United States
             Environmental Protection
             Agency
             Solid Waste And
             Emergency Response
             5403G
EPA510-F-98-008
January 1998
&EPA
Controlling  UST  Cleanup
Costs:  Fact Sheets
                                      Printed on Recycled Paper

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   Free Publications About UST Requirements

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has
developed a series of free publications about federal
requirements for underground storage tanks (USTs).
For a list of titles, and to read or order publications online.,
visit EPA's UST Web site at http://www.epa.gov/OUST/.
You can also call EPA's toll-free RCRA/Superfund Hotline at
800 424-9346 and order up to 30 free copies of any title.
Finally, you can order directly from the National Center for
Environmental Publications and Information (NCEPI), EPA's
publications warehouse, by calling them toll-free number at
800 490-9198 or by faxing your request to 513 891-6685.

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         NEW since the publication of Controlling UST Cleanup Costs...
                                 "Pay-fpr-Performance:"
               A new approach to managing underground storage tank cleanups

 A pay-for-performance agreement is a type of fixed-price contract. (See Fact Sheet 2: Negotiating
 The Contract) Under pay-for-performance cleanup agreements, tank owners or operators pay
 contractors a fixed price as measurable environmental goals are reached. Pay-for-performance
 contracts reward contractors for quickly and efficiently reaching cleanup goals, enable state staff to
 focus their attention on environmental results instead of on auditing contractors' internal costs, and
 minimize paperwork and administrative costs and delays. To learn more about pay-for-
 performance, order a free copy ofPay-For-Performance Cleanups: Effectively Managing
 Underground Storage Tank Cleanups (EPA 510-B-96-002) by calling the National Center for
 Environmental Publications and Information toll-free at 1-800-490-9198. You can download this
 booklet from our World Wide Web site at http://www.epa.gov/OVSTA


                    New technologies for cleaning up releases from USTs

An Overview Of Underground Storage Tank Remediation Options (EPA 510-F-93-029). This
 series of 13 fact sheets describes, in plain language, technologies for cleaning up groundwater and
 soil. Remediation technologies discussed include: Air sparging, bioventing, bioremediation, soil
vapor extractions, and off-site treatment.  Order a free,copy of the fact sheets by calling the
National Center for Environmental Publications and Information toll-free at 1-800-490-9198.

How To Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies For Underground Storage Tank Sites: A
Guide For Corrective Action Plan Reviewers is a more technical manual that EPA developed to
help state regulators who review corrective action plans understand new remediation technologies
and evaluate their appropriateness. For information on ordering the 420-page Guide call the
RCRA/Superfund Hotline at 800 424-9346

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                                Contents
Fact Sheet 1: Hiring A Contractor	
Fact Sheet 2: Negotiating The Contract		
Fact Sheet 3: Interpreting The Bill	
Fact Sheet 4: Managing The Process	
Fact Sheet 5: Understanding Contractor Code Words
1
3
5
7
9
                                    IV

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                          United States
                          Environmental Protection
                          Agency
                         Office of Solid Waste and
                         Emergency Response
                         OS-420 (WF)
  xvEPA
Controlling  UST Cleanup Costs
Fact  Sheet  1:
Hiring  A  Contractor
  Facing the Situation

  When you're talking about success in business, you're
  talking about solid, common sense. The same is true when
  you're facing a petroleum or hazardous substance spill.
  You need to trust that common sense, gather some
  background information, and find the people to do the best
  job of cleaning it up.

  Learn your State Underground Storage Tank (UST)
  program regulations to make sure you abide by your State's
  laws about cleaning up leaks from USTs.

  Most States have a fund to help
  underground storage tank
  owners pay for cleaning
  up tank leaks. The
  fund is generally
  managed by a State
  Fund Administrator.
  Check with your State
 Fund Administrator to see if
 you are eligible to receive
 these funds and to learn about
 other requirements you need to
 fulfill before you hire a contractor.

 As an underground storage tank
 owner who needs a spill cleaned
 up, you need to have a business
 plan that includes finding
_ contractors to diagnose and
 complete the work. It involves
 more than picking a  company
                        from the phone book. Or finding one that offers a low
                        price. As with other vendors you deal with, the contractor
                        offering the lowest price for a site assessment and cleanup
                        doesn't always provide the best service.

