak (Award 1994), of the State-Fire Service Headquarters, Poland
38  Champions of the World

-------
became a driving force in environmental education and technology cooperation. C.K.
Marfatia (Award 1995), vice president for international marketing and government
business, also heads Real Value Appliances, which was the single largest manufacturer
of halon-1211 portable fire extinguishers in India with an installed capacity of 1,000
tons per annum. When Real Value realized the serious threat to die ozone layer posed
by halon-1211 and India became a party to the Montreal Protocol, he voluntarily
stopped the use of halon-1211 overnight and switched to ABC dry chemical powder.
The result was dramatic:  sales dipped, profit was slashed,  and expenses  increased due
to the expense of advertising ABC Powder. The company withstood this onslaught
with firm determination  and two years later came out healthier and happier—and
India as a whole reduced the use of halon-1211 by about 70 percent. C.K. Marfatia
traveled all over the country interacting with various agencies and users propagating
the use of alternatives and the phasing out of halon-1211. In Malta, Victor Gatt
(Award 1994) instituted one of the most proactive programs of any developing coun-
try by placing controls on all halon imports, including extinguishers, and requiring
users to register their needs in order to prevent hoarding.  Malaysia banned halon in
most educational and other public laboratories.
  Halon banking was developed by Gary Taylor (Award 1990) as an essential ele-
ment of the strategy that enabled the early phaseout of halon production while sat-
isfying the needs of critical uses  and providing more time to develop alternatives for
difficult remaining halon applications. The architects of the U.S. halon banking
concept included David V Catchpole (Award 1993) and Steve Taylor (Award
1993), both of British Petroleum (BP). In Europe, the United Kingdom, with
leadership from Marion  McQuaide  (Award  1994); Switzerland, with leadership
from Dr. Walter Brunner (Award  1994); and Netherlands moved quickly to estab-
lish halon banks. HARC (Award 1992) developed the first commercial halon bank-
ing in the United States  and coordinated the search for alternatives for critical uses.
The National Association of Fire Equipment Distributors (Award 1994) launched
an aggressive publicity campaign with its members to create awareness about ozone
depletion and halon banking, and to offer the most cost-effective suitable alterna-
tives. DASCEM (Award 1995) also implemented halon banking.
  Some of the most impressive  awards are for corporate and management leader-
ship. TEAM Aer Lingus (Award 1991) developed its own halon 1301 recycling
technology. Unitor Ships Service (Award 1993) offered halon banking and alterna-
tive fire protection at its Singapore operations.
  These champions are  making the halon phaseout a success story that stands as a
shining example of science, technology, government, and industry recognizing the
existence of a problem and working together to find a solution. The halon phase-
out that was achieved in developed countries in 1994 would not have, been possible
without the interdisciplinary, international cooperation and leadership by individu-
als who were in positions to make a difference.
                                                                                           Halons  39

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  Halons-Related Awards Summaries
Aberdeen  Test
Center, U.S. Army
f Award 1995)
AT&T (Award 19921
Au«r.iUa*s DASCEM
I Award  1995)
Boeing Commercial
Airplane Group
{Award  1993)
Aberdeen Test Center, U.S. Army served as the primary test facility for alterna-
tive fire suppression agents and technologies to replace halon 1301 in vehicle
engine compartments, combat vehicle explosion suppression, and ground combat
vehicles. Engineers also developed test protocols to evaluate several different types
of agents, including gases, liquids, powders, gels, foams, and water mist, as halon
alternatives in combat vehicles. Halon has critical uses in combat vehicles, and
finding substitutes was one of the most technically challenging problems faced by
die industries.

As a leader in the electronics industry, AT&T again took a proactive role in ODS
elimination. It halted purchase of new halon-dependent systems and designed an
internal halon banking scheme. AT&T is a signatory to the Thailand Leadership
Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.

Australia's DASCEM established an Australia-wide halon bank with a network that
enables all Australians—individuals, small businesses, and large corporations—to
safely dispose of their halon. As of July 1995, the bank had collected 980 metric
tonnes of halon 1211 and 400 metric tonnes of halon 1301. The Australia Halon
Bank maintains Australia's essential use halon stock, and provides halon for
approved uses. The Halon Bank will destroy surplus halon 1211 using plasma
arc technology.

Boeing Commercial Airplane Group  worked with AIA, FAA, HARC (Award
1992), and  DoD to organize a worldwide working group of military and civilian
aviation corporations and regulatory authorities to find alternatives to halon for air-
craft and aerospace applications. In addition, Boeing developed strategies for sus-
taining aircraft production with existing or recycled halons, gradual removal of
halon from ground facilities, recycling and banking of halons, providing updates to
customers, and supporting research and development. Boeing was a founding
member of the ICOLP/ICEL.
David A, Breslin, Naval David A. Breslin, Naval Sea Systems Command, managed the Navy's CFC &
Sea Systems Command  Halon Elimination Program Office.
(Award  1995)
Dr, Walter Brunuer,
envico I Award 1994)
Dr. Walter Brunner, envico, contributed significantly to the work of the UNEP
Halons TOC since it started in 1989, organized the first international conference
on Halons and the Environment, and has played a major role in developing a halon
bank in Switzerland. He serves as national halon expert to the Swiss government,
helping develop Switzerland's halon usage reduction policy, and has given numer-
ous presentations domestically and internationally on the phaseout of halons and
ozone protection. Dr. Brunner has been a leading force in the orderly transition to
halon alternatives worldwide.
   40  Champions of the World

-------
Thomas Bush,
Director, U.S. Army
ODS Elimination
Program
(Award 1996)
David V. Catchpole,
BP Exploration Alaska
(Award  1993)
Defence Institute
of Fire Research, India
(Award 1995)
The Defense Logistics
Agency (Award 1993)

Dr. Philip DiNenno,
Hughs Associates
(Award 1992)
Thomas Bush, Director of the U.S. Army ODS Elimination Program, led the
communications and electronics command Army efforts to replace halon 1301
handheld fire extinguishers and CFC-12 from mobile tactical communications
equipment. He helped establish an Army-wide policy that requires all U.S. Army
installations and facilities to eliminate use of ODSs by 2003; provided guidance to
develop project plans and fund programs; and helped execute the projects to phase
out CFCs. He also initiated the development of a software tool to assist U.S. Army
personnel in the selection of alternatives for halon 1301 in facility total flooding
fire suppression systems. He is a member of the UNEP Halon TOG and the DoD
Liaison to HARC (Award 1992).

David V. Catchpole, BP Exploration Alaska, was an architect of the halon bank-
ing concept, and has contributed significantly to the work of the UNEP Halons
TOG. He helped organize and conduct a worldwide assessment of BP's use of
halocarbons and helped form the BP Halocarbon Working Group. Since 1991 he
has worked full time with BP and other North Slope Oil and Gas Producers,
HARC (Award 1992), the Halons TOC, and various national governments to
craft a halon strategy.

Defence Institute of Fire Research, India, is a leader in building public awareness
about the damage to the ozone layer caused by halons. This organization, under the
leadership of H. S. Kaprwan, worked closely with other fire protection organiza-
tions and industry to establish new standards for dry chemicals, firefighting foams,
and portable fire extinguishers for use throughout India.

The Defense Logistics Agency developed the world's largest halon reserve to satisfy
future mission-critical military needs.

Dr. Philip DiNenno, Hughs Associates along with other dedicated researchers,
provided the scientific basis for breakthroughs in alternative products and
methods.
F/A-18 Program Office  F/A-18 Program Office and V-22 Program Office of the U.S. Naval Air
and V-22 Program
Office of the
U.S. Naval Air
Systems Command
(Award 1996)
Systems Command researched and tested a new fire suppression technology
using inert gas generators. As a result, the two newest aircrafts that will enter  '
into service, the F/A-18 E/F fighter/attack aircraft and the V-22 tilt-rotor medi-
um-lift aircraft, will no longer require the use of halon 1301. The use of this
alternative fire extinguishing agent will reduce DoD's overall halon 1301 reserve
requirement.
The Falcon Halon Team  The Falcon Halon Team at Wright Patterson AFB was created to reduce the use of
at Wright Patterson       halon 1301 in F-16 fuel tank inerting systems. This initiative saves over 18 metric
AFB (Award 1994)       tonnes of halon per year for approximately 2,000 aircraft.
                                                                                          Halons 41

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GEO-CENTERS
(Award 1995)
Casey Grant, NFPA
(Award  1995)
The Halon Essential
Uses Panel, Victoria
Australia EPA
l Award  1992)
The Haloii Recycling
& Banking Support
Committee (HRBSC)
I Award  1996}
HARC (Award 1992)
GEO-CENTERS, under the leadership of Peter Mullenhard, successfully operated
the U.S. Navy CFC & Halon Clearinghouse since its origin in  1991) responding to
more than 7,000 individual information requests and publishing a newsletter,
"CFC/Halon News," that currently has over 3,000 subscribers worldwide.

Casey Grant, NFPA, helped raise public awareness of die concerns related to the
use of halon fire extinguishants. He wrote several timely articles in fire protection
publications and has also been a key organizer of conferences, workshops, and sem-
inars to explain these concerns and assist the fire protection industry in the safe
transition from the use of halons.

The Halon Essential Uses Panel, Victoria Australia EPA effectively controlled the
end uses of halons, virtually eliminating the use of newly manufactured halons. The
panel received widespread support from government and industry.

The Halon Recycling & Banking  Support Committee (HRBSC) was founded in
July 1993 and established the reclamation and banking system for the existing
halons in Japan. The committee completed a nationwide inventory of halons and
registered about 400,000 cylinders/extinguishers at 55,000 installation sites, with a
total quantity of 17,000 metric tons of halons. A database and reporting system
enables HRBSC to  effectively manage and control  the use of halons. As the result
of these efforts, a total of 88 metric tons of used halons have  been reclaimed by
member companies in 1994-1995  for recycling. HRBSC has  raised public aware-
ness of ozone layer protection and  promoted halon conservation. HRBSC also par-
ticipates in UNEP and other international ozone protection activities.

HARC was founded in 1989 to encourage and coordinate the search for fire pro-
tection alternatives to halons.
IBM
(Awards 1992
and 1993)

Joel Krinsky, Naval
Sea Systems Command
(Award 1994)
Dr. Barbara
Kucnerowicz-Polak,
State Fire Service
Headquarters, Poland
(Award  1994)
IBM, a leader of the electronics industry, had never extensively used halons. It
worked to prove that electronics could be protected with water or carbon dioxide.
IBM is a signatory to the Thailand Leadership Initiative.

Joel Krinsky of Naval Sea Systems Command was instrumental as the U.S. Navy's
CFC & Halon Program Director in devising the U.S. Navy's ODS program man-
agement and compliance strategy. Through his efforts and support, the U.S. Navy
was the first U.S. DoD component to receive approval and funding for a compre-
hensive ODS elimination program.

Dr. Barbara Kucnerowicz-Polak, State Fire Service Headquarters, Poland (Award
1994), played a leading role in the early development of Poland's halon phaseout
strategy, and was thereby influential in shaping the phaseout process throughout
Eastern Europe. Her activities involved limiting halon use and emission,  introduc-
ing suitable alternatives, supporting the needs of critical uses, and developing an
information clearinghouse for technological and environmental issues related to
   42  Champions of the World

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                          halon phaseout. She organized training, education, and informational events such
                          as workshops and seminars for government representatives, users, and fire engi-
                          neers. These included an International Workshop on Problems Related to Halon
                          Phaseout in  1994; participants included experts from Eastern European countries,
                          and proceedings were published in Russian to maximize accessibility in those coun-
                          tries. She co-chairs the UNEP Halon TOG.
Dr. Mohinder Malik,
Lufthansa
(Award 1994)
C.K. Marfatia,
Real Value Appliances,
India
(Award 1995)
Marion McQuaide,
UK Ministry
of Defence
(Award 1994)
Major E. Thomas
Morehouse, Jr.,
U.S. Air Force
(Award  1991)
National Association
of Fire Equipment
Distributors (NAFED)
(Award 1994)
Dr. Mohinder Malik, Lufthansa, worked with the European Airlines Committee
for Materials Technology to create a task force that collects and distributes infor-
mation on halons phaseout and alternative products. Consequently, the reduction
of these products among member airlines has accelerated. He co-chairs the UNEP
Solvents, Coatings and Adhesives TOC.

C.K. Marfatia, Real Value Appliances, India, was the largest producer of halon
1211 portable fire extinguishers in India, consuming approximately 200 metric
tonnes of halon 1211 annually in their manufacture. "When he became aware of the
serious threat to the ozone layer posed by halon 1211, he voluntarily stopped man-
ufacturing halon 1211 fire extinguishers and developed a portable dry
chemical extinguisher.

Marion McQuaide, UK Ministry of Defence, played a leading role in the phaseout
of halons both in the United Kingdom and internationally. She has made valuable
contributions to the work of the UNEP Halons TOC and has been a leading
member of a team established in 1989 to coordinate halon banking within the UK
Ministry of Defence. She was also a founding member of the UK Halon Users
National Consortium (HUNG) and chaired the UK Halon Alternatives Group
(HAG), founded in August 1993, to assist current users of halon in the United
Kingdom to find suitable alternatives.

Major E. Thomas Morehouse, Jr., U.S. Air Force, acted as the point of contact for
Air Force cooperation with EPA and led the organization responsible for ensuring
Air Force compliance with the Montreal Protocol. Working together, the Air Force
and EPA agreed on substantial changes in halon use policy, including limiting
halon use in essential applications, prohibiting discharge testing, limiting training,
and ultimately helping to  organize a working group of international aviation
corporations and regulatory authorities to find alternatives to the use of halons
in aviation. Major Morehouse served as co-chair of the UNEP Halons TOC
from 1989 to 1996.

National Association of Fire Equipment Distributors (NAFED), with 1,200
member companies, was immediately alerted to the relationship of ozone depletion
and halon issues. Under the leadership of Joe Ziemba, Stephen B. Waters
(Fireline), William D. Hard (Hard Fire Suppression Systems), and others,
NAFED began a comprehensive educational program, focusing initially on the
reduction of halon use, then on the use of alternative agents and proper halon
recovery, and finally on plans for the complete elimination of halons.
                                                                                            Halons  43

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The Naval Air Warfare   The Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, developed,
Center, Aircraft          acquired, and implemented the first halon 1211 recycling technology.
Division, Lakehurst      Additionally, it participated in recycling technology cooperation with dozens of
f Award  1992}           developing countries.
The Navy Technology
Center for Safety &
Survivability, U.S.
Naval Research
Laboratory (NRL!
f Award 1995)
                         The Navy Technology Center for Safety & Survivability, U.S. Naval Research
                         Laboratory (NRL), conducted research and testing that laid the groundwork
                         for commercialization of many of the halon alternatives in commercial use
                         today. In addition, NRL's comprehensive research and testing program to
                         identify shipboard replacements for halon 1301 culminated in the Navy's deci-
                         sion to build the first two new design ships of the 21st century without halon
                         fire protection systems. NRL evaluated many other non-ODS fire protection
                         systems and  has presented alternative fire protection technologies to other
                         countries.

                         NFPA withdrew its proposal that would have required mandatory testing of
                         new halon 1301, and generated new standards (NFPA 2001, NFPA 750)  that
                         facilitated the implementation of technology to replace halons.

                         John O'Sullivan of British Airways demonstrated leadership in the aviation
                         industry to eliminate the use of halons. As a strong supporter of halon banking
                         programs, he has worked to eliminate all non-critical use of halons within
                         British Airways and set up one of the first company halon banks.  He played an
                         active role in the U.S. FAA Halon Alternatives Group, the Aviation
                         International Halons Working Group, HUNC, and HAG. Mr. O'Sullivan is a
                         member of the UNEP Halons TOG and a director of HUNC.
The Royal Norwegian    The Royal Norwegian Navy Materiel Command approved the use of foam to
Navy Materiel Command replace halon in combat ships. This was the world's first conversion to elimi-
(Award 1992)            nate halons on warships.
NFPA
(Award 1990)
John O'Sullivan,
British Airways
t Award 1996)
Dr. Ronald Sheinson,
NRL (Award 1996)
                         Dr. Ronald Sheinson of NRL (Award 1996) has been involved in the search for
                         environmentally acceptable and efficient fire-suppression technologies since the
                         mid-1970s. Working as the Navy's senior researcher for shipboard halon alter-
                         natives, he formulated the U.S. Navy's comprehensive Halon Replacement
                         Research and Development Program, which supports government and industry
                         efforts worldwide. He also pioneered the use of a hybrid gaseous-water spray
                         cooling extinguishment system that reduces corrosive hydrogen fluoride con-
                         centrations formed by deployment of HFC-based alternatives.

Franklin Sheppard, Jr.,  Franklin Sheppard, Jr., Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, led research,
Office of the Chief of   development, and implementation of the first halon 1211 recycling technology.
Naval Operations       He went on to share this technical information with developing countries.
(Award 1994)
   44  Champions of the World

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The Tank-Automotive
Research, Development,
& Engineering Center,
Survivability Technology
Area, Halon
Replacement Team
(Award 1996)
                          The Tank-Automotive Research, Development, & Engineering Center,
                          Survivability Technology Area, Halon Replacement Team, worked to eliminate
                          halon dependence in the Army's fleet of armored vehicles. The team's work will
                          result in the recovery of 230 metric tonnes of halon 1301. Without its efforts,  the
                          Army would have been forced to purchase an additional 682 metric tonnes of
                          halon. Its work to find alternatives for halon in explosion suppression will eliminate
                          current Army requirements for 391 metric tonnes of halon 1301.
Dr. Robert E. Tapscott,  Dr. Robert E. Tapscott of the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, along
                          with other dedicated researchers, provided the scientific basis for breakthroughs in
                          alternative products and methods. Under sponsorship of the U.S. Air Force, he
                          investigated and reported on HCFCs, HFCs, and hydrobromofluorocarbons
                          (HBFCs) as near-term ("first generation") halocarbon halon replacement agents.
                          Subsequently, he directed work to develop and evaluate replacements for halon
                          1301 used for explosion and fire protection in oil production facilities.
the New Mexico
Engineering
Research Institute
(Award  1993)
Gary Taylor,
Taylo r/Wagner
(Award 1990)
                          Gary Taylor of Taylor/Wagner was persuaded by the growing scientific evidence
                          linking halons and ozone destruction. As chair of the NFPA Halon Technical
                          Committee, he designed a strategy to limit halon emissions. His plans ultimately
                          developed into a successful program of halon bank management. Mr. Taylor also
                          served as co-chair of the UNEP Halons TOC from 1989 to the present time.
Steven D, Taylor,        Steven D. Taylor, BP Exploration Alaska, was an early architect of the halon bank-
BP Exploration Alaska  ing concept and chair of HARC.
(Award 1993)
TEAM Aer Lingus
(Award  1991)
                          TEAM Aer Lingus developed its own halon 1301 recycling technology to satisfy
                          strict aerospace purity standards.
Unitor Ships Service       Unitor Ships Service in Singapore offered halon banking and alternative types of
in. Singapore (Award 1993) fire protection for commercial ships.
The U.S. Air Force's
Air Base Fire
Protection and
Crash Rescue
Systems Branch
(Award 1993)
                          The U.S. Air Force's Air Base Fire Protection and Crash Rescue Systems Branch
                          motivated DoD to provide funding for significant research in the development of
                          halon 1211 replacements. The development of a halon recycling system, innovative
                          firefighter training methods without halon 1211, and the replacement of all halon
                          1211 with dry chemical and foam extinguishing agents on  the entire U.S. Air Force
                          Crash Rescue Firefighting Vehicle Fleet, eliminated over 70 percent of the halon
                          1211 used in the U.S. Air Force.
The U.S. Army
Acquisition Pollution
Prevention Support
Office (Award 1992)
                          The U.S. Army Acquisition Pollution Prevention Support Office developed a suc-
                          cessful halon elimination and management program. The office also worked with
                          ISO to develop specifications that would allow the use of recycled halons and then
                          persuaded the U.S. military to adopt those new commercial standards. The
                          "Strategic Guidance and Planning for Eliminating Ozone-Depleting Chemicals
                          From U.S. Army Applications" presented the entire U.S. Army strategy to replace
                                                                                           Halons  45

-------
                          all but one use of ODSs on its weapon systems. The Army strategy could not iden-
                          tify a near- or mid-term substitute for halon explosion suppression in ground com-
                          bat vehicles during combat, but is undertaking a research program to develop
                          long-term solutions.

 Dr. Daniel P. Verdonik, Dr. Daniel P. Verdonik of Hughes Associates was instrumental in building the
 Hughes Associates       highly successful U.S. Army ODS Elimination Program. Under his leadership, the
 (Award 1JJ7)           Army's ODS program was recognized outside DoD both by industry and by other
                          countries. Also, Dr. Verdonik was a member of the UNEP Halon TOC, the DoD
                          liaison to HARC (Award 1992), and a special advisor to the Army Science Board
                          and the World Bank on halon issues.
James Vincent,
U.S. Army Aviation
and Troop Command
iAward 1994)
                          James Vincent, U.S. Army Aviation and Troop Command, initiated numerous
                          projects, including the development of the Army Watercraft program to test
                          water mist alternatives to halon 1301 for fire suppression, and implementation
                          of the program to modify halon 1301 recharger/recovery units to prevent
                          unnecessary venting.
Dr.  ! lans LI, WackeriUg, Dr. Hans U. Wackerlig, Swiss Institute for the Promotion of Safety & Security,
Swiss Institute for the   along with other organizations led and organized three International Halon
                          Conferences. At the first conference, in June 1988, attendees identified and defined
                          the problem. In October 1990, participants in the second conference further dis-
                          cussed problems and explained the meaning of "essential use." In 1994, people at
                          the third conference focused on solutions to these problems.
Promotion of Safety
& Security
• Award 1995)
Wright Laboratory's     At Weight-Patterson AFB, "Wright Laboratory's Aircraft Halon Replacement Team
Aircraft Halon           led government aircraft research to select halon alternatives and identify new fire
Replacement Team,     protection engineering and aircraft design requirements. Accomplishments to date
wright-Patterson AFB   include die reactivation of a world-class, live-fire aircraft engine nacelle test facility;
(Award  Iyj4)            development of new laboratory bench apparatus for aircraft fire scenarios; technical
                          screening and down selection of alternative agents; a comprehensive review and
                          assembly of aircraft fire suppression design requirements; and derivation of critical
                          technical fire parameters of in-flight aircraft fires.

Wright Patterson AFB,  At Wright-Patterson AFB, the Aeronautical Systems Center F-15 System Program
Aeronautical Systems    Office (SPO) implemented key projects that identified and changed how ozone-
^enter                   depleting chemicals are used in manufacturing processes. As of June 1995, 90 per-
CAward  1994)            cent of ^ F.15 Eagle>s 1>867 tecnnical orders were changed to avoid ODSs.
                          Implementing specially designed manufacturing equipment using aqueous and
                          water soluble media resulted in the elimination of methyl chloroform from the
                          cleaning and degreasing processes of F-15 aircraft, reducing methyl chloroform
                          usage by approximately 18,000 pounds per year.
   46  Champions of the World

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Refrigeration  and
Air-conditioning
Recycling From Automobile A/C Systems
    In 1987, automobile air-conditioners were the largest single source of control-
    lable CFC emissions in the United States. Normal CFG leakage through rub-
    ber hoses, connectors, and seals was very high, and typical repair procedures
    intentionally released large amounts of CFCs into the air. CFCs were inex-
pensive, and no acceptable machines were available to capture and reclaim the
CFCs. When confronted with a poorly functioning air-conditioner, a service tech-
nician typically diagnosed the problem by recharging the system in order to find
the leak. The technician would then vent the
refrigerant into the atmosphere and repair,
recharge, and leak test the system. Do-it-yourself
car owners saved money by merely recharging leak-
ing systems—often several times a year, without
fixing the leak. CFCs also entered the atmosphere
when an A/C component had to be removed to
gain access to other automobile systems.
   In January 1988, EPA organized its first meeting
of the Ad-Hoc Automobile Recycling Working
Group. The group selected Simon Oulouhojian
(Award 1990), Robert W. Bishop, and Dr. Stephen
O. Andersen to chair  their work. Jean Lupinacci
(Award 1996) was project manager for EPA.
Simon Oulouhojian was the owner of the
Speedway radiator/air-conditioner repair shop in
Upper Darby,  Pennsylvania, and Executive Director
of MACS (Award 1990). Robert W. Bishop was an
engineer with the General Motors (Award 1994)
Air- Conditioning Division, and was later replaced
 on the committee by James A. Baker (Award
 1990). Dr. Stephen O. Andersen worked at EPA.
 Other key founding members of the Ad-Hoc work-
 ing group were Ward  Atkinson (Award 1990), Art Hobbs (Award 1993), and
 Kenneth W. Manz (Award 1993). Ward Atkinson was the owner of Sun Test
 Engineering and was  also chair of the SAE Interior Climate Control Standards
 Committee and ISO's Interior Climate Control Committee. Before founding Sun
 Test, Ward Atkinson  was responsible for developing heating and A/C systems at
"I was honored with the 1990 Stratospheric
Ozone Protection Award for "Engineering
Excellence and Corporate Leadership" for my
participation on the team that developed the
technology to recycle mobile  air-conditioning
refrigerants. Such global efforts on behalf of the
ozone layer stand as a testimonial that mankind
can and will rally to protect the environment.
Industry and  government, working together,
combining knowledgeable people with enlight-
ened environmental consciousness and a will to
succeed, can lead us toward  a more sustainable
symbiosis with our environment."

                      James A. Baker (Award 1990)
      Delphi Harrison Thermal Systems, General Motors
                         Corporation (Award 1994)
                                                           Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning 47

-------
 "Underwriters Laboratories was unsure how we
 could help protect the ozone layer when we
 joined the EPA/MACS working  group on CFC
 recycling. Our experts helped develop a volun-
 tary standard of purity for recycled CFC that was
 accepted by automobile manufacturers for new
 car warrantee service. At that point the
 EPA/MACS working  group asked UL to certify
that recycling machines could clean up dirty CFC
to the stringent standard. Until then UL had
 never certified performance of  products—only
safety of use. We accepted the challenge, per-
suaded our management of importance of our
work, and moved quickly to help get certified
recycling machines into the market. The experi-
ence  was so successful that UL went on to
assist other green  programs including green
product labeling."
                          Chevrolet Motor Division and was a member of the General Motors corporate
                          team established in the 1970s to reduce the CFC emissions from mobile A/C sys-
                                                     tems. Art Hobbs was vice president of MACS in
                                                     1988 and 1989. He testified before the U.S. Senate
                            and the Department of Energy and worked with
                            state and local governments on CFC issues. In
                            1990, at EPA's invitation, he delivered a paper on
                            the introduction of CFC recycling to developing
                            nations at the world conference in Singapore. He
                            served as president of MACS during 1991 and
                            1992, shaping the Society's role in response to the
                            CFC/ozone-depletion issue. From 1990 through
                            1992, he also served on the SAE Interior Climate
                            Control Division committees that addressed CFC-
                            related issues.
                       James R. Beyreis (Award 1990)
                            Don Grob (Award 1990)
               Underwriters Laboratories (Award 1990)
                              Technical representatives participated from other
                            trade organizations and technical societies, includ-
                            ing the American Society of Heating,
                            Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers
                            (ASHRAE), AIA, the Motor Vehicle
                            Manufacturers Association of the United States,
                            and UL; from other motor vehicle manufacturers
                            including Chrysler Corporation (Award 1992),
                            Ford (Awards 1992 and 1994), NAVISTAR,
                            Nissan Motor Company (Award 1991), Toyota
                            (Award 1994), and Volvo (Award 1993); and from
                            manufacturers of air-conditioner parts and service
                            equipment including A'Gramkow, Applied
                            Ecological Systems, Davco Manufacturing, DRAF
                            Industries, Fentech, High Frequency Products,
Hitachi (Award 1991), James Kamm Technologies, Murray, NAPA Temp
Products, Parker Hannifin, Rapidfill, Refrigerant Recovery Systems,
Robinair/SPX, G.G.L. Enterprises, ThermaFlo, Van Steenburgh Engineering
Laboratories, Vanguard/ARA Automotive Group, and White Industries.
Environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) included the University of
Maryland CGC, FOE, and NRDC.
   Experts representing automobile manufacturers stressed the economic impor-
tance of maintaining A/C performance and reliability. Automobile designers were
exposing more car interiors to sunlight with aerodynamic designs and sunroofs,
thereby increasing the challenge of cooling. Consumers were demanding extended
warranties and higher reliability. Car owners might be reluctant to jeopardize valu-
able cars with recycled chemicals. Experts representing the automobile repair busi-
ness and repair equipment suppliers stressed the importance of promoting changes
that were profitable to mechanics and acceptable to customers. CFC-12 was selling
for less than $2 per kilogram, so a typical repair included a refrigerant cost of only
  4 8  Champions of the World

-------
$2 to $4. Repair shop owners predicted that recycling would only be successful if
equipment and training were mass produced and if government regulations com-
pelled all shop owners to recycle. NGOs threatened to organize against automobile
companies if they blocked recycling and emphasized the potential for state regula-
tion if EPA failed in its voluntary approach. EPA explained its authority to impose
command-and-control regulations but offered cooperation in designing a recycling
program on the condition that industry would make good-faith efforts to  develop
and promote the program.
  At first the working group was deadlocked. No commercial recycling equipment
was available to test, and it was unclear whether car owners would pay extra to pro-
tect the ozone layer. The breakthrough came when the chairs decided to promote a
performance-based standard for recycling. James A. Baker (Award 1990) believed
that when air-conditioner systems were opened, only the refrigerant, but not the
lubricating oil, was vented and vaporized, and so contaminants remained in the sys-
tem. The proposed standard was based on the idea that some level of CFC contam-
ination would be acceptable, that it was the obligation of recycling equipment
manufacturers to design equipment capable of cleaning to a standard acceptable to
automobile manufacturers, and that equipment would have to be tested by an inde-
pendent laboratory to prove its cleaning performance.
   The EPA/MACS Working Group agreed on a performance standard, and identi-
fied an acceptable level of contamination. Next,  they determined how contaminated
CFC refrigerant could get in a worst-case situation. They then designed a procedure
to test whether recycling equipment could clean a worst-case CFC sample to the
acceptable level of cleanliness. Finally, they secured acceptance of recycling under
new-car warranties by automobile manufacturers. It was anticipated that public edu-
cation, market forces, and regulations would then promote recycling.
   The group tested CFC samples from 220 vehicles. The samples included new,
normally-operating auto air-conditioners with mid- and high-mileage, and those
with failed systems. This provided the greatest sampling range of used refrigerant.
The goals were to determine an acceptable level of contamination and to  test CFCs
from highly contaminated systems that either were very old or had experienced cat-
astrophic failures, including metal particle contamination and thermal failure. The
EPA Office of Research and Development, under the guidance of William
Rhodes, Paul S. Shapiro, Dr. Dean Smith, and Dale Harmon, funded and con-
ducted the laboratory work, while automobile repair shops donated their time, and
group members were encouraged to observe the work to satisfy their own concerns.
The Sampling Team included Acurex, ARA, Barney Gross Auto Air, Budget,
 Hertz, Houston Auto Air, J&N Auto Air, MACS  (Award 1990), Murray,
 Robinair, Triple L, West End Auto Air, White Industries, and many more.
Automobile manufacturers conducted confidential research to confirm the results.
 UL (Award 1990) experts Donald P. Grob (Award 1990), Larry Kettwich, Robert
 A. Kingsbury,  and Frank Przybylski simultaneously experimented with designs of
 prototype test equipment.
                                                                  Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning  49

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                            The groups efforts resulted in a proposed standard of purity for recycled CFCs, a
                         standard "cocktail" of contaminated CFCs that would be used to test the perfor-
                         mance of recycling equipment, and an SAE test procedure specifying how the equip-
                         ment would be operated and how the recycled CFCs would be tested for purity. EPA
                         drafted a simple letter of agreement and circulated it by fax to international automo-
                         bile manufacturers for their acceptance. Within a few weeks a sufficient number of
                         automobile companies had agreed to allow refrigerant recycling according to the pro-
                         gram. In January 1989, the MACS convention in San Diego featured a national press
                         conference with live recycling demonstrations. The extensive television  and print cov-
                         erage sensitized the automobile industry and the public to the importance of recy-
                         cling as a fundamental part of stratospheric ozone layer protection.
                           When automobile manufacturers accepted recycled refrigerant for use in vehicles
                         under warranty, recycling gained the credibility needed for the service equipment
                         industry to begin developing recycling equipment. No recycling equipment was
                         commercially available at the time, no test laboratories offered certification, and no
                         repair shops had pledged to use recycling equipment.

