United States
                          Environmental Protection
                          Agency
                            Solid Waste and
                            Emergency Response
                            (5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
JJ
                          Cutting  the  Waste
                          Stream  in Half
                          Community Record-Setters
                          Show How
                                                            Waste
                                                         Reduction
The Waste Reduction Record-Setters Project fosters development
of exceptional waste reduction programs by documenting successful
ones. These programs can be used as models for others
implementing their own programs to reduce waste. This fact
sheet packet highlights record-setting waste reduction programs in
18 communities and summarizes information presented in the EPA report
EPA-530-R-99-013, Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community
Record-Setters Show How.

 Good news for communities hoping to reduce dependence on disposal  reuse and
  recycling (including composting) can cut their waste stream in half.  The 18 diverse
 U.S. communities featured in this fact sheet are recovering 40 to 65% of their residential
 waste. Most report 50% and higher levels. Some are also  reducing their municipal solid
 waste (residential, institutional, and commercial waste) at high levels.  One encouraging
 finding is these high waste reduction levels are largely being achieved cost-effectively.
  Strategies driving record-setting waste reduction levels include:
      Targeting  a wide range of  materials
 Accepting a wide range of materials  increases the proportion of recoverable waste. These
 record-setting communities recover  17 to 31 different types of materials. Paper and yard
  trimmings are especially important. Paper recovery contributes 12 to 45% of residential
  materials diverted.  Composting of yard debris diverts 17 to 43% of total residential
   waste in these communities.
       Composting
   For ten of the 18 record-setters, composting accounts for more than half of all
    residential  waste reduction. Fall  leaf collection may be the single largest contributor
    to waste reduction in communities with fall seasons.
        Designing  for  convenience
    Residents are more likely to participate if set-out requirements are uncomplicated
    and recyclables collection is frequent. Providing adequate containers for material
     storage and set-out also improves convenience. Providing both curbside collection
     and drop-off sites for materials gives residents more recycling options.  On-site
      recycling at multi-family buildings makes recycling convenient to more residents.
         Using "pay-as-you-throw" trash fees
       Under pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) systems, residents pay by volume or weight for
       trash they set out at the curb. Such fees are a direct economic incentive to reduce
       trash and recover as much as possible.  Eleven of the record-setters use PAYT fees.
            Requiring resident participation
        Local requirements and mandates encourage program participation. Eleven of the
        record-setters have some type of local ordinance requiring  residents to source-
       separate or banning set-out of designated materials with their trash.

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  Community
Character
Population
Residential Waste
Generated (tons)
Residential Waste
Reduction Level1
Ann Arbor, Ml
Bellevue, WA
Bergen Co., NJ
Chatham, NJ
Clifton, NJ
Crockett, TX
Dover, NH
Falls Church, VA
Fitchburg, Wl
Leverett, MA
Loveland, CO
Madison, Wl
Portland, OR
Ramsey Co., MN
San Jose, CA
Seattle, WA
Visalia, CA
Worcester, MA
Urban, college town
Suburban, urban
Suburban (70 towns)
Suburban borough
Suburban, urban
Small rural city
Small rural city
Suburban
Small rural city
Rural town
Small residential city
Urban, college town
Urban
Urban, suburban, rural
Urban
Urban
City in rural area
Urban
112,000
103,700
825,400
8,300
75,000
8,300
26,100
10,000
17,300
1,900
44,300
200,900
503,000
496,100
873,300
534,700
91 ,300
169,800
47,900
39,190
1, 086,060 2
8,010
110,9302
2,710
9,460
6,660
4,150
650
17,970
88,580
966.9202
673.3002
1,315,4402
768,020 2
50,810
57,570
52%
60%
54% 2
65%
56% 2
52%
52%
65%
50%
53%
56%
50%
50% 2
47% 2
43% 2
44% 2
50%
54%
  Key:      HHs = households    NA = not available
  Note: Waste generation and reduction levels represent the 1996 calendar year except for Ann Arbor (fiscal year 1996): Bergen County (1995), and Falls
    Church, Leverett, San Jose, and Visalia (all fiscal year 1997 data).
  1 Waste reduction  levels may differ from the EPA Standard Recycling Rate as defined in Measuring Recycling: A Guide for State and Local Governments. The
    Institute for Local Self-Reliance excluded MRF rejects from recycling tonnages and included estimates of materials collected through container deposit
    systems for communities in bottle bill states. Furthermore, materials recovered for reuse are included in both recycling and generation figures and
    backyard composting tonnage was included in the composting and generation figures for those communities that provided creditable data on the
    amounts of materials handled this way.
  ^Represents municipal solid waste (residential, commercial and institutional waste streams).
Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, Washington, DC, 1999.

Please Note
This fact sheet packet is based on the  171-page report,
Cutting the Waste Stream in Half:  Record-Setting
Communities Show How (EPA-530-R-99-013). The
report and this fact sheet were prepared under U.S.
EPA grant number X825213-01-2  by staff of the
Institute for Local Self-Reliance (ILSR). Please refer
to the full report for  detailed  community profiles,
specific cost information, waste reduction calculations
and methodology, and a list of definitions.
                                       The methodology used in this research for calculating
                                       recycling rates refines the EPA Standard Recycling
                                       Rate as defined  in the document Measuring Recycling:
                                       A Guide for State and Local Governments (EPA-530-R-
                                       97-011).  For example, ILSR included tonnage
                                       diverted via state bottle bills, and subtracted material
                                       rejected at processing facilities from waste reduction
                                       levels.  While ILSR recognizes that composting is a
                                       form of recycling, they treat it separately in this fact
                                       sheet packet so that the costs and diversion levels of
                                       recycling materials such as paper, bottles, and cans may
                                       be compared to the recycling of yard trimmings.
                                       ILSR includes both recycling and composting under
                                       the  term "waste reduction."
                                       Cost data are not meant to be comparable among
                                       communities.  Rather, cost data  are useful for
                                       comparing each community's program over time and
                                       within a particular year.
Loveland's semi-automated dual-collection vehicle.  Crews put recyclables
into the split side-loading compartment and trash into the rear-loading
packer compartment.
                                         Contact
                                         The Waste Reduction Record-Setters Project was
                                         developed by the Institute for Local Self-Reliance
                                         (ILSR) through a grant from the U.S. EPA.  For
                                         more information on the project contact:  ILSR, 2425 18th Street,
                                         NW, Washington, DC 20009, phone (202) 232-4108, fax (202)
                                         332-0463, Web site 

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Highlights from  Select Record-Setters
    Ann Arbor, Michigan (Population:  112,000)

    City programs recover 47% of household waste. The
    state's bottle return law diverts another 5%. The non-
    profit Recycle Ann Arbor (RAA) picks  up 24 different
    recyclables weekly and also  runs a drop-off station.
    From April through November, city crews collect grass
    clippings, leaves, and brush at curbside (which are
    banned from the landfill). The city earns $38,000 per
    year from  compost and mulch sales.

