A Citizens Guide to What
Individuals and Communities Can Do
to Help Meet the Goals of the
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

          Cover photos: Photos provided by the South Coast Air
          Quality Management District, an air quality agency
          serving the 13 million residents of the four county Los
          Angeles region. (Los Angeles, California, on a high
          pollution day, as compared to photo inset taken on a
          clear day when air pollutant levels were low.)
          This publication was prepared by the United States
          Environmental Protection Agency to help people
          discover ways they can reduce air pollution. If you
          would like to learn more about air pollution in your
          state or your local area—or about indoor air
          pollution—telephone numbers are provided at the back
          of the pamphlet for your state's environmental agency
          and the EPA regional office in your area.
Printed on Recycled Paper

In this booklet you will
learn about—
• Sources of outdoor air pollution

• Health effects of air pollution

• The federal effort—the Clean Air Act
 Amendments of 1990

• How air pollution is being fought on all

• The difference YOU can make

• Additional sources of information

Air pollution
affects everyone
                             Air pollution threatens the health of human
                             beings and other living things on our planet.
                         While often invisible, pollutants in the air
                         create smog and acid rain, cause cancer or
                         other serious health effects, diminish the
                         protective ozone layer in the upper
                         atmosphere, and contribute to the potential for
                         world climate change.

                            Smog and other types of air pollution can
                            lead to or aggravate respiratory, heart, and
                         other health problems. It can be particularly
                         harmful to people with existing lung or heart
                         disease, the elderly, and the very young. Six  of
                         every ten Americans live in areas that fail to
                         meet one or more federal air quality standards
                         during some portion of the year. However, not
                         everyone who lives in such areas will have
                         health problems. Level, extent, and duration  of
                         exposure, age, individual susceptibility, and
                         other factors play a significant role in
                         determining whether or not someone will
                         experience pollution-related health problems.
                         Since polluted air can move from one area or
                         region to another, it has the potential to affect
                         virtually all of us.

                           A cid rain—caused by sulfur dioxide and
                         •**• nitrogen oxides combining with moisture in
                         the air—limits the ability of lakes to support
                         aquatic life, may  damage trees and plants, and
                         erodes building surfaces and national
                         monuments.  Pollutants in the air can also
                         reduce visibility,  obscuring the majestic vistas
                         in national parks such as Grand Canyon and

father air pollutants—called "air toxics"—are
^-^ known or suspected to cause cancer or other
serious heath effects, such as damage to
respiratory or nervous systems. Air toxics
include  metals, particles, and certain vapors
from fuels and other sources.
        chemicals used in refrigerators and air
  'conditioners last a long time if released into
the air, rising to the upper atmosphere where
they destroy the protective layer. These and
other air pollutants (like methane and carbon
dioxide)  also contribute to the suspected
accelerated warming of the earth, known as the
"greenhouse effect."

    Air pollution has many sources. Some
    sources  are obvious—like industrial
smokestacks, chemical plants, automobiles,
trucks, and buses. Others are not so obvious—
like gasoline stations; dry-cleaners; outboard
motors; lawn, garden, farm, and construction
equipment engines; certain paints; and various
household products.

"Pveryone can play a role in preventing and
*-'reducing air pollution. This  publication
describes efforts already underway, provides
you with some basic air pollution information,
and suggests ways that you can do your part
in helping to prevent and reduce air pollution.

Major Air  Pollutants—
What  They  Are,  Where  They  Come  From,
For six pollutants—ozone,
carbon monoxide, nitrogen
dioxide, particulate matter,
sulfur dioxide,  and
lead—EPA has established
air quality standards
designed to protect the
health and welfare of
people, plants, and  animals,
as  well as buildings,
monuments, water
resources, etc.  These
standards are based on
currently  available scientific
data and health studies.
Levels of  concern vary from
pollutant  to pollutant.
Ozone. A colorless gas that is the major constituent of photochemical smog at
the earth's surface. In the upper atmosphere (stratosphere),however, ozone is
beneficial, protecting us from the sun's harmful rays.
 Carbon Monoxide. Odorless and colorless gas emitted in the exhaust of motor
 vehicles and other kinds of engines where there is incomplete fossil fuel
Nitrogen Dioxide. Light brown gas at lower concentrations; in higher
concentrations becomes an important component of unpleasant-looking brown,
urban haze.
                                      Particulate Matter. Solid matter or liquid droplets from smoke, dust, fly ash,
                                      and condensing vapors that can be suspended in the air for long periods of
                                      Sulfur Dioxide. Colorless gas, odorless at low concentrations but pungent at
                                      very high concentrations.
                                      	Lead and lead compounds can adversely affect human health through
                                      either ingestion of lead-contaminated soil, dust, paint, etc., or direct inhalation.
                                      This is particularly a risk for young children, whose normal hand-to-mouth
                                      activities can result in greater ingestion of lead-contaminated soils and dusts.