                           As the recycling team commercialized the technology, FOE and NRDC began
                         promoting state laws to  protect the ozone layer. CFC emissions from  car air-condi-
                         tioners were one target of these efforts. Because industry and NGOs were working
                         together, NGOs had the advantage of receiving industry input to regulatory initia-
                         tives. In addition, the industry had the advantage of learning how regulations could
                                                             help reduce costs by capturing economies
                                                             of scale in the manufacturing of recycling
                                                             machines, training, and infrastructure. The
                                                             industry-NGO cooperation enabled the
                                                             design of workable legislation.
                                                             Massachusetts, Maryland, Hawaii,
                                                             Vermont, California, Florida, and several
                                                             other states considered mandatory recy-
                                                             cling and a ban on small CFC refrigerant
                                                             cans. The availability of small cans of
                                                             CFC-12 facilitated recharge without repair
                                                             by do-it-yourselfers who did not have the
                                                             training, instructions, or proper equipment
                                                             to minimize emissions. The state laws, par-
                        ticularly California's—sponsored by Assemblyman Tom Hayden—offered a model
                        for congressional staff as  they drafted the stratospheric ozone section of the Clean
                        Air Act Amendments of 1990. Under that law, motor vehicle A/C recycling was the
                        first CFC recycling mandate to take effect nationally.

                           With automobile manufacturer acceptance, market forces took over. The working
                        group estimated that recycling would be cost effective if CFC prices were $4.40 per
                        kilogram. UL (Award 1990) acted quickly to approve its first certification  of equip-
                        ment performance—previously, UL had only  certified safety of operation.  Equipment
                        was promptly designed, tested by UL, and marketed. Environmental organizations,
                        recycling equipment suppliers, EPA, and repair organizations promoted  recycling.
Automobile Manufacturers First to Accept
Recycled Refrigerant Under Warranty
Alfa Romeo, Aston Martin Lagonda, Audi, Austin Rover, BMW,
Chrysler Corporation (Award 1992), Daihatsu, Excalibur, Ford
(Awards 1992 and  1994), Freightliner, General Motors (Award 1994),
Grumman Olson, Honda, Hyundai, Isuzu, Jaguar, Maserati, Mazda,
Mercedes-Benz (Award 1992), Mitsubishi, Navistar, Nissan Motor
Company (Award 1991), Paccar, Peugeot, Porsche, Rolls-Royce,
Rover, Saab, Subaru, Suzuki, Toyota (Award 1994), Volkswagen,
Volvo (Award 1993), and Yugo
50  Champions of the World

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Involvement by the chairs of international standards organizations
and automobile manufacturers helped speed global acceptance. SAE
standards that established the refrigerant equipment performance
and purity requirements were rapidly developed. In addition, SAE
established technician guidelines for servicing mobile A/C systems
and for the proper operation of recovering/recycling equipment.
   Progressive repair shops began to offer recycling as a service and
began to lobby for mandatory recycling and a halt of CFC sales to
businesses and individuals without recycling equipment. The auto-
mobile industry supported uniform national standards to simplify
business and to level the playing field for repair shops that chose
to make the extra effort to recycle. At the MACS annual meeting
in San Diego in 1989 owners of repair shops unanimously sup-
ported mandatory legislation  to complement their market promo-
tion of recycling.
   Thus, the FOE and NRDC public education and regulatory
efforts, inspired by the EPA/MACS group, were already well
advanced when recycling equipment reached the market. Through participationjn
the EPA/MACS group, FOE and NRDC were aware of the purity standard, the
importance of certified equipment, and the time needed for a smooth transition to
new equipment and technician training. Furthermore, FOE and NRDC were able
to become partners with the automobile industry in persuading and reassuring the
public that these changes were in  the world's environmental interest.
   The automobile press praised the recycling agreement. Within one year, over
$60 million worth of equipment had been sold in the United States. By 1995,
American manufacturers had sold $4 billion worth of equipment worldwide.
Independent private organizations have certified 850,000 technicians. At the same
time,  these voluntary efforts have reduced the amount of CFCs used to service
automobile air conditioners by 50 percent.
   "Working in a cooperative fashion with all stakeholders generated both a broad
understanding of all the issues and an ultimate consensus on the solution.
Awards for Automobile
A/C Recycling
*• Ward Atkinson (Award 1990)
«• James Baker (Award 1990)
*• James R. Beyreis (Award 1990)
4 Elizabeth Cook (Award 1991)
4 David Doniger (Award 1991)
4 Don Grob (Award 1990)
4 Art Hobbs (Award 1993)
*• Alan S. Miller (Award 1992)
*• Simon Oulouhojian (Award 1990)
•* MACS (Award 1990)
* UL (Award 1990)
HFC Substitutes  for CFC A/C
          The initial search for a suitable replacement for CFC-12 in automobile
          A/C was desperate. EPA investigated experimental compressors (e.g.,
          Rovac air systems, Stirling Cycles), venting alone or in combination
          with low-capacity A/C systems (e.g., tinted windows, solar vents, induc-
tion vents), and hard-plumbed systems using electrically driven high pressure
HCFC refrigerants with electricity supplied by innovative charging systems.
                                                                 Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning  51

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    When EPA presented these ideas to the automobile industry, it was greeted with
 disbelief, skepticism, and outrage. Some of the technologies had already been exten-
 sively tried and rejected, while others offered decreased performance that automo-
 bile manufacturers believed would be unacceptable to consumers.
    Several CFC manufacturers worked internally and with major automobile manu-
 facturers to solve several technical problems, primarily lubrication, to make HFC-
 134a a suitable replacement for CFC-12 in automobile air conditioning. The
 leading companies included Nissan Motor Company (Award
 1991), Chrysler Corporation (Award 1992), Ford (Awards
 1992 and 1994), Mercedes-Benz (Award 1992), Volvo (Award
 1993), General Motors (Award 1994), and Toyota (Award
 1994). Nissan was first to announce that it had selected HFC-
 134a as its replacement refrigerant in new automobiles.
 General Motors (Award 1994), Volvo (Award 1993), and
 Mercedes-Benz (Award 1992) were the first companies to put
 HFC-134a systems in their cars and trucks.
    In parallel, automotive A/C component manufacturers,
 such as Nippondenso (Award 1993) and Sanden (Award
 1996), played a significant role in developing the required
 compressors to meet the HFC-134a challenge. Significant
 resources were committed, culminating in a successful replace-
 ment of all CFC-12 in new vehicles with HFC-134a systems.
    In 1992, regulatory jargon and contradictions within some building, mechanical,
 and fire codes significantly impeded the introduction of alternative refrigerants and
 associated technologies. An Air-Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute (ARI) pro-
 ject, with the assistance of Michael E. Dillon (Award 1993), Jean Lupinacci (Award
 1996), and experts from Trane (Awards 1991 and 1995), was mounted to quickly
 redraft and seek adoption of revised language that would cure the problem. By 1993,
 updated language was adopted and subsequendy published in the 1994 editions of
 the Uniform Building Code, Uniform Mechanical Code,  and Uniform Fire Code.
    By 1996, the U.S. Navy had converted over 200 shipboard A/C and refrigera-
 tion systems with a total installed charge of 23,000 kilograms of refrigerant, and
 was operating 35  "CFC-free" ships. In addition, the Navy is active in exporting
 CFC-free technology to other foreign militaries through the Foreign Military Sales
 Program. For example, in 1995 and 1996 the U.S. Navy converted three ships
 bound for Taiwan and also converted the Spanish frigate CANARIAS (F86) from
 CFC-12 to HFC-134a. During the Spanish ship conversion, the U.S. Navy also
 provided training to Spanish technicians to enable them to convert the remainder
 of their fleet.
Awards for Automobile A/C
HFC Substitutes
+ Chrysler Corporation (Award 1992)
4 Ford Motor (Awards 1992 and 1994)
*• General Motors (Award 1994)
*• Mercedes-Benz (Award 1992)
•*• Nippondenso (Award 1993)
•* Nissan Motor Company (Award  1991)
*• Toyota (Award 1994)
4- Sanden (Award 1996)
52  Champions of the World

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^Domestic Refrigeration
      In the refrigeration sector, an initial obstacle to successful CFC elimination
      turned out to be another environmental issue: energy efficiency. In the mid-
      1980s, national energy efficiency stan-
      dards were adopted in an effort to reduce      „,          ...  .     ,   .  _  ^  A.    .     ,   ,  .,
                 .    c.    ,                       1 won my Stratospheric Protection Award while
  energy consumption. Simultaneous acceptance
  that CFCs destroyed stratospheric ozone creat-     WOrkin9 f°r the  Natural ^sources Defense
  ed pessimism among refrigerator manufactur-       Council as an environmental attorney. NRDC
  ers. The potential substitute chemicals, they        started  the ball rolling by working with  EPA to
  believed, were unacceptable given the new         develop an ozone protection strategy. But the
  energy-reduction standards and other factors,       private sector came forward with the technical
  including cost, reliability, and safety.              changes that we never could have compelled
    EPA, in cooperation with environmental       and business acted more quickly than regulation
  groups such as NRDC, pushed for a massive      could. Business leaders proved that cooperative
  overhaul of refrigerator, compressor, and facto-     programs worked. | am proud to be associated
  ry design that would permit energy efficiency        ...  .,   .     .   .       „
    ,  .JL  j   •      t.        •    ^          Wlth tne Award winners.
  and  C.bC reduction at the same time. Dr.
  Lambert Kuijpers (Award 1993) working for
  Phillips was the first company expert to pub-                                David Doniger (Award 1991)
  licly advocate a new look at available and                       Counsel to the Assistant Administrator for
  emerging options.                                                         Air and Radiation, U.S. EPA
    Unfortunately, market forces were insuffi-
  cient because little market incentive propels manufacturers to invest capital and
  resources in efficient refrigerators if consumers are unwilling to pay more for quali-
  ty and economy.

    NRDC, under the leadership of Dr. David Goldstein and David Doniger
  (Award 1991), suggested offering economic incentives to manufacturers to design
  refrigerators that were both CFC-independent
  and  energy efficient. The most likely candidates      ^^ for ^ ,j      Commercial, and
  tor funding this program were the utility compa-             .  ,    5T
  nies  that already gave their customers subsidies       Industrial Refrigerant Recycling
  for buying efficient products. Cash incentives,        +  Denis C|odjc (Awarcj 1995)
  given to manufacturers for research, develop-        ^  Industrja, ^mdw certification Team (Award 1994)
  ment, and production, showed the industry that
        a-  •        , r-r^ !•  •                   *  Refrigerant Reclaim Australia (Award 1995)
  energy erhciency and CrC elimination are not
  mutually exclusive.                               *  Sea-Land Service (Award 1995)
             ,   «   ..                            +  Carmen C. Waschek, Coca-Cola (Award 1993)
    In 1993, the  Golden Carrot incentives
  program was launched using funds provided by
  utility companies. After intense competition, Whirlpool won a $30 million incen-
  tive contract to design and produce a CFC-free, super-efficient refrigerator. In less
  than 1 year, Whirlpool introduced a competitively priced CFC-free refrigerator.
    The refrigerator manufacturers, after much initial pessimism concerning the
  acceptability of substitute chemicals and the need to maintain energy efficient stan-
                                                                 Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning  53

-------
                          dards, rose above the challenges. EPA, NGOs, and manufacturers worked together
                          to find a truly innovative solution.
                            UL's James Beyreis (Award 1990) and Donald Grob (Award 1990) led the
                          research into recycling equipment that could produce CFCs able to meet existing
                          quality standards. Once CFC recovery and recycling became possible, many groups
                          demonstrated their support for this innovative approach. The Industrial
                          Technician Certification Team (Award 1995) was responsible for training techni-
                          cians on proper procedures to use the recycling technology.
                            Internationally, corporations and governments worked extensively to come up
                          with the technology for successful CFC recycling, and to implement programs that
                          recovered CFCs from appliances that had reached the end of their useful lives.
                          Denis Clodic (Award 1995), while co-chair of the French National CFC
                          Commission, urged recovery and limitation of leakage in refrigerators as a means of
                          reducing ODS emission. In Australia, the CFC recovery and recycling association
                          Refrigerant Reclaim Australia (Award 1995) has successfully reduced CFC emis-
                          sions by recovering approximately 5 tons of CFC per month, about half of which is
                          able to be reprocessed for reuse. They hold the remainder in storage pending reso-
                          lution of a technology for its safe destruction.
                            Once the alternative technology was created, champion members of industries
                          reliant on refrigeration jumped on board. Corporations including Beverage-Air
                          (Award 1995), Cadbury (Award 1993), Coca-Cola (Award 1993) under the leader-
                          ship of Carmen C. Waschek (Award 1993), Hussmann (Award 1994), J. Sainsbury
                          (Award 1993), Sea-Land Service (Award 1995), Shaw's Supermarkets (Award
                          1993), Texas Instruments (Award 1995), and Woolworths Australia (Award  1993)
                          converted their facilities  to non-CFC refrigeration systems. Without this  coopera-
                          tion, the success of the CFC phaseout in the refrigeration sector would have been
                          in serious jeopardy.
    ',,	it ,,i-ii	"is.:*	*	•'	'*#>&'	''''	"""	llli;	•""'v"'"' :	 'rt '""	,	l"i!'"'"';: V '•       ,
   A/C- and Refrigeration-Related Awards Summaries
    "HP	I	! *	Si	HIV	'f-	li'V^         	,  	 ., ,
AlliedSignat
(Award 1993)
Carrier Corporation/
AlliedSignal
(Award 1993)
AlliedSignal played a leading role in the development and commercialization of
advanced technology for the phaseout of CFCs. It invented a number of HFC-
based refrigerants for refrigeration and A/C, including R-507 to replace R-502 and
HCFC-22 in low- and medium-temperature refrigeration systems and R-410A to
replace HCFC-22 in new A/C equipment.

AlliedSignal/Carrier Corporation jointly developed a chlorine-free, non-ozone-
depleting replacement for HCFC-22 and a residential A/C unit to utilize it.
R-4lOa is a blend of HFC-32 and HFC-125. This refrigerant allows A/C equip-
ment manufacturers to produce smaller, more energy efficient systems using a
refrigerant with zero ODE
   54  Champions of the World

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Annapolis Detachment, Annapolis Detachment, Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center
CarderockDivivSJon,      research will allow transition to the use of HFC-236fa in all ships commencing in
Naval Surface Warfare   1999.
Center (Award  1995)
ARI
(Awards  1991
and 1995)
ARI's Alternative
Refrigerants Evaluation
Program Task Force and
Technical Committee
(ARE) (Award 1994)
Asahi Glass, Japan
(Award 1994)
Ward Atkinson, Sun
Test Engineering
(Award 1990)
James A. Baker,
General Motors
(Award 1990)
ARI established Standard 700 for refrigerant purity to help ensure diat reclaimed
refrigerant does not damage equipment. ARI also established Standard 740 to help
ensure consistent performance ratings of recovery/recycling equipment to limit refrig-
erant emissions and assist consumers in making informed buying decisions. In addi-
tion, ARI developed Guideline K, a recommended guide of good practices for all
who supply, use, store, or transport containers of ozone-depleting refrigerants. ARI
also established a program, which has been successfully operating since 1991, to
incorporate alternative refrigerants and state-of-the-art refrigeration technology devel-
oped in response to ozone-depletion in major model codes in the United States.

ARI's Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program Task Force and Technical
Committee (ARE) is a leading force in the development of alternative refrigerants
to R-22 and R-502. It represents a productive partnership of competing manufac-
turers in  both the United States and abroad. ARE has led private companies to
commit their own resources to help develop non-ozone-depleting refrigerants for
use within the industry.

Asahi Glass, Japan, developed and responsibly marketed alternatives for refriger-
ants, blowing agents, and cleaning solvents. Experts from Asahi Glass participated
in technology cooperation and technical assessments including study tours, confer-
ences, and workshops throughout the world. The company is a strong advocate of
environmental leadership and is a signatory to the Vietnam Pledge to help the
Government of Vietnam protect the ozone layer by investing only in modern, envi-
ronmentally acceptable technology in the company's Vietnam projects.

Ward Atkinson, Sun Test Engineering was a key founding  member of the
EPA/MACS Working Group. He was chair of the SAE's Interior Climate Control
Standards Committee and the ISO's Interior Climate Control Committee. Before
founding Sun Test, Mr. Atkinson was responsible for developing heating and A/C
systems at Chevrolet Motor Division and was a member of the General Motors
(Award 1994) corporate team established in the  1970s to reduce the CFC emis-
sions from mobile A/C systems.

James A. Baker, General Motors, co-chaired the team that developed the technolo-
gy to recycle mobile A/C refrigerants. He believed that when air-conditioner sys-
tems were vented, contaminants remained in the system. This hypothesis helped
persuade vehicle manufacturers to consider the use of recycled CFCs under warran-
ty. Mr. Baker helped gain approval for a  proposed standard  based on the idea that
some level of CFC contamination would be acceptable, that it was the obligation
of recycling equipment manufacturers to design equipment capable of cleaning to a
standard acceptable to automobile manufacturers, and that equipment would have
to be tested by an independent laboratory to prove its cleaning performance.
                                                                    Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning  55

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Beverage-Air
{Award 1995)
Beverage-Air converted most of its commercial refrigerator models using CFG-12 to
HFC-134a, resulting in a savings of 80 metric tonnes of CFC-12 refrigerant.
Additionally, they developed a field retrofit procedure that will result in an estimated
annual additional savings of 180 to 230 kilograms of CFC-12.
fames A. Beyreis> UL,   James A. Beyreis, UL, coordinated the UL program to certify that recycling
(Award  1990)            machines could clean up used CFCs to meet the previously approved standards. The
                          program then moved quickly to help get certified recycling machines into the mar-
                          ket.
David Breslin, U.S.
Naval Sea
Systems Command
(Award 1995)
Cadbury
(Award  1993)
Carrier
{Award 1994)
Carrier Corporation/
AlliedSignal
(Award 1993)
David Breslin, U.S. Naval Sea Systems Command, has served as Program Manager
for the U.S. Navy CFC & Halon Elimination Program Office since 1993. As a
direct result of informational messages and surveys on ODS use distributed at his
request, refrigerant consumption in the fleet has been reduced by nearly 30 percent
(45 metric tonnes) in just over a year.

Cadbury, the U.K. chocolate company, began to retrofit from CFC-12 to HFC-
134a in 1991. In August 1992 it built a refrigeration plant to test blends. By
September 1992 it was the first refrigeration plant to retrofit from HCFC-22 to a
blend of HFC-32 and HFC-134a. At that time it was not known whether such a
zeotropic blend would work reliably in a practical situation and there were real
doubts as to the stability of these blends for long-term operational use. A number of
other blends with different compositions—including a ternary  blend of HFC-32,
HFC-125, and HFC-134a—were also tested. The development program led
Cadbury to specify one of the tested blends (designated by ASHRAE as R-407c) for
large refrigerant and A/C systems only 11 months after HFC-32 was first experi-
mentally available. The dramatic shortening of development was possible through
the use of parallel engineering techniques and the enthusiastic commitment of
employees and suppliers.

Carrier introduced the world's first HFC-134a residential chlorine-free central air-
conditioner and introduced a new turbine technology that will significantly improve
the operating efficiencies of its HFC-134a commercial centrifugal chillers. Carrier
helps customers move away from CFC refrigerants by offering  a broad range of
refrigerant planning programs and products. The company is a signatory to the
Vietnam Pledge.

Carrier Corporation/AlliedSignal joindy developed a chlorine-free, non-ozone-
depleting replacement for HCFC-22 and a residential A/C unit to utilize it.
R-4lOa is a blend of HFC-32 and HFC-125.  This refrigerant  allows A/C equip-
ment manufacturers to produce smaller, more energy efficient systems using a refrig-
erant with zero ODP.
Chrysler Corporation
(Award  1992)
Chrysler Corporation was a leading developer of HFC-134a technology to replace
CFC-12 in auto air-conditioners. It eliminated CFCs from 50 percent of its 1993
model year vehicles' A/C systems. The Jeep Grand Cherokee was the first full-scale pro-
duction vehicle produced in the United States equipped with a CFC-free A/C system.
   56  Champions of the World

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Denis Clodic, Ecole
des Mines de Paris,
Centre d'Energetique
(Award 1995)
The Coca-Cola
Company
(Award  1993)
Elizabeth Cook, FOE
(Award  1991)
Copeland
(Award  1993)
Michael Earl Dillon,
Dillon Consulting
Engineers
(Award 1993)
David Doniger,
NRDC
(Award  1991)
Denis Clodic, Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre d'Energetique, while serving as
research co-chair in the French National CFC Commission, identified and urged
refrigeration recovery and limitation of leakage as direct methods for reducing the
emission of ODSs. In 1990, he organized and managed a working group whose
conclusions were used in French regulations. He also wrote "Vade-Mecum de la
Recuperation des CFC."

The Coca-Cola Company halted the purchase of CFC refrigerated equipment.
Odier beverage companies soon followed. Coca-Cola leadership, with its market
clout, rapidly mobilized manufacturers in developed and developing countries to
meet new customer demands. In many developing countries, the leadership of
Coca-Cola has been the single most important catalyst for halting the use of CFC-
12 refrigerants. Coca-Cola is a signatory to the Vietnam Pledge.

Elizabeth Cook of FOE helped organize regulatory and public education efforts to
protect stratospheric ozone. Principal leadership projects included the voluntary
phaseout of CFC used in foam food packaging and the voluntary standard of puri-
ty for CFC-12 recycled from vehicle air-conditioners. She has been an important
coordinator of the campaigns of international NGOs. She  is also the editor of the
book Ozone Protection in the United States, World Resources Institute, 1996.

Copeland began work in 1987 with principal refrigerant and lubricant manufactur-
ers to develop substitutes for the use of CFCs. Copeland was first to market chlo-
rine-free semi-hermetic products in October 1992 with a 90 percent market
penetration in refrigeration applications by the end of 1993. Copeland has an
ongoing commitment to bring next-generation refrigerants to market  after satisfac-
tory testing and confirmation of environmental acceptability.

Michael Earl Dillon of Dillon Consulting Engineers, without compensation and
with considerable time and effort, was successful in a single code change cycle in
modifying the building, fire, and mechanical codes for much of the western part of
the United States to allow the use of alternative refrigerants and refrigerant tech-
nologies. This effort included rewriting four chapters of the Uniform Mechanical
Code, two sections and one chapter of the Uniform Building Code, and four sec-
tions and one article of the Uniform Fire Code. All of these appeared  for the first
time in fully coordinated format in the 1994 editions of these documents.

David Doniger of NRDC was one of the attorneys who worked with EPA to com-
pel regulatory protection of stratospheric ozone. He was an important participant
in the voluntary phaseout of CFCs used  in foam food packaging, the voluntary
standard of purity for CFC-12 recycled from vehicle air-conditioners,  and the
activities leading to the change in military specifications to encourage  alternatives
to CFC-113 for manufacture of electronic products. He also helped organize the
regulatory and public education efforts to protect stratospheric ozone including
major efforts in conjunction with other NGOs. He is currently Counsel to the
Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation, EPA.
                                                                    Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning  57

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Electrical & Mechanical  Electrical & Mechanical Services Department of the Hong Kong Government
Services Department
of the Hong Kong
Government
{Award 1995)
retrofitted or replaced 26 chillers in government buildings and equipped other
chillers with recovery units, high-efficiency purge units, pressurization systems, and
rupture disc type pressure valves, eliminating approximately 19 metric tonnes of
CFCs. Also, a halon phaseout program, initiated in April 1994, replaced halon fire-
fighting installations that had contained approximately 8 metric tonnes of halon.
Pord                      Ford initiated efforts to eliminate all CFG uses from its worldwide manufacturing
(Awards 1992 and 1994)  processes by the end of 1993. It was a founding member of ICOLP/ICEL, a criti-
                          cal contributor to the commercialization of no-clean soldering, and a frequent par-
                          ticipant in technology cooperation projects worldwide. Ford experts were members
                          of numerous working groups to commercialize CFC recycling, to change military
                          specifications, and to persuade suppliers to phase out CFCs. Ford is a signatory to
                          the Thailand Leadership Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.
General Motors
(Award 1994)
General Motors eliminated the use of CFC solvents at the beginning of 1995.
General Motors had already replaced CFC-12 refrigerant with R-134a in over 97
percent of vehicle A/C systems when it received this award. CFC-12 was eliminated
with the introduction of 1995 model vehicles. General Motors was the first domes-
tic vehicle manufacturer to provide retrofit A/C kits.
Herbert T. Gilkey,        Herbert T. Gilkey of Engineering Consultants significantly contributed to stratos-
Engineering Consultants  pheric ozone protection through his leadership as chairman of the ASHRAE
(Award 1995)             Guideline Project Committee, which wrote ASHRAE Guideline 3-1990. He served
                          on three ASHRAE presidential commissions to write CFC phaseout position state-
                          ments and has served as a member of the UNEP Refrigeration TOC.
Donald Grob, UL
(Award 1990)
Donald Grob of UL coordinated the UL program to certify that recycling
machines could clean up used CFCs to meet the previously approved standards.
The program then moved quickly to help get certified recycling machines into the
market.
Heating, Refrigeration,
and Air Conditioning
Institute of Canada
(HRAI)
(Award 1993)
Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI) mobi-
lized its members in 1990 to jointly select new technology, and to educate its cus-
tomers on the importance of containment, recycling, retrofit, and replacement. The
training package "HRAI Action Guideline for Reduction of Use of Controlled
CFCs" was developed for designers, architects, engineers, installers, and service per-
sonnel. During the same period HRAI developed and approved a code of practice
for industry. In 1993, HRAI participated in bilateral international technology
transfer projects with Environment Canada in Brazil and China.
Arthur G. Hobbs, Jr.,     Arthur G. Hobbs, Jr., Four Seasons Division of Standard Motor Products was a
Four Seasons Division of key leader in the CFC/ozone-depletion issue. As vice president and subsequent
Standard Motor Products president of MACS, he worked extensively with governments on CFC issues. In
(Award U93)             addition, he introduced CFC recycling techniques to developing nations at an
                          international conference in Singapore.
   58  Champions of the World

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Hussmann
(Award  1994)
The Industrial
Technician
Certification Team
(Award 1.995)
International Institute
of Refrigeration (IIR)/
Institut International
Du Froid (IIP)
(Award 1996)
International Mobile
Air Conditioning
Association (IMACA)
(Award 1996)
JICOP
(Award 1993)
Hussmann developed refrigeration products that eliminate the use of CFC refriger-
ants. The designs reduce the amount of refrigerant piping needed in a system by
approximately 75 percent by modifying placement of condensing units, thus par-
tially offsetting the increased cost of HFC-134a refrigerants. The systems are
applied in an increasing variety of installations, such as convenience stores and food
service operations in European, North and South America, and Asian markets.

The Industrial Technician Certification Team became a leading force in the devel-
opment and maintenance of the technician certification program, which is a key
component of the United States National Recycling Program. Combined, the pro-
grams that make up this team are responsible for the certification of the majority of
Section 608 technicians and provide a valuable continuing educational resource.
RSES used conferences, classes, and satellite telephone conferences to certify over
150,000 technicians by 1996. Team participants included Air-Conditioning
Refrigeration Institute, the Air-Conditioning Contractors of America, the
National Association of Plumbing, Heating, Cooling Contractors, the
Mechanical Contractors of America, the Mechanical Service Contractors of
America, the Refrigeration Service Engineers Society, and the United Association.

International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR)/Institut International Du Froid (IIP),
with Commission and Associate Members from  100 countries, is the premier tech-
nical and scientific  organization promoting phaseout of ozone-depleting refrigerants.
IIR/IIF has published and distributed 11 technical reports to governments and orga-
nized numerous conferences and workshops in Argentina, Australia, Burkina Paso,
Germany,  Italy, Morocco, New Zealand, and the United States. It worked to orga-
nize the worlds technology experts to assist in the formulation and implementation
of ODS refrigerant phaseout programs. IIR/IIF has  been uniquely placed to imple-
ment courses and national refrigeration-development plans in developing countries,
conferences on the  various technical options, and objective technical advice to gov-
ernments and industry. In 1994 IIR/IIF published "Environmentally Friendly
Compression Cycles" and "Ammonia as a Refrigerant" and launched two series of
conferences on refrigerants including "natural refrigerants."

International Mobile Air Conditioning Association (IMACA) informed the automo-
tive aftermarket about the CFC-12 phaseout and provided recycling testing and retro-
fit training to over 250,000 technicians. IMACA consistendy developed new ideas in
order to serve its members and the motoring public and has a longstanding history of
working cooperatively with EPA to educate the public about the phaseout of ODSs.