                        Knowing the Jobs

                        Contractors often put in bids for the following two types of
                       jobs:

                         Site Assessment Jobs, in which the contractor deter-
                        mines the extent of the contamination, and

                                           Cleanup Management Jobs, in
                                            which the contractor actually
                                              cleans up the spill.

                                                         Once your
                                                       contractor has
                                                 completed a site
                                             assessment, you will have
                                            sufficient data to obtain bids for
                                           the cleanup. You can have the
                                         same contractor do both jobs or
                                         separate contractors for each job.
                                        Either way, you want to be sure that
                                       you are paying appropriate fees for
                                      adequate services.

                                        Knowing the Players

                                         In these fact sheets, the term
                                           "contractor" refers to contractors
                                            and consultants. Consultants

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often give expert advice but may not be involved in day-to-
day field work. Contractors usually fall into one of two
categories  full-service contractors and specialty
contractors.

Full-service contractors have the capability to perform site
assessment and cleanup work without obtaining the
services of another contractor. Specialty contractors are
qualified to perform only certain aspects of a site
assessment or cleanup. A specialty contractor generally
works on limited activities, like installing wells or
designing a cleanup plan. Subcontractors are either full-
service or specialty contractors that perform services at a
site under the direction of another contractor  the prime
contractor. As an owner or operator, you would probably
interact only with the prime contractor.

Hiring The Best People

Keep the following tips in mind when you're shopping
around for a contractor to provide the most effective and
economical site assessment and cleanup available.

  Ask Around: It's worth your while to ask other owners
and operators, or your local association, about contractors
they've hired. Check with your State UST program to see if
there is a list of certified contractors you can choose from.

  Get Written  Bids: Have at least three contractors write
estimates, also called bids. In their bids, contractors must
list the tasks they will perform and how they will perform
them. Request the same information from all contractors so
you can compare bids.

  List Charges: Get an  explanation of the rates charged.
Know what you're paying for. Get a description of the
tasks and a list of the junior-, mid-, and senior-level staff
that will be performing each task. This is a good way to
match rates to services. If you're not comfortable with any
match-ups, ask the contractor for an explanation.

  Compare Answers: Weigh the strengths and
weaknesses of each contractor against the others; decide
on one. or if you don't think any of them can do your job,
widen your search. You need to hire someone who will
meet your needs.

  Define Roles: Ask that the bid include the qualifica-
tions and experience of the people who will be doing the
work on your site. Whether you need to hire someone to
assess your site or to clean up the spill, this information
will help you determine the company's qualifications.

  Look Closely: Evaluate the contractor's credentials and
experience. Does the company's experience match your
needs? Is the contractor qualified to do the job? Have they
done this work before? How often? Are they planning on
using subcontractors? How do they justify their rates?

  Count Heads: Know in advance any planned use of
subcontractors. Make sure the contract bid includes all
subcontractor fees.

  Ask Questions: Clear understanding  about even the
most minor details  is crucial to precise negotiations.

  Get References: Have them include a list of references,
especially those from State contracts, and ask the State
about their performance on these contracts. Are they
familiar with State UST regulations and criteria for
payment from the State Fund?

  Read Fine Print: Understand the payment terms,
including interest charges on outstanding bills.

  Sign Carefully: Don't get locked into an overestimated
bid. And don't automatically choose the lowest bidder.

Double-Check

Before you commit to any contracts, have a clear
understanding of the required work. Understand how long
it will take and how much it will cost. Double-check, in
writing, the following items with the contractor:

   Price
   Project timetable

   Terms and conditions of payment
   Cited contractor's experience/capability

   Explanation and purpose of technical work

And Remember: The sooner a spill is cleaned up, the
better. The longer you wait, the more the damage will
spread and the more the cleanup will cost.
   Fact Sheet 1 was developed by the Environmental
 Protection Agency's Office of Underground Storage Tanks
 in conjunction with State Fund Administrators. It is one of a
 series; the others are: Negotiating the Contract, Interpreting
 the Bill, Managing the Process,  and Understanding
 Contractor Code Words. For copies of these fact sheets or
 more information, contact your State Fund Administrator for
 USTs and/or your State Underground Storage Tank
 program.