                                      Toxic Air Pollutants. Includes pollutants such as arsenic, asbestos, and
                                      Stratospheric Ozone Depleters. Chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons
                                      (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform that are used in
                                      refngerants and other industrial processes. These chemicals last a long time in
                                      the air, rising to the upper atmosphere where they destroy the protective
                                      ozone layer that screens out harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation before it reaches
                                      the earth's surface.

                                      Greenhouse Gases. Gases that build up in the atmosphere that may induce
                                      global climate change—or the "greenhouse effect." They include carbon
                                      dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

and  Their  Potential  Effects
  Ozone is formed in the lower atmosphere as a result
  of chemical reactions between oxygen, volatile organic
  compounds, and nitrogen oxides in the presence of
  sunlight, especially during hot weather. Sources of
  such harmful pollutants include vehicles,  factories,
  landfills, industrial solvents, and numerous small
  sources such as gas stations, farm and lawn
  equipment, etc.
 Ozone causes significant health and environmental problems at the
 earth's surface, where we live. It can irritate the respiratory tract,
 produce impaired lung function such as inability to take a deep breath,
 and cause throat irritation, chest pain, cough, lung inflammation., and
 possible susceptibility to lung infection. Smog components may
 aggravate existing respiratory conditions like asthma. It can also
 reduce yield of agricultural crops and injure forests and other
 vegetation. Ozone is the most injurious pollutant to plant life.
  Automobiles, buses, trucks, small engines, and some
  industrial processes. High concentrations can be found
  in confined spaces like parking garages, poorly
  ventilated tunnels, or along roadsides during periods of
  heavy traffic.
 Reduces the ability of blood to deliver oxygen to vital tissues, affecting
 pnmarily the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Lower
 concentrations have been shown to adversely affect individuals with
 heart disease (e.g., angina)  and  to decrease maximal exercise
 performance in young, healthy men. Higher concentrations can cause
 symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and fatigue.
  Result of burning fuels in utilities, industrial boilers,
  cars, and trucks.
 One of the major pollutants that causes smog and acid rain. Can harm
 humans and vegetation when concentrations are sufficiently high. In
 children, may cause increased respiratory illness such as chest colds
 and coughing with phlegm.  For asthmatics, can cause increased
 breathing difficulty.
  Industrial processes, smelters, automobiles, burning
  industrial fuels, woodsmoke, dust from paved and
  unpaved roads, construction, and agricultural ground
 These microscopic particles can affect breathing and respiratory
 symptoms, causing increased respiratory disease and lung damage
 and possibly premature death. Children,  the elderly, and people
 suffering from heart or lung disease (like asthma) are especially at risk.
 Also damages paint, soils clothing, and reduces visibility
  Emitted largely from industrial, institutional, utility, and
  apartment-house furnaces and boilers, as well as
  petroleum refineries, smelters, paper mills, and
  chemical plants.
 One of the major pollutants that causes smog. Can also, at high
 concentrations, affect human health, especially among asthmatics
 (who are particularly sensitive to respiratory tract problems and
 breathing difficulties that S02 can induce). Can also  harm vegetation
 and metals. The pollutants it produces can impair visibility and acidify
 lakes and streams.
  Transportation sources using lead n their fuels, coal
  combustion, smelters, car battery Dlants, and
  combustion of garbage containing lead products.
Elevated lead levels can adversely affect mental development and
performance, kidney function, and blood chemistry. Young children are
particularly at risk due to their greater chance of ingesting lead and the
increased sensitivity of young tissues and organs to lead.
  Chemical plants, industrial processes, motor vehicle
  emissions and fuels, and building materials.
Known or suspected to cause cancer, respiratory effects, birth
defects, and reproductive and other serious health effects. Some can
cause death or serious injury if accidentally released in large amounts.
  Industrial household refrigeration, cooling and cleaning
  processes, car anc home air conditioners, some fire
  extinguishers, and plastic foam products.
Increased exposure to UV radiation could potentially cause an increase
in skin cancer, increased cataract cases, suppression of the human
immune response system, and environmental damage.
  The mam man-made source of carbon dioxide
  emissions is fossil fuel combustion for energy-use and
  transportation. Methane comes frcm landfills,
  cud-chewing livestock, coal mines, and rice paddies.
  Nitrous oxide results from industnal processes, such as
  nylon fabncation.
 The extent of the effects of climate change on human health and the
 environment is still uncertain, but could include increased global
 temperature, increased severity and frequency of storms and other
 "weather extremes," melting of the polar ice cap, and sea-level rise.