JICOP organized domestic and international ozone protection projects including
training, workshops, conferences, publications, and partnerships. It has sponsored
important environmental leadership projects, including the Thailand Leadership
Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge. It has also been  successful in organizing projects
to encourage and insist that suppliers provide products not made with ODSs. It has
been very important in keeping its members informed of the latest technologies.
                                                                     Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning  59

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William Kopko, York
International
(Award 1991)
Dr.  Lambert Kuijpers,
UNEP TEAP
(Award 1993)
MACS
(Award 1990)
Kenneth W. Manz,
Robinatr Division
(SPX)
(Award  1993)
Martin Marietta
(Award 1994)

Thomas J. Mathews,
Hannaford Brothers
(Award 1993)
McQuay International
(Award 1992)
Mercedes-Benz
(Award 1992)

National Refrigerants
(Award 1993)
William Kopko of York International identified promising refrigerants that were
later considered as "third generation" refrigerants.


Dr. Lambert Kuijpers, UNEP TEAP, working for Phillips, prompted Phillips to
become the first company expert to publicly advocate a new look at available and
emerging options. He is co-chair of the UNEP Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning,
and Heat Pump TOG and co-chair of the UNEP TEAP. He was chair of TEAP
working groups and task forces on Countries with Economies in Transition and
other technical topics.

MACS cooperated extensively with EPA to reduce CFC emissions via recycling and
eventually eliminate diem from automobile air-conditioners. MACS was the first
A/C association to take a proactive approach to minimizing CFC emissions,
pioneered many of die most successful strategies for working with governments,
and was a commanding voice in local and state deliberations over vehicle A/C
recycling. MACS is also a leader in international technology cooperation.

Kenneth W. Manz, Robinair Division of SPX, demonstrated individual leadership
in commercializing recycling equipment technology, setting equipment perfor-
mance standards, and promoting acceptance of recycled refrigerants. He advocated
the field sampling of refrigeration contamination and the strategy of first setting
standards of purity and then improving recycling equipment capabilities to satisfy
diose standards. He was the committee chairman who shaped ARI standard 740
performance of refrigerant recovery and recycling equipment and convener for the
ISO equivalent standard. He authorized die book "The Challenge of Recycling
Refrigerants,"  and played a key role in developing industry recycling guides for
handling and reuse of refrigerants.

Martin Marietta initiated aggressive retrofits and replacement of A/C and refrigera-
tion systems.

Thomas J. Mathews of Hannaford Brothers was the team leader in ambitious
efforts to eliminate the use of CFCs in food retail store equipment.

McQuay International (formerly Snyder-General) announced that it would stop
marketing CFC-based A/C equipment effective June 1992. Its entire CFC-based
line of products was then converted to HFC-134a by die end of 1992, effectively
sending the message to consumers diat CFC technology was obsolete.

Mercedes-Benz was the world's first automobile manufacturer to introduce a CFC-
free A/C, beating the competition by one full year.

National Refrigerants established a large-scale refrigerant supply service including
recycling, stockpiling, and remanufacturing. It organized one of die most extensive
centralized refrigerant recycling services, and also supplied alternative refrigerants.
   60  Champions of the World

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New York State Energy  The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority developed the
Research and             "HFC Supermarket Refrigeration Demonstration" to test the energy performance of
Development Authority  non-CFC refrigerants. The project determined that energy efficiency was equal or
(Awards 1993)           slightly better than CFC in advanced screw-type compressors and demonstrated
                          refrigerant conservation. As a result of dais project, the new 60,000 square foot Shop
                          'n Save store in Glens Falls, New York, became the first CFC-free supermarket. The
                          demonstration team included ALCO Controls, AUiedSignal, Brown
                          Engineering/Bitzer, Carlyle Compressor, Castrol, CPI Engineering Services, Demand
                          Defrost Systems, Eastern Heating and Cooling, E.I.L. Instruments, Electric Power
                          Research Institute, Empire State Electric Energy Research, Hannaford Brothers, Hill
                          Refrigeration, Howden Compressors, New York State Energy Research and
                          Development Authority, Niagra Mohawk Power Corporation, Phoenix Refrigeration
                          Systems, Spectronics, and Sporlan Valve Company.
Nippondenso
(Award  1993)
Nippondenso used competitive design teams to develop new compressors that are
energy efficient, durable, and affordable.
Nissan Motor Company  Nissan Motor Company, in 1989, became the first automobile manufacturer to
(Award 1991)            announce its commitment to phase out all CFC use. This declaration led to the
                          complete conversion of all models to HFC-134a A/C by 1993.
Simon Oulouhojian,
MACS
(Award 1990)
Philadelphia
Detachment of the
Carderock Division of
the Naval Surface
Warfare Center, U.S.
Navy
(Award 1996)
 The Refrigerant Import
 Committee of the
 Alliance for Responsible
 Atmospheric Policy
 (Award 1996)
Simon Oulouhojian of MACS was a visionary co-chair of the Ad-Hoc Automobile
Recycling Working Group. He developed educational and advertising campaigns to
promote recycling, designed technician certification programs, and guided state and
federal regulators to make recycling mandatory. Mr. Oulouhojian continues to lead
industry efforts to minimize refrigerant contamination and to promote retrofit of
automobile air-conditioners to HFC-134a.

Philadelphia Detachment of the Carderock Division of the Naval Surface
Warfare Center, U.S. Navy, established a program in 1993 to convert CFC-12
systems to ozone-friendly HFC-134a and convert the Navy's 1,100 CFC-12
plants to HFC-134a by the year 2000. By the close of fiscal year  1996, it will
have led the conversion of 300 systems aboard U.S. Navy ships from Mayport,
Florida, to Yokosuka, Japan, with a total installed charge in excess of 35 tons of
CFC-12. It also will have converted or assisted in the conversion  of over 70
"CFC-12 free" foreign and U.S. naval ships. The Navy shares this technology
throughout DoD and around the world.

The Refrigerant Import Committee of the Alliance  for Responsible
Atmospheric Policy was formed in September 1994 to work with various govern-
ment agencies to stem the flow of illegal imports of CFCs into the United States.
It obtained a regulatory interpretation letter from the Internal Revenue Service
explaining that U.S. law requires the payment of the federal excise tax on all
imports of CFCs, whether newly manufactured or not, thus providing a financial
disincentive to mislabel shipments. It helped to formulate two  new EPA rules
that require imports of CFCs to obtain a prequalification prior to the date the
                                                                   Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning  61

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Refrigerant Reclaim
Australia
(Award 1995)
J, Sitinsbury
i Award 1993)
Sanden
(Award 1996)
Sea-Land Service
(Award  1995)
Shaw's Supermarkets
(Award 1993)
                        shipment is to leave the exporting country. It also focused the media's attention
                        on die issue of illegal imports at an international level in an effort find a global
                        solution. These efforts led to the first criminal conviction under the Clean Air
                        Act and the first extradition of a suspect in a global environmental crime.

                        Refrigerant Reclaim Australia has been recovering approximately 5 metric tonnes
                        of ODSs every month since 1992. Of this material, approximately half is able to be
                        reprocessed while the odier half is held in storage pending the resolution of tech-
                        nology for its safe disposal.

                        J. Sainsbury stopped using CFCs in its stores and undertook technology coopera-
                        tion, particularly in the United Kingdom. It was among the first companies in the
                        United Kingdom to require refrigeration containment and recycling and worked
                        with its suppliers to select and finance suitable procedures and equipment. J.
                        Sainsbury encouraged its refrigeration service providers to also offer containment
                        and recycling to odier building customers, and the company published technical
                        reports on its progress in eliminating ODSs.

                        Sanden took a leadership role by committing the necessary resources to successfully
                        implement HFC-134a and eliminate all CFG from its manufacturing processes. Sanden
                        pioneered the development of the electric compressor for automodve use as the first
                        technically feasible replacement for CFCs. Although the electric compressor was not
                        commercialized for fueled vehicles, it has been introduced for electric vehicle A/C.

                        In 1988, Sanden and General Electric (Dr. Warren F. Bessler) presented this  tech-
                        nological innovation at die meeting of the UNEP  at The Hague. Since 1992,
                        Sanden has supplied 12.2 million HFC-134a compressors to the mobile industry.
                        It eliminated the use of CFG in its manufacturing processes in 1987, and promot-
                        ed the phaseout of CFCs in Asian countries by sponsoring seminars and hosting
                        training programs at its manufacturing facilities.

                        Sea-Land Service has successfully retrofitted over 4,000 refrigerated containers to
                        HFC-134a from CFC-12. Additionally, it equipped all ships and maintenance
                        facilities with HFC-134a and CFC-12 recovery equipment.

                        Shaw's Supermarkets was among the first retail food companies to establish a CFC
                        elimination policy, choosing to immediately halt the use of CFC in new stores and
                        to phase out existing uses with a staged replacement during store remodeling.
                        Shaw's successfully minimized refrigerant charge (through remote circuit piping
                        headers and with split condensers during low ambient temperature operation);
                        reduced leaks with detection and alarms; implemented recovery, reuse,  recycle, and
                        reclaim of oil and refrigerants; and optimized energy efficiency through application
                        of floating discharge pressure, total mechanical subcooling, gas defrost, variable
                        speed compressor and condenser control, computer controls, heat reclaim and stor-
                        age, and heat recovery. This refrigerant management and replacement policy has
                        been highly successful.
62  chamPi°ns
                       World

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The Swedish
Refrigeration
Foundation
(Award  1996)
Tecumseli Products
(Award  1994)

Texas Instruments
(Award  1995)
Toyota
(Award  1994)
Trane
(Award 1992)
 Tyler Refrigeration
 (Award 1996)
 UL
 (Award 1990)
The Swedish Refrigeration Foundation developed the "ODS phaseout in the
Refrigeration Sector" Project to coordinate the cooperative private and public sector
effort to develop the Swedish Refrigeration Code. Starting in 1988 as the result of
this code, Sweden's refrigeration industry substantially reduced its emissions of
CFCs and HCJFCs and eliminated its use of newly imported CFC two years ahead
of its domestic schedule.

Tecumseh Products worked closely with leading chemical companies during the
introduction of HFC-134a compressors to increase energy efficiency.

Texas Instruments implemented a refrigerant management plan that stopped all
purchase of new or reclaimed CFC refrigerants worldwide by 1994 and has resulted
in a 66 percent reduction (2.3 metric tonnes per year) in CFC refrigerant emis-
sions. Information has been gathered on about 3,500 pieces of equipment world-
wide and approximately 150 large building chillers are ranked and prioritized for
conversion or replacement over the next two decades. Texas  Instruments was a
founding member of ICOLP/ICEL.

Toyota, in addition to exemplary work in the foam and solvents sectors, completed
its conversion of vehicle A/C refrigerants from CFC-12 to HFC-134a and devel-
oped a retrofit system so that older vehicles could be converted to use HFC-134a.
Toyota was also a leader in promoting CFC-12 recycling in  Japan and in develop-
ing and commercializing retrofit kits, and is a signatory to the Thailand Leadership
Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.

Trane was one of the first companies to announce the removal of CFC-based
equipment from the market. It developed high energy efficient A/C equipment that
is often more cost effective than retrofitting existing equipment, announced early
that it would eliminate the use of CFC refrigerants in its centrifugal chillers, and
improved the energy efficiency in new non-CFC chillers by almost 40 percent.
This action was taken on January 1, 1993, a full three years prior to the phaseout
of CFC production in developed countries. Trane's market leadership served as a
clear message to customers that CFC technology is obsolete. Trane is a signatory to
the Vietnam Pledge.

Tyler Refrigeration (Award 1996) developed a system of refrigerant control, which
reduces the initial refrigerant charge by as much as 45 percent, and provides early
warning of condenser fan failures and refrigerant leaks. This system is estimated to
have reduced by 125 tons the amount of refrigerant required for the supermarket
industry.

UL developed a purity standard for recycled CFCs, which was later accepted by
automobile manufacturers. At the request of the EPA/MACS "Working Group on
vehicle CFC recycling, it developed certification standards for recycling machines
and then worked  to get certified machines into the market.
                                                                     Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning  63

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 The U.S. Army
 Communications-
 Electronics Command
 and Tobyhanna Army
 Depot, (Award 1994)
 U.S. General Services
 Administration
 {Award  1993}
 The U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command and Tobyhanna
 Army Depot implemented replacement of all CFC-12 air-conditioners mount-
 ed on over 2,000 tactical command, control, and communications shelters
 worldwide.

 The U.S. General Services Administration, under the leadership of John laconis
 and his maintenance team from Public Buildings Service, initiated a comprehen-
 sive "Refrigerant Management Plan" that required a proactive approach to reduce
 the impact of ODSs upon the environment. The program initially targeted build-
 ing A/C systems using non-CFC refrigerants (an aggregate chiller capacity of
 325,000  tons) to economically select replacement chillers, reduce refrigerant loss-
 es, and maximize refrigerant recycling by recovery, reclamation, and banking for
                         reuse.
James Vincent, U.S.
Army Aviation and
Troop Command
{Award  1994}
James Vincent, U.S. Army Aviation and Troop Command, implemented
numerous projects including the development of A/C and refrigeration techni-
cian certification training, replacement of CFC-12 air-conditioners on tactical
shelters, and implementation of the program to replace CFC-12 in field
kitchens.
Volvo
(Award 1993)
Carmen C, Waschek
(Award 1993)
James Wolf, American
Standard
(Award 1995)
Volvo was among the first vehicle manufacturers to put HFC-134a systems in
its automobiles. Volvo was a strong supporter of CFC recycling standards and
among the first companies to implement recycling at new vehicle dealers.

Carmen C. Waschek, the senior engineer for The Coca-Cola Company, led
development of a comprehensive program to contain, recycle, and bank CFCs
and to purchase only CFC-free new refrigeration equipment. As one of the
world's largest seller of refrigerated beverages, this decision had a profound and
global impact on the company's suppliers.

James Wolf, American Standard, has played an important role as chairman of
the Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy (Award 1990) in promoting
the phaseout of CFCs in A/C and the use of industry alternatives approved by
EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program. He has given over
100 speeches and presentations on the Montreal Protocol to businesses and
professional groups. His activities have been instrumental in changing the atti-
tudes of many people about CFCs and the need for alternatives. James Wolf
has held positions in ARI and ASHRAE. He also participated extensively in
public seminars and industry leader roundtables to inform and mold the opin-
ions of decision-makers regarding CFC policies and phaseout strategies.
   64 Champions of the World

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Wbolworths Australia   Woolworths Australia decided in July 1989 to halt the use of CFC refrigerants. In
(Award 1993)            September 1989 it began shifting to HCFC-22. By 1991 HFC and transitional
                          blends were announced and by 1992 small test quantities were available. To reduce
                          duplication of effort and to speed development, Woolworths helped organize the
                          industry to work together. With the help of chemical, equipment, and lubrication
                          suppliers, Wbolworths was able to proceed quickly and by June 1993 completed
                          the world's first CFC-free retail store. Woolworths eventually became the first
                          national retail merchandise company to convert all its stores to CFC alternatives.

Kiyoshige Yokoi,         Kiyoshige Yokoi of Matsushita Refrigeration led a project team to improve the
Matsushita Refrigeration reliability of HFC-134a compressors for refrigeration manufacturers in Thailand.
(Award 1996)            Thanks to these efforts, the manufacturers in Thailand have improved their prod-
                          ucts and were able to phase out the use of CFC in domestic refrigeration by
                          January 1, 1997.
York
(Award  1992)
York developed energy efficient, CFC-free A/C and refrigeration equipment and
participated in U.S. and international committees to develop recycling, contain-
ment, and technician certification for CFCs and HCFCs. In addition, York helped
develop new technical standards for HFCs and third generation refrigerants.
                                                                    Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning   65

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Solvents
        For over 40 years, ODSs were widely used in the electronics manufacturing'
        industry for the post-solder defluxing of printed circuit boards (PCBs).
        CFC-113, the most common ODS used, was an obvious choice because
        of its excellent cleaning properties, low toxicity, non-flammability, and rel-
atively low cost. The signing of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the
Ozone Layer in 1985 and the subsequent drafting of the Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987 raised serious doubts about the
future of solvent cleaners in the electronics and other industries. The Montreal
Protocol mandated a 50 percent reduction in ODS production by the year 2000.
This galvanized many companies in the electronics
industry to begin investigating alternative cleaning
methods immediately.
   Leadership companies including AT&T (Award
1992), Ford (Awards 1992 and 1994), IBM (Awards
1992 and 1993), Motorola (Awards 1991 and
1993), Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991),
Texas Instruments (Awards 1993 and 1995), and
Seiko Epson (Awards 1992 and  1995) made early
announcements that they intended to halt the use of
CFCs ahead of the Montreal Protocol schedule and
that they were seeking technology to enable this
change.  The technical and market clout of these lead-
ership companies motivated suppliers to support new
technical developments.
   One  of the most influential "corporations" in the area of electronics manufactur-
ing turned out to be the  military. Not only is the U.S. military a large consumer of
electronics, but the military standards became the de facto world standard. In order
to build reputations for quality, many manufacturers used the same military specifi-
cation compliant equipment to produce goods for both the private Sector and gov-
ernments. In the late 1980s, it was believed that 50 percent of CFC-113 use in the
electronics sector worldwide resulted directly from the influence of these military
specifications.
   In January 1988, EPA, AT&T (Award 1992), and Petroferm jointly announced
that AT&T was using a naturally derived Petroferm product to deflux electronic

"Nortel committed to a CFC phaseout long
before suitable replacement technologies were
identified. Our manufacturing  management
took chances by trusting that research engineers
and production managers could solder without
CFCs. EPA took risks by trusting industry to find
its own solutions. Trust and teamwork paid off
for the people and for the planet."

                      Dr. Margaret Kerr (Award 1990)
                   Nortel (formerly Northern Telecom)
                                                                                     Solvents  67

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                         circuit assemblies. This was significant because at the time it was widely thought
                         impossible to replace CFC-113 for electronics defluxing, and that it might even be
                         necessary to exempt this application from control under the Montreal Protocol.
                         With the knowledge that commercially viable defluxing alternatives were not only
                         feasible but available, the way was cleared for the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvent
                         Working Group to develop procedures for evaluating non-ODS for electronics
                         assembly cleaning. Numerous such materials were subsequently approved and com-
                         mercialized. Electronics defluxing became one of the first use  sectors to essentially
                         eliminate ODSs.

                           In December 1987 DuPont's (Award 1990) solvent cleaning master Dr. William
                         Kenyon (Award 1990), Joe Felty (Texas Instruments, Award  1990),  and Dr. Leslie
                         Guth (AT&T, Award 1990) met to design a test board for IPC (Award  1990) to
                         be used as a benchmark for the cleanliness of surface mount technology, the state-
                         of the-art circuit board design. In spring 1988 at the China Lake Soldering
                         Symposium, DuPont announced a reduced-CFC solvent that they believed would
                         clean better than CFC-113 but was not acceptable under prescriptive military stan-
                         dards requiring traditional CFC-113 formulations. Dr.  Stephen O. Andersen and
                         Dr. William Kenyon (Award 1990) organized a meeting early the next morning
                        with Dr. Warren R. Steinacker (DuPont), Harold Peacock  (China Lake Navy
                        Weapons Center Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility [EMPF])  and
                        Kathi Johnson (EMPF Materials & Processes Laboratory, Award  1990). They
                        agreed to proceed with tests of new solvents using the EMPF as the venue. One
                        week later this organizing group met with Art Gillman (Unique Industries), Joe
                        Felty (Award 1990) (Texas Instruments), Robert L. Cohen  (DuPont) and Robert
                        H. Kasch (DuPont) and began to develop a test plan.
                          In March 1988, Dr. Stephen O. Andersen of EPA with contractor Dr. Sudhakar
                        Kesavan (ICF/Kaiser) initiated the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc  Solvents Working
                        Group to develop uniform procedures for evaluating new non-ODS cleaning mate-
                        rials for  electronics assembly cleaning. DoD authorized Dr. Andersen to chair the
                        EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working Group and appointed him to the
                        Military Electronics Technology Advisory Group. Soon EMPF confirmed that they
                        would host  the tests, and IPC volunteered to coordinate meeting logistics and tech-
                        nical correspondence and later organized donations of test materials. Leslie Guth
                        (AT&T, Award  1990), Robin Sellers (Naval Avionics Center, Award  1990), Kathi
                        Johnson (EMPF, Award 1990), Tim Crawford (EMPF, Award 1993), Phil
                        Wittmer (Magnavox), James Maguire (The Boeing Company), Dr. Kirk Bonner
                        (AlliedSignal), Pete Phillips (Honeywell), Heather Getty (Honeywell), and Carl
                        Koernig (Baron-Blakeslee) became virtually full-time volunteers. Three
                        Nortel/Northern Telecom engineers moved to China Lake for  three months to
                        supervise die test equipment setup. Meetings were being held as frequently as every
                        week and the team grew to  100 experts or more. By March 1989 the Test Plan was
                        finalized. The three-phase test plan characterized the cleaning ability of a CFC-based
                        solvent in Phase 1 and established the cleanliness results as a benchmark to which
                        alternative candidates would be later compared. Phase 2 of the plan tested CFC
                        alternative candidates using the same processes and procedures that were established
68  Champions of the World

-------
in Phase 1 and compared the results for a "better than," "as good as," or "worse
than" rating. Phase 3 evaluated alternative flux chemistries and processes.
   The clear mission of the Working Group was to address issues related to the
phaseout of ozone-depleting solvents in the United States, with a special emphasis
on military applications, and to certify that alternative technologies and methods
for cleaning were "as good as or better than" CFC-113-based cleaning. Motivated
by the belief that a complete phaseout was possible, they set an interim target of a
50 percent phaseout of ODSs.
   Representatives of the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad
Hoc Solvents Working Group were from U.S.
Government agencies (with significant member-
ship from the military), electronics manufactur-
ers, flux and solvent suppliers, laboratories,
equipment manufacturers, and NGOs. DoD
and IPC (Award 1990) played key leadership
roles in the deliberations of this group.
   The Working Group's consensus led to the
development in 1988 of a three-phase testing
program that compared the performance of
alternatives to the CFC-113 benchmark.
Initially, the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents
Working Group designed a test vehicle, an
assembly process plan, and test procedures;
completed four benchmark runs; published
their results; and got all of these actions
endorsed by DoD.
"Phasing out CFCs looks to most of us today as
a relatively smooth transition. But we should not
forget that it was only a few years ago that
many were concerned that substitutes would
not be  available, would cost too much, or be
more dangerous. When industry accepted the
scientific basis behind the  need to phase-out
CFCs, it quickly and effectively responded to the
challenges of finding and shifting to alterna-
tives. The personal and corporate leadership of
those initiating this change in thinking made all
the difference."

                                      Stephen Seidel
                                            Director
                  EPA Stratospheric Protection Program
   During Phase 2, many substitute cleaning
agents were tested and judged acceptable as ODS substitutes for use in electronics
cleaning applications.
   Finally, in Phase 3 the Working Group evaluated the acceptability of alternative
technologies, such as water-soluble fluxes and no-clean processes. The test program
was widely accepted by both industry and DoD as the means to gain acceptance
for new technologies. The Phase 3 Program identified three areas of research
including water soluble fluxes, controlled atmosphere soldering, and low-solids/no-
clean fluxes. The success of this program was due in large part to hard work by
dedicated individuals from the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division,
Lakehurst (Award 1992), IPC (Award 1990), and EPA.
   As a result of the testing done by the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working
Group, in February 1991 the U.S. military adopted MIL-STD-2000, Revision A. This
standard conditionally permitted the use of non-rosin fluxes and non-ODSs and clean-
ing processes for most electronics assembly and contracts retroactively. MIL-STD-2000
(Rev. A) also recommends that CFC solvents be "phased out." This standard opened
the door for non-ozone-depleting technologies to  break into the electronics sector.
                                                                                       Solvents  69

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                         The results of the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working Group were pre-
                      sented to a large audience of industry representatives at the National Electronics
                      Packaging Conference.
                         Methyl chloroform has a significantly lower ODP than CFCs, but is far more
                      widely found in many common products such as adhesives. This pervasiveness, in
                      conjunction with the number of applications, large and small, made its elimination
                      extremely challenging. As one of the largest CFC-113 and methyl chloroform users
                      in IBM (Awards 1992 and 1993), IBM Endicott (Award 1992) demonstrated
                      impressive leadership in the elimination of these substances.
                         In 1987, IBM Endicott (Award 1992) emitted 1,180 metric tonnes of ODSs
                      (CFCs and methyl chloroform), making the company the largest industrial emitter
                      in the United States. Aggressively pursuing IBM's goals of CFCs and methyl chlo-
                      roform elimination, IBM Endicott (Award 1992) converted the site's circuit board
                      manufacturing from solvent-based (CFC-113, methyl chloroform, methylene chlo-
                      ride) photo lithographic processing to aqueous-based processing in 1989. IBM
                      Endicott also converted a multidisciplined team of engineers to work on the elimi-
                                                        nation of remaining ODSs in manufactur-
                                                        ing. Many of the remaining applications
                                                        involved specific uses, including many
                                                        small uses, and were associated with a num-
                                                        ber of products. Tedious work took place in
                                                        developing alternatives both by IBM's labo-
                                                        ratory and in cooperation with suppliers,
                                                        IBM Endicott succeeded in eliminating all
                                                        Class 1 ODSs from its manufacturing
                                                        processes in April 1993.
                                                           In 1988, AT&T (Award 1992), led by
                                                        David Chittick (Award 1990) and Dr.
                                                        Leslie Guth (Award 1990), revised its cor-
                                                        porate environmental policy to  address
                                                        explicitly growing concerns over ODS use.
                                                           In 1989, two organizations were formed
                                                        that would prove to be major leaders in the
                                                        movement to eliminate ozone-depleting
                                                        industrial solvent use: ICOLP/ICEL (Awards
                                                         1991 and 1993) and the UNEP Solvents,
                                                        Coatings, and Adhesives TOC.
                         ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993) was organized under the Cooperative
                      Research Act to encourage competing companies to cooperate on the development
                      and implementation of environmentally protective industrial technologies. Since its
                      founding, member corporations included AT&T (Award 1992); The Boeing
                      Company (Awards 1992 and 1993); British Aerospace (Award 1992) led by Bryan
                      Baxter (Award 1992); Compaq (Award 1993); DEC (Award 1990); Ford (Awards
                      1992 and 1994), led by Jay Baiter (Award 1990); Hitachi (Award 1991), under the
"Through my participation in the UNEP Solvents
Technical Options Committee, through technology
exchange visits to many countries, and through
opportunities to help organize technology coopera-
tion workshops in developing countries,  I came to
appreciate and admire the contributions of the
diverse group of professionals who made a differ-
ence in protecting the earth's ozone layer. Their
commitment to environmental protection and the
friendships that have been established provide an
incentive to continue this spirit of cooperation
between individuals, industry, governments, non-
governmental organizations  and others."

                      Arthur D. FitzGerald (Award  1990)
                                           Consultant
                        International Finance Corporation
70  Champions of the World

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"This book is testimony to the environmental leadership
displayed by all of the winners from across the globe.
Eliminating the use of ozone-depleting substances was one
of the most challenging technological problems ever faced,
but the efforts of mankind worldwide prevailed and solu-
tions were found. The real winners from this truly global
effort will be the future generations of this earth who will
continue to enjoy the protection of the ozone layer."

