United States
                        Environmental Protection
                    Solid Waste
                    and Emergency Response
                       2000  Buy-Recycled Series
                       Miscellaneous Products
EcoPurchasing means
considering attributes
     such as
  recycled content
  before you buy
    a product.
           More and more procurement
           officials are realizing that
           buying recycled is an easy, cost-
efficient, and earth-friendly alternative.
Today's products made from recycled
materials offer the strength, durability, and
performance equivalent to those made from
virgin material. That's why businesses and public sector buyers
across the country are buying and using recycled products. This
fact sheet contains information on miscellaneous products that
contain recycled materials.
  To make it easier to buy recycled, the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) updates the Comprehensive Procurement
Guidelines (CPG) every 2 years. Through the CPG, EPA designates
items that must contain recycled content when purchased by
federal, state, and local agencies, or by government contractors,
using appropriated federal funds. EPA's research shows that the
items designated in the CPG are of high quality, widely available,
and cost-competitive with virgin products. EPA also issues
nonregulatory companion guidance—the Recovered Materials
Advisory Notice (RMAN)—that recommends levels of recycled
content for those items.
                            Printed on paper that contains at least 30 percent postconsumer fiber.

                     What Is The CPG?
  The CPG
agencies to
 buy items
made from
      Recycling is more than just dropping
      off your cans, bottles, and
      newspapers at the curb or at a local
collection facility. Diverting recyclables
from the waste stream is only the first of
three steps in the recycling process. The
second step occurs when companies use
these recyclables to manufacture new
products. The third step comes when you
purchase products made from recovered
materials. That's how we close the loop.
   To support markets for the materials
collected in recycling programs and to
help these programs expand, the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act requires
agencies to buy recycled-content products
designated by EPA. In addition, President
Clinton signed Executive Order 13101 in
September 1998, which called for an
increase in the federal government's use of
recycled-content and other environm-
entally preferable products.
   Issued in May 1995, the first CPG
designated 19 new products and
incorporated five previously designated
items in seven product categories.
Procuring agencies are required to
purchase these items with recycled
content. The first CPG update (CPG II) was
published in November 1997, and
designated an additional 12 products
including pallets. A  second CPG update
(CPG III) was published in January 2000,
and designated an additional 18 products
including sorbents, awards and plaques,
industrial drums, mats,  manual-grade
strapping, and signage.
   Procuring agencies include all federal
agencies, and any state or local govern-
ment agency or government contractor
that uses appropriated federal funds to
purchase the designated items. If your
agency spends more than $10,000 per year
on a product designated in the CPG, you
are required to purchase it with the
highest recycled-content level practicable.
The CPG also applies to lease contracts
covering designated items.
   Once designated, an agency has 1 year
to develop an affirmative procurement
program (or revise an existing one) for a
designated item it purchases. By Novem-
ber 13, 1998, agencies were required to
develop an affirmative procurement
program to incorporate buy-recycled
requirements for pallets. Agencies also
must revise their affirmative procurement
programs to add the miscellaneous
products designated in CPG III by January
19, 2001. This effort might involve
reviewing specifications for those items
and eliminating provisions that pose
barriers to procuring them with recycled
content (such as aesthetic requirements
unrelated to product performance).
   The CPG acknowledges, however, that
specific circumstances might arise that
preclude the purchase of products made
with recovered materials. Your agency
may purchase designated items that do
not contain recovered materials if you
determine that: 1) the price of a given
designated item made with recovered
materials is unreasonably high, 2) there is
inadequate  competition (not enough
sources of supply),  3) unusual and
unreasonable  delays would result from
obtaining the item,  or 4) the recycled-
content item does not meet the agency's
reasonable performance specifications.

How Do I  Purchase  Recycled-Content Products?
       EPA issues guidance
       in RMANs, which
       are designed to
 make it as easy as possible
 to buy the designated
 items. The RMAN recom-
 mends recycled-content
 levels to look for when
 purchasing miscellaneous
 products, as shown in the
 chart on this page. Follo-
 wing the RMANs' recom-
 mended levels will help
 ensure your affirmative
 procurement program and
 standards  meet the buy-
 recycled requirements.