Goals of the
Clean Air Act Amendments  of 1990
                          The overall goal of the Clean Air Act
                          Amendments is to reduce the pollutants in
                       our air by 56 billion pounds a year—224 pounds
                       for every man, woman, and child—when the
                       law is fully phased in by the year 2005. The
                       new law builds on the strengths of the Clean
                       Air Acts of 1970 and 1977 and the
                       environmental lessons  learned over the past
                       twenty years.  As the provisions of the new
                       law are implemented, we will be breathing
                       cleaner air every year.

                       Goal: Cut  Acid Rain In Half
                       Acid rain is  caused in large part by power
                       plant emissions of sulfur  dioxide and nitrogen
                       oxides. These pollutants, which combine with
                       moisture in the atmosphere to produce acid
                       rain, will be  dramatically reduced. A  two-
                       phase cost-effective system will reduce sulfur
                       dioxide emissions from power plants by more

 than half. By the year 2000, total annual
 emissions will be reduced by 10 million tons
 from 1980 levels.

 Goal: Reduce smog and other pollutants
 Urban smog or ground-level ozone pollution,
 produced by motor vehicles and other sources,
 will be substantially reduced. The object is to
 reduce volatile organic compounds, nitrogen
 oxides, and carbon monoxide, which can cause
 health problems. Diesel-powered buses in
 urban areas will be regulated to reduce their
 exhaust emissions by 95 percent by 1995.

    In cities with more severe carbon monoxide
 and ozone levels, states may have to initiate or
 upgrade inspection and maintenance programs
 for motor vehicles and adopt new clean fuel
 programs. In areas where safe levels of
 particulate matter in the air are not being met,
 states may have to require  use of emissions
 control measures, Jimit the  use of wood stoves
 and fireplaces, or both.

 Goal: Reduce air toxics
 Chemical plants, steel mills, and other
 businesses will need to reduce their emissions
 of an additional 189 air toxics—pollutants
 associated with cancer, birth defects, and other
 health risks—in addition to those already

Goal: Protect the  ozone layer
Finally, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and related
chemicals that deplete the ozone layer may be
phased out of production as early as the end of
1995. CFC recycling, especially for automobile
air conditioners and residential, commercial,
and industrial cooling and refrigeration
systems, will be iriciximized to reduce current

Air pollution control:
It's everybody's business


And Local

And Local

 Denver comes
 out from under
 a cloud
    Government, industry, environmental
    groups, and citizens are working together to
clean up our air. Here are some examples of
what they are achieving:

Denver, Colorado:  Denver was once so
renowned for its pure mountain air that
tuberculosis victims traveled there for
treatment. However, in 1985, Denver was
under a "brown cloud" much of the time.
Pollutants from motor vehicles, industry, and
wood stoves clouded the skies and obscured
the view of the Rocky Mountains that made
the Mile High  City a major  tourist attraction.
The city violated federal carbon monoxide
exposure limits 33 days during the winter of

    The public, as well as businesses and
community leaders, demanded that something
be done to bring clean, healthful air back to
Denver. Responding to these concerns, the
governor established the Denver Metro Air
Quality Council. With technical support from
EPA and the Colorado Health Department, the
Council mobilized public and governmental

 action, worked with industries, civic groups,
 and the news media to help remove the area's
 brown cloud and clean its air. How did they
 do it?

 • New legislation required use of oxygenated
   fuels during the winter months to reduce cold
   weather carbon monoxide emissions from
   gasoline engines, Automobile owners'
   individual participation helped make this

 • The Denver schools  switched from diesel
   fuels to compressed  natural gas in new school

 • The state avoided legislation that would
   have delayed implementation of strict emission
   standards for wood  stoves.