               Robert G. Holcomb, Corporate Director (Award 1994)
                                   Environmental External Affairs
                               Motorola (Awards 1991 and 1993)
leadership of Tetsuro Fukushima (Award 1994) and Yoshiyuki Ishii (Award 1992);
Honeywell (Award 1994); Hughes Aircraft Company (Award 1993); IBM (Awards
in 1992 for Endicott, New York, and Rochester, Minnesota, and in 1993 for
Austin, Texas) with Cynthia Pruett (Award 1993); Lockheed-Martin (Awards
1994 and 1996) led by Stephen P.
Evanoff III (Award 1992); Matsushita
Electric (Award 1993); Mitsubishi
Electric (Award 1994); Motorola
(Awards 1991 and 1993), led by
Ralph Ponce de Leon, Robert Pfahl
(Award 1991), and Robert Holcomb
(Award 1994); Nortel/Northern
Telecom (Award 1991), with the lead-
ership of Art FitzGerald (Award
1990), Dr. Margaret Kerr (Award
1990), and Elizabeth Rose; Ontario
Hydro (Award 1995); Texas
Instruments (Award 1993), led by Joe
Felty (Award 1990), Carole
Ellenberger (Award 1993), Michael
Leake (Award 1995), Angie Schurig
(Award 1993), and Jack Swindle (Award 1994); and Toshiba (Award 1995) led by
Shigeo Matsui (Award 1992). ICOLP/ICEL helped to fast-track implementation
of innovative technologies by fostering a spirit of collaboration rather than compe-
tition among industry rivals.  ICOLP/ICEL then transferred their successes by shar-
ing their findings with the electronics industry worldwide. ICOLP/ICEL worked
with EPA and its contractor IGF/Kaiser, led by Dr. Sudhakar Kesavan, to develop
and review seven technical manuals  on phasing out ozone-depleting solvents for
various applications. With support from the World Bank, ICOLP/ICEL organized
and ran  technology cooperation workshops and demonstrations projects in Brazil,
China, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Thailand, and Turkey.
   Also in 1989, the UNEP Solvents, Coatings, and Adhesives TOG was formed
consisting of an international group of experts from industry, government, and the
scientific community. The Solvents  TOC created a forum for identifying and doc-
umenting promising technology, in  addition to increasing global awareness of the
role of the electronics industry in ozone layer protection. The TOC was established
to fulfill the requirement to assemble a body of experts to advise the parties to the
Montreal Protocol on the availability of alternative methods and technologies to
replace CFC-113 and methyl chloroform in their various use sectors. Membership
of the group was based on nominations by national governments. The group dis-
seminates the latest developments in solvent technologies and advises the parties on
the need for essential use exemptions to allow continued use of ODSs. Their con-
tributions have been critical in the development of domestic ozone protection regu-
lations by many countries' governments.
                                               Solvents  71

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                          The history of the UNEP Solvents TOG is a story that exemplifies the power
                       of proactive thinking and cooperation. In 1989 the German company SEHO
                       demonstrated a controlled atmosphere soldering technology to the Solvents TOG,
                       which immediately recognized its potential but realized that the German equip-
                       ment developers had only basic soldering skills. Upon close examination, the TOG
                       realized that the component parts were oxidized, the flux was mismatched, and the
                       soldering wave was poorly formed. The promise of the technology was so com-
                       pelling, however, that TOG members from AT&T (Award 1992), Ford  (Awards
                       1992 and 1994), and Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991) persuaded their
                       companies to experiment with the technology.
   Awards for "No-Clean" Technology
   +•  AT&T (Award 1992)
   4-  Ford (Awards 1992 and 1994)
   4-  Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991)
   4  Motorola (Awards 1991 and 1993)
                           Some experts concentrated on the flux composition,
                        while others believed that the flux was chemically
                        suitable and worked ways to apply it to the board more
                        precisely. Still others concentrated on the mixture of
                        gases in the soldering chamber. Several months into
                        development, one company discovered that gas monitor-
                        ing and control calibrations were critical. Better calibra-
                        tions dramatically improved the soldering quality. The
team consulted with flux suppliers who grasped the opportunity for developing and
commercializing new products and intensified development in cooperation with the
electronics manufacturers. EPA encouraged the work by documenting and publiciz-
ing the global environmental advantages that such a technology could provide.
   Meanwhile, engineers at AT&T Bell Laboratories (Award 1992) were develop-
ing state-of-the-art spray fluxing machines to apply precisely the optimal amount of
flux to the locations in the printed circuit boards where necessary. Nortel/Northern
Telecom was developing equipment to verify flux concentrations on production
boards, and Motorola (Awards 1991 and 1993) was experimenting with soldering
ultra-miniaturized circuits with hybrid components including optical devices and
flexible connectors. One by one, companies satisfied internal quality controls and
moved from lab-scale to pilot and finally to full implementation. During imple-
mentation, experts from the intercompany team continued to cooperate to debug
operations and optimize performance.
   It is impossible to say just when the engineering team realized that its no-clean
technology would revolutionize electronics assembly. Engineers who had cautiously
reported as-good performance began to report improved performance. Line man-
agers cautiously increased the speed of soldering to rates never achieved with con-
ventional soldering and found that in some cases defect rates actually decreased.
   EPA and its contractors tracked and documented the technical development and
operating parameters, and in cooperation with ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and
1993) published the first no-clean handbook in order to make the know-how and
technology available worldwide.
   Champions such'as DEC (Award 1990) and Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award
1991) donated patented technology to the public domain in order to speed ozone
layer protection. Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991)  and AT&T (Award
72  Champions of the World

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1992) opened new production facilities in China, Mexico, and elsewhere that used
the no-clean process. Public tours and technical cooperation projects helped pro-
mote use in all countries.
   Thanks to ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993) and UNEP, as well as the
EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working Group, as early as 1990 the information
exchange process grew at an enormous rate as these organizations worked with
industry to produce numerous conferences and publications that permitted rapid
technology sharing. At the Second International Conference on Solder Flux
Technology,  sponsored by the Carnegie Mellon Research Institute and IPC (Award
1990), topics included low solid and no-clean fluxes, solder pastes, water-soluble
fluxes, alternate cleaning processes, and ionic contamination. In September 1991,
the EPA Region 1 Conference on Ozone Layer Protection Technology Transfer
offered concurrent sessions on the use of alternative solvents for electronics clean-
ing. The May 1993 National No-Clean Conference, also sponsored by IPC (Award
1990), focused on topics such as the evaluation of a no-clean flux for use on mili-
tary  electronics  assemblies.
   To improve distribution of this knowledge throughout the electronics industry,
ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993) and EPA jointly sponsored the publishing
of a  series of technical manuals. The first, published in June 1991, describes aque-
ous and semi-aqueous cleaning processes and how they can be applied in post-sol-
der defluxing of electronic assemblies. The second manual was published in
October 1993 and presents detailed information on a variety of no-clean soldering
techniques that allow users to completely eliminate the cleaning process during
PCB assembly. These manuals are available worldwide free of charge, and hundreds
of copies of each have been distributed since their publication. In addition, to make
the documents even more useful to developing countries, ICOLP/ICEL has spon-
sored the translation of the manuals into Chinese and Russian.
   Several national governments followed industry's early, proactive lead. By 1991,
Sweden halted use of CFC-113 from many applications (with exceptions for dry-
cleaning, military, and some other applications). By January 1993, Switzerland
reported that it had phased out use of ozone-depleting solvents in most applications
(with exemptions for dry cleaning) and Germany phased out use of CFC-113 in
virtually all applications. Industry leaders from all over the world, including
Canada, Germany, Japan, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, as well
as the United States, adopted alternatives to ozone-depleting solvents.
   The EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working Group, ICOLP/ICEL (Awards
1991 and 1993),  and the Solvents TOG worked together strategically and have
successfully provided the global electronics industry with the leadership, technology,
and momentum necessary to eliminate dependence on ODSs. This innovative pub-
lic/private partnership has also served as a model for addressing other environmen-
tal challenges. For example, ICOLP has evolved into ICEL, to assess the
environmental performance of industrial technologies and investigate more benign
and efficient alternatives. The consensus on an early phaseout in Canada, Germany,
Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States would not have been possible
                                                                                        Solvents  73

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                       without these three important groups. Together they assessed the industry's needs and
                       took die initiative to identify alternative technologies, certify their effectiveness, and
                       provide diis information quickly and effectively throughout die industry worldwide.
                         Using a grant from the Ministry of Finance, the Singapore Productivity and
                       Standards Board (PSB)—formerly named the Singapore Institute of Standards
                       and Industrial Research (SISIR)—(Award 1995) initiated a project in 1989 to
                       assist local industries in eliminating their use of CFCs. A comprehensive range of
                       technical services in cleanliness evaluation, process troubleshooting, and materials
                       compatibility of CFG substitutes and alternative processes was quickly made avail-
                       able to both multinational and local electronics companies. To assist Singapore
                       industries in the conservation of CFCs as an interim measure, PSB/SISIR provided
                       technical consulting on the recovery and recycling of CFCs. A recycling system was
                       set up, and about 110 metric tonnes of CFC-113 were recycled in 1990-1991  for
                       the disk-drive manufacturing industry. In June 1993, with support from the
                       Economic Development Board of Singapore, PSB/SISIR launched the ODS-Free
                       Product and Process Verification Scheme. This program was designed to provide
                                                         recognition for companies with successful
                                                         conversions to non-ODS manufacturing
                                                         processes and third-party verification for
                                                         local companies to meet customers' and
                                                         export requirements for non-ODS process-
                                                         es and products.  Companies, comprising
                                                         both multinational and local supporting
                                                         industries, have been certified.
"Motorola has been fortunate to have been the
recipient of many awards, including the prestigious
Malcolm Baldrige Award for Management
Excellence. However, we are particularly proud of
our Stratospheric Ozone Protection Awards because
they exemplify our strong commitment to the envi-
ronment. Motorola teams worked tirelessly and
overcame seemingly impossible technical challenges
to eliminate the use of ozone-depleting substances
from our manufacturing processes. Ultimately, they
were successful; and because of our commitment
to global environmental responsibility, we share that
technology with the world. My personal  congratula-
tions goes to all the winners."
                                   Ralph Ponce de Leon
                        Motorola (Awards 1991 and 1993)
74  Champions of the World

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   Solvents-Related Awards Summaries
Advanced Cruise Missile  Advanced Cruise Missile DSO, U.S. Air Force, eliminated ODSs from its opera-
DSO, U.S. Air Force      tions well ahead of schedule and at virtually no cost. It reviewed 95 operation and
(Award 1995)             maintenance manuals and identified 55 specifications that mandate the use of Class
                          I ODSs, later verifying all specifications and drawings. This program is used as a
                          model for other defense programs.

The Aerospace Guidance  The Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center, at Newark AFB in Ohio, suc-
and Metrology Center    cessfully reduced its use of CFC-113 for its precision cleaning processes, includ-
(Award 1994)             mg cleaning of sophisticated guidance systems. The center has realized cost
                          savings of approximately $3.5 million a year by reducing its annual purchase of
                          CFC-113.

AGM-130 Systems       AGM-130 Systems Program Office, U.S. Air Force, eliminated 100 percent of the
Program Office, U.S. Air  ODSs used in the manufacture of rocket motors, a reduction of 26 metric tonnes
Force (Award 1995)       over the life of the program.

Neil Antiri (Award 1995)  Neil Antin, of the U.S. Naval Sea Systems Command, led a U.S. Navy effort
                          to identify environmentally acceptable alternatives for the use of CFC-113 in
                          the cleaning of oxygen systems. The project culminated when the Naval Sea
                          Systems Command and OCTAGON Process received a joint patent for the
                          Navy Oxygen Cleaner, a nonflammable cleaner that is easily recycled and usu-
                          ally requires minimal treatment prior to discharge to local sewage systems.
 Asahi Glass, Japan
 (Award 1994)
 AT&T (Award 1992)
 Jay Baker, Ford
 Electronics
 (Award 1990)
Asahi Glass, Japan, developed HCFC-225, the first chemical alternative to
CFC-113, and has undertaken its responsible marketing as a transitional
replacement for CFC-113 in critical electronic, optical, and precision applica-
tions. Its marketing program fully discloses that HCFC-225 is only to be used
when zero-ODP alternatives are not technically suitable and offers customers
technical assistance in selecting other products. Asahi Glass was a signatory to
the Thailand Leadership Initiative.

AT&T set the first aggressive phaseout goal of any electronics manufacturer:
50 percent reduction by 1991 and complete elimination of ODS use by 1994.
Experts from AT&T Bell Laboratories were critical to development of new
solvent test standards and invented equipment critical to no-clean soldering.
Top executives and technical experts were members of international delega-
tions for technology cooperation and for promotion of stratospheric ozone
protection. AT&T was a founding member of ICOLP/ICEL and a signatory
to the Thailand Leadership Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.

Jay Baker of Ford Electronics aggressively sought alternatives to ozone-depleting
solvents as Director of Technical Programs at Ford. He was one of the first engi-
neers to appreciate the potential for no-clean soldering and organized his soldering
technical teams to cooperate with experts from  outside Ford to overcome the
                                                                                         Solvents  75

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 Bryan H. Baxter, Chief
 Material Scientist with
 Precision Products Group
 at British Aerospace
 (Award 1992)
 daunting challenges of commercialization. He was also instrumental in recognizing
 the significance of ultrasonic metal forming without oil and "evaporating oil,"
 which allow metal fabrication with reduced or no cleaning. He has been a member
 of the UNEP Solvents, Coatings, and Adhesives TOG since its inception.

 Bryan H. Baxter, Chief Material Scientist with Precision Products Group at
 British Aerospace spearheaded efforts by British Aerospace to phase out use in
 commercial and military uses of CFC solvents, developed a CFC-free precision
 cleaning system, and served on the ICOLP/ICEL Board of Directors. He pio-
 neered and developed alcohol/PFC cleaning systems for cleaning precision parts
 and bearings for navigation and weapons devices. He has participated in numer-
 ous national and international efforts to protect and preserve the stratospheric
 ozone layer and is a member of the UNEP Solvents, Coatings, and Adhesives
 TOC.
Baxter Limited
(Award 1996)
David Bergman, IPC
(Award 1990)
The Boeing Company
(Award 1992)
Baxter Limited committed in 1992 that by 1996 all of its facilities in Malta would
eliminate CFCs from manufacturing activities. To achieve this goal, it introduced
the concept of Cleaning Molding in its plastic department, eliminated the CFC
washing process needed for washing parts, and reduced its annual emissions of
CFC by 16 metric tonnes.

David Bergman of IPC masterminded industry technical and financial support
for the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working Group and coordinated
technical reports. He was critical to  maintaining membership and momentum
and in ensuring that contributed materials were available as needed.

The Boeing Company worked with its customers and suppliers to eliminate
ozone-depleting solvents and provided technical support for EPA's global aircraft
project. It worked with British Aerospace Airbus (Award 1992) to eliminate
CFCs from aircraft riveting operations. After extensive research and trials, they
developed a satisfactory alternative system. Boeing was a founding member of
ICOLP/ICEL.
British Aerospace Airbus  British Aerospace Airbus and The Boeing Company (Award 1992), with the
(Award 1992)
Robert V. Burress,
SEHO USA
(Award 1995)
cooperation of ICOLP/ICEL, of which British Aerospace Airbus was a member,
worked together to eliminate CFCs from aircraft riveting operations. CFCs had
been used as a lubricant and coolant, particularly for drilling, rivet insertion, and
rivet head milling of thick stacks of aluminum sheet metal. After extensive
research and trials, they developed a satisfactory alternative system.

Robert V. Burress of SEHO USA was a key individual in several projects leading
to the success of low residue (no-clean) soldering processes  throughout the elec-
tronics industry. He lead the effort to convert 60 military programs that had uti-
lized rosin-based flux and subsequent cleaning to a low-residue, controlled
atmosphere soldering process.
   76  Champions of the World

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Dr. Frank Gala, Church  Dr. Frank Gala of Church & Dwight developed a completely new type of non-
& Dwight (Award 1996) ozone-depleting aqueous cleaning agent for electronic circuit assemblies that delivered
                          economic, environmental, and worker safety benefits. He then chaired a Church &
                          Dwight task force that implemented an orderly transition from the prototype to the
                          marketplace. Dr. Gala also recently coauthored a book on cleaning technology for
                          electronic assemblies that helps users choose among cleaning alternatives. His work
                          has been recognized in over a dozen patents.
Robert Carter, Waste
Reduction Resource
Center for the Southeast
(Award 1993)
Nicholas T. Castellucci,
Northrop Grumman
(Award 1993)
 The Center for Emissions
 Control
 (Award 1993)
Robert Carter, Waste Reduction Resource Center for the Southeast, worked with
dozens of clients to eliminate ozone-depleting solvent use and advised dozens of compa-
nies in the selection of suitable alternatives to CFCs and methyl chloroform solvents.

Nicholas T. Castellucci of Northrop Grumman invented a mechanical gap treatment
to replace organic caulking substances for advanced aircraft as well as commercial air-
lines. In addition, the concept can be utilized in extremely large markets such as auto-
mobile, train, bus, ship, submarine, and construction businesses. This device eliminates
all total toxic organics, VOCs, and CFCs. 1993
The Center for Emissions Control
promoted the replacement of
methyl chloroform in cooperation
with other associations, EPA
Regional Offices, and EPA's
Stratospheric Ozone Protection
Division with the leadership of
John Sparks. With the leadership
of Steve Risotto, they organized
and sponsored nine regional semi-
nars with an attendance of over
 1,000 participants. Technical infor-
 mation was  sent to several thou-
 sand more users. As a result, the
 Center for Emissions Control
 helped to increase industry aware-
 ness of the pending phaseout of
 ozone-depleting solvents and guid-
 ed users to environmentally accept-
 able alternatives.
  The Center for Technical
  Excellence for ODC
  Solvents at the Corpus
  Christ! U.S. Army Depot
  (Award 1996)
"Winning these awards has enhanced the
reputation of the Northrop Grumman environ-
mental team, both within and outside the
company. A number of additional environmen-
tal activities have developed because of these
awards,  including developing a coatings
removal  tool, aqueous paint systems, chro-
mate elimination, new wipe solvents, and in
general  eliminating all chlorofluorocarbons
used in  process at Northrop Grumman.  EPA
has certainly played a role in allowing the con-
tinued pursuit of new and ongoing environ-
mental projects at Northrop Grumman."

 Rick Osterman & Nicholas T. Castellucci (Award 1993)
                  Northrop Grumman (Award 1994)
 The Center for Technical Excellence for ODC Solvents at the Corpus Christi U.S.
 Army Depot focused on industrial processes using ozone-depleting solvents at Army
 depots, arsenals, and government-owned, contractor-operated facilities. Their produc-
 tion, manufacturing, and repair activities served as the test beds for alternative chemi-
 cals, processes, and technologies. As a result, depot maintenance activities are now either
 ODS-free or have equipment identified and planned for replacement by the end of the
 year.
                                                                                             Solvents  77   t1

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  David Chittkk, Vice
  President of AT&T
  (Award  1990)
 Compaq
 (Award 1993)
Jorge Corona,
CANACINTRA
(Award 1991)
Timothy Crawford,
EMPF (Award 1993)
DEC
(Award 1990)
Defense Electronics
Supply Center
(Award 1993)
Draper Laboratory
(Award 1996)
  David Chittick, Vice President of AT&T, was cofounder and chair of ICOLP/ICEL.
  In 1987, many companies claimed that CFC-113 was essential to manufacturing
  sophisticated PCBs for high-reliability applications. Companies that expressed technical
  optimism were subject to peer criticism and market retaliation. In this setting, Mr.
  Chittick stunned the world by announcing in January 1987 that AT&T had proven
  that an aqueous cleaner made from orange peels could clean as well as CFC-113. He
  announced that AT&T planned to quickly eliminate 30 to 50 percent of its CFC use.
  The announcement helped stimulate innovation and proved that large electronics com-
  panies were ready and willing customers for CFC-free production. Along with other top
  electronics executives, Mr. Chittick worked to change military and civilian specifications
  that required the use of CFCs. He was a leader in combining resources, research, and
 funds to accelerate the phaseout of ODSs in the electronics, metal cleaning, and aircraft
 servicing industries. Mr. Chittick and Ms. Eileen Chittick traveled on diplomatic mis-
 sions to China, Japan,  Hungary, and Russia to advocate ozone layer  protection.

 Compaq announced a goal to phase out CFC solvents in May 1993 and was a leader in
 requiring suppliers and subcontractors to halt their uses. The elimination was complet-
 ed two years ahead of schedule by two teams, one that evaluated and implemented
 changes in the existing process to minimize emissions and a second that reviewed
 potential alternatives to the use of CFC cleaning materials. Compaq is a member of
 ICOLP/ICEL.

 Jorge Corona, CANACINTRA, led the formation of a partnership between CANAC-
 INTRA, the Mexican government, Nortel/Northern Telecom, ICOLP/ICEL, and
 EPA to eliminate CFC and methyl chloroform solvents by the year 2000. He also
 promoted accelerated ODS phaseout programs for several other developing countries.

 Timodiy Crawford, EMPF, played a key role  in the  development and execution of
 die EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working Group program to evaluate clean-
 ing alternatives for electronics manufacturing.  He continued the program by over-
 seeing the testing of 18 Phase 2 approved CFC alternative cleaning materials.

 DEC is an ICOLP/ICEL founding member and has been a leader in global infor-
 mation sharing. It successfully developed and implemented aqueous cleaning tech-
 niques and donated die patented technology to die public domain for distribution
 without charge. The company is a signatory to the Thailand Leadership Initiative.

 Defense Electronics Supply Center changed procurement practices to favor non-
 ODS options and guided suppliers to environmentally preferable  solutions.

Draper Laboratory helped the U.S. Air Force eliminate the  use of ODS in the pro-
duction of inertial guidance systems used in the Peacekeeper Missile and converted
the cooling media in die Peacekeeper guidance system from  R-12  to R-134a. Both
of these projects were technically complex and  significantly reduced the U.S. Air
Force's ODS emissions.
   78  Champions of the World

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Carl Eckersley, Compaq
(Award 1993)
Carl Eckersley, Compaq, was the company champion in CFG phaseout and
a key supporter of global cooperation for ozone layer protection within the
electronics industry.
Bjom Egeland, Consoive Bjorn Egeland of Consolve was the primary contributor to the elimination of
(Award 1995)            CFG usage in defluxing processes in Norway. He arranged and conducted a
                         workshop that provided information that would allow Norwegian electronics
                         manufacturers to achieve an immediate reduction of 35 percent of CFC-113
                         usage for PCB defluxing. This development allowed the Norwegian electronics
                         industry to complete its phaseout of CFC-113 on a schedule well ahead of that
                         required by the Montreal Protocol.
Carole K. Ellenberger
(Award 1993)
 Brian Ellis, Protonique
 (Award 1994)
 Epson Hong Kong
 Group (Award 1995)
 Stephen P. Evanoff III,
 General Dynamics
 (Award 1992)
Carole K. Ellenberger was the lead engineer of the Texas Instruments team
that identified, evaluated, and recommended alternative cleaning agents and
technologies to replace the use of ODSs in electronics manufacturing and
assembly operations.

Brian Ellis of Protonique has served since 1989 on the UNEP Solvents,
Coatings, and Adhesives TOG and has been the Swiss National Solvent Expert
for domestic policy. He has chaired electronics committees, organized work-
shops, participated in conferences,  and has published books and technical
papers on electronics cleaning and  contamination control.  He led efforts  to
promote the commercialization of aqueous cleaning and recycling systems that
are able to satisfy the strictest water discharge criteria.

Epson Hong Kong Group eliminated 13 metric tonnes per year of CFC-113,
 based on peak consumption in 1993, and 16 metric tonnes per year of methyl
 chloroform. Additionally, it helped 36 major suppliers in Hong Kong and
 neighboring countries to eliminate ODSs. Seiko Epson is  a signatory to the
 Thailand Leadership Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.

 Stephen P. Evanoff III of General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin Tactical
 Aircraft Systems) was vital to the replacement of the CFC-113 based cleaner,
 particularly in the implementation of the low-vapor pressure cleaner, the educa-
 tion of the workers concerning the new cleaner, and overall coordination with
 senior management of General Dynamics. General Dynamics operated the Air
 Force Plant No. 4 in  Fort Worth, Texas, where the F-16 fighter is built and var-
 ious fighter aircraft are updated. Stephen P. Evanoff worked with the U.S. Air
 Force, EPA, and the Texas Air Control Board to select  and implement tech-
 nologies to replace ozone-depleting solvents. Additionally, he made  invaluable
 contributions to the development  of the aqueous cleaner technology that
 replaced methyl chloroform degreasers. He  has been a member of the UNEP
 Solvent TOC since its inception and is the current chairman of ICEL.
                                                                                         Solvents  79

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  Lt. General James A.
  Fain, Jr., Commander,
  Aeronautical Systems
  Center, U.S. Air Force
  (Award 1994)
 Joe Felty,
 Texas Instruments
 (Award 1990)
 Mary Beth Fennell,
 Naval Aviation Depot,
 Cherry Point
 (Award 1994)
John Fischer, Naval Air
Warfare Center, China
Lake (Award 1993)
Arthur FitzGerald,
Nortel/Northern
Telecom (Award 1990)
  Lt. General James A. Fain, Jr., Commander, Aeronautical Systems Center, U.S. Air
  Force, provided continuous leadership, guidance, and support for the multitude of
  ODS-elimination programs at "Wright-Patterson AFB s Aeronautical Systems Center.
  During his tenure, General Fain has become personally involved in the day-to-day
  activities of the Environmental Protection Program and has assumed the chairmanship
  of die Environmental Protection Committee.

  Joe Felty, Texas Instruments, has served since 1989 on the UNEP Solvents, Coatings,
  and Adhesives TOG. He managed the Texas Instruments team that identified, evaluat-
  ed, and recommended alternative cleaning agents and technologies to replace the use of
  ODSs in electronics manufacturing and assembly operations. He was one of the origi-
  nal founders of die EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working Group, an early cooper-
  ative effort in the ODS phaseout that developed a standardized test protocol and test
  vehicle for consistent, quantitative evaluation of alternative cleaning chemistries and
  alternative technologies such as semi-aqueous cleaners, low residue/no clean fluxes and
  controlled atmosphere soldering. He was also a member of the DoD/Industry Soldering
  Technology Standardization Working Group that generated MIL-STD-2000, a series of
  military soldering specifications, that eliminated the requirement to clean with ODSs.
  He is currendy a member of the Ozone Operations Resource Group of the World Bank
 which provides specialized sector-based technical advice and assistance to developing
 countries regarding ODS phaseout.

 Mary Beth Fennell, Naval Aviation Depot, Cherry Point, led the evaluation of
 alternatives to ozone-depleting cleaning solvents, working with suppliers, manufac-
 turers, and Navy technicians  to determine the most viable alternatives for ODSs.
 The Cherry Point facility used ozone-depleting solvents for repair and rework of
 engines, components, and support equipment for a variety of military aircraft (both
 fixed and rotary wing). She has also led Navy efforts to eliminate ODSs in nonde-
 structive inspection tasks and cleaning prior to bonding and sealing.

 John Fischer, Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake (Award 1993), was tasked with
 leading the effort to eliminate ODSs from U.S. Navy weapons systems without
 compromising reliability, safety, and performance. With his staff and contractors, he
 developed test methods and selection criteria for acceptance of new manufacturing and
 maintenance procedures for critical weapons systems. These programs have resulted in
 complete elimination of ODS requirements and use from weapons research, develop-
 ment, testing, evaluation, production, and maintenance.

Arthur FitzGerald, Nortel/Northern Telecom, led Nortel/Northern Telecoms technical
program for phasing out ozone-depleting solvents and other ODSs, as well as the com-
pany's outreach program. He was president of ICOLP/ICEL and was the solvent advisor
to the World Bank for two years. He coauthored a solvents conservation and phaseout
manual that became a model for later ICOLP/ICEL technical manuals. He also devel-
oped OZONET, an electronic online database for solvents alternatives. Mr. FitzGerald
organized workshops on solvent alternatives in Mexico, Turkey, China, and India, and
continues to be a member of the UNEP Solvents, Coatings, and Adhesives TOC.
   80  Champions of the World

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Ford                      Ford has been a leader in implementing alternatives to ODSs in parts cleaning. It
(Awards 1992 and 1994)  was a founding member of ICOLP/ICEL and a signatory to the Thailand
                          Leadership Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge. Its "no-clean" soldering technique is
                          widely recognized as the most environmentally acceptable substitute for ozone-
                          depleting solvents. Ford has been a prominent member in groups to commercialize
                          CFC  recycling, to change military specifications, and to persuade suppliers to phase
                          out ODS use.
Yuichi Fujimoto
(Award 1993)
Tetsuro Fukushima,
Hitachi
(Award 1994)
H.B. Fuller
(Award 1995)
General Dynamics
(Award 1992)
 GET-Marconi, Hirst
 Research Centre
 (Award 1993)

 Captain Michael C.
 Grieco, ICBM System
 Program Office, U.S.
 Air Force
 (Award 1995)

 Dr. Leslie Guth, AT&T
 (Award 1990)
Yuichi Fujimoto, as the head of JEMA, led Japanese efforts to phase out CFCs in
electronics manufacturing. He continued to work for ozone protection by con-
tributing to Japans extensive technology-share program focused largely in Southeast
Asia. He also organized the Thailand and Vietnam volunteer industry leadership
initiatives, is a senior advisor to the UNEP TEAP, and is a key member of the
UNEP Solvents, Coatings, and Adhesives TOC.

Tetsuro Fukushima of Hitachi was chairman of the Ozone Layer Protection
Committee of JEMA from 1990 to 1992 and was instrumental in achieving targets
for CFC-113 elimination. He  is also responsible for eliminating ODSs at Hitachi
(Award  1991). Moreover, he has engaged in cooperative efforts with the UNEP
Solvents, Coatings, and Adhesives TOC.

H.B.  Fuller accomplished a complete phaseout, in May 1994, of methyl chloro-
form  by replacing methyl chloroform as a formulating ingredient and developing
new products that do not require methyl chloroform as an ingredient.

General Dynamics, Space Systems and Fort Worth Divisions (now Lockheed
Martin  Tactical Aircraft Systems), in 1992 became the first aerospace facility to
replace an ozone-depleting general purpose cleaner with a low-vapor pressure clean-
er. With the implementation of this new technology, General Dynamics Fort
Worth eliminated CFC-113 emissions (235 tons per year in 1989) from the gener-
al purpose cleaner operations.  Additionally, General Dynamics Fort Worth aggres-
sively implemented water based degreasers to replace methyl chloroform degreasers.

GET-Marconi, Hirst Research Centre, organized the first European testing of
CFC solvent alternatives and coordinated European contributions to the United
States' alternatives and publications projects.

Captain Michael C. Grieco, ICBM System Program Office, U.S. Air Force,
founded the ICBM Pollution  Prevention Concept, centralizing several ODS elimi-
nation and pollution prevention initiatives under one program that has been recog-
nized by U.S. Air Force headquarters as the "Model Program" for weapon system
pollution prevention.

Dr. Leslie Guth of AT&T was an active participant in international and domestic
task forces working to end ODS use in cleaning applications;  chaired the Test
Validation Committee for the IPC CFC benchmarking projects; and  invented the
AT&T precision fluxing machines.
                                                                                           Solvents  81

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 Kaiehi Hasegawa, Seiko
 Epson
 (Award 1996)
 Dr. Michael Hayes,
 Petrofcrm
 (Award  1993)
Hewlett-Packard
(Award 1994)
Hill AFB
(Award 1993)

Hitachi
(Award 1991)
Robert Holcomb,
Motorola
(Award 1994)
Honeywell
(Award 1994)
Hughes Aircraft
(Award 1993)
 Kaichi Hasegawa, Seiko Epson, in a tireless pursuit of excellence in global techno-
 logical cooperation, has helped make Seiko Epson a world leader in ozone protec-
 tion. Seiko Epson was die first global company to eliminate its use of CFG-113 in
 precision cleaning. It has been a strong member of projects in Japanese, regional,
 and international groups and has created industry initiatives to protect stratospheric
 ozone through programs such as die Thailand Leadership Initiative and the
 Vietnam Pledge.

 Dr. Michael Hayes of Petroferm developed with AT&T (Award 1992) the terpene
 based semi-aqueous cleaning process that demonstrated an ability to clean surface-
 mount electronic components to cleanliness standards equal or better dian those
 cleaned with CFCs. When diis process was publicly disclosed in 1988, it was com-
 monly believed that no viable alternative to CFC-113 for defluxing electronic
 assemblies existed. This invention was the initial catalyst leading to development of
 a wide range of products, some of which are variations developed to handle specific
 cleaning applications.

 Hewlett-Packard successfully met its goal of complete ODS elimination on May
 15, 1993, well ahead of the time lines established  under the Montreal Protocol. It
 has since worked to ensure that all suppliers meet  ODS elimination requirements
 as well.

 Hill AFB servicemen and officers pioneered, demonstrated, and promoted aircraft
 maintenance procedures to replace CFC and methyl chloroform.

 Hitachi was a leader both within Japan and globally in encouraging testing and
 implementation of alternatives to ozone-depleting solvents, refrigerants, and insu-
 lating foams. It was a member of ICOLP/ICEL and a signatory to the Thailand
 Leadership Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.

 Robert Holcomb of Motorola was integral in Motorola's successful effort to elimi-
 nate the use of ODSs from its worldwide manufacturing operations (CFCs by
 1992 and other ODSs by May 1993).  He has been one of the industry's most
 active participants in a broad range of international activities to help accelerate the
phaseout of ODSs worldwide.