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                       United States
                       Environmental Protection
                       Agency
                          Office of Solid Waste and
                          Emergency Response
                          OS-420(WF)
 vvEPA
Controlling UST Cleanup Costs
Fact Sheet 2:
Negotiating The  Contract
 Build Trust

 As a business person, you know that in business
 agreements there is almost always room for bargaining.
 Like the other contracts you've worked out, site assessment
 and cleanup contract negotiations start as a series of
 questions. Remember, contractors want to work with you,
 and answering your questions is part of getting the job.

 The contract serves as a blueprint for the site assessment
 and cleanup, and it shows both you and the contractor
 where you've agreed to spend your money. Remember, you
 can use the same or different contractors for the site
 assessment and cleanup jobs. Understanding and
 evaluating the bids from all contractors is your
 responsibility.

 Get It in Writing

 Most contracts will have a scope of work: that scope of
 work should include four kinds of
 basic information:    -_'.
     Details of the tasks to be
     performed (for example,
     the number of wells to be
     drilled)

     Specifics on the training
     of staff required to
     perform those tasks

     Schedule of when the
     tasks are to be performed

     Costs of each of the
     tasks to be performed

Make sure you understand
all of the components.
                         Control the Project

                           Know Regulations: Before you hire a contractor, learn
                         your State's Underground Storage Tank (UST) program
                         regulations. Most States have a fund to help UST owners
                         pay for cleaning up tank leaks. The fund is generally
                         managed by a State Fund Administrator. Check with your
                         State Fund Administrator to see if you're eligible to receive
                         the funds and to learn about other requirements (for
                         example, invoices) you need to understand before you hire
                         a contractor. Make sure the contractor follows these
                         requirements.

                           Take Charge: Manage the contractor; don't let the
                         contractor manage you. Make certain that the contractor
                        -answers to you. Remember, the State holds you responsible
                         for the cleanup of your spill.

                         Three Types of Contracts
                                            Generally, three types of contracts
                                             are worked out for
                                              site assessment and cleanup
                                              management: time-and-
                                               materials, fixed-price, and
                                                unit-price.

                                                  Time-and-Materials
                                                   Contract
                                                       Charged Hourly:
                                                     This contract buys
                                                      you hours of ser-
                                                       vice, not a com-
                                                        pleted cleanup.
                                                         Though not as
                                                         common as the
                                                           fixed-price
                                                           contract, this
                                                            type of

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 deal is negotiated if you're uncertain of the type of work
 needed. Time-and-materials contracts involve loaded rates,
 which typically include the contractor's salary, fringe
 benefits, and overhead. (See Fact Sheet 3 on billing for a
 more detailed discussion of loaded rates.)

 Fixed-Price Contract

   One Price: In a fixed-price contract, one price covers
 the whole site assessment or cleanup from beginning to
 end. This includes person hours, equipment hours, and
 all fees and services. You control costs by letting the
 contractor know that you will not pay for work beyond
 the scope of work unless you specifically agree to it. You
 need to be careful that contractors don't take shortcuts in
 completing work.

 Unit-Price Contract

   Charged by Specific Task: In a unit-price contract, a
 project is divided into specific tasks called work units, and
 a price is attributed to each. Examples of work units are:
 *  Taking soil borings (per foot or other unit)
   Sampling and analyzing groundwater from a
   monitoring well
   Excavating contaminated soil (per cubic yard or
   other unit)
The unit price includes labor (salary, fringe benefits, and
overhead) and materials necessary to properly complete
the task. Profit is included in the unit price. An advantage
to the unit-price contract is that you are not required to pay
for uncompleted tasks or inefficiencies on the part of the
contractor. As with fixed-price contracts, you need to be
careful that contractors don't take short cuts hi completing
work.

Cost-Cutting Tips

  Check Bargains: Don't let the lowest bidder fool you.
The lowest bid may appear cheapest, but you might end up
paying for expensive mistakes or redoing work that wasn't
done right the first time. Select an experienced contractor
who provides high-quality work.