 • Wood burning in the area was limited.

 • The local electric utility replaced
   particulate-emitting coal fires in powerhouse
   boilers with a mix of "clean"  natural gas and
   coal. The public bus  company converted to
   low-sulfur fuel  during the high-pollution
   season, tested me'thanol-fueled buses, and
   implemented an emissions inspection and
  maintenance proj^ram for its  vehicles.

 • The public, including employees and
  shoppers, found ways to drive fewer miles.

     What  did it all add up to? Carbon
monoxide violations dropped from thirty-three
in 1985 to only three in 1990. Average daily
ozone (smog) levels for the ten highest days
dropped considerably.  In June of 1990, the
United States Conference of Mayors  called
Denver "the most liveable city in the United

Air pollution control:
It's everybody's  business
Klamath Falls,
A woodsmoke
success story
Among the highest participate matter (PM-10)
concentrations recorded anywhere in the
nation were those which occurred in a
southern Oregon community of 37,500 called
Klamath Falls. In January of 1988,
measurements of PM-10 were recorded which
were five times the federal health standard.
The major problem was smoke from residential
woodstoves and fireplaces in conjunction with
wintertime inversions that trapped the air,
causing woodsmoke concentrations to build to
very unhealthy levels. Despite some initial
resistance, Klamath County initiated strong
public awareness and voluntary woodburning
curtailment programs.

    These programs proved to be insufficient.
A 1989-90 health study of school children
showing significant declines in lung function
during PM-10 episodes alerted the community
to the seriousness of the problem. To further
improve air quality, in 1991-92 over 325
woodstoves were replaced with alternative
heat sources purchased with federal and local
funds. In 1991, the community also adopted
restrictions on the use of  residential wood
burning devices when inversions threatened to
cause high PM-10 concentrations.  As of the
summer of 1992, these renewed  efforts
appeared to have paid off—preliminary data
for  the 1991-92 wood heating season suggested
that the federal health standard  was never
exceeded. While favorable weather conditions
may have contributed in  part to that winter's
air quality, Klamath Falls has made significant
progress in improving air quality and
ultimately assuring long-term protection of
public health.

Getting the
lead out
By the 1970s, high levels of lead in our nation's
air became a major health concern. Beginning
in 1974, EPA launched a major new program to
introduce emission control equipment on new
cars and phase-out lead in the nation's
gasoline. As a result, lead emissions have
dropped by 97 percent from 1970 levels. By
1992, about 95 percent of all gasoline sold in
the United States was lead-free. Over the next
few years, the remainder will be phased out
Green Lights:
new light on
     » Lights
Green Lights is an EPA program aimed at
cleaning the air and saving energy by reducing
emissions from power plants. About one
quarter of the electricity sold in the United
States is used for lighting. EPA is encouraging
organizations and individuals to voluntarily
switch to energy-efficient lighting. In 1992,
over 600  companies, state governments and
others had enrolled in the Green Lights
program  and were using 50 percent less
electricity while saving money on their
electricity bills.

    The current square footage in the program
equals all of the commercial real estate of Los
Angeles, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, and New
York combined. When all the profitable
lighting changes are in place, the reductions
will likely add up to thousands of tons of
nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide and 202
million metric tons of carbon dioxide every
year. This is the equivalent of removing 44
million cars from the road, a third of the
vehicles in use, simply by making profitable
investments  in modern lighting. Over the next
five years, actions of Green Lights participants
are expected to prevent over 8.4 million metric
tons of air emissions and be a mainstay of the
United States' strategy to stabilize greenhouse
gas emissions.

Three weeks
in 1984:
An Olympic-sized
A new
Clean Air Act:
Scrubbing our
Prior to the 1984 Summer Olympic Games in
Los Angeles, there was considerable concern
that the region's heavily polluted summer air
would  adversely affect Olympic competitors.
The regional air quality agency, city and
county officials, transit companies, and area
employers developed a plan for staggered
working hours that resulted in fewer cars and
buses on the road. The driving and riding
public cooperated. The result was a twelve
percent drop in ground-level ozone (smog)
levels during that period!
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments set new
goals for improving our nation's air quality
and offered new approaches to achieve these
goals (see pages 6 and 7). By 1992, EPA had
already proposed, issued, or begun
implementing new rules designed to achieve
about 85 percent of the 56 billion pounds of
annual air pollution reductions to be phased in
by 2005.