 Honeywell eliminated over 95 percent of its ODS use from manufacturing by
 1992. Only a few specialized applications in its military and space programs
required the continued use  of ODSs after 1992. Honeywell senior managers served
on the Board of Directors and Technical and New Initiatives Committees of
ICOLP. Honeywell was a founding member of ICOLP, and is a signatory to the
Thailand Leadership Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.

Hughes Aircraft worked with suppliers and customers to halt a wide range of
ODS uses.
   82  Champions of the World

-------
IBM
(Awards 1992 and 1993)
IBM Endicott,
New York; Rochester,
Minnesota
(Award. 1992)

IBM Austin, Texas
(Award 1993)
ICOLP/ICEL
(Award. 1993)

ICOLP/ICEL
(Award 1991)
IBM never extensively used halons and worked to prove that electronics could be
protected with water or carbon dioxide. IBM's task in eliminating CFCs was diffi-
cult for three reasons: (1) IBM was highly dependent on CFCs, using over 5,450
metric tonnes in 1987; (2) IBM used CFCs in a wide range of applications cover-
ing the manufacture of disk drives, chip carriers, circuit boards, semiconductors,
and products meeting military specifications; and (3) IBM used CFCs at 44 loca-
tions worldwide. In July 1992, IBM eliminated CFC-113 from its disk drive man-
ufacturing facility in San Jose, California. This facility pioneered the use of aqueous
cleaning technology for the disk drive industry and contributed to EPA's publica-
tion on "Alternatives for CFC-113 and Methyl Chloroform in Metal Cleaning."
IBM San Jose hosted more than 75 other companies, including direct competitors,
for discussions and demonstrations of the aqueous cleaning technology at the site
and authorized marketing of key cleaning technology to other companies. IBM
shared its technical knowledge through international conferences, patents, papers,
and publications. IBM also took specific steps to assist and influence its suppliers
by establishing numerous supplier programs. IBM was a member of ICOLP/ICEL
and is a signatory to the Thailand Leadership Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.

IBM  Endicott, New York, and Rochester, Minnesota, cooperated to speed elimi-
nation of ozone-depleting solvents in the manufacture of high-reliability, sophisti-
cated electronic and mechanical devices such as the elimination of ODSs from
circuit board photo lithographic processes.

IBM Austin, Texas, successfully eliminated CFC-113 from its manufacturing process.

ICOLP/ICEL spearheaded technology transfer to developing countries and spon-
sored technical publications and electronic databases for use worldwide.

ICOLP/ICEL provided a forum for the open discussion among industries of alterna-
tives to ODSs in solvents applications, organized industry to cooperate on technology
implementation, and published with EPA the most influential handbooks on cleaning
without ODSs. Its members included The Boeing Company (Awards 1992 and 1993);
British Aerospace (Award 1992); Compaq (Award 1993); DEC (Award 1990); Ford
 (Awards 1992 and 1994); Hitachi (Award 1991); Honeywell (Award 1994); Hughes
Aircraft Company (Award 1993); IBM (Awards in 1992 for Endicott, New York, and
Rochester, Minnesota, and in 1993 for Austin, Texas); Lockheed-Martin (Awards
 1994 and 1996); Matsushita Electric (Award 1993); Mitsubishi Electric (Award 1994);
Motorola (Awards 1991 and 1993); Nortel/Northern Telecom (Award 1991); Ontario
 Hydro (Award 1995); Texas Instruments (Award 1993); and Toshiba (Award 1995).
 ICOLP/ICEL helped to fast-track implementation of innovative technologies by foster-
 ing a spirit of collaboration rather than competition among industry rivals.
 ICOLP/ICEL then transferred its successes by sharing its findings with the electronics
 industry worldwide. ICOLP/ICEL worked with EPA and its contractor ICF/Kaiser to
 develop and review seven technical manuals on phasing out ozone-depleting solvents for
 various applications. With support from the World Bank, ICOLP/ICEL organized and
 ran technology cooperation workshops and demonstrations projects in Brazil, China,
 India, Malaysia, Mexico, Thailand, and Turkey.

                                                                  Solvents  83

-------
 I PC
 (Award 1990)
 Yoshiyuki Ishii, Hitachi
 (Award 1992)
                          IPC played a very active role in the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working
                          Group, chairing the components management, operating the database, and maintain-
                          ing momentum through a variety of team building and technical support activities.

                          %shiyuki Ishii, Hitachi, is a key champion of the Japanese technical and policy
                          leadership in ozone layer protection. Since 1990, he has been a member of the
                          UNEP Solvents, Coatings, and Adhesives TOC and served on the Board of
                          Directors of ICOLP/ICEL. He has been instrumental in negotiating with various
                          Japanese industries and manufacturing associations to eliminate CFCs in their
                          cleaning operations.

      Industrial          Japan Industrial Conference on Cleaning (JICC) was established in April 1994 by
Conference on Cleaning  approximately 130 companies, including manufacturers of detergents, cleaning
(JICC)                    machines, and peripheral equipment. JICC provides technical assistance and infor-
t Award 1996)             mation on alternatives and conversion from methyl chloroform, evaluates and ana-
                          lyzes the effects of alternative cleaning materials and equipment, and actively
                          supports developing countries' efforts in this field through training and education.
 JEMA
 f Award 1991)
JICOP
{Award 1993)
Kathi Johnson, China
Lake Navy Weapons
Center EMPF
(Award 1990)
Barbara Kanegsberg,
BFK Solutions
(Award 1996)
                          JEMA served a similar purpose to ICOLP/ICELs. It provided for extensive infor-
                          mation sharing among Japanese electronics companies and then actively distributed
                          the resulting conclusions. In November 1991, JEMA established the
                          Environmental Policy Committee comprising officers responsible for environmen-
                          tal issues in major member companies. Hiroshi Sonoyama, former vice president of
                          Hitachi (Award 1991), became the first chairman and helped the committee set
                          clear measures on stratospheric ozone protection. JEMA and four of its member
                          companies—Hitachi (Award 1991), Toshiba (Award 1995), Matsushita Electric
                          (Award 1993), and Mitsubishi Electric (Award 1994)—joined ICOLP/ICEL
                          (Awards 1991 and 1993), strengthening JEMA's system to protect the ozone layer
                          and enabling it to carry out more aggressive activities. JEMA has been a cosponsor,
                          organizer, or participant in numerous conferences and workshops in Brazil, China,
                          Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United
                          States, and Vietnam.

                         JICOP  organized domestic and international ozone protection projects including
                          training, workshops, conferences, publications, and partnerships. It has sponsored
                          important environmental leadership projects including the Thailand Leadership
                          Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge. It has also been successful in organizing projects
                          to encourage and insist that suppliers provide products not made with ODSs.

                         Kathi Johnson, China Lake Navy Weapons Center EMPF, was a founding mem-
                         ber of the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working Group and  manager of
                         equipment and materials coordination.

                         Barbara Kanegsberg, BFK Solutions, has since 1988 identified, qualified, and
                         implemented alternatives to  ozone-depleting solvents in commercial and critical
                         military applications. She has managed corporate ODS elimination efforts, assisted
                         regulatory agencies, and conducted workshops and seminars for industry.
   84  Champions of the World

-------
Takeshi Kawano,
Dai-Ichi Kogyo Seiyaku
(Award 1996)
Kelly AFB, Texas
(Award. 1993)
Dr. William Kenyoii,
DuPont
(Award 1990)
Dr. Margaret Kerr,
Nortel/Northern
Telecom
(Award  1990)

Masatoshi Kinoshita
(Award  1995)
 Hiroshi Kurha, Japan
 Association for Hygiene
 of Chlorinated Solvents
 (Award 1995)
 Colin Lea, National
 Physical Laboratory, U.K.
 (Award 1991)
Takeshi Kawano, Dai-Ichi Kogyo Seiyaku, promoted substitute aqueous detergents
to replace CFCs and methyl chloroform solvents. He promoted strategies for replac-
ing ODSs for domestic and overseas customers in Southeast Asian countries, partici-
pated in an advisory committee of detergent systems experts in Japan and in ICOLP,
and created a manual for reduction/phaseout of methyl chloroform. The water-based
detergent he developed helped over 200 enterprises eliminate the use of ODSs. He
participated more than 160 times in technical seminars organized by the Japanese
government for local public groups, newspapers, and private companies.

Kelly AFB, Texas, became an Air Force center of excellence for a wide range of
ODS elimination efforts including solvents, refrigerants, and halons. Methyl chlo-
roform and CFC-113  solvents were replaced by aqueous or semi-aqueous cleaners;
refrigerant emissions were reduced by best practices including high efficiency purge
units for low pressure chillers; and halons emissions were minimized by implement-
ing a state-of-the-art halon containment and recycling program.

Dr. William Kenyon of DuPont was a founding member of the EPA/DoD/IPC
Ad Hoc Solvents Working Group, a member of the UNEP Solvents, Coatings,
and Adhesive TOC, and part of almost every other critical team working to elimi-
nate ozone-depleting solvents. He was key in securing the in-kind and financial
support of IPC (Award 1990) and its members for work on benchmark testing and
verification of alternatives to CFC-113. He is a consultant to the World Bank for
ozone-depleting solvent elimination in Article 5(1) countries.

Dr. Margaret Kerr, Nortel/Northern Telecom, championed the phaseout of CFCs
in international electronics manufacture, developed the first fully successful integra-
tion of environmental and business strategies, co-organized and chaired
ICOLP/ICEL, and  motivated government and private environmental mangers.

Masatoshi Kinoshita successfully led JICC to organize manufacturers who  are ded-
icated to supplying substitutes and alternative technologies, and to encourage and
assist in the phaseout of ODSs. JICC has also supported technology transfer to
developing countries in cooperation with UNEP, EPA, and ICOLP/ICEL  (Awards
1991 and 1993) by participating in conferences  in Southeast Asia.

Hiroshi Kurita, Japan Association for Hygiene of Chlorinated Solvents, continu-
ously provided technical data and the expert advice necessary to support a variety
of activities related to  ozone layer protection. He has been a key member of the
UNEP Solvents, Coatings,  and Adhesives TOC; the UNEP Aerosols, Sterilants,
Miscellaneous Uses and Carbon Tetrachloride TOC; the UNEP  Inadvertent Loss
Committee; and the UNEP Process Agents Working Group.

Colin Lea, National Physical Laboratory, U.K., is the master contamination
specialist who spearheaded testing of alternatives to ozone-depleting solvents for
European military and civilian applications. He  organized industrial groups to
accelerate dissemination of information on the ozone issue, alternatives, and
entirely new environmentally acceptable processes.
                                                                                            Solvents  65

-------
Michael J. Leake, Texas
Instruments
(Award 1995)
Colin Lewis, UK
Ministry of Defence
(Award *1992)

Giptiim Cynthia Lingg,
U.S. Air Force
(Award 1995)
Lockheed
(Award 3994)
Lockheed Martin
Aeronautical Systems
(Award 1996)
Lockheed Martin Skunk
Works
(Award 1996)
The Low-Residue
Soldering Task Force
(Award 1995)
 Michael J. Leake, Texas Instruments, worked to gain support for the adaptation
 of NAS 411 as a substitute commercial standard for pollution prevention require-
 ments and coauthored an industry white paper highlighting DoD procurement
 policy barriers to implementing environmentally conscious design and process
 changes. As a result of his efforts, Texas Instruments has virtually eliminated Class I
 ODSs from its manufacturing processes for military electronics.

 Colin Lewis, UK Ministry of Defence, served as the European focal point for
 global technical coordination of ozone-depleting solvent elimination and other
 military issues.

 Captain Cynthia Lingg, U.S. Air Force, led a 10-member pollution prevention
 integrated product team tasked with minimizing requirements for hazardous mate-
 rials for airfield and depot maintenance activities. Her efforts have resulted in the
 reduction of over 2.5 metric tonnes per year of ODSs from B-52 airframe mainte-
 nance from a 1992 baseline.

 Lockheed replaced cleaners with a heated aqueous alkaline immersion cleaning
 system and with a custom cleaning system using a terpene-based degreaser. It also
 replaced methyl chloroform vapor degreasing and CFC-113 ambient temperature
 liquid flushing with a heated, aqueous immersion cleaner  and flushing operation.
 Lockheed is a member of ICOLP/ICEL.

 Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems developed an alternative to methyl chloro-
 form for use in cleaning inboard fuel tanks and as a general handwipe solvent for
 airplane parts.  The first project involved replacing methyl  chloroform with an
 aqueous cleaner to remove contaminants from fuel tanks on C-130 aircraft. The
 other project involved replacing methyl chloroform, which was used in a wide
 range of hand wipe applications, with five non-ozone-depleting replacement mate-
 rials. Collectively, these projects allowed for the elimination of 56 metric tonnes
 annually. The cleaning process has been streamlined, and 95 percent of material
 costs are saved. Lockheed is a member of ICOLP/ICEL.

 Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in May 1993 used a small multidisciplined team
 of key employees to begin a program to eliminate the use  of ODSs in all facilities
 by January 1, 1996. To achieve this goal, the company reformulated 12 different
 proprietary radar absorbing materials, developed  and versified a new oxygen tube
 cleaning process, and implemented aqueous cleaning processes and a UV-curable
 conformal coating process. Lockheed shared its data and success with other
 companies at conferences and seminars. Lockheed is a member of ICOLP/ICEL.

The Low-Residue Soldering Task Force demonstrated to  the electronics industry
 that no-clean/low-residue processes meet all stringent performance requirements for
both commercial and military electronics cleaning.
   86  Champions of the World

-------
Milton E  Lubraico  Ford  Milton E. Lubraico of Ford managed the Brazil Ford team in one of the first suc-
(Award 1992)             cessful implementations of no-clean soldering, and was a key expert responsible
                           for transferring this advanced technology from developing to developed country
                           facilities.
Lufthansa German
Airlines (Award 1993)
Dr. Mohinder Malik,
Lufthansa German
Airlines
(Award 1994)
                          Lufthansa German Airlines was the first airline to virtually halt dependence on
                          ozone-depleting solvent in the maintenance of commercial aircraft. It is also a sig-
                          natory to the Vietnam Pledge.

                          Dr. Mohinder Malik of Lufthansa German Airlines played a pioneering role in the
                          reduction of halogenated solvents in the European and international aircraft indus-
                          try. As early as 1987, he took action through the International Air Transport
                          Association by requesting the development of engine cleaning processes that did
                          not involve halogenated solvents, including methyl chloroform and CFC-113. As a
                          direct result, Lufthansa has been able to eliminate completely the use of ozone-
                          depleting solvents from its maintenance without sacrificing quality or safety.

Hitoshi Mamiya, Honda Hitoshi Mamiya of Honda successfully promoted alternative  technologies to replace
(Award 1995)            ozone-depleting solvents used at Honda and 139 other small- and medium-sized
                          companies for cleaning electronics and metal parts. As a result of his efforts, more
                          than 1,174.8 tons of CFC-113 and 4,963.2 tons of methyl chloroform were phased
                          out with savings of up to 70 percent compared to ODS processes. His approach was
                          to plan a phaseout by 1995 in anticipation of stricter regulation under the Protocol
                          and to make reductions before ODS prices increased substantially.

Martin Marietta          Martin Marietta eliminated environmentally harmful solvents from soldering and
(Awards 1993 and 1994) parts cleaning by a variety of technologies, including a controlled agitation cleaning
                          system for individual circuit cards and no-clean soldering. Resultant cost savings
                          from the process changes implemented have exceeded millions of dollars. Martin
                          Marietta also undertook proactive measures to reduce the quantity of ODSs
                          released from A/C systems including leak detection, retrofits, technician training
                          and certification, and system replacement. Initial efforts reduced emissions by over
                          130 tons with cost savings from process changes exceeding $1 million.
Shigeo Matsui, Toshiba
(Award 1992)
Matsushita Electric
(Award 1993)
                           Shigeo Matsui, Toshiba, was the leader of one of the most successful Japanese
                           phaseouts, was a strong team member, and was one of the first experts to be
                           assigned to the UNEP Solvents, Coatings, and Adhesives TOC.

                           Matsushita Electric in 1993 was one of the first proactive consumer products com-
                           panies to eliminate its use of ODSs and challenge competitors and suppliers to halt
                           their uses. Matsushita supported the phaseout in other companies by participating
                           in ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993),'JICOP (Award 1993), JEMA (Award
                           1991), and numerous other international conferences and workshops including the
                           ICOLP/UNEP Singapore Conference, the Japan-United States-Thailand
                           Conference, and the Japan-United States-Malaysia Conference. Matsushita was a
                           member of ICOLP/ICEL and is a signatory to the Thailand Leadership Initiative
                           and the Vietnam Pledge.
                                                                                            Solvents  87

-------
James A. Mertens, Dow
Chemical
(Award 1995}
Minebea
(Award 1993)
James A. Mertens of Dow Chemical was instrumental in defining the need for
system development services to help clients determine alternative cleaning
systems and to replace the use of vapor degreasing systems that used ODSs. His
early work in industry with the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working
Group and the UNEP Solvents, Coatings, and Adhesives TOC led to the devel-
opment of alternative cleaners for commercial applications.

Minebea was the company with the highest consumption of ozone-depleting
solvents in Thailand in 1992, but through extraordinary efforts phased them out
by March 1993. This leadership inspired other multinational companies to
encourage their joint-venture companies and suppliers to phase out worldwide on
an accelerated timetable. Minebea is also a signatory to the Thailand Leadership
Initiative.
Mitsubishi Electric
fAward 1994)
Yasuo Mitsugi, Seiko
Epson
(Award 1993)
Motorola
(Award 1991)
Motorola Malaysian
Project
(Award 1993)
Mitsubishi Electric showed leadership internally and internationally by develop-
ing and introducing CFC- and methyl chloroform-free products and manufactur-
ing systems in 1995. Mitsubishi is a signatory to the Thailand Leadership
Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge and is a member of ICOLP/ICEL.

Yasuo Mitsugi of Seiko Epson is a creative and inspiring manager of environ-
mental health and safety who helped organize the phaseout in 1988 when Seiko
Epson's president Tsuneya Nakamura (Award 1993) decided that the company
could not continue using a chemical that was so harmful to the global environ-
ment. That decision to set the sights high and establish a target of complete elim-
ination shook Seiko Epson into action. Mr. Mitsugi assembled a CFC
Elimination Committee composed of technical  and management experts, includ-
ing the heads of production engineering from each profit center. This manage-
ment team included Kaichi Hasegawa (Award 1996), Yuji Yamazaki (Award
1996), and Hideaki Yasukawa (Award 1994). The team motivated Seiko Epson
employees to phase out ozone-depleting solvents on an accelerated schedule.
Yasuo Mitsugi also assisted suppliers in accomplishing their own phaseout and, as
head of Seiko Epson's CFC-elimination program, promoted the development of
alternative cleaning technologies.

Motorola was a founding  member of ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993)
and a persistent advocate of technical solutions  to difficult problems. Motorola
has maintained its positions of global leadership and public service advocate, and
is a signatory to the Thailand Leadership Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.

Motorola Malaysian Project created a business-to-business partnership to help
suppliers and unaffiliated  companies from developing countries meet the sched-
ule of developed countries. Motorola is a signatory to the Thailand Leadership
Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.
   88  Champions of the World

-------
Tsuneya. Nakaniura
(Award 1993)
The Naval Aviation
Depots in Cherry Point
(Award 1993) and
Norfolk (Award 1993)
Norsk Forsvarsteknologi
(Award. 1994)
Nortel/Northern
Telecom
(Award 1991)
Northrop Grumman
(Award 1994)
Larry Novak,
Texas Instruments
(Award 1996)
Tsuneya Nakamura, as president of Seiko Epson, was responsible for launching
the company's CFC-elimination program in 1988 when he decided that the com-
pany could not continue using a chemical that was so harmful to the global envi-
ronment. Under his leadership,  Seiko Epson motivated employees, rewarded
managers, and used imaginative public relations to inspire global environmental
protection.

The Naval Aviation Depots in Cherry Point and Norfolk developed new innov-
ative operations and maintenance procedures to meet stringent performance stan-
dards without ozone-depleting solvents. The Cherry Point and Norfolk facilities
eliminated the use of ozone-depleting solvents for repair and rework of engines,
components, and support equipment for a variety of military aircraft (both fixed
and rotary wing)  and undertook efforts to eliminate ODSs in nondestructive
inspection tasks and cleaning prior to bonding and sealing.

Norsk Forsvarsteknologi, in cooperation with the Norwegian State Pollution
Control Authority, developed an alcohol-based defluxing machine to replace
CFC-based solvents in the Norwegian electronics industry using a high-pressure
jet spray cleaning process with safety monitors.

In 1988 Nortel/Northern Telecom became the first multinational telecommuni-
cations company to pledge to eliminate CFC-113 solvents from its operations,
and in 1991 became the first to do so. Nortel/Northern Telecom was a founding
member of the ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993) and a signatory to the
Thailand Leadership Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.

Northrop Grumman began ODS elimination activities in 1992 with the goal of
eliminating all ODS process usages (primarily solvents) by the end of 1994. It
reduced use of ODSs by over 27 metric tonnes per year companywide, eliminat-
ing over 40 production vapor degreasers and several hundred ODS-containing
materials, processes, and applications. It implemented new, environmentally
friendly processes such as "peck" drilling and aqueous degreasing in the produc-
tion of the B-2 "Stealth" Bomber, F/A-18 and Boeing 747 fuselages, and numer-
ous missile and electronic countermeasure systems such as the AN/ALQ-135
electronic jammer.  These changes were implemented at manufacturing locations
in California, Georgia, Illinois, and Massachusetts.

Larry Novak of Texas Instruments helped a number of companies manufacture
integrated circuits without using ODSs. He developed alternatives to processes
that used ODSs, received funding to rate these alternatives, worked to make
them available worldwide, and helped companies adopt ODS-free manufacturing
processes.
                                                                                         Solvents  89

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Tsutomu Oclagiri,
JICOP
(Award 1994)
Goro Ogino
(Award 1995)
Ontario Hydro
(Award 1995)
Douglas O. Pauls,
Contamination Studies
Laboratories
(Award 1995)
Robert C. Pfahl,
Motorola
{Award 1991)
 Tsutomu Odagiri, JICOP, played a particularly key role in the development and
 implementation of training seminars on CFC reduction for many developing coun-
 tries in Southeast Asia, including the United States-Japan-Thailand trilateral seminar
 on CFC reduction. Currendy, he is promoting the final stages of methyl chloroform
 elimination in Japan and other developed countries. He has been particularly instru-
 mental in the elimination of this substance from Japanese small enterprises, having
 developed several seminars on this  topic for Japanese professional groups.

 Goro Ogino played a key role in the implementation of ODS-phaseout efforts at
 Minebea, which manufactures miniature ball bearings. As part of ODS phaseout
 efforts, he organized a CFC Committee to eliminate ODSs in manufacturing oper-
 ations. In 1993, Minebea completely phased out CFC-113 and methyl chloroform
 from its operations.

 Ontario Hydro eliminated the use of CFC-113 in dry cleaning radioactive protec-
 tive clothing at nuclear stations. As a result of redesigning its monitoring process,
 just over 1 percent of protective clothing requires dry cleaning, for which an alter-
 native to CFC-113 was found. Ontario Hydro  is a member of ICOLP/ICEL.

 Douglas O. Pauls, Contamination Studies Laboratories, significantly contributed
 to the efforts of the EPA/DoD/IPC Ad Hoc Solvents Working Group program to
 assist the printed wiring board assembly industry in its elimination of CFCs used
 for defluxing. He provided technical expertise and leadership to all three phases of
 the Working Groups program.

 Robert C. Pfahl, Motorola, was one of the earliest promoters of cooperation to
 protect the ozone layer. He served  on management and technical teams of
 ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993) and as ozone-depleting solvent elimination
 chair for AEA.
Tony L. Phillips
(General Dynamics,
now Lockheed Martin
Tactical Aircraft
Systems)
(Award  1992)

Cynthia Pruett,
IBM Asia Pacific
(Award  1993)
Tony L. Phillips (General Dynamics, now Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft
Systems) is a co-inventor of a low-vapor pressure cleaner that was implemented to
replace the CFC-113-based cleaner. Mr. Phillips was essential in the implementa-
tion of the new low-vapor pressure solvent, the education of the workers concern-
ing the new cleaner, and the creation of novel solutions to overcome unforeseen
problems during the new cleaner implementation.

Cynthia Pruett, IBM Asia Pacific, persuaded IBM (Awards 1992 and 1993) to
embrace cooperative approaches to ozone layer protection and organized many
technology cooperation projects with developing countries in Asia.
   90  Champions of the World

-------
Steven L. Rasmussen,
HiJIAFB
(Award 1994)
Steven L. Rasmussen, Hill AFB, has been Project Manager for the Ozone-
Depleting Substances Elimination Program since 1991. The program has resulted
in a reduction of ODS usage from 198 metric tonnes to 21 metric tonnes per
year—an 89 percent reduction in 1993. This is the most significant reduction
recorded by a U.S. Air Force depot facility. Mr. Rasmussen was also a member of
the original ODSs Policy Development Committee for the Air Force, and was
appointed chairman of the Utah Solvent Substitution Committee, which conducts
seminars on solvent substitutes for Utah  industries.
Rockwell International
U.S. AmiyAir-to-Ground
Missile Systems Project
Office (Award 1993)
Dr. Wallace Rubin
(Award 1994)
Saab-Scaiiia
(Award 1994)

Sanyo Electric
(Award 1995)
Terry Schaumberg, San
Antonio Air Logistics
Center (Award 1993)
Rockwell International U.S. Army Air-to-Ground Missile Systems Project
Office (Award 1993) eliminated manufacturing maintenance and operations
use of ODSs.

Dr. Wallace Rubin, formerly Technical Director of Multicore UK, made an extra-
ordinary contribution to the successful "low solids/no-clean flux technology." This
technology is the basis of one of the major CFC alternatives in electronics assembly.
The United Kingdom recognized this accomplishment with the Queen's Award for
Environmental Achievement.

Saab-Scania successfully eliminated 100 percent of its ODSs used in aerospace
manufacturing processes.

Sanyo Electric demonstrated international leadership by successfully developing
substitutes for the use of ODSs and then transferring this technology to its facilities
in developing countries and participating in several international  ozone protection
cooperative efforts. Sanyo is a signatory to  the Thailand Leadership Initiative and
the Vietnam Pledge.

Terry Schaumberg of San Antonio Air Logistics Center managed the review
and modification of military standards to allow and compel the use of alternatives
to ODSs.
Angie Schurig
(Award 1993)
 Angie Schurig led the Texas Instruments program to eliminate ODSs in its
 Defense Systems & Electronics and Semiconductor Groups. Through her work as
 chair of ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993), she shared the technologies per-
 fected at Texas Instruments with other countries such as Mexico and Russia. Ms.
 Schurig's leadership also resulted in a number of joint projects with Texas
 Instruments' military customers, which contributed significantly to more wide-
 spread acceptance of non-CFC cleaning technologies for military programs. The
 program she developed within Texas Instruments resulted in Texas Instruments
 being CFC-free in 1995 and carbon tetrachloride-free in 1996.
                                                                                           Solvents  91

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 Seiko Epson
 (Award 1992)
 Robin Sellers, Naval
 Avionics Center
 (Award 1990)

 Separation Technologists
 (Award 1994)
Sharp
{Award 1995)
Yoshihide Slubano
ofS&C
(Award 1993)

The Singapore PSB
fAward 1995)
Dr. John R. Stcmniski,
The Charles Stark Draper
Laboratory (Award 1993)
Dr. Richard Stolarski,
NASA Goddard Space
Flight Center
(Award 1991)
 Seiko Epson achieved the total elimination of CFCs in October 1992 and elimi-
 nated methyl chloroform from its worldwide operations in December 1993. It pro-
 vided technical textbooks in English, Chinese, and Japanese and held many
 technical forums to share the success of its ODS elimination program with other
 companies. Seiko Epson has demonstrated global corporate leadership by adopting
 and practicing a policy that environmental issues are a global concern and that
 cooperation should outweigh considerations about competition. Seiko Epson is a
 signatory to the Thailand Leadership Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.

 Robin Sellers, Naval Avionics Center, organized and persuaded the U.S. Navy to
 fully support identification and testing of CFC alternatives suitable for cleaning
 sophisticated weapons guidance systems.

 Separation Technologists invented and pioneered the "closed-loop wastewater recy-
 cling system" that is now a design standard accessory for all aqueous and semi-
 aqueous batch and in-line cleaners. It eliminates lead from the discharge, recycles
 the excess heat in the discharge, and recycles 95 percent of the water.

 Sharp eliminated the use of ODSs for cleaning agents and transferred information
 on alternative technologies to Sharp factories in other countries, giving its employ-
 ees technical instructions on eliminating ODSs. The company is a signatory to the
 Thailand Leadership Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.

 Tfoshihide Shibano of S&C developed unique multiwave ultrasonic aqueous clean-
 ing using highly oxygenated and purified water that is suitable  for both large-scale
 production and for small- and medium-sized enterprises.

 The Singapore PSB—formerly the SISIR—created a comprehensive range of tech-
 nical services in cleanliness evaluation, process troubleshooting, and materials com-
 patibility of CFC substitutes. Alternative processes were quickly made available to
 both multinational and local electronics companies, including an effective recycling
 system for CFC-113.

 Dr. John R. Stemniski of The Charles  Stark Draper Laboratory encouraged
 acceptance of alternatives to ozone-depleting solvents for cleaning precision guid-
 ance systems in manufacture and maintenance. Dr. Stemniski is also  a member of
 the UNEP Solvent, Coatings, and Adhesives TOC.

Dr. Richard Stolarski of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center was a pioneering
investigator of the theory that CFCs deplete the ozone layer and a continuing con-
tributor to the theoretical basis of ozone depletion. He was also a leader in the veri-
fication of ozone depletion from observational data.
   92  Champions of the World

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The Swedish Institute of The Swedish Institute of Production Engineering Research (IVF) initiated and
Production Engineering  funded in 1988 an inter-Nordic research program to phase out CFCs in electronics
Research (IVF)           production. The program comprised 40 individual projects of fundamental research
(Award 1992)             on reliability and cleanliness. The program actively contributed to a phaseout of
                          CFCs in Scandinavia. Results from the program and experience from the early
                          phaseout have been presented at numerous conferences in Europe as well as in the
                          United States, Thailand, and Singapore. Through UNEP, IVF made special efforts
                          to assist Singapore in its own phaseout program.
Jack Swindle, Texas
Instruments
(Award 1994)
                         Jack Swindle, Texas Instruments, actively supported the elimination of all ODS-
                         based solvents in Texas Instruments' manufacturing and assembly operations by
                         championing a five-year effort to assure that adequate funds, facility, and staff are
                         available to address the ODS replacement process. He has also stressed external
                         interactions to support suppliers, customers, and competitors with their respective
                         elimination efforts.
Texas Instruments'        Texas Instruments' Missile Systems Division oversaw the substantial complications
Missile Systems Division  of satisfying numerous customers at two federal regulatory authorities to successful-
(Award 1993)             ly implement ODS-free manufacture of state-of- the-art smart weapons. Texas
                           Instruments was a founding member of ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993)
                           and a signatory to the Thailand Leadership Initiative.
                          Thiokol Space Operations took major steps to reduce its use of methyl chloroform
                          in vapor degreasing and cleaning operations by approximately 90 percent and
                          planned only limited use of methyl chloroform for critical bonding operations on
                          the space shuttle until replacements could be qualified.