    Bellevue, Washington (Population: 103,700)

    Bellevue's residential waste reduction climbed from
    11% in 1989 to  60% in 1996. Its PAYT system,
    combined with comprehensive curbside collection, is
    the heart of the  program. Almost two-thirds of
    customers subscribe to one  30-gallon can  or 19-gallon
    mini-can per week trash service.

    Dover, New Hampshire  (Population: 27,000)

    A PAYT system is responsible for Dover's residential
    recovery level increasing from 3% in 1990 to 52% in
    1996. During the same period, per household costs
    for solid waste management dropped from $122 to
    $73.

    Falls Church,  Virginia  (Population: 10,000)

    After implementing multi-material curbside collection,
    Falls Church reduced trash collection from twice to
    once weekly and cut the number of trash crew
    members from ten to seven. The solid waste
    management budget dropped from $1.05 million in
    FY90 to $630,000 in FY97. Falls Church recovers
    65% of its residential waste.

    Fitchburg,  Wisconsin (Population:  17,300)

    Fitchburg's mandatory recycling ordinance and multi-
    family recycling ordinance were  the first in Wisconsin.
    It is also one of the few communities collecting
    clothing, toys, books, small appliances, and housewares
    at curbside monthly. The town  disposed less waste in
    1996 than in 1992 despite a nearly 20% growth in
    households.  Per household waste handling costs
    dropped from $126 in 1992 to $108  in  1996.

    Loveland, Colorado (Population: 44,300)

    In the early  1990s, Loveland overhauled its waste
    management system in response  to rising worker
    compensation insurance rates and aging trash trucks
    needing replacement. Specially designed dual-
    collection vehicles now pick up  recyclables and trash
  each week. This system along
  with PAYT trash fees and
  several options for yard
  trimmings recovery result in a
  56% residential recovery level.
  The city estimates it saves
  $100,000 per year through dual-
  collection  as compared to separate
  trash and recycling collection.

  San Jose, California  (Population:  873,300)

  This culturally diverse urban city diverts 43% of its
  municipal solid waste. Single-family household
  diversion levels reach 55%.  Residential curbside
  recycling service to all single-family and multi-family
  households, PAYT trash fees, weekly year-round
  residential yard trimmings collection, and financial
  incentives for businesses to reduce waste drive San
  Jose's high recovery levels.
                  #          %
Community	Materials1  Composted   Mandatory  PAYT
Ann Arbor, Ml
Bellevue, WA
Bergen Co., NJ
Chatham, NJ
Clifton, NJ
Crockett, TX
Dover, NH
Falls Church, VA
Fitchburg, Wl
Leverett, MA
Loveland, CO
Madison, Wl
Portland, OR
Ramsey Co., MN
San Jose, CA
Seattle, WA
Visalia, CA
Worcester, MA
31
29
Varies
24
20
25
28
21
25
25
19
17
22
Varies
23
23
20
24
23% /
34% /
32% / Some2
43% / /
28% /
32% /
17% /
40%
21 % / /
23% / /
37% /
34% /
17% /
8%3 /4 /
26% /
21% YTonly /
33%
27% / /
Key:      PAYT = pay-as-you-throw     YT = yard trimmings
Note: Most of the communities operate drop-off sites for recyclables and
  yard trimmings. Bergen County does not operate any drop-off facilities but
  45 out of 70 communities in the county operate drop-offs for their
  residents. Madison and Worcester accept yard trimmings only at their
  drop-off facilities. San Jose does not operate any drop-off facilities but
  residents can deliver materials to the numerous private drop-offs located in
  the city.
1 Represents the number of types of recyclable and compostable materials
  recovered through residential curbside and drop-off programs. For instance,
  old newspapers is one type.  Juice and milk boxes are another type.
2Four out of 70 communities within Bergen County have implemented PAYT
  trash fees.
Represents percentage of municipal solid waste composted as Ramsey
  County does not track residential materials separately from other MSW..
4Saint Paul and three other county municipalities have enacted mandatory
  recycling ordinances.  More than half the county residents live in these
  communities. State law also bans leaves, grass, brush, and yard debris from
  state landfills and incinerators.

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Reaching Record-Setting  Levels

Some  Questions and Answers

14 Which record-setting program is the model?
M There is no one model. No two record-setting
programs are exactly alike. For example, rural programs
differ from urban ones. However, you can integrate the
best features of the best programs to design a record-setting
program that meets your community's needs.

14 Can big cities achieve high waste reduction levels?
/\Yes. San Jose, California (pop. 873,300), recovers 55% of
single-family household waste. The city targets multi-
family and institutional and commercial waste (ICW), too.
Its overall residential waste reduction level is 45%; ICW
reduction is 41%.  Seattle,Washington (pop. 534,700),
diverts 49% of its residential waste.  Its ICW reduction
level is not far behind at 48%.

14 How essential  is curbside collection?
M Program convenience is essential for high participation
and thus high waste reduction.  Weekly collection of
recyclables and yard trimmings puts recovery programs on
par with weekly trash pick-up.  In Worcester,
Massachusetts, residential recovery increased from 41% to
52% when pick-up switched from biweekly to weekly.
Only one of our record-setters, Leverett, Massachusetts,
offers no curbside  service. However, residents in this  rural
town must also self-haul trash.

14 What role do state laws and goals play?
M State waste reduction goals, requirements, and policies
influence many of our record-setters.  Visalia, California,
began its program  in order to meet the state's  50%
recycling goal. Worcester, Massachusetts' program was
implemented on the heels of the state's landfill bans.
Clifton, New Jersey, began its mandatory curbside program
in response to the  1987 Statewide Source Separation and
Recycling Act. Bottle bills have increased recovery levels
in states with these policies.

(4 Can high institutional and  commercial waste (ICW)
reduction levels be achieved?
r\Yes. High ICW reduction may be  easier to achieve
than residential waste reduction as ICW tends to be more
homogeneous and rich in recyclables.  Bergen County,
New Jersey (63% ICW reduction level), requires businesses
and institutions to recycle a wide range of materials
including mixed paper. Portland, Oregon, requires
businesses to achieve 50% waste recovery by separating
recyclables from mixed waste. Economic incentives, such
as reduced tip fees for delivering recyclables to drop-off
  Community   % ICW Recovered
  Bergen Co., NJ
  Clifton, NJ
  Portland, OR
  San Jose, CA
  Seattle, WA
  fey:
  ICW = institutional and commercial waste
63%
68%
52%
42%
48%
Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
sites, tax incentives,
and reduced franchise
fees, also encourage
businesses to recycle
and haulers to offer
recyclables collection.
For example, in San
Jose, California,
haulers pay the city
fees of more than $3 per cubic yard for trash; in contrast,
recycling collection firms pay no fees for recyclables
hauled.