What YOU can do  to
help reduce air pollution
     We have described some
     examples of how government,
 industry, and private citizens are
 working successfully to reduce or
 prevent air pollution. Everyone in
 the country has an Important part
 to play in achieving clean air. Here
 are a few suggested ways that you
 can make a difference in your own
How you drive and
care for your car is
                                     Since automobiles are a major
                                     source of air pollution in most
                                     areas, your driving habits and your
                                     car maintenance can either add to
                                     the problem or help to solve it.
                                     Driving tips
                                     • Plan ahead. Organize your trips.
                                     Driving fewer miles will help
                                     reduce air pollution. Combine
                                     several errands into one trip.
                                     Avoid driving during peak traffic
                                     periods when stop-and-go traffic is
                                     at its worst. This will not only  save
                                     you gas but will also reduce the
                                     wear and tear on your car.  Try
                                     walking or bicycling for short
                                     errands and leisure activities.

                                     • Ride share. Carpools and public
                                     transportation reduce the number of
                                     cars on the road and miles  driven.
                                     If you own or manage a business,
                                     create incentives that encourage
                                     employees to carpool. As an
                                     employee, form a carpool with
                                     others at work or in your
                                     neighborhood. Consider taking
                                     public transportation as an
                                     alternative to driving.

 • Use an energy-conserving grade
 of motor oil. Look for the EC grade
 on the container and be sure to use
 multigrade. An EC multigrade can
 improve your mileage by as much
 as 1.5 percent.  An EC II-rated oil
 can provide a 2.7 percent mileage
 boost over single grades.

 • Use clean fuels. Reformulated or
 "clean" gasolines are becoming more
 widely available. Use them when

 • Drive at a medium speed. In
 normal traffic conditions, most cars
 operate most efficiently between 35
 and 45 miles per hour; lower or
 higher speeds are  less efficient. If
 you drive 55 miles per hour rather
 than 65 miles per hour on the
 highway, you can increase your gas
 mileage by as much as 15 percent,
 depending on your car.

 • Drive at a steady speed. It is
 more fuel efficient to drive at an
 even speed than it is to keep
 speeding  up and slowing down.
 This is true in heavy traffic as well
 as on the open road.

 • Stop and start evenly. Gently
 accelerating reduces gas
 consumption. Coasting to a  stop lets
 the car's momentum, not its fuel,
 get you where  you want to go.

 • Don't idle the engine
 unnecessarily.  Contrary to popular
 belief, turning off and starting an
 engine uses less gasoline than
 letting the engine idle for 30
 seconds.  Stop  the engine if  it is
 idling at a drive-up window or in
 traffic jams. Limit engine warm-ups
 in winter.
• Travel light. The more weight
your car carries, the less
fuel-efficient it becomes. Take
unnecessary items out of the trunk.

• Follow your owner's manual.
The owner's manual that comes
with your car will recommend
which grade of gasoline to use, how
to shift gears, and other ways you
can keep your engine running  at
maximum environmental and
economic efficiency.

Maintain your car

• Don't remove or tamper with
pollution controls. The pollution
control equipment on cars helps
limit the pollutant emissions at the
tailpipe. Removing or tampering
with these controls puts more
pollution into the air.

• Don't overfill or "top off" your
car's gas tank. Even if you don't
spill gasoline, fumes  can escape.
They react with nitrogen oxides and
sunlight and create smog.

• Avoid releasing gas vapors. Gas
vapors can harm your health as
well as the environment. Many
service stations are installing vapor
controls on their pumps to help
reduce air pollution.  While many of
the new nozzles have  what look
like elephant trunks, others look
more conventional.
• Get regular engine rune-ups and
car maintenance checks. Tune-ups
improve your gas mileage and car
performance. The spark plugs are
especially important, because a
worn spark plug will cause poor
starting, rough idling, and poor gas

• Make sure your tires are
properly inflated and your wheels
aligned. Doing this can prevent
excessive drag and improve fuel
economy up to one mile per gallon.

• Keep car filters and catalytic
converters clean. Dirty air filters
increase fuel consumption; and
your car's pollution control devices
need to be in good working order
to be effective. Follow the car
manufacturer's guidelines.