                          3M was the first to implement hydrocarbon solvents for spray-on fabric coat-
                          ings and is a signatory to the Vietnam Pledge.

Titan IV Program ODS  Titan IV Program ODS Reduction Team reduced the use of ODSs in the manu-
                          facture, assembly, and launch preparation of Titan IV systems by over 99 percent
                          compared  to the 1989 baseline year. In 1996, working in concert with the four
                          large solid motor manufacturers in the United States, the team developed a hand-
                          book of solid motor rocket manufacturing  entitled "Eliminating Use of Ozone
                          Depleting Substances in Solid Rocket Motor Manufacturing." This handbook
                          describes the technologies and process changes that were incorporated to reduce the
                          use of ODSs.
 Thiokol Space
 Operations
 (Award 1993)
 3M
 (Award. 1991)
 Reduction Team
 (Award 1995)
 Toshiba
 (Award 1995)
                          Toshiba developed a unique, water-free cleaning technology as part of a program
                          designed to eliminate the use of all ODSs for its cleaning operations in every
                          domestic plant. At present, over 200 such systems are in use at Toshiba. Toshiba
                          was a member of ICOLP/ICEL and a signatory to the Thailand Leadership
                          Initiative and the Vietnam Pledge.
                                                                                             Solvents 93

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 Toyota
 (Award 1994)
 Toyota, in addition to its achievements in the foams and refrigeration sectors, suc-
 cessfully phased out the use of methyl chloroform as a cleaner in its production
 processes. Toyota is a signatory to the Thailand Leadership Initiative and the
 Vietnam Pledge.
 Dr. Laura J. Turbini,       Dr. Laura J. Turbini, Georgia Institute of Technology, conceived, organized, and
 Georgia Institute of       managed the projects to test no-clean flux in sophisticated electronics
 Technology (Award 1992)  production.
 Union Carbide/EKCO
 Housewares/Nordson
 {Award 1993}
 U.S. Army Acquisition
 Pollution Prevention
 Support Orifice
 (Award 1992)
 USBI
 {Award 1995)
Clare Vmton, National
Center for Manufacturing
Sciences (Award 1993)
Henry J. Weltman,
General Dynamics (now
Lockheed Martin Tactical
Aircraft Systems)
(Award 1992)
Dr. Udo G. Wenning,
Bosch Siemens
f Award 1993)

Xerox
I Award 1995)
 Union Carbide/EKCO Housewares/Nordson developed ODS-free cleaning capa-
 ble of preparing metal surfaces for non-stick and anodized coatings.

 U.S. Army Acquisition Pollution Prevention Support Office worked successfully
 to eliminate CFC use in surface cleaning in Army applications.
 USBI replaced methyl chloroform hand-wipe cleaning on its space shuttle opera-
 tions with aqueous cleaners, reducing air emissions of ODSs by 2.7 metric tonnes
 per year. The new solvents cost $1,000 less per shuttle flight and eliminated haz-
 ardous solvent waste, saving $18,000 per year in disposal costs.

 Clare Vinton, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, organized and coordi-
 nated testing of alternatives to ODSs.

 Henry J. Weltman, General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft
 Systems), developed laboratory test methods to screen aqueous cleaners. He is a co-
 inventor of a low-vapor pressure cleaner that was implemented to replace the CFC-
 113-based cleaner responsible for 235 tons per year of CFC emissions in 1989. He
 was essential in the implementation of the new low-vapor pressure solvent and in
 overcoming a variety of implementation problems of the low-vapor pressure cleaner.

 Dr. Udo G. Wenning of Bosch Siemens (Award 1993) pioneered alcohol cleaning
 of electronic assemblies and helped organize German industry to cooperate in phas-
 ing out ODS.

Xerox replaced the use of methyl chloroform and aqueous processes by adapting a
jet-engine cleaning process  utilizing carbon dioxide pellets that work by being
sprayed at high velocities onto the surface to be cleaned. The process leaves no haz-
ardous waste and requires only one step to complete cleaning. It is more effective
than previous cleaning with ozone-depleting solvents  and allows parts to be recov-
ered that previously had been scrapped when cleaning was inadequate. Additionally,
Xerox included ODS  phaseout criteria in its vendor (supplier) selection and pur-
chasing decisions and provided written certificates to its customers verifying that
products were not made with or contained ODSs.
  94 Champions of the World

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Dr. Masaalci Yamaha,
Asalii Glass
(Award 1993)
Yuji Yamazaki
(Award 1996)
 Hideaki Yasulcawa,
 Seiko Epson, Japan
 (Award 1994)
Dr. Masaaki Yamabe of Asahi Glass was a member of EPA's first ODS chemical
substitution team, is the inventor of HCFC-225—which is used in critical preci-
sion cleaning—and is an original member of the UNEP Solvents,  Coatings, and
Adhesive TOG. He was very active in promoting the elimination of CFCs and has
taken technical leadership to develop and commercialize HCFC-225, which was
the first drop-in replacement for CFC-113 in the world. Dr. Yamabe significantly
contributed to the phaseout of ODSs in developing countries through many pre-
sentations on technical alternatives to CFCs.

Yuji Yamazaki is the executive in charge of environmental affairs at Seiko Epson
concerning ODS elimination. He has led a successful effort to develop vacuum
cleaning and drying technology for precision metal parts. The simplicity and versa-
tility of this technology makes it an effective substitute for ODS-based systems in
small- and medium-sized precision parts manufacturing companies in developing
countries. He also contributed to an early phaseout of ODSs  in developing coun-
tries by holding technical seminars in Hong Kong, China, and countries of
Southeast Asia.

Hideaki Yasukawa, Seiko Epson, Japan, successfully contributed to Seiko Epson's
efforts to completely eliminate the use of CFCs and methyl chloroform in produc-
 tion processes, and led Seiko Epson's sharing of technical experience with private
 companies and governments worldwide. Under his leadership, Seiko Epson issued
 texts on alternative technologies and processes, organized technical seminars on
 ODS-free cleaning and drying technologies for small- and medium-sized suppliers,
 and established the Cleaning Center, an economical ODS-free cleaning facility
 open to suppliers.
                                                                                             Solvents  95

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Other  Champion
Award  Winners
 Aerosol Products, Sterilants, and Miscellaneous Uses
 Champion Award Winners
CPC Destruction Plasma CFG Destruction Plasma Project, Clean Japan Center, developed a technique to
Project, Clean Japan     destroy CFCs using plasma, which results in a destruction efficiency of more
Center                 than 99.99 percent. The plant has destroyed more than 10 tons of waste CFCs
(Award 1995)           and is scheduled to destroy an additional 50 tons of waste CFC-11, CFC-12,
                       R-502, and HCFC-22.

Charles Hancock, MDT  Charles Hancock, MDT, contributed directly to the technical assessment process
(Award 1994)
Geno Nardini, Institute
Mexicano del Aerosol
(Award 1992)
                       of the UNEP TOCs and has participated in providing support to many countries
                       concerning non-CFC sterilization alternatives. He helped his company to convert
                       ethylene oxide sterilization equipment that utilized CFCs to a process that uses
                       carbon dioxide.

                       Geno Nardini, Institute Mexicano del Aerosol, led the elimination of CFCs
                       from aerosol products in Mexico and become a consultant to aerosol product
                       phaseout worldwide. He is a member of the Aerosol Products, Miscellaneous
                       Uses, Sterilants, and Carbon Tetrachloride TOG.
 Richard Nusbaum,      Richard Nusbaum, Pennsylvania Engineering, developed an HCFC alternative
 Pennsylvania Engineering blend to replace CFCs in sterilization of medical devices.
 (Award 1991)
                       Jose Pons Pons, Spray Quimica, has served as co-chair of the UNEP Aerosols,
                       Sterilants, and Miscellaneous Uses TOG since 1989 and has been a member of
                       the UNEP TEAP since 1991. His aerosol company, Spray Quimica, was one of
                       the first companies to phase out ODSs anywhere.
Jose Pons Pons, Spray
Quimica
(Award 1995)
 Tsuyoshi Takaichi,
 Showa Denko
 (Award. 1996)
                       Tsuyoshi Takaichi, Showa Denko, developed alternative fluorocarbons and
                       educational activities to phase out CFCs in Japan. Mr. Takaichi played a major
                       role in the development of CFC alternatives at Showa Denko. In 1988, he
                       established the first technology for mass production of HFC-134a. Since 1985,
                       Mr. Takaichi has chaired the Japan Fluorocarbon Manufacturers Association,
                       participated in regional and international conferences, and worked on technol-
                       ogy transfer projects with developing countries such as Thailand and Indonesia.
                       He also made valuable contributions to projects such as the "CFC Destruction
                       r.f. Plasma Project" and the "Used Refrigerants Reclamation Project."
                                                             Other Champion Award Winners   97

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 3M Pharmaceuticals
 (Award 1996)
 Kjell Wetterlin (Astra)
 {Award 1991)
 3M Pharmaceuticals, over 10 years, with an international team of more than 100 peo-
 ple, developed-the worlds first CFC-free MDIs for the relief of asthma symptoms.
 MDIs are aerosol delivery systems that release a precisely measured dose of medication
 to the lungs to treat conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary
 disease. The new technology included advances in the use of cosolvents and surfactants
 and improvements in the metering valve, seals, and actuator. These improvements help
 provide consistent dose delivery after prolonged storage, reliable dose delivery down to
 the last doses of the inhaler, and reliable dose delivery at very low temperatures. In
 March 1995, the United Kingdom approved 3M's product. It has since been approved
 by over 36 countries and the U.S. FDA.  Components of the new technology, such as
 valves and canisters, are available to other companies reformulating their own products.

 Kjell Wetterlin (Astra) invented a dry-powder inhaler to replace some uses of CFC
 MDIs for treatment of respiratory and  heart disease.
    Association Champion Award Winners
AFCAM
(Award 1996)
Alliance For Responsible
CFC Policy
(Award 1990)
CANACINTRA
f Award 1992)
Kevin Fay, Alliance for
Responsible CFC Policy
(Awaid 1993)

Industrial Technology
Research  Institute
llTRl), Taiwan
I.Award 1995)
 AFCAM since 1989 has promoted ozone protection, worked closely with the
 Australian government to formulate effective ozone protection regulations, and assist-
 ed associations such as the Australian Supermarket Institute to phase out CFCs some
 five years earlier than anticipated at considerable less cost. It also implemented
 Australia's national refrigerant reprocessing and destruction scheme, which was award-
 ed the Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award in 1995.

 The Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy (now the Alliance for Responsible
 Atmospheric Policy), under the leadership of Kevin Fay (Award 1993) and David
 Stirpe, represented industry stakeholders on international and U.S. ozone protection
 policy. Since its founding in 1980, Alliance participants have coordinated industry
 positions and worked toward establishing feasible and responsible policy to protect
 stratospheric ozone.

 CANACINTRA formed partnership with the Mexican government, Nortel/Northern
 Telecom (Award 1991), ICOLP/ICEL (Awards 1991 and 1993), and EPA to eliminate
 CFC and methyl chloroform solvents by 2000.

 Kevin Fay, Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy (Award 1993), directed the Alliance
 and coordinated industry positions for the establishment of feasible and responsible
 policies for ozone protection.

 Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Taiwan, promoted awareness in
 industry regarding the reduction and recovery of ODSs through new alternative tech-
 nologies. ITRI assisted the Government of Taiwan in drafting policies and regulations
 for converting to non-ODS alternatives, resulting in an ODS consumption reduction
from 10,000 metric tons in 1986 to 2,500 metric tons in 1994.
   98  Campions of the World

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Secretaria de Desarollo    Secretaria de Desarollo Urbano y Ecologia organized Mexican industry with die
Urbano y Ecologia        assistance of Nortel/Nordiern Telecom to speed phaseout in Mexico. The unprece-
(Award 1991)             dented partnership combined government and corporate leadership with technical
                          cooperation.

     Diplomatic and Regulatory Champion Award Winners
G. Victor Buxton,
Environment Canada
(Award 1996)
Dr. Suely Maria
Carvalho, Sao Paulo
Environmental Agency
Companhia de
Tecnologia
(Award. 1996)

The Charles County
Board of Education
(Award 1993)
Eileen Claussen, the U.S.
Department of State
(Award 1993)
G. Victor Buxton, Environment Canada, has worked to protect the ozone layer
since 1983 when he was a key negotiator and advocate for strict ODS controls. He
was an architect of the 1985 Vienna Convention and 1987 Montreal Protocol, a
confident and strategic advisor to Dr. Mostafa Tolba (Award 1993), and responsi-
ble for organization of the Diplomatic conference in 1987 at which the Protocol
was signed. As Canada's chief negotiator at the Protocol negotiations in 1987, he
helped move the global community to definitive commitments to phase out ODSs.
He helped organize the "Toronto Group" of like-minded nations, which evolved
into the "Friends of die Protocol." Mr. Buxton served as Canada's representative at
innumerable meetings and developed key concepts that greatly influenced the
approach of the Protocol. He actively promoted NGO and industry participation
in the Protocol and instigated FOE Canada's and Northern Telecom's early inter-
est. Mr. Buxton also helped organize the technical assessments and served as co-
chair of the 1989 Technical Assessment Panel. He also chaired the Open-Ended
"Working Groups that led to the Meeting of the Parties in London, assisted Dr.
Tolba (Award 1993) in the creation of the Executive Committee for the
Multilateral Fund, and represented Canada on this committee. He was  instrumen-
tal in persuading many Canadian companies to become proactive.

Dr. Suely Maria Carvalho, Sao Paulo Environmental Agency Companhia de
Tecnologia, in 1988 organized the first technical group to investigate alternatives to
ODSs in Brazil. Dr. Carvalho helped to establish  multilateral funds through her
work with industry, established networks for technological cooperation, and serves
as co-chair of the UNEP TEAP, a consultant to UNEP's Industry and
Environment Office, and an advisor to numerous international organizations.

The Charles County Board of Education, Maryland, converted school A/C to
CFC-free alternatives.

Eileen Claussen of the U.S. Department of State took over EPA's Stratosphere
Protector Team at a critical time and carved it into a global leader in policy analy-
sis, diplomatic leadership, and industry cooperation. She achieved highest govern-
ment honors and was rapidly promoted to manage EPA global air quality issues
and environmental policy at the National Security Council, and then to Assistant
Secretary of State for Population, Oceans, and Environment.
                                                                    Other Champion Award Winners   99

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 Dr. Stephen DeCanio,
 Economics Department,
 University of California
 (Award 1996)
DuPont
(Award 1990)
Victor Gatt, Malta
Department of Industry
(Award 1994}
John Hathaway
(Award 1994)
Dr. Stephen DeCanio, Economics Department, University of California, as a
Senior Staff Economist at the Council of Economic Advisors in 1986-87, helped
gain White House support for the Montreal Protocol. He has served as an advisor
to EPA on ozone protection and has been a member of the UNEP Economic
Options Committee of the TEAP.  Dr. DeCanio's academic research and publica-
tions on environmental economics and organizational decision-making have
contributed to the design of ozone protection policies worldwide.

DuPont by 1986 under the leadership of managers Dr. Joseph P. Glas and Dr.
Joseph M. Steed, with DuPont atmospheric scientist Dr. Mack McFarland,  real-
ized that CFC emissions were growing despite the sharp reduction caused by the
U.S. CFC aerosol ban. In addition, they realized that this growth would lead to
eventual stratospheric ozone loss. DuPont called on its customers and coproducers
to support rational global CFC regulation. Such support solidified U.S. industry
behind the  1987 Montreal Protocol. DuPont was the first ODS manufacturer to
announce a goal of a complete phaseout of CFC production for sale.
Victor Gatt, Malta Department
of Industry, was a leading force
behind Malta's efforts to control
the use of ODSs. He carried out
research in 1988 that led to
Malta's ratification of the Vienna
Convention and the Montreal
Protocol. As deputy chairman of
the Malta Board of Standards, he
successfully banned the use of
CFCs in aerosols in 1990, leading
to a 67 percent reduction in CFC
consumption.
"It was very difficult to develop a new
chemical sterilant blend to fight infection
in health care facilities that would also be
safe for the ozone layer. After seven years
of hard work our new product was finally
commercialized. This was four years after
we received the coveted Ozone Protection
Award. Through the many obstacles on
the way, the EPA—under Stephen
Andersen's guidance—supported and
encouraged our efforts. They would have
never succeeded without their assistance.
We are grateful for receiving the award
and are glad we were able to help protect
the stratospheric ozone layer."
                                                                          Dick Nusbaum (Award 1991)
                                                                                           President
                                                                    Pennsylvania Engineering Company
John Hathaway recognized that
public misunderstanding about
ozone depletion was impeding
efforts to phase out CFC-based
refrigerants in Arizona. In
response, he spearheaded a pub-
lic information initiative on
refrigerant management, sta-
tionary equipment, and automobile servicing. He also worked behind the scenes to
address the matter of flammable refrigerants for automobiles in the face of specific
complaints to his agency director. His actions are all the more notable considering
that A/C is such a contentious issue in Arizona that the state passed a controversial
law contravening the Clean Air Act. He also established and managed the state's
"Methyl Bromide Replacement Strategies" project, in cooperation with Sonora,
Mexico, to mitigate the impact of methyl bromide phaseout on agricultural trade.
   100  Champions of the World

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Andrea Hinwood,
Environmental
Protection Authority,
Victoria, Australia
(Award 1993)
Andrea Hinwood, Environmental Protection Authority, Victoria, Australia, devel-
oped Victoria's strategy on ozone protection in 1989, which was largely used as a
basis for Australia's national Ozone Phase Out Program. She chaired the UNEP
Aerosol Products, Sterilants, and Miscellaneous Uses, and Carbon Tetrachloride
TOG and served as a member of die UNEP TEAP from 1990 to 1994.  During
that time she managed the assessment of some of the most complicated technical
topics including medical and sterilization uses. She has spoken at UNEP meetings
in Bangkok, Caracas, and Washington—communicating the message that the
aerosol products, sterilants, and miscellaneous use sectors can  stop using CFCs
worldwide.
John Hoffman, EPA     John Hoffman, EPA, was instrumental in developing EPA's policy concern-
(Award 1994)            ing protection of the ozone layer and began the process that eventually led
                         to the negotiation of the Montreal Protocol. He was an architect of the
                         ozone depletion risk assessment, as well as defendant of the critical EPA role
                         in a strong initial Montreal Protocol. Without his exceptional efforts in
                         building a strong foundation for action, the progress made to date would
                         have been impossible.

Nancy Ketcham-Colwill, Nancy Ketcham-Colwill, EPA Office of General  Counsel, designed flexible imple-
EPA Office of General   mentation of the Montreal Protocol and Clean Air Act to assure protection of the
Counsel (Award 1993)   ozone layer but also to allow voluntary approaches.
Steve Lee-Bapiy, UK
Department of the
Environment
(Award 1993)
Steve Lee-Bapty, UK Department of the Environment, was co-chair of the
UNEP TEAP, served as the U.K. representative at important meetings on ozone
layer protection, and chaired the Open-Ended Working Group of the Montreal
Protocol.
Eduardo Lopez,           Eduardo Lopez, Fondoin, Venezuela, actively participated in the process that
Fondoin, Venezuela       led to the approval of the London Amendments by the Venezuelan government
(Award 1994)             and the establishment, operation, and consolidation of the Multilateral Fund.
                          He was also an active member of the Multilateral Fund's executive committee,
                          making contributions to the definition of rules and procedures that are used to
                          operate the Fund. He has played an active role in implementing programs in
                          Venezuela and other Article 5(1) programs, particularly in helping to create
                          institutional frameworks for implementing the Montreal Protocol.

P. Trish MacQuarrie,      P. Trish MacQuarrie, Environment Canada-Global Air Issues Branch, orga-
Environment Canada-     nized and chaired the meetings of the UNEP Work Group on Laboratory Uses
Global Air Issues Branch  jn 1994 and 1995. The group's report has promoted the awareness of alterna-
(Award 1996)             tives for analytical techniques that still rely on controlled ODS. In 1995, she
                          was an active member of the UNEP Process Agents Work Group.
                                                                  Other Champion Award-Winners  101

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Alan Miller
(Award 1992)
Ministry of Sciences,
Technology, and the
Environment, Malaysia
(Award 1996)
Alan Miller, while working for the NRDC in the 1980s, brought the legal suit that
ultimately compelled EPA to develop a plan to protect the ozone layer. He was also
instrumental in the first voluntary efforts to speed commercialization of alternatives
and substitutes to ODSs including die worlds first voluntary national CFG phase-
out by U.S. foodservice packaging companies in  1988 and the projects to change
military specifications to allow and encourage the use of alternatives to CFC solvents
used in electronic manufacture. Alan Miller was also a pioneer in advocating the
alternatives  to ODSs be complementary to anticipated efforts to protect the climate.

Ministry of Sciences, Technology, and the Environment, Malaysia, was elected to
be vice president of Conference of Parties to the Parties of the Montreal Protocol in
1992 and 1995, was proactive in the executive committee of the Multilateral Fund
from 1991 to 1994, was appointed a chairman of EXCOM in 1994 and as one of
the experts in the UNEP/IEPAC Advisory Committee, and provided personnel
resources to support the UNEP/IEPAC ODS Network in Asia Pacific. In addition,
the Government of Malaysia has participated in  and was appointed as member of
several UNEP TOCs, and is a successful Article 5(1) country in the implementa-
tion of the Montreal Protocol.
National
Clilorofluorocarbons
Enforcement Initiative,
Operation Cool Breeze
Enforcement Team
(Award 1996)
The NSkkan Kogyo
Shimbim, LTD
(Award 1996)
Sergio Oxman, KIEN
Consultants
(Award 1993)
National Clilorofluorocarbons Enforcement Initiative, Operation Cool Breeze
Enforcement Team, led by District Attorney Tom Watts-FitzGerald, is composed
of criminal investigators from the U.S. Customs Service, EPA, Internal Revenue
Service, and the Department of Justice and the U.S. Attorney's Office in Miami.
Since October 1993, it has conducted a comprehensive enforcement effort to stem
illegal trafficking of CFCs. The team has intercepted over 455 metric tonnes of
ODSs and has been responsible for 13 felony convictions. The team trains agents
throughout the country to help suppress the ODS black market.

The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun, LTD, continues to provide information on the
trends and challenges concerning the protection of the stratospheric ozone layer.  It
has currendy launched a two-year publishing and information campaign to encour-
age the phaseout of methyl chloroform. This program includes a series of 24 timely
and comprehensive two-page spreads to be run for a period of two years, which will
cover such issues as the importance of measures to protect the ozone layer and
international activities on stratospheric ozone depletion.

Sergio Oxman, KIEN Consultants, is a Chilean economic consultant and repre-
sentative of his country at the Meetings of the Parties of the Protocol. His individ-
ual leadership in global economy and technology cooperation supported the Latin
American countries in completing their countries programs (baseline studies) and
assisting with, their institutional strengthening plans in Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica,
Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Panama, and Uruguay. He also provided
support for the implementation of programs in Argentina and Mexico with the
implementing agencies of UNEP, United Nations Development Programme
(UDEP), and the World Bank. He is a member of the UNEP Economics Options
Committee and die UNEP Methyl Bromide TOG.
   102  Champions of the World

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 K. Madhava Sarma,
 UNEP
 (Award  1996)
Stephen Seidel, Council
for Environmental
Quality (Award  1996)
Steven Shimberg, Staff
Director and Chief
Counsel, U.S. Senate
Committee on
Environment and Public
Works (Award 1994)
Dennis Tober, Florida
Department of
Environmental
Regulation (Award 1991)
Dr. Mostafa Tolba,
International Centre
for Environment and
Development, Cairo
(Award 1993)
K. Madhava Sarma, UNEP, has been the head of the UNEP Secretariat for the Vienna
Convention and Montreal Protocol since 1991, provided counsel to the UNEP TEAP,
and facilitated contact and meaningful interaction wida various international groups
vital to the efforts to reduce ODS use. He has made UNEP's programs more effective
and managed the participation of over 162 countries, including more dian 110 devel-
oping countries as parties. From 1986 to 1991 he served in the Ministry of
Environment and Forests, Government of India, dealing with global environmental
issues. At that time, many developing countries realized that protection of the ozone
layer could only succeed if all countries phased out their consumption of ODSs; howev-
er, they felt that the problem of ozone depletion had been caused by the high consump-
tion of industrialized countries, and many developing countries considered the Protocol
of 1987 inadequate, particularly with respect to the provisions for technology transfer
and financial assistance. In 1989 and 1990 Mr. Sarma worked to amend the Protocol at
London to include the concept of a Multilateral Fund with management by an execu-
tive committee with balanced developed and developing country members.

Stephen Seidel, Council for Environmental Quality, has visualized the strategy for glob-
al protection of the ozone layer, extracted relevant scientific findings that have influenced
public policy, empowered regulatory staff, encouraged innovative approaches to industry
cooperation, defended the Stratospheric Protection Division against political interven-
tion, and created an environment where seemingly impossible tasks were accomplished.
As a global negotiator, he cultivated science-based approaches to regulatory solutions,
performance-based global ODS phaseout with national regulatory autonomy, trade pro-
visions in environmental treaties, and financing the technology cooperation.

Steven Shimberg, Staff Director and Chief Counsel, U.S. Senate Committee on
Environment and Public Works, played a critical role in shaping congressional support
for both the Montreal Protocol and the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act on
ozone layer protection. He participated as part of the U.S. delegation in the negotia-
tions leading up to the original Protocol, providing valuable insights and guidance
throughout this early and difficult period. He helped to galvanize congressional support
for the strongest possible agreements and helped push for a comprehensive approach to
protecting the ozone layer within the United States to ensure that adequate measures
would be taken to protect this vital resource.

Dennis  Tober, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, developed
innovative state regulatory, voluntary, and leadership approaches to ozone layer
protection.

Dr. Mostafa  Tolba, International Centre for Environment and Development,
Cairo, as  the second executive director of UNEP, provided leadership, strong
personality, inspiration, negotiation strategy, and diplomacy that was essential
to the acceptance of the Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol. Dr. Tolba
received his Ph.D. in plant pathology from Imperial College, London
University. From 1949 until 1971 he held various positions including professor
of Botany and Microbiology, Secretary General of the  Supreme Science Council
of Egypt,  Cultural Counselor and Director of the Egyptian Education Bureau,
                                                                     Other Champion Award Winners   103   t

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F. A. (Tony) Vogelsberg,
DuPont
(Award 1993}
Undersecretary of State for Higher Education of Egypt, Minister of Youth, and
President of the Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. In
1972 he led the Egyptian delegation to the Stockholm Conference on the
Human Environment, which led to the establishment of UNEP in 1973. From
1976 until 1992 he was the executive director of UNEP with the rank of
Undersecretary General of the United Nations. He was  elected by the United
Nations General Assembly for four consecutive four-year terms. After the
Protocol was approved in 1987, Dr. Tolba continued to work tirelessly on every
aspect of its operation including the assessments, solicitation of new signato-
ries, management of trade controls and data reporting, and all aspects of imple-
mentation. He was particularly involved in translating the scientific and
technical findings into policy options suitable for decision. His "informal meet-
ings" brought together key experts and influential negotiators to find areas of
agreement and to craft approaches that satisfied every perspective. As the execu-
tive director of UNEP, Dr. Tolba was also successful in international treaties for
the trans-shipment of hazardous waste, the trade in endangered species, and
biodiversity.cvgAlmost everyone agrees that without Dr. Mostafa Tolba, stratos-
pheric ozone protection would have begun years later, and may possibly have
been too late.

R A. (Tony) Vogelsberg, DuPont, acted as a global CFC phaseout ambassador,
conducting meetings worldwide with customers,  foreign governments, and
industry groups. He has served several years as management committee chair-
man of the Program  on Alternative Fluorocarbon Testing and AFEAS, a $37
million voluntary industry effort. Mr. Vogelsberg is particularly skilled at mas-
tering and communicating science findings to business, government, and public
stakeholders.
George H. White II,
U.S. Customs Service,
Department of the
Treasury*
t Award" 1995)
George H. White II, U.S. Customs Service, Department of the Treasury,
made an extraordinary effort as a Special Agent with the U.S. Customs Service
and has carried out investigations leading to five convictions against ODS
smugglers. As a result of his efforts and these convictions, more than 455 met-
ric tonnes of illegal ODSs have been confiscated. By 1996 nine people had
been arrested and eight convicted. He also serves as the primary contact at U.S.
Customs for ODS smuggling cases, helping other investigators around the
country. Agent White helped form the "Operation Cool Breeze" Enforcement
Team (Award 1996) with members from the U.S. Office of the Assistant U.S.
Attorney,  Customs Service, EPA Office of Investigations, Internal Revenue
Service Criminal Investigation Division,  and Customs Inspectors from the
Miami River Enforcement Team and the Trade Enforcement Teams at the ports
of Miami  and Everglades.
   104  Champions of the World

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  pMethyl Bromide  Champion Award Winners
Dr. Jonathan Banks,
Commonwealth
Scientific and Industrial
Research Organization
(Award 1996)
Lt. Commander Robert
Gay, Defense Logistics
Agency
(Award 1995)

Dr. Melanie Miller,
Consultant,
New Zealand
(Award 1996)
Dr. Jonathan Banks, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organization (CSIRO) Division of Entomology, as die chairman of the Methyl
Bromide TOG of the UNEP TEAP, put together the inaugural Methyl Bromide
TOG and guided over 60 members in their efforts to compile data on the alterna-
tives to methyl bromide. Under his leadership, this diverse committee produced the
UNEP Methyl Bromide TOG 1995 report, a remarkable consensus document
detailing the available or near-market alternatives to methyl bromide use. It was
highly influential in the decisions by the parties to the Montreal Protocol in
December 1995 to further control  methyl bromide. The report is widely quoted and
has improved awareness of methyl bromide-free ways to achieve production and
storage of particular agricultural crops that currendy depend on methyl bromide.