  Hire Experience: Contact your State UST program
about their experience with contractors. You're better off
with a contractor with a lot of State experience and good
reviews on cost-effectiveness and timeliness. Make sure
the contractor has insurance and access to the proper
equipment.
   Monitor Budget: Show cost limits for specific tasks in
 the contract. Require the contractor to tell you when he/she
 has reached certain points (for example, 25 percent of tasks
 and costs, 50 percent, 75 percent). Make sure your
 contractor sticks to a schedule and informs you when
 he/she cannot.

   Condition Payments: Connect payment for services to
 the satisfactory completion of necessary work. Stipulate a
 policy on payment for idle time. (For example, delays in
 obtaining equipment caused by the contractor's poor
 planning should not be charged to you.)

   Watch Closely: Negotiate a price ceiling into the
 contract and monitor charges and performance. Make
 notification of any changes in the scope of work mandatory
 for payment. Be sure that you are paying for completed
 work, not projected work. Make sure that you preapprove
 all overtime.

   Promote Quality: Make it clear that you will not pay
for substandard work.

  Stay Home: Encourage on-site treatment of soils. On-
site treatment is often cheaper than hauling the soil to a
landfill or treating it at an off-site facility. Check with your
State UST program to see if this is an acceptable practice.

And Remember:  The sooner a spill is cleaned up, the
better. The longer you wait, the more the damage will
spread and the more the cleanup will cost.
    Fact Sheet 2 was developed by the Environmental
  Protection Agency's Office of Underground Storage
  Tanks in conjunction with State  Fund Administrators.
  It is one of a series; the others are: Hiring a
  Contractor, Interpreting the  Bill,  Managing the
  Process, and Understanding Contractor Code Words.
  For copies of these fact sheets  or  more information,
  contact your State Fund  Administrator for USTs
  and/or your State Underground Storage Tank
  program.

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                         United States
                         Environmental Protection
                         Agency
                          Office of Solid Waste and
                          Emergency Response
                          OS-420 (WF)
 vvEPA
Controlling UST Cleanup Costs
Fact  Sheet  3:
Interpreting  The  Bill
 Figuring the Figures

 Competition among gasoline stations may keep the prices
 at your pump just about the same as the prices at the station
 down the street or across town. These prices may vary a
 few cents from week to week, but not by much. In contrast,
 site assessment and cleanup costs can vary tremendously.

 Your day-to-day operations tell you there are almost as
 many ways to be charged for vendor services as there are
 vendors. In the cleanup business, charges for similar
 services or items may be worlds apart. That's because of
 the different rates contractors can charge you. And the ways
 that they bill you.

 Matching the Items

 Understanding your bill  what the charges are and how
 they are determined  is essential to keeping down the
 cost of the cleanup. Your bill needs to match the contract
 and provide top-to-bottom detail. That means you need to
 carefully examine your first bill.
 Then sit down with your
 contractor and ask questions  '
 about charges you think are too
 high. Verify that charges are
 legitimate, correct, and timely.

 And establish a billing
 schedule. Tell your contractor
 you need bills at regular
 intervals, and examine each one
carefully.
                        Knowing State Limits

                        Most States have a fund to help underground storage tank
                        (UST) owners pay for cleaning up tank leaks. The fund is
                        generally managed by a State Fund Administrator. Check
                        with your State Fund Administrator to see if you're eligible
                        to receive these funds and to learn about other requirements
                        (for example, invoices).                  "

                        Remember that good cost management is one of your
                        strengths as a business owner. Though you may be eligible
                        for payment for certain tasks or services, don't depend on
                        the State Fund to pay for your cleanup. Review each of
                        your costs carefully to be sure you weren't charged
                        unfairly. It's your responsibility.

                        Straight Rates and Loaded Rates

                        Contractors may list labor, overhead costs, other business
                        expenses, and profits as separate cost elements (straight
                                             rates) or group them into fewer
                                             charges (loaded rates). The
                                             method of billing depends on
                                              the agreement in the contract.
                                             Whatever the agreement, be
                                            sure it is followed in the field
                                            and in billing. For your own
                                             financial well being, you need a
                                             clear understanding of

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every step of the process. For example, one contractor's
labor rate for a senior engineer may be $50 per hour while
another may charge $100 per hour. You should check to
see whether the second contractor is quoting a loaded rate
(that is, a rate that includes salary, fringe benefits, and
overhead).