• Use your car air conditioner
wisely. Air conditioning is a drag
on your car's engine, reducing gas
mileage by as much as 20 percent.
On not-so-hot days or while in
stop-and-go traffic, roll down your
window instead. Have leaks in your
car air  conditioner fixed by a
certified technician using required
CFC recycling equipment.

• Consider buying fuel efficient
cars. When buying a car—new  or
used— check its posted fuel
efficiency and seek the most fuel-
efficient, "clean" car in the size
category that meets your needs.

Reducing pollution  and conserving
resources  at home and  at work
 • Conserve electricity. Electricity
 generation can be a major source of
 air pollution. New home and office
 oriented technology can help. At
 home or work  you can save
 electricity by using energy-efficient
 lighting wherever possible.
 Replacing a common incandescent
 light bulb with an energy-efficient
 compact fluorescent bulb saves 45
 watts and 157 kilowatt hours. Make
 sure that lights and appliances are
 turned off when not in use. In
 addition, you should raise the
 temperature level on your air
 conditioner a few degrees in
 summer,  and turn down your heat
 a few degrees in winter.
 Purchasing  energy-efficient
 appliances will also aid in
 conserving energy use. Conserving
 electricity reduces air pollution
 caused by power plants.
• Participate in your local utility's
energy conservation programs.
Ask your local utility about its
customer energy conservation
program. If they have one, join up.
If they don't, encourage them to
start one.

• Buy fuel-efficient motorized
equipment. If you are buying a
power mower or other  motorized
garden tools, construction or farm
equipment, or outboard motors,
seek out those that are  designed to
minimize emissions and reduce
spillage when being refueled.

• Avoid spilling gas. Take special
care to avoid spills and the release
of fumes into the air when refueling
gasoline-powered lawn, garden,
farm and construction equipment,
and boats.

• Properly dispose of household
paints, solvents, and pesticides. Do
not pour these chemicals  down the
drain, into the ground,  or put them
into the garbage. Call your local
environmental agency for
information on proper  disposal of
these products.

• Seal containers tightly. Make
sure that containers of household
cleaners, workshop chemicals and
solvents, and garden chemicals are
tightly sealed to prevent volatile
chemicals from evaporating into the
air. Don't leave containers standing
open when not in use.

• Reduce waste. When you make
purchases, consider using products
that are durable, reusable, or use
less packaging. Repair broken items
rather than buying new ones.
Recycle and compost potential
wastes before they become part of
the waste stream. Such actions help
reduce the pollutants that might
reach the air during  the
manufacturing process or during
the collection and processing of
wastes for incineration or landfill
disposal. If there is no local
recycling program in your
community, start one with the help
of your neighbors and the local
trash  collection company.

• Use wood stoves and fireplaces
wisely and sparingly. If you have a
wood stove, learn how to burn
cleanly and more efficiently.
Remember to burn dry,
well-seasoned wood, and build
efficient fires that burn hot and
clean. Check your stack, clean your
chimney, and inspect your catalyst
annually. A well maintained and
operated stove produces less
pollution and is better for the
environment. Adhere to  local or
state regulations about when and
where wood stove use is  permitted.
 • Properly dispose of refrigeration
 and air conditioning equipment.
 The Clean Air Act prohibits the
 release into the atmosphere of
 refrigerants from automobiles and
 home appliances during the
 disposal of this equipment. Contact
 your local government or trash
 pickup service to find out what
 procedures are being implemented
 in your area to ensure the safe
 disposal of cars and home
 appliances. In some areas,
 municipalities arrange for periodic
 pickups of home appliances that
 contain refrigerant. In others, it is
 required that homeowners have the
 refrigerant removed by a qualified
 service technician before the
 appliance can be  picked up.

 • Recycle refrigerant. As of July 1,
 1992, individuals  are prohibited
 from knowingly venting refrigerant
 into the atmosphere while
 maintaining, servicing, repairing, or
 disposing of air conditioning  or
 refrigeration equipment. Make sure
 that the technician who services,
 repairs, or maintains your
 refrigerator or air conditioner has
 recovery equipment to capture any
 refrigerant that may be released.
This refrigerant can later be
 recycled. Also, when possible, don't
just refill leaky air conditioning or
refrigeration systems—repair them.

Get involved in
local  efforts to reduce air pollution
• Let people know you care. One
of the driving forces behind
reducing air pollution is citizen
concern and involvement (as in
Denver, for example1). As an
individual or as a representative of
a concerned group, speak up at
hearings and let your local public
officials know how you feel about
air pollution problems in your
community. Your state and local
environmental agencies can tell you
when hearings are held and what
agency is responsible for clean air.