Lt. Commander Robert Gay, Defense Logistics Agency, developed an improved
controlled atmosphere technique that can replace methyl bromide for transporting
perishable commodities overseas. His technique reduces produce respiration, slows
ethylene production, inhibits pathogen reproduction, and kills insects.

Dr. Melanie Miller, Consultant, New Zealand, has been a leader in identifying,
documenting and demonstrating methyl bromide alternatives. She is a member of
the UNEP Methyl Bromide TOC, and has published numerous case studies of
national methyl bromide use and alternatives. Her dedication to this cause is
commendable.
David Mueller,
Fumigation Service and
Supply
(Award 1995)
David Mueller, Fumigation Service and Supply, has educated the pest control
community about potential alternatives to methyl bromide pesticide use and hosted
workshops to explain the advantages and necessary caution in combining phos-
phine, heat, and carbon dioxide as part of an integrated pest control strategy. He
also published the newsletter "Fumigation & Pheromones" to keep clients abreast
of technical developments. He first experimented with alternatives to methyl bro-
mide in June 1992 and by 1995 had reduced methyl bromide to less than 60 per-
cent of treatments.
Yasuonii Tanaka,
Weyerhaeuser
Timberlands Nursery
Team
(Award 1995)
Yasuomi Tanaka, Weyerhaeuser Timberlands Nursery Team, led efforts at
Weyerhaeuser to formulate a strategy to identify potential alternatives to the use of
methyl bromide. His efforts led to the selection of several alternative chemicals
including Basamid, Telone, chloropicrin, and Metham Sodium as a partial replace-
ment for methyl bromide in the short term. Soil pasteurization and solarization,
cultural technologies, and biocontrol are being evaluated as potential long-term
replacements.
                                                                  Other Champion Award Winners  105

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Dr. Joop van Haasteren,   Dr. Joop van Haasteren, the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Planning, and the
die Netherlands           Environment, was instrumental in providing substantial technical materials on the
Ministry of Housing,     Netherlands' successful phaseout of methyl bromide use in all but quarantine appli-
Planning, and die         cations. In 1980 the Netherlands was one of Europe's largest users of methyl bro-
EnvtFOnmcnt             mide, but during the decade between 1981 and 1991 Dr. Joop van Haasteren
| Award 1995}             initiated and coordinated the complete elimination of methyl bromide in soil fumi-
                          gation. "When the UNEP TEAP began investigating alternatives to methyl bro-
                          mide, Dr. van Haasteren and the Netherlands Ministry of Environment were
                          instrumental in providing the specific verification of the technical and economic
                          feasibility. He is a key member of the UNEP Methyl Bromide TOC.


     Scientific and Medical Uses Champion  Award Winners
Dr. Daniel Albritton,
NOAA, Aeronomy
Laboratory
(Award 1994}
 Dr. John Grupcnhoff,
 National Association of
 Physicians for the
 Environment
 (Award  1995)
 Alvin Miller, National
 Weather Service
 (Award 1994)
 Dr. A.R. Ravishankara,
 NOAA, Aeronomy
 Laboratory
 (Award 1995}
Dr. Daniel Albritton, NOAA, Aeronomy Laboratory, and Dr. Robert Watson
(Award 1994) have co-chaired the Montreal Protocol's Scientific Assessment Panel
since 1988. These reports present the state of knowledge of atmospheric ozone and
have provided a sound scientific basis for policy decisions. Both the integrity of the
process he created and the worldwide acceptance of the assessment documents have
been a fundamental driving force in the success of the Montreal Protocol. In addi-
tion to leadership in the assessment process, he effectively directed scientific
research efforts toward improved understanding in key areas of uncertainty—from
efforts to understand the causes of the Antarctic ozone hole, to the work of the
ozone trends panel, to improvements in our understanding of the role of heteroge-
neous chemistry.

Dr. John Grupenhoff, as the executive vice president for the National Association
of Physicians for the Environment, gathered support within the medical and envi-
ronmental communities for the UV Index program. Through the networks this
organization provides, EPA has been able to spread its message about sun protec-
tion through the health care community. He organized a coalition of nearly 30
national health care organizations in support of the UV Index and also proposed a
resolution to the American Medical Association, which passed unanimously in sup-
port of the UV Index.

Alvin Miller, National Weather Service, provided the primary technical direction
for the National Weather Service's Experimental UV Index program. He directs the
overall collection of UV information from 58 U.S. cities daily and issues daily UV
Index numbers to radio, television, and newspapers in each city.

Dr. A.R. Ravishankara, NOAA, Aeronomy Laboratory, contributed both to the
understanding and the solution of the problem of stratospheric ozone depletion.
His research has influenced industry's development of viable replacement com-
pounds by identifying  those proposed alternatives that  are "ozone-friendly" and by
determining their effects on the Earth's climate.
    106  Champions of the World

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Dr. F. Sherwood
Rowland, University of
California, Irvine
(Award 1993)

Dr. Susan Solomon,
NOAA, Aeronomy
Laboratory
(Award 1996)
Dr. Robert Watson,
World Bank
(Award 1.994)
Dr. Peyton Weary,
University of Virginia,
Department of
Dermatology
(Award 1995)
Dr. F. Sherwood Rowland, University of California, Irvine, in 1974 proposed,
with Dr. Mario Molina, the theory that CFCs deplete die ozone layer. He was a
persistent developer of atmospheric models, inventive collector of data, and strong
advocate of ozone layer protection.

Dr. Susan Solomon, NOAA, Aeronomy Laboratory, made major contributions to
understanding ozone depletion and to the search for solutions. In 1985, she point-
ed out diat polar stratospheric clouds could be the key to the special chemistry
leading to the Antarctic ozone hole. She was then chosen by her international col-
leagues to be the leader of the pivotal National Ozone Expeditions  including the
first expedition to Antarctica in 1986, which provided experimental evidence for
the chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds. She also provided improved scientific
understanding of the meaning of ODPs and has been a leader in quantifying the
ozone-depleting and climate-relevant  roles of an array of substitute gases. In major
field campaigns, she and her colleagues gathered evidence that proved her polar
stratospheric clouds theory to be correct.

Dr. Robert Watson, "World Bank, and Dr. Daniel L. Albritton have co-chaired the
Montreal Protocol's Scientific Assessment Panel since the assessment process was
initiated in 1988. These reports present the state-of-the-science of atmospheric
ozone and have provided a strong basis for policy decisions. Both the integrity of
the process he has created and the worldwide acceptance of the assessment docu-
ments have been a fundamental driving force in the success of the Montreal
Protocol. In addition to leadership in the assessment process, he effectively directed
scientific research efforts toward improved understanding in key areas of uncertain-
ty, such as the causes of the Antarctic ozone hole, the ozone trends  panel,  and the
role of heterogeneous chemistry.

Dr. Peyton Weary, University of Virginia, Department of Dermatology, was
instrumental as the president of the American Academy of Dermatology in con-
vincing many other medical organizations to support the UV Index. Additionally,
he organized the Melanoma/Skin Cancer Screening Program in Virginia in the
1960s, which, supported by the Academy, has since been expanded nationwide.
                                                                   Other Champion Award Winners   107

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Conclusion:
A  Look at Tomorrow
I
    n working together to save the world's ozone layer, industry, government, and
    NGOs proved that necessity brings about innovative solutions. Through dedi-
    cation, sacrifice, hard work, and compromise, these winners have succeeded in
    eliminating the need for most ODSs.
  Following the success of the phaseout of ODSs in developed countries, it would
be easy simply to congratulate the past winners and to stop at that point. But the
lines of communication opened by all of these champions are too valuable to
lose—and must be maintained to solve future environmental problems.
  As efforts to eliminate ODSs have shown, solutions must be acceptable to all
interests in order to succeed. Industrial leaders must cooperate among themselves
and with governments and NGOs to find such solutions. This process has proven
itself in the fight to save the ozone layer, and it will continue to demonstrate suc-
cesses in the future.
  Congratulations, winners—the champions of
the stratospheric ozone success story. Thank you
for clearing the way for even more cooperation
and problem-solving as the turn of the century
approaches and new challenges appear.
                                           "EPA's voluntary 'Green Lights' and 'Energy
                                           Star' programs have their roots in the pioneer-
                                           ing cooperative work with industry started by
                                           Dr. Stephen O. Andersen.  Business and govern-
                                           ment worked together to find profitable ways
                                           to protect the environment. The opportunities
                                           are there but we all need each other to get
                                           the job done."

                                                                John Hoffman (Award 1994)
                                           Director, Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division, EPA
                                                                          Conclusion  109

-------
                     "Seiko Epson's campaign to protect the stratospheric ozone layer showed
                     us just how important it is to set the highest possible targets and charge
                     ahead toward those targets as a team. We found that top manage-
                     ment's strong commitment is very important to make a project success-
                     ful.  If you attract different types of people to a project who all share the
                     same determination to make things happen, you can generate new ideas
                     that under normal circumstances would never  come out.

                     "We think the kind of global technical cooperation experienced during
                     the  ozone layer protection movement can serve as a valuable model for
                     climate change activities in the future.

                     "Our ODS elimination campaign has emphasized solutions to global
                     issues through cooperation  rather than competition. We therefore chose
                     to share our experience and technology as  widely as possible and to
                     open the technologies we have developed to the public.

                     "We plan to use this experience in future environmental activities to
                     address the various problems that confront us."

                                                               Kaichi Hasegawa (Award 1996)
                                                                             Seiko Epson
110  Champions of the World

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APPENDIX  A
Stratospheric Ozone Protection
Award Winners,  1990-1996
1990
 Corporate Awards
 Digital Equipment Corporation
 Dolco Packaging
 DuPont Company

 Association Awards
 National Fire Protection Association
 Foodservice &C Packaging Institute
 The Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging
   Electronic Circuits
 The Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy
 Mobile Air-Conditioning Society

 Laboratory Award
 Underwriters Laboratories
Individual Awards
Ward Atkinson, Sun Test Engineering*
James A. Baker, General Motors*
Jay Baker, Ford Electronics*
David Bergman, IPC
James R. Beyreis, Underwriters Laboratories
David Chittick, AT&T
Joe Felty, Texas Instruments*
Art FitzGerald, Nortel/Northern Telecom*
Donald Grab,  Underwriters Laboratories
Leslie Guth, AT&T*
Kathi Johnson, China Lake Navy Weapons Center
   Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility
Dr. William Kenyon, Global Centre for Process Change*
Dr. Margaret Kerr, Nortel/Northern Telecom
Simon Oulouhojian, MACS*
Robin Sellers, Naval Avionics Center
Gary Taylor, Taylor/Wagner*
 *Member UNEP TEAP or its TOCs, Working Groups, or Task Forces.
 **Member of UNEP Science Assessment Panel.
                           Appendix A   111

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1991
 Corporate Awards
 Hitachi
 Motorola
 Nissan Motor Company
 Nortel/Northern Telecom
 TEAM Aer Lingus
 3M

 Association Awards
 Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
 The Industry Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection
 The Japan Electrical Manufacturers' Associatio'n
 Secretaria de Desarollo Urbano y Ecologia
       Individual Awards
       Elizabeth Cook, Friends of the Earth*
       Jorge Corona, Camara Nacional de la Industria
          de la Transformacion*
       Thomas E. Daum, U.S. Defense Reutilization
          & Marketing Service
       David Doniger, Natural Resources Defense Council*
       William Kopko, York International*
       Colin Lea, U.K. National Physical Laboratory
       Major E. Thomas Morehouse, Jr., U.S. Air Force*
       Richard Nusbaum, Pennsylvania Engineering*
       Robert C. Pfahl, Motorola
       Dr. Richard Stolarski, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center**
       Dennis Tober, Florida Department of Environmental
          Regulation
       Kjell Wetterlin, Astra 11-Draco
   112   Champions of the World
*Member UNEP TEAP or its TOCs, Working Groups, or Task Forces.
                  **Member of UNEP Science Assessment Panel.

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1992
 Corporate Awards
AT&T
The Boeing Company
British Aerospace Airbus
Chrysler Corporation
Ford Motor
General Dynamics
    Space Systems Division
    Fort Worth Division
IBM
    Endicott, New York
    Rochester, Minnesota
ICI Chemicals and Polymers
McQuay International
Mercedes-Benz
Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division Lakehurst
RECTICEL International
Seiko Epson
The Trane Company
York International
Individual Awards
Bryan H. Baxter, British Aerospace*
Philip J. DiNenno, Hughes Associates*
Stephen Peter EvanofF III, General Dynamics*
Yoshiyuki Ishii, Hitachi*
Colin Lewis, U.K. Ministry of Defence
Milton Lubraico, Ford Motor*
Shigeo Matsui, Toshiba*
Alan S. Miller, Center for Global Change*
Geno Nardini, Institute Mexicano del Aerosol*
Tony L. Phillips, General Dynamics
Dr. Laura J. Turbini, Georgia Institute of Technology
Henry J. Weltman, General Dynamics
Association Awards
Camara Nacional de la Industria de la Transformacion
Halon Alternative Research Corporation
Halon Essential Use Panel—EPA, Victoria, Australia
The Swedish Institute of Production Engineering
    Research (IVF)
Royal Norwegian Navy Materiel Command
U.S. Army Acquisition Pollution Prevention
    Support Office
 *Member UNEP TEAP or its TOCs, Working Groups, or Task Forces.
 **Member of UNEP Science Assessment Panel.
                              Appendix A  113

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1993
 Corporate Awards
AUiedSignjd
Boeing Commercial Airplane Group
Cadbury
Charles County Board of Education
The Coca-Cola Company
Compaq Computer
Copeland
Defense Electronics Supply Center
Defense Logistics Agency
Department of the Navy—U.S. Chief of Naval Operations
GEC-Marconi, Hirst Research Centre
General Services Administration
HH1AFB
Hughes Aircraft
IBM—Austin, Texas
Kelly AFB, Texas
Lufthansa  German Airlines
Martin Marietta Astronautics
Matsushita Electric Industrial
Mincbca Group Companies in Thailand and Japan
Motorola—Malaysian Project
National Refrigerants
Naval Aviation Depot, Cherry Point
Naval Aviation Depot, Norfolk
New York  State Energy Research and Development
   Authority—HFC Supermarket Refrigeration
   Demonstration Team
Nippondenso
Rockwell International/U.S. Army Air-To-Ground
   Missile Systems Project Office
J. Sainsbury
Shaw's Supermarkets
          Texas Instruments, Missile Systems Division
          Thioko, Space Operations
          Union Carbide/EKCO Housewares/Nordson
          Unitor Ships Service
          U.S. Air Force, Air Base Fire Protection and
              Crash Rescue Systems Branch
          Volvo Cars of North America
          Woolworths Limited (Australia)

          Association Awards
          Center for Emissions Control
          Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Institute
              of Canada
          ICOLP/ICEL
          Japan Industrial Conference for Ozone Layer Protection
          Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers' Association
          Individual Awards
          Robert Carter, "Waste Reduction Resource Center
              for the Southeast
          Nicholas T. Castellucci, Northrop Grumman
          David V. Catchpole, BP Exploration (Alaska)*
          Eileen Claussen, U.S. Department of State
          Timothy Crawford, EMPF
          Michael Earl Dillon, Dillon Consulting Engineers
          Carl Eckersley, Compaq Computer
          Carole K. Ellenberger, Texas Instruments
          Kevin Fay, The Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy*
          John Fischer, Naval Air "Warfare Center
          Yuichi Fujimoto, Japan Electrical Manufacturers'
              Association*
          Dr. Michael Hayes, Petroferm
   114   Champions of the World
*Member UNEP TEAP or its TOCs, Working Groups, or Task Forces.
                  **Member of UNEP Science Assessment Panel.

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Andrea Hinwood, Environmental Protection Authority
    (Australia)*
Arthur G. Hobbs, Jr., Four Seasons Division of
    Standard Motor Products
Dr. Mike Jeffs, ICI Polyurethanes*
Nancy Ketcham-Colwill, EPA Office of General Counsel
Dr. Lambert Kuijpers, UNEP Technology
    and Economic Assessment Panel*
Steve Lee-Bapty, UK Department of the Environment*
Kenneth W. Manz, Robinair Division, SPX*
Thomas J. Mathews, Hannaford Brothers
Yasuo Mitsugi, Seiko Epson
Tsuneya Nakamura, Seiko Epson
Sergio Oxman, KIEN Consultants, Chile*
Cynthia Pruett, IBM Asia Pacific*
E Sherwood Rowland, University of California, Irvine**
Terry Schaumberg, San Antonio Air Logistics Center
Angle Criser Schurig, Texas Instruments
Yoshihide Shibano, S&C
Dr. John R. Stemniski, The Charles Stark
    Draper Laboratory*
Dr. Robert E. Tapscott, New Mexico Engineering
    Research Institute *
Steven D. Taylor, BP Exploration (Alaska)
Dr. Mostafa Tolba,  International Centre for
    Environment and Development, Cairo and Second
    Executive  Director of UNEP
Gary D. Vest, Principal Assistant Deputy
    Undersecretary of Defense (Environmental Security)
Clare Vinton, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences
EA. (Tony) Vogelsberg, DuPont*
Carmen C. Waschek, The Coca-Cola Company
Udo G. Wenning, Bosch-Siemens
Dr. Masaaki Yamabe, Asahi Glass*
*Member UNEP TEAP or its TOCs, Working Groups, or Task Forces.
**Member of UNEP Science Assessment Panel.
Appendix A  115

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1994
 Corporate Awards
 Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright Laboratory, Aircraft
    Halon Replacement Team, Wright-Patterson AFB
 The Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center, Newark
    AFB, Ohio
 U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command/
    Tobyhanna Depot
 Asahi Glass
 Carrier
 Falcon Halon Team, Wright-Patterson AFB
 Ford Motor
 General Motors
 Hewlett-Packard
 Honeywell
 Hussmann
 ICI Polyurethanes
 Lockheed
 Martin Marietta
 Mitsubishi FJectric
 Norsk Forsvarsteknologi
 Northrop Grumman
 Saab-Scania
 Separation Technologists
 Tecumseh Products
 Toyota Motor

Association Awards
Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program, ARI
 National Association of Fire Equipment Distributors
        Individual Awards
        Dr. Daniel Albritton, National Oceanigraphic and
           Atmospheric Administration * **
        Dr. Walter Brunner, envico*
        Brian Ellis, Protonique*
        Lt. General James A. Fain, Jr., Aeronautical Systems
           Center., Wright-Patterson AFB
        Mary Beth Fennell, Naval Aviation Depot, Cherry Point
        Tetsuro Fukushima, Hitachi, Environmental Policy Office
        Victor Gatt, Malta Department of Industry
        Charles Hancock, MDT*
       John Hathaway, Arizona Department of
           Environmental Quality
       John Hoffman, U.S. EPA*
        Robert Holcomb, Motorola
       Joel Krinsky, U.S. Navy
        Dr. Barbara Kucnerowicz-Polak, State Fire Service
           Headquarters, Poland*
       Eduardo Lopez, FONDOIN
       Dr. Mohinder Malik, Deutsche Lufthansa*
       Marion McQuaide, U.K. Ministry of Defence*
       Alvin Miller, National Weather Service
       Tsutomu Odagiri, Japan Industrial Conference for
          Ozone Layer Protection
       Steven Rasmussen, Hill AFB
       Dr. Wallace Rubin, Multicore
       Franklin Sheppard, Jr., Office of the Chief of Naval
          Operations, U.S. Navy
       Steven Shimberg, U.S.  Senate Committee on
          Environment and Public Works
       Ronald Sibley, Defense Logistics Agency*
       Jack Swindle, Texas Instruments
       James Vincent, U.S. Army Aviation and Troop Command
       Dr. Robert Watson, NASA* **
       Hideaki Yasukawa,  Seiko  Epson
   116   Champions of the World
*Member UNEP TEAP or its TOCs, Working Groups, or Task Forces.
                  **Member of UNEP Science Assessment Panel.

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1995
 Corporate Awards
Aberdeen Test Center, U.S. Army
Advanced Cruise Missile DSO, U.S. Air Force
AGM-130 Systems Program Office, U.S. Air Force
Annapolis Detachment, Carderock Division, Naval
    Surface Warfare Center, U.S. Navy
Australian Department of Administrative Services
    Centre for Environmental Management
Beverage-Air
Defence Institute of Fire Research, India
Dixie-Narco
Electrical & Mechanical Services Department,
    Hong Kong Government
Epson Hong Kong Group
GEO-CENTERS
H.B. Fuller
Low-Residue Soldering Task Force
Navy Technology Center for Safety & Survivability,
    U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
Ontario Hydro
SANYO Electric
Sea-Land Service
Sharp
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board—
    formerly named the Singapore Institute of
    Standards and Industrial  Research
Texas Instruments
Titan IV Program ODS Reduction Team
Toshiba
USBI
Xerox
 Association Awards
 Air-Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute
 CFC Destruction Plasma Project, Clean Japan Center
 Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan
 Industry Technician Certification Team
 Refrigerant Reclaim Australia
 Singapore Institute of Standards and
    Industrial Research

 Individual Awards
 Neil Antin, U.S. Naval Sea Systems Command
 Craig Barkhouse, Foamex Canada*
 David Breslin, U.S. Naval Sea Systems Command
 Robert V. Burress, SEHO USA
 Denis Clodic, Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre
    d'Energetique*
 Bjorn Egeland, Consolve A.S.
 Lt. Commander Robert Gay, U.S. Defense
    Logistics Agency
 Herbert T. Gilkey, Engineering Consultants*
 Casey Grant, National Fire Protection Association
 Michael C. Grieco, ICBM Systems Program Office,
    U.S. Air Force
 Dr. John Grupenhoff, National association of Physicians
    for the Environment
 Dr. Joop Van Haasteren, Ministry of Housing, Spatial
    Planning and the Environment*
 Masatoshi Kinoshita, Japan Industrial Conference
    on Cleaning
 Hiroshi Kurita, Japan Association for Hygiene
    of Chlorinated Solvents*
 Michael J. Leake, Texas Instruments
 Captain Cynthia Lingg, U.S. Air Force
 Hitoshi Mamiya, Honda Motors
 C.K. Marfatia, Real Value Appliances
James A. Mertens, Dow Chemical*
*Member UNEP TRAP or its TOCs, Working Groups, or Task Forces.
**Member of UNEP Science Assessment Panel.
                               Appendix A   117

-------
John Minskcr, The Dow Chemical*
David Mueller, Fumigation Service and Supply*
Goro Ogino, Minebea
Douglas O. Pauls, Contamination Studies Laboratories
Jose Pons Pons, Spray Quimica*
Dr. A.R. Ravishankara, National Oceanic and
    Atmospheric Administration—Aeronomy Laboratory **
Yasuomi Tanaka, Weyerhaeuser, Timberlands
    Nursery Team
Dr. Daniel P. Verdonik, Hughes Associates*
Dr. Hans U. WSckerlig, Swiss Institute for the
    Promotion of Safety & Security
Dr. Peyton Weary, University of Virginia
George H. White, Special Agent, U.S. Customs Service,
    Miami, Florida
James Wolf, American Standard
    118   Champions of the World
*Member UNEP TEAP or its TOCs, Working Groups, or Task Forces.
                   **Member of UNEP Science Assessment Panel.
                                                                                                            .

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 1996
 Corporate Awards
 Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle, U.S. Marine Corps
 AlliedSignal/Carrier
 Baxter Limited
 Center for Technical Excellence for ODC Solvents
 Draper Laboratory
 F/A-18 Program Office and V-22 Program Office,
    U.S.  Navy
 Tank-Automotive Research, Development, Engineering
    Center, Survivability Technology Area, Halon
    Replacement Team, U.S. Army
 ICBM System Program Office, U.S. Air Force
 International Institute of Refrigeration/Institut
    International Du Froid
 Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems
 Lockheed Martin Skunk Works
 Ministry of Science, Technology, and the
    Environment, Malaysia
 The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun
 Operation Cool Breeze Enforcement Team
 Philadelphia Detachment of the Carderock Division of
    the Naval Warfare Center, HFC Shipboard
    Conversion Team, U.S. Navy
 Sanden
 3M Pharmaceuticals
 Tyler Refrigeration
 Association Awards
 Association of Fluorocarbon Consumers and
    Manufacturers of Australia
 Halon Recycling & Banking Support Committee, Japan
 International Institute of Refrigeration
 International Mobile Air Conditioning Association
Japan Industrial Conference on Cleaning
The Refrigerant Import Committee of the Alliance for
    Responsible Atmospheric Policy
 Swedish Refrigeration Foundation
 Individual Awards
 Dr. Jonathan Banks, CSIRO Division of Entomology*
 Thomas A. Bush, U.S. Army
 G. Victor Buxton, Environment Canada*
 Dr. Frank Gala, Church & Dwight
 Dr. Suely M. Carvalho, Companhia de Tecnologia de
    Saneamento Ambiental*
 Dr. Stephen DeCanio, University of California*
 Kaichi Hasegawa, Seiko Epson
 Barbara Kanegsberg, BFK Solutions
 Takeshi Kawand, Dai-Ichi Kogyo Seiyaku.
 John King,  U.S. Air Force
 Jean M. Lupinacci,  EPA*
 Trish MacQuarrie, Environment Canada*
 Dr. Melanie Miler, Consultant*
 Peter Mullenhard, U.S. Navy Clearinghouse
 Larry Novak, Texas  Instruments
John O'Sullivan, British Airways*
 K. Madhava Sarma, UNEP Montreal Protocol Secretariat*
 Stephen Seidel, U.S. Council for Environmental Quality*
 Dr. Ronald S. Sheinson, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory*
Dr. Susan Solomon, National Oceanic and
   Atmospheric Administration**
Tsuyoshi Takaichi, Showa Denko
Yuji Yamazaki, Seiko Epson
Kiyoshige Yokoi, Matsushita
*Member UNEP TEAP or its TOCs, Working Groups, or Task Forces.
**Member of UNEP Science Assessment Panel.
                              Appendix A   119

-------

-------
APPENDIX  B
Matrix of Award Winners' Affiliations

*An organization is considered affiliated with an association if that
organization has been a member of the association. An individual is
considered affiliated with an association if the sponsor of the individual
is a member of the association or if the individual was a contributor to
a significant publication of that association. TEAP Sponsors are
organizations that contributed experts to the TEAP, TOCs, Working
Groups, or Task Forces.

Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
                 Government
Year   Country    Affiliation
                                                          UNEP
                    ICEL    JEMA
           Alliance*  ICOLP*  JICOP*   HARC*
INDIVIDUALS
Albritton, Daniel L., National
Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA)—
Aeronomy Laboratory
1994   USA
                 Science
                               MBTOC
                               SAP
Antin, Neil, U.S. Naval
Sea Systems Command
1995    USA
                 Defense
                                                   Yes
Atkinson, Ward, Sun Test
Engineering
1990   USA
                               RTOC
Baker, James A. General
Motors Corporation
1990   USA
                               RTOC
                                         Yes
Baker, Jay, Ford Motor
Company
1990
       USA
                               STOC
                                         Yes
                                                   Yes
Banks, Jonathan,
Commonwealth Scientific
and Industrial Research
Organization (CSIRO)
1996    Australia    Agriculture
MBTOC
TEAP
Barkhouse, Craig, Foamex Canada   1995   Canada
                              PTOC
Baxter, Bryan H., British
Aerospace
1992
       UK
                              STOC
                                                   Yes
Bergman, David, IPC
1990    USA
                                                                              Yes
Beyreis, James R.,
Underwriters Laboratories
1990    USA
Breslin, David, U.S. Naval
Sea Systems Command
1995    USA
                 Defense
                                                  Yes
                                                                                   Appendix B   121

-------
Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
                    Government
Year    Country     Affiliation      UNEP
                                      ICEL    JEMA
                           Alliance*   ICOLP*  JICOP*   HARC*
Brunncr, Walter, Envico
1994    Switzerland
               HTOC
               TEAP
Burress, Robert V., SEHO
1995    USA
Bush, Thomas, U.S. Army
ODS Elimination Program
1996    USA
                                                   Defense
                                   HTOC
                                                                                          Yes
                                                                                                           Yes
Buxton, Victor G.,
Environment Canada
                                1996   Canada     Environment     TEAP
Cala, Frank, Church & Dwight
1996    USA
Carter, Robert, Waste
Reduction Resource
Center for the Southeast
1993    USA
Carvalho, Suely Maria
Machado, San Paulo
Environmental Agency
Companhia de Tccnologia
1996    Brazil
Environment    RTF
               TEAP
Castellueei, Nicholas T.,
Northrop Corporation
1993    USA
Catchpole, David P., BP
Exploration (Alaska)
Clodlc, Denis, Ecole des
Mines de Paris, Centre
d'Energitique
1993    USA
                                                                   HTOC
                                                                               Yes
                                                                                                            Yes
Chittfck, David, AT&T
Claussen, Eileen,
Depanmcnt of State
1990
1993
USA
USA

Foreign
Service
Yes Yes
Yes
 1995    France
                                                                   RTOC
Cook, Liz, Friends of the
Earth
 1991    USA
                                                                   MBTOC
Corona, Jorge, Camara
Nacional de la Industria
dc la Transformacion
                                1991    Mexico
                                    STOC
                                    TEAP
Crawford, Timothy,
Electronics Manufacturing
Productivity Facility
(EMPF)
 1993    USA        Defense
                                                                                          Yes
 Daum, Thomas E., US.
 Defense Reutllization &
 Marketing Service
 1991    USA        Defense
                                                                                          Yes
 DcCanio, Stephen,
 Economics Department,
 University of California
                                1996    USA        Education       HOC
 Dillon, Michael Earl,
 Dillon Consulting Engineers
 1993   USA
 DiNenno, Philip J.,
 Hughes Associates
 1992   USA
                                                                   HTOC
                                                                                                            Yes
 Donigcr, David, Natural
 Resources Defense Council
 1991   USA
                                                                   MBTOC
    122   Champions of the World

-------
 Stratospheric Protection
 Award Winner
                     Government
 Year    Country     Affiliation     UNEP
            ICEL    JEMA
Alliance*   ICOLP*  JICOP*   HARC*
 Eckersley, Carl, Compaq
 Computer
 1993    USA
Fukushima, Tetsuro,
Environmental Policy
Office, Hitachi
1994    Japan
                                                            Yes
Egeland, Bjorn, Consolve
Ellenberger, Carole K.,
Texas Instruments
Ellis, Brian, Protonique
Evanoff, Stephen Peter III,
General Dynamics
Fain, Lt. General James A.,
1993
1994
1995
1992
1994
USA LAWG Yes
Switzerland STOC Yes
Norway
USA STOC Yes
USA Defense Yes
Aeronautical Systems Center,
Wright-Paterson AFB
Fay, Kevin, The Alliance
for Responsible CFC Policy
Felty, Joe, Texas Instruments
Fennell, Mary Beth, Naval
Aviation Depot
Fischer, John, Naval Air
Warfare Center
FitzGerald, Arthur, Nortel
Northern Telecom
Fujimoto, Yuichi, Japan
Electrical Manufacturers'
Association
1993
1990
1994
1993
1990
1993
USA IAWG Yes
PAWG
USA STOC Yes
USA Defense Yes
USA Defense Yes
Canada STOC Yes
Japan STOC Yes Yes
TEAP
           Yes
                    Yes
Gatt, Victor, Malta
Department of Industry
1994    Malta       Environment
Gay, Lt. Commander Robert,
U.S. Defense Logistics Agency
1995    USA
                    Defense
                                                            Yes
Gilkey, Herbert T.,
Engineering Consultants
1995    USA
                                    RTOC
Grant, Casey, National
Fire Protection Association
1995    USA
                                                                              Yes
Grieco, Michael C., ICBM
Systems Program Office,
U.S. Air Force
1995    USA
                    Defense
                                                            Yes
Grob, Donald,
Underwriters Laboratories
1990    USA
Grupenhoff, John, National
Association of Physicians
for the Environment
1995    USA
Guth, Leslie, AT&T
                                 1990    USA
                                                                    STOC
                                                                                 Yes
                                                                                            Yes
                                                                                                   Appendix B   123

-------
Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
Year   Country
                   Government
                   Affiliation      UNEP
           ICEL    JEMA
Alliance*   ICOLP*  JICOP*   HARC*
Hancock, Charles, MDT
1994   USA
                                                                APTOC
Corporation Hasegawa,
Kaichi, Seiko Epson
1996   Japan
                                                                                       Yes      Yes
Hathaway, John, Arizona
Department of
Environmental Quality
1994    USA
                                                  Environment    MBTOC
Hayes, Michael, Petroferm
1993    USA
Hlnwood, Andrea,
Environmental Protection
Authority
1993    Australia    Environment    APTOC
                                  TEAP
Hobbs, Arthur G., Jr. ,
Four Seasons Division
Hoffman, John, US. EPA
Holcomb, Robert, Motorola
Ishii, Yoshiyuki, Hitachi
Jeffs, Mike, ICI Polyurethanes
Johnson, Kathi, China Lake
Navy Weapons Center,
Electronics Manufacturing
Production Facility (EMPF)
Kancgsbcrg, Barbara, BFK
Solutions
Kawano, Takeshi. Dai-Ichi
Kogyo Sciyaku
Kenyon, William, DuPont
Company
Kcrr, Margaret, Nortel
Northern Telecom
Kclcham-Colwill, Nancy,
US. EPA Office of General
Council
King, John, Manager,
ODS Removal Program, San
Antonio Air Logistics Center,
Texas
Kinoshita, Masatoshi,
Japan Industrial
Conference on Cleaning fJICC)
Kopko, William, York
International
Krinsky, Joel, U.S. Naval
Sea Systems Command
Kuencrowlcz-Polak,
Barbara, State Fire Service
Headquarters
1993
1994
1994
1992
1993
1990
1996
1996
1990
1990
1993
1996
1995
1991
1994
1994
USA
USA Environment EOC Yes
USA Yes
Japan STOC Yes Yes
UK FTOC Yes
USA Defense Yes
USA
Japan Yes
USA STOC Yes Yes
Canada Yes
USA Environment Yes
USA Defense Yes
Japan Yes Yes
USA RTOC Yes
USA Defense Yes
Poland Fire Service HTOC
TEAP
    124   Champions of the World

-------
 Stratospheric Protection
 Award Winner
                     Government
                                 Year    Country    Affiliation    UNEP
                                                            ICEL    JEMA
                                                 Alliance*   ICOLP*  JICOP*   HARC*
Kuijpers, Lambert, UNEP 1993 Netherlands
Technology and Economic
Assessment Panel
Kurita, Hiroshi, Japan 1995 Japan
Association for Hygiene of
Chlorinated Solvents (JAHCS)
CEITWG
RTF RTOC
TBAP
LAWG STOC
PAWG

Yes Yes
 Lea, Colin, U.K. National
 Physical Laboratory
 1991    UK
                     Science
 Leake, Michael J., Texas
 Instruments
 1995    USA
                                                            Yes
 Lee-Bapty, Steve, UK
 Department of the Environment
 1993    UK
                     Environment    TEAP
 Lewis, Colin, United
 Kingdom Ministry of Defence
 1992    UK
                     Defense
                                                            Yes
 Lingg, Captain Cynthia,
 U.S. Air Force
 1995    USA
                     Defense
                                                            Yes
 Lopez, Eduardo, FONDOIN
 1994   Venezuela    Environment
 Lubraico, Milton, Ford
 Motor Company
 1992   Brazil
                                    STOC
                                                Yes
                                                            Yes
 Lupinacci, Jean,
 Atmospheric Pollution
 Prevention Division, U.S. EPA
 1996    USA
                    Environment    FTOC
                                    TEAP
Yes
MacQuarrie, P. Irish,
Global Air Issues Branch,
Environment Canada
Malik, Mohinder, Deutsche
Lufthansa
1996 Canada


1994 Germany

Environment LAWG
PAWG
TEAP
STOC
TEAP
Yes


Yes

Mamiya, Hitoshi, Honda
Motors
1995    Japan
                                                                    Yes
Manz, Kenneth W, Robinair
Division, SPX Corporation
1993    USA
                                    RTOC
                                                Yes
Marfatia, C. K., Real
Value Appliances
1995    India
Mathews, Thomas J.,
Hannaford Brothers
1993    USA
Matsui, Shigeo, Toshiba
1992    Japan
                                                                    STOC
                                                                                           Yes      Yes
McQuaide, Marion, United
Kingdom Ministry of Defense
1994    UK
                    Defense
                                   HTOC
Mertens, James A., Dow
Environmental
1995    USA
                                   STOC
                                               Yes
                                                                   Yes
Miller, Alan S., Center for
Global Change
1992    USA
                    Education
                                   EOC
                                   MBTOC
Miller, Alvin, National
Weather Service
1994    USA
                    Science
                                                                                                  Appendix B   125

-------
Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
Miller, Melanie, Consultant
Mlnsker, John, The Dow
Chemical Company
Mitsugi, Yasuo, Seiko Epson
Morehouse, Major Edward T.,
US. Air Fo«e
Mueller, David,
Fumigation Service and Supply
Mullenhard, Peter, U.S. Navy's
CFC & Halon Clearinghouse Team
Year
1996
1995
1993
1991
1995
1996
Government
Country Affiliation
New Zealand
USA
Japan
USA Defense
USA
USA Defense
ICEL JEMA
UNEP Alliance* ICOLP* JICOP* HARC*
EOC
MBTOC
FTOC Yes
Yes
HTOC Yes Yes
TEAP
MBTOC
Yes Yes
Nafcamura, Tsuneya,
Seiko Epson

N.irdini, Gcno, Institute
Mcxicano del Aerosol

Novak, Larry, Texas
Instruments

Nusbaum, Richard,
Pennsylvania Engineering
Company

O'Sullivan, John, British
Airways

Odagiri, Tsutomu, Japan
Industrial Conference for
Ozone Layer Protection
(JICOP)
1993    Japan
1992    Mexico
1996    USA
1991    USA
1996    UK
1994    Japan
                                   APTOC
                                   APTOC
                                   HTOC
                                                                                                  Yes
                                                          Yes
                                                                   Yes
                                                                            Yes
Ogino, Goro, Minebea
Oulouhojian, Simon, MACS
Oxman, Sergio, KIEN Consultants
Pauls, Douglas O,,
Contamination Studies
Laboratories
Pfahl, Robert C., Motorola
Phillips, Tony L., General
Dynamics Corporation
Pom Pons, Jose, Spray
Quimka
Pruett, Cynthia, IBM Asia
Pacific
1995
1990
1993
1995
1991
1992
1995
1993
Japan Yes
USA Yes
Chile EOC PATF
RTF
USA
USA Yes
USA Yes
Venezuela APTOC RTF
TEAP
USA STOC Yes
 Rasmussen, Steven, Hill
 Air Force Base
 1994    USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                                           Yes
    126   Champions of the World

-------
Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
                    Government
Year    Country    Affiliation    UNEP
                                       ICEL    JEMA
                            Alliance*  ICOLP*  JICOP*  HARC*
Ravishankara, A.R.,
National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration-
Aeronomy Laboratory
1995    USA
                    Science
                                    SAP
Rowland, F. Sherwood,
University of California,
Irvine
1993    USA        University       SAP
Rubin, Wallace, Multicore
1994    UK
Sarma, 1C Madhava, UNEP
Secretariat
1996    India
                                    PAWG
                                    TEAP
Schaumberg, Terry, U.S. Air
Force, San Antonio Air
Logistics Center
1993    USA
Defense
                                                           Yes
Schurig, Angie Criser,
Texas Instruments
1993    USA
                                                           Yes
Seidel, Stephen,
President's Council for
Environmental Quality
1996    USA
                    Environment     MBTOC
Sellers, Robin, Naval
Avionics Center
1990    USA
Defense
                                                           Yes
Sheinson, Ronald, U.S.
Naval Research Laboratory
1996    USA
Defense
                                    HTOC
                                                           Yes
                                                                             Yes
Sheppard, Franklin Jr.,
U.S. Navy
1994    USA
                    Defense
                                                           Yes
                                                                             Yes
Shibano, Yoshihide, S&C
                                1993    Japan
                                                                    Yes
Shimberg, Steven, U.S.
Senate Committee on
Environment and Public Works
1994    USA        Legislature
Sibley, Ronald, Defense
Logistics Agency
1994    USA
                    Defense
                                    HTOC
                                                           Yes
                                                                             Yes
Solomon, Susan, National
Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration— Aeronomy
Laboratory
1996    USA
                    Science
                                    SAP
Stemniski, John R., The
Charles Stark Draper
Laboratory
1993    USA
                                    STOC
                                                           Yes
Stolarski, Richard, NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center
1991    USA
                    Science
                                    SAP
Swindle, Jack, Texas
Instruments
1994    USA
                                                           Yes
Takaichi, Tsuyoshi, Showa
Denko
1996    Japan
                                                Yes
Tanaka, Yasuomi,
Timberlands Nursery
Team, Weyerhaeuser
1995    USA
                                                                                                  Appendix B    127

-------
Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
Tapscott, Robert E., New
Mexico Engineering
Research Institute (NMERI)
Taylor, Gary,
Taylor/Wagner
Taylor, Steven D., BP
Exploration (Alaska)
Tober, Dennis, Florida
Department of
Environmental Regulation
Tolba, Mostafa, Second
Executive Director of UNEP
Turbinl, Laura J., Georgia
Institute of Technology
Government ICEL JEMA
Year Country Affiliation UNEP Alliance* ICOLP* JICOP* HARC*
1993 USA HTOC Yes Yes
1990 Canada HTOC Yes
ATF
TEAP
1993 USA Yes Yes
1991 USA Environment
1993 Egypt
1992 USA Education
Van Haasteren, Joop,
Ministry of Housing,
Spatial Planning and
the Environment
1995    Netherlands  Environment    MBTOC
Vcrdonik, Daniel P.,
Hughes Associates
1995    USA
                                   HTOC
                                                          Yes
                                                                                                            Yes
Vest, Gary D., Deputy
Assistant Secretary of the
Air Force
1993    USA         Defense
                                                                                          Yes
                                                                                                            Yes
Vincent, James, U.S.
Army Aviation and Troop
Command
1994    USA         Defense
                                                                                          Yes
Vinton, Clare, National
Center for Manufacturing
Sciences
1993    USA
Vogelsberg. Anthony,
DuPont Company
1993    USA
                                   PATF
                                   PAWG
                                               Yes
Wackerllg, Hans U,, Swiss
Institute for the Promotion
of Safety & Security
1995    Switzerland
Wasehek, Carmen, The
Coca-Cola Company
1993    USA
Watson, Robert, NASA
1994    USA
                    Science
                                   MBTOC
                                    SAP
Weary, Peyton, University
ofVirginla
1995    USA
                    Education
Weltman, Henry J.,
General Dynamics Corporation
1992    USA
                                                          Yes
Wenning, Udo G.,
Bosch-Siemens
1993    Germany
Wctterlin, Kjell, Astra 11
Draco
1991    Sweden
    128    Champions of the World

-------
Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
                                Year    Country
                    Government
                    Affiliation    UNEP
                       ICEL     JEMA
            Alliance*   ICOLP*  JICOP*   HARC*
White, George H., U.S.
Customs Service
1995
        USA
                    Law Enforcement
Wolf, James, American
Standard
1995
        USA
                                               Yes
Yamabe, Masaaki, Asahi
Glass
1993
        Japan
STOC
                       Yes
                                Yes
Yamazaki, Yuji, Seiko Epson
1996
        Japan
                                Yes
Yasukawa, Hideaki, Seiko Epson    1994   Japan
                                                                   Yes
Yokoi, Kiyoshige,
Matsushita Refrigeration
1996    Japan
                                Yes
                                                                                                Appendix B    129

-------
Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
CORPORATIONS, MILITARY,
AlliedSignal
AlliedSlgnal/Carrier
AT&T
Asahi Glass
Australian Department of
Administrative Services
Centre for Environmental
Management DASCEM
Baxter Limited
Beverage-Air
Boeing Commercial
Airplane Group
Boeing Company
British Aerospace Airbus
Cadbury
Carrier
Carrier/AlliedSlgnal
Charles County Board of
Education
Chrysler Corporation
Coca-Cola Company
Compaq Computer
Copeland
Defence Institute of Fire
Research
Digital Equipment Corporation
Dixic-Nareo
Doko Packaging
Draper Laboratory
DuPont Company
Electrical & Mechanical
Services Department,
Hong Kong Government
Epson Hong Kong Group
(EPH & EHK)
Ford Motor Company
Year
Government
Country Affiliation
UNEP
ICEL JEMA
Alliance* ICOLP* JICOP* HARC*
GOVERNMENT
1993
1996
1992
1994
1995
1996
1995
1993
1992
1992
1993
1994
1996
1993
1992
1993
1993
1993
1995
1990
1995
1990
1996
1990
1995
1995
1992
USA
USA
USA
Japan
Australia Environment
Malta
USA
USA
USA
UK
UK
USA
USA
USA Education
USA
USA
USA
USA
India Defense Fire
Service
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
Hong-Kong Engineering
Hong-Kong
USA
Sponsor
Sponsor
Sponsor
Sponsor



Sponsor
Sponsor
Sponsor

Sponsor
Sponsor




Sponsor
Sponsor
Sponsor


Sponsor
Sponsor


Sponsor
Yes
Yes
Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes


Yes
Yes Yes
Yes Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes



Yes
Yes

Yes


Yes
Yes Yes

Yes
Yes Yes
€1  130   Champions of the World

-------
Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
Ford Motor Company
GEC-Marconi, Hirst
Research Center
General Motors Corporation
General Services Administration
General Dynamics
Corporation
-General Dynamics Space
Systems Division
-General Dynamics - Fort
Worth Division
GEO-CENTERS
H. B. Fuller
Hewlett-Packard
Hitachi
Honeywell
Hughes Aircraft
Hussmann
IBM
-IBM , Endicott, New York
-IBM , Rochester, Minnesota
IBM, Austin, Texas
ICI Chemicals and Polymers
ICI Polyurethanes
Lockheed Corporation
Lockheed Martin
Aeronautical Systems
Lockheed Martin Skunk Works
Lufthansa German Airlines
Martin Marietta
Martin Marietta Astronautics
Matsushita Electric
Industrial Company
McQuay International
(formerly Snyder General
Corporation)
Mercedes-Benz
Minebea Group Companies
in Thailand and Japan
Ministry of Science,
Technology and the Environment
Year
1994
1993
1994
1993
1992
1995
1995
1994
1991
1994
1993
1994
1992
1993
1992
1994
1994
1996
1996
1993
1994
1993
1993
1992
1992
1993
1996
Country
USA
UK
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
Japan
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
UK
UK
USA
USA
USA
Germany
USA
USA
Japan
USA
Germany
Thailand
Malaysia
Government ICBL JEMA
Affiliation UNEP Alliance* ICOLP* JICOP* HARC*
Sponsor Yes Yes
Sponsor
Sponsor Yes
Operations
Sponsor Yes


Yes
Sponsor Yes Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Sponsor Yes
Sponsor Yes
Sponsor Yes
Sponsor Yes Yes
Sponsor Yes
Sponsor Yes
Yes
Sponsor


Sponsor Yes Yes
Yes

Yes
Environment
Appendix B   131

-------
Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
Mitsubishi Electric
Motorola
Motorola-Malaysian Project
National ChloroFluoro
Carbons Enforcement
Initiative, Operation Cool
Breeze Enforcement Team
National Refrigerants
New York State Energy
Research and Development
Authority-HFC Supermarket
Refrigeration Demonstration Team
Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun
Nippondenso Company
Nissan Motor Company
Norsk Forsvarsteknologi (NORSK)
Nortel/Northern Telecom
Northrop-Grumman
Ontario Hydro
RBCTICEL International
Rockwell International,
U.S. Army Air-to-Ground
Missile Systems Project Office
Royal Norwegian Navy
Materiel Command
Saab-Seania
Salnsbury
Sanden
SANW Electric
Sea-Land Service
Sccrctaria dc Desarollo
Urbano y Ecologia (SEDUE)
Seiko Epson
Separation Technologies
Sharp
Shaw's Supermarkets
TEAM Aer Lingus
Tecumseh Products
Year
1994
1991
1993
1996
1993
1993
1996
1993
1991
1994
1991
1994
. 1995
1992
1993
1992
1994
1993
1996
1995
1995
1991
1992
1994
1995
1993
1991
1994
Government ICEL JEMA
Country Affiliation UNEP Alliance* ICOLP* JICOP* HARC*
Japan Yes Yes
USA Yes
Malaysia Yes
USA Law
Enforcement
USA Yes
USA Energy
Japan
Japan Yes
Japan Yes
Norway
Canada Sponsor Yes
USA
Canada Yes
Belgium Sponsor
USA Defense
Norway Defense
Sweden Yes
UK Yes
Japan Yes
Japan Sponsor Yes
USA
Mexico Environment Sponsor
Japan Yes
USA
Japan Sponsor Yes
Japan
Ireland
USA Sponsor Yes
132   Champions of the World

-------
Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner Year
Texas Instruments, Missile 1993
Systems Division
Texas Instruments 1995
3M Company 1991
3M Pharmaceuticals 1996
Thiokol Corporation, Space 1993
Operations
Toshiba 1995
Toyota Motor Corporation 1994
Trane 1992
Tyler Refrigeration 1996
Underwriters Laboratories 1990
Union Carbide, BKCO 1993
Housewares, Nordson
U. S. Air Force, Advanced 1995
Cruise Missile DSO
U. S. Air Force, 1994
Aeronautical Systems Center,
Wright Laboratory, Aircraft Halon
Replacement Team,
Wright-Patterson Air
Force Base
U. S. Air Force, Aerospace 1994
Guidance and Metrology Center,
Newark Air Force Base, Ohio
U.S. Air Force, AGM-130 1995
System Program Office
U.S. Air Force, Air Base 1993
Fire Protection and Crash
Rescue Systems Branch
U. S. Air Force, Falcon 1994
Halon Team Wright-Paterson
Air Force Base
U. S. Air Force, Hill Air 1993
Force Base
U. S. Air Force, ICBM 1996
System Program Office
U. S. Air Force, Kelly Air 1993
Force Base
U.S. Air Force, Titan IV 1995
ODS Reduction Team
U S. Army, Aberdeen Test 1995
Center
Country
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
Japan
Japan
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
Defense
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
Government ICEL JEMA
Affiliation UNEP Alliance* ICOLP* JICOP* HARC*
Sponsor Yes
Sponsor Yes
Sponsor Yes Yes
Sponsor Yes
Yes
Sponsor Yes Yes
Yes
Sponsor Yes
Yes


Defense Yes
Defense Yes
Defense Sponsor Yes
Yes
Defense Yes
Defense Yes
Defense Yes
Defense Yes
Defense ' Yes
Defense Sponsor Yes
Defense Yes
Appendix B 133 ,^m
• •£.--"

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Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
Year    Country
                                                    Government
                                                    Affiliation     UNEP
                                                                                           ICEL    JEMA
                                                                               Alliance*   ICOLP*  JICOP*  HARC*
U,S. Army Acquisition
Pollution Prevention
Support Office
                                1992    USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                   Sponsor
                                                                                           Yes
U.S. Army Center for Technical
Excellence for ODC Solvents
                                1996    USA
U.S. Army
Communications-Electronics
Command (CECOM),
Tobyli.inn.i Depot
                                1994    USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                   Sponsor
                                                                                           Yes
tt S, Army, TACOM
Survivability Technology
Area-Halon Replacement Program
                                1996    USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                                           Yes
U S. Defense Electronics
Supply Center
                                1993    USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                                           Yes
U, S. Defense Logistics
Agency
                                1993    USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                   Sponsor
                                                                                           Yes
                                                                                                            Yes
U. S. Department of
Defense Low-Residue
Soldering Task Force
                                1995    USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                                           Yes
U. S. Marine Corps,
Advanced Amphibious
Assault Vehicle, Direct
Reporting Program Manager
                                1996
                                        USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                                           Yes
U, S. Navy, Annapolis
Detachment, Carderock
Division, Naval Surface
Warfare Center
                                1995    USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                                           Yes
U, S, Navy, Chief of Naval
Operations
                                1993   USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                                           Yes
U. S. Navy F/A-18
Program Office and V-22
Program Office
                                1996   USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                                           Yes
U. S. Navy, Naval Air
Warfare Center Aircraft
Division Lakehurst
                                1992    USA
                                                                                           Yes
U, S, Navy, Naval
Aviation Depot, Cherry Point
                                1993   USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                                           Yes
U. S. Navy, Naval Aviation
Depot, Norfolk
                                1993   USA
                                                    Defense
                                                                                           Yes
tt S. Navy, Philadelphia
Detachment of the Carderock
Division of the Naval Warfare
Center, HFC Shipboard
Conversion Team
                                1996
                                       USA
                   Defense
                                                                                          Yes
tt S. Navy, Technology
Center for Safety and
Survivabllity, US. Naval
Research Laboratory
                                1995    USA
                                                   Defense
                                                                                          Yes
   134    Champions of the World

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Stratospheric Protection
Award Winner
                    Government
Year    Country     Affiliation    UNEP
            Alliance*
ICEL    JEMA
ICOLP* JICOP*
HARC*
Unitor Service Ship
1993    Singapore
Sponsor     Yes
USBI
                                1995    USA
Volvo Cars of North America
1993    Sweden
Woolworths  (Australia)
1993    Australia
Xerox
                                1995    USA
York International
                                1992    USA
                                                                   Sponsor     Yes
                                                                                                Appendix B    135

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 Stratospheric Protection
 Award Winner
                                 Year   Country
                     Government
                     Affiliation
                                    UNEP
            ICEL    JEMA
Alliance*   ICOLP*  JICOP*   HARC*
 ASSOCIATIONS
 Association of
 Fluorocarbon Consumers
 and Manufacturers of
 Australia (AFCAM)
 1996    Australia
 Air Conditioning &
 Refrigerant Institute (ARI)
 1995    USA
                                                 Yes
 Air Conditioning &
 Refrigeration Institute (ARI)
 1991    USA
                                                 Yes
 Alliance for Responsible
 CFC Policy
 1990    USA
                                    Sponsor     Yes
 Alternative Refrigerants
 Evaluation Program (AREP), ARI
1994    USA
Camara Nacional dc la
Industrie dc la Transformacion
1992    Mexico
                                    Sponsor
Center for Emissions Control
                                 1993    USA
CPC Destruction r.f.
Plasma Project, Clean
Japan Center
1995    Japan
                    Yes
Foodservice & Packaging
Institute (FPI)
1990    USA
Halon Alternatives
Research Corporation, (HARC)
1992    International
                                    Sponsor
           Yes
                             Yes
Halon Essential Use Panel,
EPA, Victoria
1992    Australia
Halon Recycling &
Banking Support Committee
1996    Japan
                    Yes
Heating, Refrigerants and
Air Conditioning Institute
of Canada (HRAI)
1993    Canada
Industrial Technology
Research Institute (ITRI)
1995    Taiwan
Industry Cooperative for
Ozone Layer Protection
(ICOLP/ICEL)
1991    International
                                                            Same
Industry Cooperative for
Ozone Layer Protection
(ICOLP/ICBL)
1993    International
                                                            Same
Industry Technician
Certification Team
1995    USA
International Institute of
Refrigeration (IIR)/Institute
International Du Froid (IIP)
1996    International
   136    Champions of the World

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 Stratospheric Protection
 Award Winner
                     Government
 Year    Country    Affiliation
                          ICEL    JEMA
UNEP         Alliance*  ICOLP*  JICOP*   HARC*
 Institute for Interconnecting
 and Packaging Electronic
 Circuits (IPC)
 1990    International
 International Mobile Air
 Conditioning Association (IMACA)
 1996    International
                                                  Yes
 Japan Electrical
 Manufacturers' Association
 (JEMA)
 1991
         Japan
  Sponsor
Same    Yes
 Japan Industrial
 Conference on Cleaning (JICC)
 1996
         Japan
                          Yes      Yes
 Japan Industrial Conference
 for Ozone Layer Protection
 (JICOP)
 1993    Japan
  Sponsor
Same
 Mobile Air-Conditioning
 Society (MACS)
1990
        USA
                                     Sponsor
              Yes
National Association of
Fire Equipment Distributors
(NAFED)
1994    USA
                                                                                Yes
National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA)
1990
        USA
                                                                                Yes
Polyisocyanate Insulation
Manufacturers Association
(PIMA)
1993    USA
                                     Sponsor     Yes
Refrigerant Reclaim
Australia
1995    Australia
Refrigerants Import
Committee of the Alliance
for Responsible
Atmospheric Policy
1996    USA
                                                 Yes
Singapore Productivity and
Standards Board (PSB)
formerly Singapore
Institute of Standards and
Industrial Research (SISIR)
1995    Singapore
 Sponsor
The Swedish Institute of
Production Engineering
Research (IVF)
1992    Sweden
Swedish Refrigeration
Foundation
1996    Sweden
                                                                                                     Appendix B    137

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 APPENDIX  C
 EPA's Stratospheric Ozone Protection
 Team, 1985-1997
Office of Atmospheric
Programs & Antecedents
Warren Banks
Eileen Claussen
David L. Dull
Nancy Kete
Robert Rose
Paul Stolpman

Stratospheric Protection
Division & Antecedents
Stephen O, Andersen
Elizabeth Agle
Dawn Beall
Dan Blank
Nina Bonnelycke
Elizabeth Creel
Christine Dibble
Matt Dinkel
Grace Donoley
Louise Driscoll
Martha Dye
Theodore Eisenman
Joseph Ferrante
Michael Forlini
Reynaldo Forte
Rosalie Foster
Clayton Freeh
Vanessa Greene
Michelle Guarneiri
Elaine Haemisegger
James Hemby
Shana (Goldberg) Harbour
Lillian Hodge
John S. Hoffman
Paul Horwitz
Drusilla Hufford
Norma Hughes
Michael James
Doris Jefferson*
Walter Kerns
Jeff Kimes
William Kopko
Dina Kruger
Thomas Land
Pat Lawson
David Lee
Jacqueline Levister
Joel Levy
Jeffrey Levy
Barbara Lewis
Jean Lupinacci-Rausch
Bella Maranion
Denise Mauzerall
Gary McNeil
Karen Metchis
Cindy Newberg
Lena Nirk
Christine O'Donnell
Deborah Ottinger
Nilesh M. Patel
Karla Perri
Monica Peterson
Sally Rand
Ingrid Robinson
Reva Rubenstein
Kristin Saltonstall
Mavis Sanders
Stephen  Seidel
Nancy Smagin
John O.  Sparks
Sue Stendebach
Kathryn Sutton*
Maria Tikoff
Bill Thomas
Kate Van Slyke
Peter Voigt
Tracy Ward
Robert Waugh
Carol Weisner
Jeff Wells
Lucille Willams*
Rosemary Workman
Lillian Yates*
Mia Zmud
*Employed by the American Association for Retired People (AARP) under a grant from EPA.
                                                                        Appendix C  139

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Office of Research and
Development
Jane Bare
Evelyn Baslcin
Ted Broa
Cynthia Gage
Dale Harmon
Robert V. Hendriks
James J.Jetter
C. W. Lee
William Linak
Joseph McSorley
Paul Randall
William J. Rhodes
N. Dean Smith

Office of General Council
Patricia Enibrey
John Hannon
Michael Horowitz
Nancy Ketcham-Colwill
Kevin Maclean
Jonathan Martel
Laura Neuwirth
Laurie Schmidt
Alexandra Teitz
Jan Tierney

Office of Enforcement and
Compliance Assurance
Ann Bailey
Dawn Banks-Waller
Craig Haas
Roscmarie Kelley
Bob Lebens
Leslie Oif
Office of International
Activities
Jamie Koehler
James Losey
Brian Wood-Thomas

Region 1
Janine Burke
Ian Cohen
Molly Magoon
Abdi Mohamoud
Wayne Toland
Jo Ann Vizziello

Region 2
Helen Eng
Jose Guzman
Kathleen Malone
Humberto Monsalvo
Aarti Reddy

Region 3
James Kenney
Dan Lucero

Region 4
Pam Adams

Region 5
Andrew Anderson
Patrick Gimino
Laura Gire (Dods)
Tom Magee
LeAnn Naue
Marietta Newell
Cheryl Newton
Janet Pope
Region 6
Bill Deese
Jim Gold
Phyllis Putter
Rebecca Weber

Region 7
Mike Bronoski
Kurt Eskew
Lisa Hanlon
Bob Hunt
Alice Law
Michael Marshall
Mike Michalowski
Margaret Mnich
Anne Rauch
Henry Rompage
Bert Saunders

Region 8
Cindy Reynolds

Region 9
Nina Anderson
Marie Broadwell
Jeff Kimes
Al Zemsky

Region 10
Anne Darylmple
Jan Haertel
Dixon E. McClary
Armina Nolan
Anne Robinson
Don Sims
Bonnie Thie
Sharon Wilson
   140  Champions of the World

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