    Rather  than specifying
 just one level of recycled
 content, the RMANs reco-
 mmend ranges that reflect
 actual market conditions.
 The recommendations are
 based on market research
 identifying recycled-
 content products that are
 commercially available,
 are competitively priced,
 and meet buyers' quality

    Refer to EPA's availabi-
 lity list entitled "Miscell-
 aneous Products Containing
 Recovered Materials" for
 sources of the designated
 miscellaneous items. See
 the last section of this fact
 sheet for this and other
 helpful resources.
     EPA's Recommended Content Levels for Miscellaneous Products
 Miscellaneous Product
 Awards and Plaques
      —Plastic and Plastic/Wood Composites
 Industrial Drums
      —Plastic (HOPE)
      —Fiber (paper)
      —Rubber/Plastic Composite
      —Plastic Sign Posts/Supports3
      —Steel Sign Posts/Supports"
      —Other Organics/Multimaterials6
 Manual-Grade Strapping
    overed Material Con
75-100% (postconsumer)/100% (total)
100% (total)
40-100% (postconsumer)
50-100% (postconsumer)/95-100% (total)
16% (postconsumer)/25-30% (total)
30-100% (postconsumer)
100% (postconsumer)
75-100% (postconsumer)/85-100% (total)
10-100% (postconsumer)/100% (total)
100% (postconsumer)
95-100% (postconsumer)
100% (postconsumer)
25-50% (postconsumer)
50% (postconsumer)
80-100% (postconsumer)
25% (postconsumer)
80-100% (postconsumer)
16% (postconsumer)/25-30% (total)
67% (postconsumer)/100% (total)
90-100% (postconsumer)/100% (total)
95-100% (postconsumer)
25-100% (total)
100% (total)
100% (total)
50-85% (postconsumer)
10-40% (total)
16% (postconsumer)/25-30% (total)
67% (postconsumer)/100% (total)
   Ak recommendations do not preclude a procuring agency from purchasing these items manufactured from another material. They
 simply require that a procuring agency purchase these items made with recovered materials when these items meet applicable
 specifications and performance requirements.
2 Steel used in steel drums is manufactured using the Basic Oxygen furnace (EOF) process, which contains 25-30% total recovered
 materials, of which 16% is postconsumer steel. Steel used in manual-grade strapping is manufactured using either the EOF process
 or the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) process, which contains 100% total recovered materials, of which 67% is postconsumer steel.
3 Plastic signs and sign posts are recommended for nonroad applications only, such as, but not limited to, trailway signs in parks and
 directional/informational signs in buildings.
4 The recommended recovered materials content levels for steel in this table reflect the fact that the designated items can be made
 from steel manufactured in either a Basic Oxygen Furnace (EOF) or an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). Steel from the EOF process
 contains 25-30% total recovered materials, of which 16% is postconsumer steel. Steel from the EAF process contains a total of 100%
 recovered steel, of which 67% is postconsumer.
5 "Wood" includes materials such as sawdust and lumber mill trimmings.
6 Examples of other organics include, but are not limited to, peanut hulls and corn stover. An example of multimaterial sorbents would
 include, but not be limited to, a polymer and cellulose fiber combination.

How  Can  I Get  More Information?
              Information Available
              From EPA