(4 Is  it better to contract out for service providers?
M Not necessarily.  Service providers vary greatly among
record-setters. Some systems are entirely publicly
operated.  Other record-setters contract or franchise out to
for-profit or non-profit companies.  And others use a
combination.

(4 What if no market for mixed paper exists?
M Much of waste is paper, making its recovery critical to
record-setting waste reduction.  If no market for mixed
paper exists, take heart, recovery can still increase.
Consider adding individual paper grades for which  markets
do exist such as corrugated cardboard or high-grade paper.
Explore other opportunities such as
expanding  yard debris recovery,
collecting textiles at curbside, and
ensuring that reuse opportunities exist.

(4 Won't costs increase as more types
of materials are added?
M Not if new materials recovered offset trash
collection and disposal so that the cost of trash crews,
routes, and tip fees can be cut.  The higher waste reduction
levels are, the higher the avoided costs of disposal. The
curbside collection of 20 types of materials in Seattle,
Washington, have not raised net solid waste costs per
household.

(4 Does high waste reduction require big capital
investments?
M No. Some record-setters (such as Bellevue, Washington)
avoid equipment costs altogether with contracts.  Others
use existing equipment to minimize  start-up  costs.  In Ann
Arbor, Michigan, for instance, trash trucks double as yard
trimmings  collection vehicles.  Fitchburg, Wisconsin, uses a
tractor, which previously gathered dust in storage, to
landspread  recovered organics.

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Cutting  Costs
Most of the record-setters have reduced or stabilized
solid waste management costs.  Many factors contribute
to cost-effective programs.  One common thread is these
communities consider waste reduction a primary waste
management strategy. Recycling and composting are not
treated as add-ons; rather, they form an integral part of
overall waste management.
    Specific techniques for cutting costs include:

    Maximize diversion  levels
    High diversion levels can reduce costs in two  major
    ways: (1) by significantly reducing landfill or other
    disposal costs, and (2) by eliminating some trash
    routes and their associated costs.
    High waste diversion allows Madison, Wisconsin, to
    serve 10,000 more households with fewer and
    smaller trash trucks. The smaller trucks cost less and
    have lower maintenance costs.  Since Worcester,
    Massachusetts, began recycling, the city decreased
    trash crew size from 3 to 2 and the number of routes
    from 11 to 9.

    Compost
    Yard trimmings collection costs vary among our
    record-setters, but tend to be lower than recycling
    collection costs because the material is homogeneous
    and needs less expensive, low-tech processing.
    In Bellevue, Washington, one-third of residential
    waste is composted. Bellevue residents spend  about
    $102 per ton for composting compared to $139 per
    ton for recycling. Chatham, New Jersey, keeps its
    composting program costs low by hosting a regional
    compost facility in return for free tipping of its grass
    clippings. Chatham also avoids capital outlays for
    yard debris recovery by leasing county equipment
    as-needed.

    Implement PAYT trash  programs
    In communities with pay-as-you-throw (PAYT)
    trash fees, trash disposal per household decreases.
    Dover, New Hampshire, instituted its PAYT system
    in 1991, the same year  it began weekly curbside
    recycling. Between 1990 and 1996, per household
    trash disposal fell from  6 to 2.3 pounds per day.
    Dover's net residential solid waste management costs
    dropped from $1.1 million in 1990 to $798,000
    while adding more than 1,000 customers.  Per
    household costs have decreased from $122 in  1990
    to $73  in 1996.
Augment curbside with drop-off sites
While curbside collection is critical to maximizing
participation and therefore recovery levels, drop-off
collection is generally cheaper for the community.
In 1996, St. Paul, Minnesota, avoided $75,000 in
disposal fees and diverted  1,800 tons of material by
offering residents drop-off opportunities for bulky
goods from sofas and computers to skis. In Ann
Arbor, Michigan, a comprehensive drop-off center
accepts materials not collected at curbside (such as
building materials, hardcover books, and
appliances). Their costs to collect
materials through drop-off are $14 per
ton cheaper than through curbside
collection, and drop-off increased the
city's waste reduction level by 3%.
PAYT systems may also encourage
the use of drop-off sites.  In Dover,
New Hampshire, drop-off collection accounted for
19% of all materials recovered. Their costs to collect
and process drop-off materials average $14 per ton,
compared to $77 per ton for curbside collection and
processing of recyclables and yard debris.

Consider dual-collection
One way that Loveland, Colorado, andVisalia,
California, have integrated recycling  completely into
their solid waste management systems is through use
of dual-collection vehicles, which collect recyclables
and trash in separate compartments on one truck.
Dual-collection systems can save money by avoiding
the need for two separate  fleets of trucks and by
increasing productivity of collection  crews.


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Tips from Record-Setters
Collection
    Collect as wide a variety of materials as possible.
    Collect yard trimmings for composting.
    Use drop-off sites to augment curbside collection.
    Distribute bins to all participants.

Education
    Educate, educate, educate.
    Target education at new residents and at all ethnicities.
    Repeat messages in a variety of media.

Program Planning
    Build broad program support during the planning
    stages by seeking public input, selling the program to
    those active in community (such as service and civic
    clubs), and building political support.
    Make program participation as convenient as possible.
    Keep the program easy and user-friendly
    Investigate dual-collection, especially when faced with
    an aging trash fleet.
    Learn from others' experiences.  Find out  what other
    communities have accomplished and how they did it.

Policies
    Implement a pay-as-you-throw trash system (and
    include small container options).
    Encourage source reduction and reuse.
    Pass a local ordinance requiring residents,  businesses,
    and institutions to participate in waste reduction
    activities or requiring haulers to offer their customers
    (residential and  commercial) a minimal level of
    recycling service.
    Enforce mandatory programs to boost both the
    quantity and quality of participation.
    Offer recycling  services to multi-family households,
    require haulers to provide  these services, or require
    that multi-family building  owners/managers provide
    recycling services to their tenants.

Ongoing Programs
    Be prepared for resistance  to change. Try  to anticipate
    likely questions.
    Seek out committed staff and administration to ensure
    program success.
    Secure stable markets for reusable items and
    recyclables.
    Avoid adding a  material to the recycling program and
    then taking it away, especially if the trash system is
    pay-as-you-throw.
    Track data to document success.
  Be conservative when reporting recycling and
  composting tonnages and program costs.
  Talk to your customers.  Solicit input and give
  feedback on program progress.
  Recruit and reward citizen volunteers, who have many
  skills and can help maintain community motivation
  Be creative.

