Options  & Costs for 1998
                      If you are an owner or operator of an underground storage tank (LIST),
                      you may be asking: "What options are available for upgrading, replacing,
                      or closing my UST to meet the 1998 regulatory requirements?" and
                      "How much do these options cost?"

                   To help you answer these questions, the table on the back of this page describes
                 various options and provides estimated costs for equipment and labor. Costs are based
 on a single UST system. These estimates do not include additional costs such as equipment repair or site
 cleanup, which may be necessary. We also want you to know that the lowest cost choice may not
 necessarily be the best choice. You should discuss the options with contractors to find out which
 choice is right for your facility.
 EPA's publication, Don't Wait Until 1998, provides information on
 cathodic protection, corrosion protection options, and spill and overfill
 protection requirements. For a free copy of this booklet and information
 on other EPA publications about USTs, call EPA's toll-free
 RCRA/Superfund Hotline at 800 424-9346.

 The bullets below highlight some information you should know about
 protecting metal USTs from corrosion:
                                        State and local
                                        regulations may be more
                                        stringent than the federal
                                        regulations.  Check with
                                        your state agency.
    Impressed current systems and galvanic anode systems are two ways to protect metal USTs
    from corrosion by using cathodic protection. These methods are discussed in Don't Wait Until 1998.

    Combining internal lining and cathodic protection (CP) can provide greater protection than
    using either alone. Internal lining protects an UST from internal corrosion, but external corrosion can
    occur. CP properly applied to the exterior of the UST will protect its exterior from corrosion, but internal
    corrosion can occur.
Underground used oil
tanks with capacities
greater than 110 gallons
must be upgraded,
replaced, or closed by
December 1998.
  Internal linings, when used as the sole corrosion protection
   upgrade, must undergo periodic inspections. The initial inspection
   must occur within 10 years of lining followed by subsequent inspections
   at least every 5 years.

  If you add cathodic protection to an UST that was lined earlier,
   you will need to periodically inspect the lined tank and operate and
   maintain the CP system according to the regulations. However, if you
   assess the UST to ensure that it is structurally sound and free of
   corrosion holes before adding the CP, you do not have to inspect the
   lined tank periodically.           ;
   Metal piping must be replaced or upgraded with CP. An impressed
    current system is usually designed so that the metal piping is also
    protected from corrosion. While it is not practical to add a galvanic anode
    system to an existing metal UST, it may be practical to add anodes to
    small portions of metal piping such as flexible connectors. You might use
    galvanic anodes, for example, if you have a fiberglass tank with steel
    piping or metal flex connectors.

   CP systems need to be operated and maintained in accordance
    with federal regulations.  Regulations require an initial check of the
    CP system within 6 months of installation and subsequent checks every
    3 years to ensure that the CP system is protecting the UST from
    corrosion. In addition, an impressed current system must be checked
    every 60 days to ensure that it is operating properly.

   Never turn off your impressed current system. Your USTs are not
    protected from corrosion when this system is off.
                                          Here's a tip for saving
                                          money during future
                                          reinspections of a lined
                                          tank: Have a manway
                                          installed in the tank at
                                          the same time it is lined.
                                          The manway will allow
                                          entry into the tank for
                                          future inspections
                                          without repeatedly
                                          excavating the top of
                                          the tank.
  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
     Office of Underground StorageTanks
August 1996

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                               Options  & Costs for 1998
                                        Costs below are shown as:

 VL = Less than $200   L = $200-$1,000   M = $1,000-$2,000   H = $2,000 - $5,000   VH = More than $5,000

Please note: Costs are based on a single UST system; costs include only equipment and labor (no continuing maintenance or
repair costs); costs may vary widely nationwide; costs were estimated in August 1996 and may change.
Action
UPGRADE
Corrosion
Protection
Choose 1
-

Spill
Protection
Overfill
Protection
Option
Cathodic -
Protection (CP)
-
Internal Lining -
->
CP & Lining -
(simultaneously) 
-
Spill bucket
Choose 1 >
Choice*
Integrity Assessment
(Choose 1)
> Internal inspection
> Statistical method
> Remote video camera
> Robotic method
Installation:
> Galvanic anodes (piping)
> Impressed current systems
Internal Inspection
Lining Application
Internal Inspection
Lining Application
Installation:
x Galvanic anodes (piping)
>- Impressed current systems
Spill bucket
> Ball float valve
> Automatic shutoff device
> Overfill alarm
Cost
M-H
M-H
L-M
M
VL-M
H
M-H
M-H
M-H
M-H
VL-M
H
VL-L
VL-L
L
M-H
Required Periodic Actions
(cost per action)
None
None
None
None
Operation and maintenance of
corrosion protection
None
Lining inspections
None
None
Operation and maintenance of
corrosion protection
None
None
Cost
L
L-M
L


All sites
                              Site check for all tanks         L-VH   None
                                (assuming no cleanup costs)
CLOSE
REPLACE
AFTER
CLOSING**



Choose 1 -* >" Closure in-place L-VH None 
> Removal & disposal H-VH 
Single-Walled Tank
Double-Walled Tank
Single-Walled Piping
(per tank)
Double-Walled Piping
(per tank)
> Fiberglass
> Coated & cathodicaily
protected steel
> Clad tank
> Fiberglass
> Coated & cathodicaily
protected steel
> Clad tank
> Fiberglass
> Coated & cathodicaily
protected steel
>- Fiberglass
>- Coated & cathodicaily
protected steel
H-VH
H-VH
H-VH
VH
VH
VH
L-M
L-M
M-H
M-H
None
Operation and maintenance of
corrosion protection
None
None
None
None

Operation and maintenance of
corrosion protection
None
None
* Not all choices are allowed in all states.
** Spill and overfill protection also required for tanks, as described above.

L

L







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