Fact Sheet 2, Negotiating the Contract, gives details on
time-and-materials, fixed-price, and unit-price contracts.
For fixed-price contracts, you negotiate the scope of the
work and a fixed dollar amount to be paid for the
completion of the work. For time-and-materials contracts,
you pay for labor by the hour, not for the completed job.
For unit-price contracts, you pay for individual work units.

Sorting  Cost Elements

In order to understand the differences in billing procedures,
you need to know what and how the contractor charges
you. Most contractors calculate costs with the following
charges in mind:

 Direct Labor: Employee salaries, not including
benefits.

 Fringe (Employee) Benefits: Vacation, sick,  and
holiday time and sometimes insurance and retirement
benefits. This cost is calculated as a percentage of direct
labor.

 Other Direct Costs (ODCs): Equipment, supplies,
travel, soil disposal, and other costs associated directly
with the site assessment or cleanup. Refer to the  contract to
see if these expenses are included.

 Overhead: Rent, utilities, and phone bills associated
with the operation of the facility where the contractor
works. This cost is calculated as a percentage or  a multiple
of direct labor.

 General Administrative (G&A) Costs: Expenses
associated with tasks necessary to run a business that are
not billable directly to customers. For example, paying
bills, preparing internal reports, and holding meetings.
Sometimes these costs are included in overhead.  G&A
costs are often calculated as a percentage of direct labor,
overhead, or other direct costs.

 Subcontractor Costs (When Appropriate):  Costs for
contractors who provide specific services under the
direction  of the main (prime) contractor. They include the
subcontractor's general and administrative costs  and profit
percentage.
Using subcontractors always means added expense because
the prime contractor increases his/her rates to cover the
expense of hiring and managing a subcontractor. For
example, your general contractor, hired to clean up a spill
at your station, hires another group to remove the tank or
haul soil from the site. Your bill for the removal from the
general contractor will include charges for the contractor's
finding and managing a subcontractor.

  Fee/Profit: Earnings from the contract to help the
contractor recover the costs of investing in equipment.
Typically figured as a percentage of all contractor costs,
this charge may be negotiated to your advantage when
working out the contract. For example, a contractor may be
willing to reduce the fee for a big job or for one that
requires only equipment they already have.

  Reported Costs: The total expenses incurred by the
contractor, often reported as summary (loaded) costs. The
extent of detail of the reported costs depends on how much
detail you want the contractor to include. To help the State
Fund Administrator understand and pay your claim, make
sure reported costs are as detailed as your State Fund
demands.

  Loaded Rates: The number calculated by adding
together costs, such as salary, fringe benefits, and
overhead. One contractor's loaded rates may include all
three of these; another's may include these plus fees.

And Remember: The sooner a spill is cleaned up, the
better. The longer you wait, the more the damage will
spread and the more the cleanup will cost.
    Fact Sheet 3 was developed by the Environmental
  Protection Agency's Office of Underground Storage
  Tanks in conjunction with State Fund Administrators.
  It is  one  of a  series;  the others are:  Hiring a
  Contractor, Negotiating the Contract, Managing the
  Process, and Understanding Contractor Code Words.
  For copies of these fact  sheets or more information,
  contact your State Fund  Administrator for USTs
  and/or your State Underground Storage Tank
  program.

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                        United States
                        Environmental Protection
                        Agency
                         Office of Solid Waste and
                         Emergency Response
                         OS-420 (WF)
 &EPA
Controlling UST  Cleanup Costs
Fact Sheet 4:
Managing  The  Process
 Playing Your Part

 You are both a supervisor and a customer when managing a
 site assessment or cleanup. As a supervisor, you need to
 know how to get the best cleanup for your money. You can
 find this out by studying a copy of your State's regulations
 on Underground Storage Tank (UST) cleanups, which are
 available from your State UST program. Most States have
 a fund to help UST owners pay for cleaning up tank leaks.
 The fund is generally managed by the State Fund
 Administrator. Check with your State Fund Administrator
 to see if you're eligible to receive these funds and to learn
 about other requirements (for example, invoices).