RESOURCES

    Waste Reduction Record-Setters
     - Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-
      Setters Show How (EPA-530-R-99-013). Available from
      the RCRA hotline 1-800-424-9346 and at
      .
     - The Waste Reduction Record-Setters Project Web pages:
      
     - On the Path to Sustainability (Seattle's solid waste plan
      for reaching 60% diversion). Call (206) 684-7644 or
      download from the Web:
      
     - State waste reduction awards programs (e.g., California
      recognizes outstanding  businesses: visit its Web page:
      . Wisconsin's
      Governor's Waste Reduction and Recycling Awards
      honor individuals, businesses, schools, and communities:
      its Web page is located  at:
      
     - BioCycle: Journal of Composting & Recycling published
      by JG Press, Inc., (610) 967-4135, Web:
      
     - The U.S. Composting Council, (301) 913-2885, Web site:
      
     - The Composting Resource Page Web site:
      
    Pay As You Throw
     - U.S. EPA has produced a video, guide book, fact sheets,
      and a quarterly newsletter. Call 1-800-EPA-PAYT or
      visit the Web site: 
    Recycling in Multi-Family  Dwellings
     - Multi-Residence Recycling Guide, by the New York
      Department of Environmental Conservation and the
      Cornell Cooperative Extension.  Call (518) 457-7337.

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017a
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Ann  Arbor,  Michigan
52% Residential Waste Reduction
Overview
    Residential waste reduction in the City of Ann Arbor has
come a long way since the creation of its first community-
based non-profit drop-off station in 1970. Today the city
contracts with the non-profit organization, Recycle Ann
Arbor, for the collection  under mandatory ordinance 
of recyclables from all city households and the operation of a
drop-off facility for recyclables and yard debris. 1 In addition,
city crews collect yard debris at curbside seasonally. In FY96
the city diverted 52% of its residential waste through
recycling (30%) and composting (23%). Per household solid
waste management costs have increased by less than 10%
since FY89, even though per ton trash tip fees increased more
than 70% in the same period.

Keys to High Waste  Reduction
    Contributing factors to Ann Arbor's waste diversion level
are a state ban on landfilling  yard debris, curbside collection
of 24  types of recyclables coupled with a mandatory
ordinance, multi-family dwelling recycling service,  and the
bottle bill. The state ban spurred Ann Arbor to develop a
compost site, draft an ordinance requiring residents to
separate "compostables"  from trash, and start curbside service
for these materials. Nearly one-quarter of Ann Arbor's
residential waste stream is diverted through the  city's
composting program. City ordinance requires residents to
   source-separate  recyclables and
   compostables from trash.  The city
   enforces this requirement by not
  collecting improperly sorted and
  prepared materials. As 52% of
  households are multi-family, the city
   recognized the importance of
   providing this sector  with waste
    reduction services.  Multi-family
    buildings receive recycling carts and
     can divert the same materials as  do
      single-family homes, with the
      exception of motor oil and batteries.
                                DHALU
                                 POPULATION: 112,000
                                  (1994)
                                 HOUSEHOLDS: 22,000
                                  single-family and
                                  duplexes; 24,000 multi-
                                  family
                                                FY96
               Tons Per Year
       44,806
47,943
               Percent Diverted
                 Recycled
                 Composted
         16%
         16%
          0%
  52%
  30%
  23%
               Average Ibs./HH/day
          5.61
  5.71
               Net Program Costs/HH    $72.96       77.61
                 Disposal Services        63.68       42.17
                 Diversion Services         9.29       35.44
               Notes: 43,774 households served in FY89; 46,000 in FY96. 1989
                 dollars adjusted to 1996 dollars using the GDP deflator.
                 Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
                                          Source: institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-Q17).

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               The bottle bill provides an
               incentive to recover
               designated containers.  The
               city's waste reduction efforts are
               supported by city ownership of a
               material recovery facility and composting
               facility, and a comprehensive education
               program.

               Cost-Effectiveness
                   In FY96, after subtracting material
               revenues, the city spent $78 per household
               served on trash, recycling, and yard debris
               services. This cost represents an increase of less
               than  10%  over per household costs in  FY89.
               In FY97, the average net per ton costs of waste
               reduction were $71.  In contrast, FY97 trash
                  frvjauai]
CURBSIDE:
  newspaper, magazines, and corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper (including paperback and phone books, office paper, mail,
   and paperboard)
  milk cartons and juice boxes
  steel and aluminum cans
  scrap metal (including ferrous metal, aluminum foil and pie tins, white
   goods, and aerosol cans)
  glass containers, dishes, and heat-resistant glass
  ceramics
  #1 -#3 plastic bottles
  textiles
  household batteries
  used motor oil and oil filters
  yard waste (including leaves, grass clippings, brush, and holiday trees)

DROP-OFF:
  all materials collected in curbside recycling program plus
   hardcover books
   polystyrene
   packing peanuts
   foam egg
   cartons
   car batteries
  other materials can
   be (collected for a
    Recyclables and yard
    debris set out for
    collection in Ann Arbor
        RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
            PER  HOUSEHOLD PER  DAY
        7.0
        6.0
       5.0
       4.0
                    FY89       FY96
            ] Trash     ] Recycling      | Composting
    Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.

collection and disposal costs averaged $86 per
ton. Contracting with a nonprofit for curbside
recyclables collection and
operation of the drop-off
facility, reduced  total disposal
costs, and yard debris
diversion are primarily
responsible for keeping the
increase to a minimum.

Tips for Replication
       Keep the program easy and user-
friendly
       Include public input.
       Look for  ways to cooperate with other
entities.
       Use conservative projections for
tonnages and market prices.
Notes:
1 Residents in multi-family dwellings can recycle the same
  materials at curbside as residents in single-family dwellings with
  the exception of used motor oil and batteries.
   Contact
    Tom McMurtrie
    Recycling Coordinator
    City of Ann Arbor Dept. of Solid Waste
    100 N. Fifth Avenue
    Ann Arbor, MI 48107
    PHONE: 734-994-6581
    FAX: 734-994-1816
    WEB SITE:  http://www.ci.ann-arbor.mi.us

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017b
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Bellevue,
Washington
60% Residential Waste Reduction
Overview
    Bellevue initiated its recycling program in 1989; by 1996
the city recovered 60% of its solid waste from single-family
homes (26% through recycling and 34% through
composting).  Bellevue contracts with one local company to
provide most of its residential waste services, including
weekly trash collection, weekly curbside collection of 16
categories of recyclables, and twice monthly collection of
yard debris from March through November. 1  Residents can
also recycle materials at county-run drop-off facilities and
twice yearly special collection days offered by the city and its
solid waste contractor. Since the  introduction of Bellevue's
waste reduction program in 1989, average per household trash
disposal has decreased from 6.52 pounds per day to only 3.69
pounds per day. The city has no mandatory recycling
requirements for residents, but its pay-as-you-throw fee
structure for trash provides an economic incentive for
residents to reduce trash disposal.