              This fact sheet and the following publications on
              buying recycled-content products are available or
can be accessed in electronic format on the Internet at
. Use Internet e-mail to order paper copies of
documents. Include the requestor's name and mailing address on
all orders. Address e-mail to: rcra-docket@epamail.epa.gov.
   Paper copies also may be ordered by calling the RCRA
Hotline. Callers within the Washington  Metropolitan Area must
dial 703 412-9810 or TDD 703 412-3323 (hearing impaired).
Long-distance callers may call 800 424-9346 or TDD 800 553-
7672. The  RCRA Hotline operates weekdays, from 9:00 a.m. to
6:00 p.m.,  e.s.t.
* EPA Expands Comprehensive Procurement Guideline
   (CPG) (EPA530-F-00-017). This fact sheet provides general
   information about the  CPG and the  development of affirmative
   procurement programs.
* Federal Register (FR) notices promulgating CPG I (60 FR
   21370/EPA530-Z-95-006) and RMAN I  (60 FR 21386/EPA530-
   Z-95-007), May 1, 1995. FR notices promulgating CPG II (62
   FR60961/EPA530-Z-97-009) and RMAN II (62 FR60975/
   EPA530-Z-97-010), November 13, 1997. FR notices
   promulgating CPG III  (65 FR 3070)  and RMAN III (65  FR
   3082), January 19, 2000.
* Miscellaneous Products Containing Recovered Materials
   (EPA530-B-99-010). This list identifies manufacturers and
   suppliers of pallets.
* A Study of State and Local Government Procurement
   Practices that Consider Environmental Performance of
   Goods and Services (EPA742-R-96-007). This report provides
   important program elements and case studies of state and
   county agencies purchasing environmentally preferable
   products and services. For a copy of the report or more
   information on EPA's Environmentally Preferable Purchasing
   (EPP) program, contact the Pollution Prevention Information
   Clearinghouse at 401  M Street, SW. (7409), Washington, DC
   20460. Phone: 202 260-1023. Fax: 202 260-4659. Visit the
   EPP Web site at .
              Other Sources of
              *Buy Recycled Business Alliance. The Alliance
              includes over 3,200 companies and organizations
committed to increasing their use of recycled-content products and
materials in their day-to-day operations. The Alliance offers
educational materials, a quarterly newsletter, and product-specific
guides. Public purchasing entities can join for free. For more
information, contact Kevin Barry, National Recycling Coalition, 1727
King Street, Suite 105, Alexandria, VA 22314-2720. Phone: 703 683-
9025, Ext. 210. Fax: 703 683-9026.  Web site: www.nrc-recycle.org
E-mail: brbainfo@nrc-recycle.org
* U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). GSA publishes
  various supply catalogs, guides, and schedules for recycled-
  content products available through the Federal Supply Service. For
  copies of the following document and other information, contact
  GSA, Centralized Mailing List Service (7CAFL), 4900 Hemphill
  Street, P.O. Box 6477, Fort Worth, TX 76115-9939. Phone:
  817 334-5215. Fax: 817 334-5561. You can  also access GSA
  Advantage!, GSAs Internet-based online ordering system, to order
  any GSA product at .
   - Environmental Products Guide. This guide is designed to
      help procurement officials identify environmentally
      preferable products and services.  It contains nearly 3,000
      items, including many recycled-content products.
* Greening the Government: A Guide to Implementing
  Executive Order 12873. This guide provides detailed information
  on establishing and implementing federal affirmative procurement
  plans. Updated in the summer of 1997, it is available without
  charge from the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive,
  Ariel Rios Building,  Mail Code 1600S, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave.,
  NW., Washington, DC 20460. Phone:  202 564-1297.
  Fax: 202 564-1393. Web site: www.ofee.gov
  You can also download an electronic version on the Internet at
* National Association of State Procurement Officials
  (NASPO). NASPO's Internet-based Database of Recycled
  Commodities (DRC) includes information from states on their
  recycled product procurement. Data include product
  distributors, manufacturers, brand names,  recycled and
  postconsumer content, "Energy Star" rating, units purchased,
  unit of measurement, unit price, and type of procurement. Visit
  the NASPO Web site at .
* Official Recycled Products Guide. This  directory lists more
  than 5,000 manufacturers and distributors of recycled-content
  products. Contact: Recycling Data Management Corporation,
  P.O. Box 577, Ogdensburg, NY 13669. Phone: 800 267-0707.
  Fax: 315 471-3258.