 As the supervisor, you manage the contractor; don't let
 the contractor manage you. Your contractors should have
 demonstrated their understanding of State UST regulations
 during the bidding process. But by knowing the regulations
 yourself, you can ensure that your cleanup will meet State
 standards and increase your chances of payment from the
 State Fund. You can help yourself even more by reminding
 the contractor to stick to the scope of work and by
 inspecting the site while work is being done as often
 as possible.
As a customer, you can expect
work to be
                       completed for the agreed upon price or some reasonable
                       approximation of that price. Pay more attention to what's
                       being done than to the rates being charged. Paying high
                       rates for necessary work is more valuable than paying low
                       rates for unnecessary work.

                       Keep an eye on tasks that contractors tend to overdo.
                       Check with your State Fund or UST program to see if they
                       limit the following activities:

                          Excavating and hauling soil

                          Sending soil and water samples to the lab for testing

                          Installing monitoring wells


                       Controlling Costs

                       As a supervisor and as a customer, you are responsible for
                       keeping costs in line. When weighing the numbers:

                                    Know: What the State Fund for USTs
                                       will or will not pay for. Question the
                                            contractor on the need to
                                                perform certain tasks and
                                                on the prices for tasks.

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  Check: With your State UST program to see if it has a
schedule of reasonable rates for standard site assessment
and cleanup procedures.

  Require: Contractors to get your written permission to
perform tasks not included in the scope of work.

  Visit: The site regularly and question the need for on-
site personnel and equipment, especially if they are not
working. Make some unannounced visits.

  Investigate: New methods of treating soil on-site as
opposed to hauling soil off-site for treatment or disposal.
Your State UST program may have requirements about
this.

  Account For: All costs and services and get dates on all
invoices. Your State Fund  Administrator may need dated
forms and invoices to process your request for payment.

  Scrutinize: Your bill with your contractor. Compare the
prices for projected work to the charges for completed
work; make sure everything is justified.

  Make Sure: Expensive senior staff aren't doing work
that less experienced staff  could perform, for example, soil
sampling. Ensure that staff with the necessary skills are
carrying out the work.
Documentation

Ask the contractor to keep a daily log of activities that can
be inspected upon request. This protects you from being
overcharged, and it provides information for the State Fund
Administrator should questions arise about your claims
for payment.

Require invoices on a regular basis. Sit down with your
contractor and go over the first invoice to make sure you
both understand what is required. Feel free to ask your
contractor to justify questionable charges. The need for
good detailed invoices  can't be overstated.

And Remember:  The sooner a spill is cleaned up, the
better. The longer you wait, the more the damage will
spread and the more the cleanup will cost.
    Fact Sheet 4 was developed by the Environmental
  Protection Agency's Office of Underground Storage
  Tanks in conjunction with State Fund Administrators.
  It  is  one of a series; the  others are: Hiring a
  Contractor, Negotiating the Contract, Interpreting the
  BUI, and Understanding Contractor Code Words.  For
  copies of these fact sheets or more information,
  contact your State Fund  Administrator for USTs
  and/or your  State Underground Storage Tank
  program.

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                          United States
                          Environmental Protection
                          Agency
   Office of Solid Waste and
   Emergency Response
   OS-420 (WF)
                          Controlling  UST Cleanup Costs
                          Fact Sheet  5:    Understanding
                          Contractor  Code Words
 Here are a limited number of definitions that are often used
 by contractors when they are cleaning up leaking
 underground storage tank sites. The definitions focus on
 cleanup technologies and terms associated with the
 chemical components of gasoline.  The list does not
 currently include types of site investigation or cleanup
 equipment.

 Activated Carbon Adsorption is a widely used method of
 cleaning groundwater. In it, particles of carbon are used to
 remove chemical compounds from Water.

 Air Sparging is a method of removing VOCs (see
 definition) from groundwater. Compressed air is forced
 through a well screen placed in the aquifer causing a
 bubbling effect in the groundwater. Contaminants in the
 groundwater are forced into the soils above the aquifer.
 These contaminants can then be removed by soil vapor
 extraction.  Air sparging can enhance bioremediation.