  Keys to High Waste Reduction
      Bellevue's pay-as-you-throw trash rate structure and
  ease and availability of waste reduction opportunities
  contribute to the city's high waste reduction level.
   Residents pay a monthly fee for trash
   removal based upon the size of the
   trash container they use. For instance,
   in 1996, weekly collection of one 30-
    gallon trash can costs Bellevue
    residents $12.91 per month while
     weekly collection of one 19-gallon
     can costs only $7.13 per month. As
      part of its convenient waste
       reduction program, the city's
       contractor provides residents with
       three stackable recycling bins,
                                DHALU
                                POPULATION: 103,700
                                  (1996)
                                HOUSEHOLDS:  44,387
                                  (1996); 26,026
                                  single- family
                                  households (1 -10
                                  units), 18,361 multi-
                                  family units
              Tons Per Year
       23,396
39,186
               Percent Diverted
                 Recycled
                 Composted
         11%
          6%
          5%
  60%
  26%
  34%
               Average Ibs./HH/day
         7.30
  9.18
               Net Program Costs/HH      NA    $235.64
                 Disposal Services          NA     $116.68
                 Diversion Services         NA     $118.97
               Notes: 17,556 households served in 1989; 23,372 in 1996. Numbers
                may not add to total due to rounding. 1989 program costs not
                available as they occurred in the private sector and are not public
                information.
                                          Source: institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-Q17).

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               weekly curbside pick-up of recyclables, and bi-
               weekly pick-up of yard debris.  The city's yard
               debris program is especially effective, diverting
               more than one-third of the city's residential
               waste stream.


               Cost-Effectiveness
                   Bellevue's contractor collects service fees
               directly from customers. The rates  charged are
               based on the level of trash collection requested
                           by each customer. Direct city
                           expenditures are limited to
                          administration and education and
                          publicity costs.  Of total city and
                        contractor waste management
                         expenditures in 1996, about 50% was
               spent on trash collection and disposal, 25% was
               spent on recycling, and 25% was spent on yard
      RESIDENTIAL WASTE  GENERATION
          PER  HOUSEHOLD  PER DAY
CURBSIDE:
  newspapers, magazines, corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper (mail, office paper, phone books, paperboard, and kraft bags)
  milk cartons and drink boxes
  cans
  aluminum foil and other non-ferrous scrap
  glass containers
  #1 and #2 plastic bottles
  white goods
  yard waste (leaves, brush, grass clippings, and other yard and garden
   debris)
  holiday trees

DROP-OFF:
  all materials accepted in curbside program plus:
   oil filters
   household and lead-acid batteries
   tires
   household goods (textiles, working small appliances, and usable
     furniture)
   scrap metal
   #6 plastic food containers
   scrap lumber
   antifreeze
   fluorescent lamps and ballasts
   ceramic bathroom fixtures
                                         w.
              1989     1993     1996

             Trash    ^ Recycling      ^Composting
debris collection and composting. Overall,
trash cost $174 per ton, recycling $139 per
ton, and yard debris recovery $102 per ton.


Tips for Replication
       Collect mixed paper.
       Commit to and concentrate on high-
quality customer service.
       Spend the extra money to make
promotional material attractive.
       Continuously remind and educate the
public about waste reduction.
       Raise overall environmental awareness.
       Implement a variable rate structure for
trash.
Notes:
1Yard debris collection is once monthly from December through
  February.
   Contact
    Tom Spille
    Solid Waste Program Administrator
    Resource Management and Technology
    Utilities Department
    City of Bellevue
    301 116th Avenue Southeast, Suite 230
    P.O. Box 90012
    Bellevue,WA 98009-9012
    PHONE: 425-452-6964
    FAX: 425-452-7116
    WEB SITE: http://www.ci.bellevue.wa.us/
           bellevue/homemap. htm

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017C
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
    Bergen  County,
    New Jersey
    54% Municipal Solid Waste Reduction
    (49% Residential Solid Waste Reduction; 63% Institutional/Commercial
    Solid Waste Reduction)
Overview
    Bergen County provides solid waste management
funding, technical assistance, education programs, and data
management to its 70 municipalities. The county also owns a
waste transfer station and a yard trimmings processing facility.
The Bergen County Long-Term Solid Waste Management
Plan mandates residential recycling of eight materials. All
communities in Bergen County have passed their own
mandatory recycling ordinances; some of these ordinances
mandate recycling of materials in addition to those required
by the county. All but seven of the municipalities provide
residential trash services or hire and pay for a contractor to
collect their residents' trash, residents of the other
communities must contract directly with trash haulers. Sixty-
nine of the 70 county communities offer curbside recycling
services, and four have pay-as-you-throw trash systems. The
 County Solid Waste Management Plan requires commercial
  and institutional establishments to
  recycle corrugated cardboard, high-
  grade and  mixed paper, glass food and
  beverage containers, aluminum cans,
  ferrous scrap, white goods, and
   construction and demolition debris
   and to track and report the amounts of
   materials recovered.
                                DHALU
                                 POPULATION: 825,380
                                   (1995)
                                 HOUSEHOLDS: 330,473
                                   (1996); 250,000
                                   single- family
                                   dwellings  (estimate, 4
                                   or fewer units per
                                   building),  80,000
                                   multi-family
                                   dwellings  (estimate, 5
                                   or more units)
                                 BUSINESSES: 30,859
                                   (1998)
    Keys to High Waste Reduction
        The keys to Bergen County's high
     waste diversion rate are mandatory
     recycling; historically high disposal
      fees; the existence of well-
      established markets for recovered
       materials; extensive eduction and
        outreach programs; technical
       assistance; and the availability of a
               PROGRAM SUMMARY
                                     1993
                    1995
               Tons Per Year MSW1
                 Tons Per Year RSW
                 Tons Per Year ICW
     1,086,055
       693,840
       392,215
1,086,055
  693,840
  392,215
               Percent MSW Diverted!     52%        54%
                 Percent RSW Diverted     49%        49%
                 Percent ICW Diverted      57%        63%
                                           Average lbs./HH/day2
                                     15.21
                    15.21
               Net Program Costs/HH       NA         NA
                 Disposal Services          NA         NA
                 Diversion Services         NA         NA

               Key: MSW = municipal solid waste  RSW = residential solid waste
                  ICW = institutional and commercial waste
                  NA = not available
               Notes: Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
               11n order to account for waste bypassing the county transfer
                 station in 1995, ILSR assumed 1995 MSW, RSW, and ICW to be
                 equal to 1993 MSW, RSW, and ICW, respectively and added an
                 estimated tonnage to disposal.
               2Rgures represent residential sector only. ILSR estimated
                 households served in 1993 and 1995 as 250,000, the number of
                 dwellings in buildings with four or fewer units.
                                           Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-017).