• Learn about local efforts and
issues. Talk to your state
environmental agency to find out
what it is doing in your area.

• Work with a local group. Join a
community group that is working
to improve air quahty.

• Report problems. If you think you
see an air pollution problem, advise
your local or state agency, or the
EPA regional office near you.

You  can make
a difference
     When environmental scientists
     talk about air pollution, they
talk in terms of millions of tons of
pollutants. It is not easy to relate
such figures to the smoke that
comes out of your chimney or the
exhaust coming out of your car.
However, even small sources of
pollution, when added to hundreds
or thousands of other small sources,
do harm the environment and are
dangerous to your health.
If we all do our share
to reduce air pollution,
the benefits will be
• If 190,000 car owners started to
get regular tune-ups, they will keep
some 90 million pounds of carbon
dioxide out of the atmosphere.

• If each commuter car carries one
more passenger, 600,000 gallons of
gasoline will be saved and 12
million pounds of carbon dioxide
will be kept out of the air.

• If consumers set their air
conditioners six degrees higher, it
will save 190,000 barrels of oil a
day—and eliminate all those
pollutants that come from burning
the oil to produce the electricity

Sources  of information
about  air  pollution in  your community
    You don't have to rely solely on
    your own perception of what is
happening to the air around you.
There are official sources of
information—your state and county
health department and environmental
agencies and the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency.  Your state and
local agencies will have information
about local  problems and the State
Implementation Plan that has been
developed to deal with them. The
EPA has available an annual National
Air Quality and  Emissions Trends
Report that includes specific
information about air quality
standards for specific pollutants and
air pollution levels in hundreds of
metropolitan areas. Your state or local
                       environmental agency or health
                       department usually has information
                       about specific areas, and local
                       weather reports on television, radio,
                       and in the newspapers frequently
                       include a daily air quality statement.
                       The news media also report air
                       quality  concerns expressed by
                       community groups or public agencies.

                       "Cor more information about how
                       •*• you can help keep  our air clean,
                       contact  the appropriate EPA regional
                       office or your state  agency responsible
                       for air quality. These  numbers are
                       listed below. You may also contact
                       the Department of Energy or your
                       local power company for publications
                       on energy conservation.
State Air Quality Agencies
 Department of
 Environmental Management
 Air Division
 Montgomery, AL

 Department of
 Air Quality Management
 Juneau, AK

 Department of
 Environmental Quality
 Office of Air Quality
 Phoenix, AZ

 Department of Pollution
 Control and Ecology
 Air Division
 Little Rock, AR

 Air Resources Board
Sacramento, CA

 Department of Health
Air Pollution Control
Denver, CO

Department of
Environmental Protection
Bureau of Air Management
Hartford, CT

Department of Natural
Resources and
Environmental Control
Division of Air and Waste
Air Resources Section
Dover, DE

Department of Consumer
and Regulatory Affairs
Environmental Control
Air Quality Control and
Monitoring Branch
Washington, DC

Department of
Environmental Regulation
Air Resources Management
Tallahassee, FL

Department of Natural
Environmental Protection
Atlanta, GA

State Department of Health
Laboratories Division
Air Surveillance and
Analysis Branch
Honolulu,  HI

Division of Environmental
Air Quality Bureau
Boise, ID
 Environmental Protection
 Division of Air Pollution
 Springfield, IL
Department of
Environmental Protection
Bureau of Air Quality
Augusta, ME
Department of           Department of the
Environmental Management Environment
Office of Air Management  Air Management
Indianapolis, IN

Department of Natural
Air Quality Section
Des Moines, IA

Department of Health and
Bureau of Air and Waste
Topeka, KS

Department for
Environmental Protection
Division for Air Quality
Frankfort, KY

Department of
Environmental Quality
Office of Air Quality and
Radiation Protection
Air Quality Division
Baton Rouge, LA
Baltimore, MD

Department of
Environmental Protection
Division of Air Quality
Boston, MA

Department of Natural
Air Quality Division
Lansing, MI

Pollution Control Agency
Air Quality Division
St. Paul, MN

Department of
Environmental Quality
Office of Pollution Control
Air Division
Jackson, MS