 Air Stripping is a method in which groundwater
 contaminated with petroleum is mixed with air. The
 mixing process removes the dissolved petroleum from the
 water by transferring it into the air.  Local air pollution
 rules may prohibit using this method.

 Aquifer is a water-bearing stratum (layer) of permeable
 rock, sand, or gravel.

 Bioremediation is the natural process in which
microorganisms (that is, bacteria) break down petroleum
products in the soil. Enhanced bioremediation refers to
the addition of microorganisms or chemicals to speed up
the natural rate of breakdown of petroleum products in the
soil.
 BTEX is the abbreviation for Benzene, Toluene,
 Ethylbenzene, and Xylene, which are all chemical
 compounds in gasoline/ Site investigations often measure
 the amount of these compounds in soil and groundwater; as
 such, they are often called indicator chemicals.

 Free Product is the petroleum product that resides in the
 spaces between the soil particles or floats on top of the
 groundwater and is generally more accessible for removal
 or treatment.

 Groundwater is the water within the earth that supplies
 wells and springs.

 Incineration is the process of burning soils or sludges at a
 high temperature to destroy contaminants. Air pollution
 control devices are usually needed to comply with local or
 State regulations.

 In-Situ means within place and is often used to refer to the
 location of activities (that is, in-situ soil treatment).

 Land Farming is a method of removing petroleum
 compounds from soils. Contaminated soils are removed
 from the ground, spread over a given area, and periodically
 tilled to speed up the release of VOCs and breakdown of
 the contaminants.

 Monitoring Well (Observation Well) is a hollow,
perforated cylinder inserted into a special hole or boring in
the ground for the purpose of obtaining ground-water
samples.

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MTBE is the abbreviation for Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether,
which is a blending agent added to gasoline.

Permeability is the quality or the state of being permeable
(that is, of having pores or openings that permit liquids or
gases to pass through). Sandy soils are permeable.

Plume is often used to describe the shape of the
contaminated area, which is usually elongated. Delineating
the plume refers to the act of determining the boundaries
of the plume.

Recovery Well is a well installed for the purpose of
pumping contaminated water or free product from an
aquifer for treatment. Recovery wells are generally larger
in diameter than monitoring wells.

Remediation is the process of cleaning up contamination.

Site Investigation is the process of confirming that a
release of petroleum product has occurred;  it can involve
determining the extent of soil and ground-water
contamination caused by that release.

Soil Borings are holes drilled in the ground to determine
soil structure and/or to monitor for the presence of
contaminants in the soil.

Soil Vapor Extraction draws (with a vacuum pump) fresh
air into the ground and brings toxic contaminants up to the
surface where they can be treated and safely discharged.
Soil Vapor Survey is a method used to collect and analyze
volatile petroleum hydrocarbons from subsurface soils.
Vapor samples are collected from a borehole using a hand
or vacuum pump and analyzed in the field.

Soil Venting is a method used to remove gasoline vapors
from soils without excavation. This method can be
performed passively with vents that are open to the
atmosphere or actively with the use of pressure or vacuum
pumps.

TPH is the abbreviation for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons.
The level of TPH can be used to determine the amount of
contamination at a site.

VOCs, Volatile Organic Compounds, are carbon-
containing compounds that readily vaporize (that is, change
from a liquid to a gas) at normal temperatures and
pressures.
    Fact Sheet 5 was developed by the Environmental
  Protection Agency's Office of Underground Storage
  Tanks in conjunction with State  Fund Administrators.
  It  is one of a series; the others are: Hiring a
  Contractor, Negotiating the Contract, Interpreting the
  Bill, and  Managing the Process. For copies of these
  fact sheets or more information, contact your State
  Fund Administrator for USTs and/or your State
  Underground Storage Tank program.
                                                      10

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For The Address And Telephone Number Of Your
            State UST Program Office

 Visit EPA's Underground Storage Tank Web site at
 http://www.epa.gov/OUST/ and find it online. Or, call
 EPA's toll-free RCRA/Superfund Hotline at 800-424-9346.

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&EPA
   United States
   Environmental Protection
   Agency
   5403W
   Washington, DC 20460

   Official Business
   Penalty for Private Use
   $300

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