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              yard debris management facility.  Although
              trash tip fees dropped to $54 per ton at the
              Bergen County Utilities Authority Transfer
              Station in 1998, from January 1990 until
              November 1997, tip fees at the facility were
              over $100 per ton.  Bergen County is home to
              two paper mills that create a  constant demand
              for recovered paper. The county runs an
              education and outreach program that includes
              advertising, publications, promotions, education
              programs, a hotline, and a lending library. The
              county's 25-acre yard debris composting site
              composts grass clippings, leaves, and brush and
              sells the finished material.

              Cost-Effectiveness
                 The Bergen County Utilities Authority's
              budget for solid waste management includes its
              transfer station costs, hauling costs, tip fees,
              landfill closure costs, recycling and source
              reduction financial  assistance programs,
              education and publicity costs, staff and
              administration costs, and debt service. The
              Authority's expenditures represent only a
              portion of the costs of waste management in
              the county.  Each county community operates
              a waste management program, which is for the
              most part financed  by community funds.  In a
              limited survey of community recycling
              coordinators from Bergen  County, all six
       RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
           PER  HOUSEHOLD PER  DAY
MATERIALS RECOVERED
 The County requires each community to recycle newspaper, glass food
 and beverage containers, food and beverage cans, ferrous scrap, white
 goods, leaves, and grass clippings from residential waste. Some county
 communities recycle additional materials such as
 magazines, plastics,
 and other paper
 grades.
   Compost piles at the
  Bergen County-owned
       compost facility

                  1993        1995
           |  Trash     ]  Recycling     |  Composting

   Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.

respondents claimed their waste reduction
programs saved money or cost no more than
disposal. Reasons cited for the cost-
effectiveness of the programs include reduced
trash costs as a result  of diversion, lower labor
costs as a result of waste reduction,
saving on compost for city
projects, free hauling  and
no tip fees for recyclables,
and revenues from sale of
recovered materials off-
setting program costs.

Tips  for Replication
       Support community innovation with
small  grants.
       Make waste reduction programs
mandatory.
       Design a user friendly program.
       Provide  bins  for  curbside  recycling
participants.
       Be accessible.
       Contact
        Nina Herman Seiden
        Recycling Program Manager
        Bergen County Utilities Authority
        Department of Solid Waste Planning and Development
        RO. Box 9
        Foot of Mehrhof Road
        Little Ferry, NJ 07643
        PHONE: 201-641-2552  x5822
        FAX: 201-641-3509

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017d
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Chatham,
New  Jersey
65% Residential Waste Reduction
Overview
    This wealthy, tree-lined suburban community diverts 65%
of its residential waste from disposal (22% through recycling
and 43% through composting).  The borough instituted a
pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) system for trash in 1992.
Residents must place their trash in special bags or the city's
contracted trash collection firm will leave it at curbside.
Another contractor provides curbside collection twice a
month for 21 types of recyclables. The borough collects fall
leaves curbside and provides a drop-off location for brush and
other yard trimmings.  Chatham had a successful waste
reduction program that diverted 63% of its residential waste
in 1991, before the PAYT system was introduced. The
current system is even more successful. In 1996, the  average
Chatham household produced 6% less waste than in  1991
and per household trash disposal dropped by more than  10%.
Furthermore, average household costs for solid waste
management decreased 50% within this same time period.

  Keys to  High Waste Reduction
    Pay-as-you-throw trash fees, a curbside recycling program
  that collects many materials, and a convenient yard debris
  collection and composting program contribute to
  Chatham's waste reduction program success.  Chatham's
   trash hauler only collects trash that
   residents place in special 30- and 15-
   gallon bags. The bags cost $1.25 and
   $0.65 respectively; the  price  was set so
    bag fees cover the cost of tip fees for
    trash disposal. The Advanced
     Recycling Technology Systems, Inc.
     (ARTS) recycling company provides
     twice monthly curbside recycling
      for 21 categories of materials and
       services the borough's drop-off site.
        Composting of yard debris
       accounts for nearly two-thirds of
                               DHALU
                                POPULATION: 8,007
                                  (1990); 8,289 (1997)
                                HOUSEHOLDS: 3,285
                                  (1996) 2,735
                                  dwellings of 3 units
                                  or less. 550 multi-
                                  family dwellings
                                    1991
                    1996
              Tons Per Year
        8,581
8,007
              Percent Diverted
                Recycled
                Composted
         63%
         13%
         50%
 65%
 22%
 43%
              Average Ibs./HH/day
        16.85
15.81
              Net Program Costs/HH   $456.62     $227.76
                Disposal Services       $392.81      $158.02
                Diversion Services       $63.81      $69.74
              Notes: 2,750 households and 35-40 small businesses (2,790 total)
                served in 1991; 2,775 (2,735 households, 40 businesses) in 1996.
                1991 dollars adjusted to 1996 dollars using the GDP deflator.
                Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
                                         Source: institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-Q17).

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              residential waste reduction in Chatham.  Fall
              leaf collection accounted for about 80% of all
              yard waste recovered in  1996.  In order to
              encourage residents to participate, solid waste
              management calenders with recycling
              information and drop-off/pick-up times  are
              mailed every year to Chatham households.

              Cost-Effectiveness
                  Before switching to  the PAYT trash
              system in November 1992, each Chatham
              household paid  the previous trash hauler a flat
              annual fee of $350 for trash collection and
              disposal, equivalent to more than $300 per ton.
              The trash bag costs are now set to cover  tip fee
              disposal costs; total per ton trash costs were
              $157 in 1996.  Composting collection and
                processing costs average $48 per ton;
                   recycling collection and processing,  $39
                  per ton. Also, the recycling contractor
              returns half of materials  revenues to the
       RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
           PER  HOUSEHOLD PER DAY
 MATERIALS RECOVERED
CURBSIDE:
  newspapers and inserts, magazines and catalogs, corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper ( paper bags, phone books, paperback books, paperboard,
   colored and white paper, envelopes, mail, computer paper, wrapping
   paper, and egg cartons)
  glass containers
  cans
 juice and milk cartons
  #1 - #3 plastic bottles
  scrap metals (including aluminum foil and metal clothes hangers)
  empty latex paint cans
  aerosol cans
  household batteries
  white goods
  leaves

 DROP-OFF:
  All materials accepted in
  curbside program
  (with the
  exceptions of
  household batteries
  and white goods)
  plus:
   brush
   grass clippings
             Trash
1991        1996
  ] Recycling     | Composting
community.  In 1996, these revenues defrayed
recycling collection costs by 60%.  Chatham's
recovery rate surpassed 60% under both the
old private trash collection system
and the new publically
contracted system but per
household costs dropped
dramatically when the new
system was implemented.
    Funding for Chatham's
residential waste management
program is supplied by a $75 per household
fee paid by borough residents, the cost of trash
bags, and county and state funds.