How  Can  I Get  More  Information? (Continued)
  Plastic Lumber Trade Association (PLTA). PLTA is a
  nonprofit, membership organization working to promote the
  interests of the recycled plastic lumber industry. Their work
  includes collaborating with the American Society for Testing
  and Materials to set industrywide standards for recycled plastic
  lumber. For more information, contact Alan E. Robbins,
  President, P.O. Box 80311, Akron, OH 44308-9998. Phone:
  330 762-8989. Fax: 330 762-1613.
  Recycled Plastic Products Source Book. This booklet lists
  more than 1,300 plastic products from approximately 300
  manufacturers, including pallets. For more information, call the
  American Plastics Council (APC), 1801  K  Street, NW., Suite
  7010, Washington, DC 20006. Phone: 202 974-5400.
  Fax: 202  296-7119. Web site: www.plasticsresource.com
             Internet Sites
             * The Comprehensive Procurement
             Guidelines: . This site
             describes EPA's effort to facilitate the procurement
of products containing recovered materials, including information
on CPG, RMANs, and the Buy-Recycled Series.
* Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP):
  . EPA's Environmentally Preferable
  Purchasing program encourages and assists federal agencies
  to purchase environmentally preferable  products and services.
  The site explains EPA's proposed guiding principles for
  including environmental performance in purchasing decision-
  making, and posts case studies of successful pilot projects in
  both the public and private sectors.
* Office of the  Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE):
  . OFEE's mission is to advocate, coordinate,
  and assist environmental efforts of the federal community in
  waste prevention, recycling, affirmative procurement of CPG
  items, and the acquisition of recycled and environmentally
  preferable  products and services.
* Federal Trade Commission:
  . The Federal Trade
  Commission issued Guides for the Use  of Environmental
  Marketing  Claims in May 1998.
* Jobs Through Recycling: . EPA's Jobs
  Through Recycling program stimulates economic growth and
  recycling market development by assisting businesses and
  supporting a network of state and regional recycling contacts.
  This Web site provides information on financing and technical
  assistance for recycling businesses, as  well  as other market
  development tools.
* Municipal Solid Waste: . This site
  includes information on recycling, source reduction, and reuse.
  Contains state municipal solid waste data and the latest facts
  and figures on waste generation and disposal.
* WasteWise: . WasteWise is a
  free, voluntary EPA program through which organizations
  eliminate costly municipal solid waste, benefitting their bottom
  line and the environment. The program provides hands-on
  assistance to members to help them purchase or manufacture
  recycled-content products, prevent waste, and recycle solid
  waste materials.
* King County Recycled Product Procurement Program:
  . This site describes
  the tools and techniques developed by King County,
  Washington, agencies for purchasing recycled products.

Other Sources—Industrial Drums

* Association of Container Reconditioners. This association
  represents about 100 container reconditioners, including
  industrial drums. For more information, contact Paul Rankin or
  Dana Worcester, Reusable Packaging Association (RIPA),
  8401 Corporate Drive, Suite 140, Landover, MD 20785-2224.
  Phone: 301 577-3786. Fax: 301  577-6476. Or visit the RIPA
  Web site at .
* Fiber Drum  Institute. This organization represents fiber drum
  manufacturers. For more information, please contact Gordon
  Rousseau, 1850 K Street, NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC
  20006. Phone: 202463-3511.
* Plastic Drum Institute. This organization represents  plastic
  drum manufacturers across the nation. For more information,
  please contact John Malloy, 1801 K Street, NW., Suite 600,
  Washington, DC 20006. Phone:  202 974-5245.

Other Sources—Pallets

* National Wooden  Pallet and Container Association
  (NWPCA) This international trade association represents
  manufacturers, recyclers, and distributors of pallets,
  containers, and reels.  NWPCA also developed the Uniform
  Standards for Wood Pallets as a resource for pallet users and
  suppliers. For more information,  contact Heather Heishman at
  NWPCA at 1800 North Kent Street, Suite 911, Arlington, VA
  22209-2109. Phone: 703 527-7717 or 703 527-7667.
  Fax: 703 527-7717. Web site: www.nwpca.com
* National Wood Recycling Directory. This reference book
  provides a list of manufacturers of recovered wood products,

How  Can I Get More Information? (Continued)
    including remanufactured wooden pallets. For more
    information, contact the American Forest and Paper
    Association (AF&PA), 1111 19th Street, NW., Suite 800,
    Washington, DC 20036. Phone: 202 463-2700. Fax: 202 463-
    5180. Users can also search the directory online at AF&PA's
    Web site at .
    Sustaining Business & Jobs Through Pallet Repair &
    Reuse. This report lists pallet reuse and recycling operations
    across the country and highlights case studies  of model
    reuse programs. For more information, contact Brenda Platt
    at the Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 2425 18th Street,
    NW., Washington, DC 20009-2096. Phone: 202 232-4108.
    Fax: 202 332-0463.
    In addition, contact your state solid waste
 management agency for information about local
and regional businesses that produce or distribute
           recycled-content products.
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