Department of Natural
Resources Division of
Environmental Quality
Air Pollution Control
Jefferson City, MO

Department of Health and
Environmental Sciences
Air Quality Bureau
Helena, MT

Department of
Environmental Control
Air Quality Control
Lincoln, NE

Division of Environmental
Bureau of Air Quality
Carson City, NV

Air Resources Division
Concord, NH

Department of
Environmental Protection
and Energy
Division of Environmental
Quality Air Program
Trenton, NJ
Oklahoma State Department
of Health, Air Quality Ser.
Oklahoma City, OK

Oregon Department of
Environmental  Quality
Air Quality Control Div.
Portland OR

Pennsylvania Department of
Environmental  Resources
Bureau of Air Quality
Harrisburg, PA
Tennessee Department of
Environment and
Division of Air Pollution
Nashville, TN

Texas Air Control Board
Austin, TX

Department of
Environmental Quality
Division of Air Quality
Salt Lake City, UT
Department of              Agency of Natural
Environmental Management Resources
Division of Air and         Air Pollution Control
Hazardous Materials        Division
Providence, RI              Waterbury VT
(401)277-2808               (802)244-8731
South Carolina Department
of Health and
Environmental Control
Bureau of Air Quality
Columbia, SC

Department of Environment
and Natural Resources
Division of Point Source
Department of
Air Pollution Control
Richmond, VA

Washington State
Department of Ecology
Air Program
Olympia, WA
Air Pollution Control
Charleston, WV

Wisconsin Department of
Natural Resources
Bureau of Air Management
Madison, WI

Wyoming Air Quality
Cheyenne, WY

Department of Planning
and Natural Resources
Division of Environmental
Christiansted, St. Croix
U.S. Virgin Islands

Puerto Rico Environmental
Quality  Board
Air and Water Division
Santurce, Puerto Rico

Environmental Quality
Pago Pago, American
|W,,«^,*u ^.mroi^rrogram Guam Environmental
New Mexico Environment (605)773-3351 Protection Agency
P. * ' Harmon (_>uam
Uepartment 011(671)646-8863
Environmental Protection . v '
Division liPA Regional Offices
Air Quality Division 	
Santa Fe, NM

New York State Department
of Environmental
Division of Air Resources
Albany, NY
Department of
Environment, Health, and
Natural Resources
Air Quality Section
Raleigh, NC
North Dakota State
Department of Health
Division of Environmental
Bismarck, ND

Ohio Environmental
Protection Agency
Division of Air Pollution
Columbus, OH
U.S. EPA - Region 1
John F. Kennedy Federal
One Congress Street
Boston, MA 02203
(Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, Rhode Island,
U.S. EPA - Region 2
Jacob K. Javitz Federal
26 Federal Plaza
New York, NY 10278
(New Jersey, New York,
Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands)

U.S. EPA - Region 3
841 Chestnut Building
Philadelphia, PA 19107
(Delaware, District of
Columbia, Maryland,
Pennsylvania, Virginia,
West Virginia)

U.S. EPA - Region 4 U.S. EPA - Region 7
345 Courtland Street, NE 726 Minnesota Avenue
Atlanta, GA 30365 Kansas City, KS 66101
(404)347-4727 (913)551-7000
(Alabama, Florida, Georgia (Iowa< Kansas, Missouri,
Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska)
North Carolina, South v s EpA . R ion g
Carolina, Tennessee) 999 18th Streef Suite 50Q
i r c CD A o . T Denver, CO 80202-2405
U.b. tFA - Region 5 ttfWXM lAfc*
77 West JacksoV, Boulevard <303>293-1603
Chicago, IL 60604 (Colorado, Montana, North
(312)353-2000 Dakota, South Dakota,
/in- • T j- »*• i-- Utah, Wyoming)
(Illinois, Indiana, Michigan,
Minnesota, Ohio, U.S. EPA - Region 9
Wisconsin) 75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
U.S. EPA - Region 6 (415)744-1305
First Interstate Bank Tower (Arizona, California,
at Fountain Place Hawaii, Nevada, American
1445 Ross Avenue, 12th Samoa, Guam)
Floor, Suite 1200
Dallas, TX 75202-2733 U.S. EPA - Region 10
(214)655-6444 1200 Sixth Avenue
... ... .. Seattle, WA 98101
(Arkansas, Louisiana, New (206)553-4973
Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas)
(Alaska, Idaho, Oregon,

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