Tips for Replication
       Make program participation convenient.
Chatham switched to commingled collection
of containers because of residents' preferences.
       Pay-as-you-throw systems encourage
trash reduction.
   Contact
    Henry Underbill
    Town Administrator
    Borough of Chatham
    54 Fairmont Avenue
    Chatham, NJ 07928
    PHONE: 973-635-0674  x!08
    FAX:  973-636-2417

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017e
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Clifton,   New  Jersey
56% Municipal Solid Waste Reduction
(44% Residential Solid Waste Reduction: 68% Institutional/Commercial
Solid Waste Reduction)
Overview
    In 1996, Clifton diverted 56% of its municipal solid waste
from disposal (38% through recycling; 18% through
composting). Clifton diverted 44% of city-collected material
and an impressive 68% of materials generated by businesses
and institutions not served by city waste management
programs. The city collects eleven categories of recyclables in
its curbside  program and its drop-off recycling center accepts
thirteen categories of material (nine of which are also
collected curbside).  Residents are required by local ordinance
to recycle other categories of materials, such as textiles, but
must do so through private recyclers. The city also offers its
residents and small businesses curbside collection of yard
debris. Private trash haulers and recyclers primarily serve the
city's businesses and institutions, which are required to recycle
22 types of materials.

Keys to High Waste  Reduction
    Clifton's waste diversion success is driven by high waste
disposal fees, state and local recycling mandates, strong local
markets for  recycling, composting yard debris, and an active
recycling coordinator. Tip fees in New
Jersey have traditionally been among the
highest in the nation. Waste diversion
   offers many New Jersey businesses and
   communities a less expensive alternative
   to disposal.  Clifton's residential
   recycling  ordinance requires every
  household served by the  city-operated
   waste management program to source-
   separate and recycle 18 categories of
   materials. Another ordinance requires
    Clifton businesses and  institutions to
    recycle  22 materials.  Recycling-based
     manufacturing is prevalent in New
      Jersey and Clifton is near many
      companies that use recyclables as raw
                                 DHALU
                                  POPULATION: 75,000
                                    (1996)
                                  HOUSEHOLDS: 31 ,000
                                    (1996)  25,500 single-
                                    family  homes and
                                    duplexes, 5,500 in
                                    dwellings with 3 or
                                    more units
                                  BUSINESSES: 3,100
                                    (1999)
                PROGRAM SUMMARY
                                       1987
                     1996
               Tons Per Year MSW     110,172     110,925
                 Tons Per Year RSW       49,310       54,211
                 Tons Per Year ICW       60,862       56,714
               Percent MSW Diverted      15%        56%
                 Percent RSW Diverted       12%        44%
                 Percent ICW Diverted       18%        68%
               Average Ibs./HH/dayi
          9.83
10.14
               Net Program Costs/HHi  $153.38     $177.73
                  Disposal Services       $144.98     $147.64
                  Diversion Services        $8.40      $30.08
               Key: MSW = municipal solid waste RSW = residential solid waste
                   ICW = institutional and commercial waste
               Notes: 1987 dollars adjusted to 1996 dollars using the GDP deflator.
                  Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
               ipigures reflect public sector collection from 26,200 households and
                  1,300 businesses served in 1987; 28,000 households and1,300
                  businesses in 1996.
                                            Source: institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-Q17).

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               materials. Clifton diverts 18% of its total
               municipal solid waste (28% of its city-collected
               waste) through composting. Residents and
               small businesses divert materials through the
                              city's seasonal curbside collection
                             programs for leaves and other
                             yard debris and its year-round
                              brush collection program.
                            Clifton's recycling coordinator has
                         assisted local businesses in locating
                         markets for materials, performed
                  waste audits, and provided advice on
               ordinance compliance. The coordinator also
               gives talks to civic groups and schools on reuse,
               environmental purchasing, and  recycling.
                   Participants in the  city's curbside recycling
               program must  sort glass containers, cans, and
               paper products into seven streams for collection.
               Collection of sorted materials allows the city to
               market materials directly, avoiding the cost of
               processing and allowing the city to retain all
               revenue from sales.
 MATERIALS RECOVERED IN PUBLIC SECTOR PROGRAM
CURBSIDE:
  newspapers, magazines
  mixed paper (phone books, paperboard, mail, paperback books, hardcover
   books without covers, office paper)
  glass containers
  cans
  white goods
  scrap metals
  leaves, brush, grass clippings, holiday trees, and other yard and garden
   debris
  corrugated cardboard (businesses only)

 DROP-OFF:
  All materials accepted in curbside program (except white goods and scrap
  metal) plus:
   corrugated cardboard (from residents)
   aluminum plates and trays
   #1 and #2
   plastic bottles
   residents can
   deliver car
   batteries for
   recycling to the
   City Garage at no
   cost
      PUBLIC SECTOR WASTE  GENERATION
            PER CUSTOMER  PER DAY
    I
    
               1987     1992     1996
                        Recycling
    Note:  Residential waste generation per household is not available
    as Clifton serves businesses on its residential routes. Figures above
    thus reflect pounds of waste generated per customer (
    residents and 1,300 businesses) per day.
   Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.

Cost- Effectiveness
    The city's solid waste management costs
increased from $153 per household in 1987 to
$178 per household in  1996. During this same
time period, per ton tip fees for trash more
than tripled in constant dollar value from $36
per ton to $112 per ton. If the tip fee in 1996
had only been $36  per ton and all other costs
stayed the same, per household costs would
have been $99.  Therefore, the  increase in per
household costs can wholly be accounted for
through the increase in trash tip fees.

Tips  for Replication
       Collect materials source-separated.
       Enforce mandatory programs in order
to boost both the quantity and quality of
participation.
   Contact
    Alfred DuBois
    Recycling Coordinator
    City of Clifton Dept. Of Public Works
    307 East 7th Street
    Clifton, NJ 07013
    PHONE: 973-470-2239
    FAX: 973-340-7049

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017f
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Crockett,  Texas
52% Residential Waste  Reduction
Overview
    Prior to 1992, Crockett contracted with a private
company for waste collection and disposal, and no materials
were recovered for recycling or composting. The city ended
its contract with the private company in 1992 with the belief
that city staff could provide  trash, recycling, and composting
services at a lower cost. City staff now provide all city
residents with  twice  weekly trash collection and  once weekly
recycling and yard debris collection. City ordinance requires
residents of the city to source-separate designated materials
for recycling and composting. The  ordinance also requires
residents to use clear bags for trash,  recycling, and yard debris;
which allows collectors to easily identify improperly prepared
materials. The city processes all recyclables and yard debris in
its own facility, markets recyclables directly to end users and
retains all revenue from material sales. In 1996, Crockett
recycled 20% and composted 32% of its residential waste
stream. The city achieved this high diversion rate at a cost
similar to what it formerly paid its contractor. The net cost
of solid waste  services has slightly decreased from $72 per
household in 1991 to $69 in 1996.
                                 DHALU
                                 POPULATION: 8300 (1996)
                                 HOUSEHOLDS: 3,292
                                   (1996); 2,834 in
                                   single-family
                                   dwellings and
                                   duplexes, 459 in
                                   multi-family
                                   dwellings
 Keys to High Waste Reduction
    Crockett's mandatory, weekly curbside
composting programs; the use of clear bags
composting, and recycling; and continuous
   have contributed to  the city's high
   diversion level.  Crockett's local
   recycling ordinance designates 20
  categories of materials that residents
  must recycle and  requires residents to
  separate yard debris for recovery. The
   clear bags allow  collection staff to see
   contamination in bags of recyclables
    and yard debris and to see if
     designated materials are mixed in
     trash set out for collection.  Crews
       refuse collection of improperly set
     out materials  and  tag them to
           recycling and
            for trash,
           resident education
                                      1991
                     1996
               Tons Per Year
         3,450
2,711
               Percent Diverted
                 Recycled
                 Composted
           0%
           0%
           0%
 52%
 20%
 32%
               Average Ibs./HH/day
          6.10
 4.51
               Net Program Costs/HH    $71.94      $68.71
                 Disposal Services        $71.94       $24.64
                 Diversion Services          $0       $44.07
               Notes: 3,100 households served in 1991; 3,293 in 1996. 1991
                 dollars adjusted to 1996 dollars using the GDP deflator.
                 Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
                                           Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-017).

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               explain to residents why they were not
               collected. These tags provide city crews
               opportunities to provide residents education
               and feedback when it is most needed. The
               city also publicizes waste reduction and  public
               participation strategies using radio, newspaper,
               and other written materials.

               Cost-Effectiveness
                   In 1991, the cost (in 1996 dollars) to the
               city to have a private company collect and
               dispose its trash was  $223,000  or $72 per
               household.  In 1996, total solid waste costs
               were $250,254 but were offset by $24,000 in
                    revenues so that net solid waste
                   management costs were $69 per
                  household.  In 1996, trash  collection and
                 disposal costs were $62 per  ton, net
               recycling costs were $144 per ton, and
               composting costs were  $78 per ton. Crockett's
               program  cost-effectiveness is enhanced by high
               diversion levels, the dual-collection of
               recyclables and yard  debris, and the city
CURBSIDE:
  newspapers, magazines, corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper (phone books, paperboard, office paper, envelopes, maif
  glass containers
  scrap metal
  aluminum foil and plates
  cans including empty aerosol cans
  all plastics
  white goods not containing freon
  used motor oil
  leaves, brush, grass clippings, and other yard debris
DROP-OFF:
  all materials accepted in curbside
  program plus oil
  filters
       RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
           PER HOUSEHOLD PER DAY
       7.0
                   1991      1996
           ] Trash     ] Recycling

   Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
processing and marketing its own recyclables.
High diversion reduces the need for hauling
trash to the landfill 55 miles away, especially
yard debris diversion as the material is
composted and used locally. City crews collect
recyclables and yard debris on the same truck,
eliminating the need for  separate truck fleets
and collection crews.  By processing and
marketing its own materials, the city retains all
revenue from the sale of  recyclables.

Tips for Replication
       Secure the best possible markets for
recyclables.
       Use  clear  bags to make
contamination evident.
       Be creative.
       Allow commingling.
       Build positive relationships with
the public.
                                                                    Contact
                                                                     Buddy Robinson
                                                                     Solid Waste Director
                                                                     City of Crockett
                                                                     200 North Fifth
                                                                     Crockett, TX 75835
                                                                     PHONE: 409-544-5156  (office),  409-544-4025
                                                                      (center)
                                                                     FAX: 409-544-4976

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017g
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Dover,
New  Hampshire
52% Residential Waste Reduction
Overview
    In 1990, the city of Dover opened a drop-off center for
recycling and a year later instituted a curbside recycling
program and pay-as-you-throw trash fees.  Since  then the  city
has increased its waste  recovery and reduced its production of
waste.  Average per household waste generation decreased
from 6.2  pounds per day in 1990 to 4.7 pounds per day in
1996.  In 1996 Dover  diverted 52% of its residential waste
(35% through recycling and 17% through composting) up
from 3%  in 1990. Dover residents receive weekly trash and
recycling collection and seasonal yard debris collection
services. The city operates a drop-off center where residents
can deliver recyclables  and yard debris. Dover's successful
waste reduction program has reaped financial benefits as well;
average per household costs for solid waste management have
dropped from $122  in  1990 to $73 in 1996.

Keys to High Waste Reduction
    The keys to Dover's waste reduction are convenient
curbside residential recycling service, the city's drop-off facility
for recyclables and yard debris, and a pay-as-you-throw trash
fee structure. The curbside recycling program collects 20
categories of materials on the same day as trash; all
participating households are given free containers for storage
   and set-out of materials. Materials
   collected include many paper grades,
   clear and colored glass containers, # 1
   and #2 plastic bottles, juice and milk
  containers, and aluminum foil. The
   city's drop-off center accepts five
   recyclable materials in addition to all
   those  collected at curbside. The center
    also provides a free, regular outlet for
    brush and other yard debris, which is
     only collected  seasonally at curbside.
      The pay-as-you-throw trash
       program requires all municipal
                                DHALU
                                POPULATION: 25,042
                                  (1990); 26,094
                                  (1996); 27,000 (1997)
                                HOUSEHOLDS: 11,315 (1996);
                                  5,641 single family
                                  dwellings (4 units or less),
                                  5,674 multi-family
                                  dwellings
                                                1996
              Tons Per Year
       10,838
9,462
               Percent Diverted
                 Recycled
                 Composted
          3%
          3%
          0%
 52%
 35%
 17%
               Average Ibs./HH/day
         6.18
 4.71
               Net Program Costs/HH  $121.55     $72.53
                 Disposal Services       $121.28      $43.78
                 Diversion Services        $0.28      $28.75
               Notes: 9,611 households served in 1990; 11,000 in 1996. Dover also
                serves 210 small businesses in its residential waste programs.
                1990 dollars adjusted to 1996 dollars using the GDP deflator.
                Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-017).

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               waste customers to place their trash into
               orange bags and tag oversized items. Untagged
               trash or trash set out in unauthorized
               containers is not collected.  The trash fees
               provide a direct financial incentive for trash
               customers to divert materials through recycling
               or composting and to  reduce their total waste
               generation.

               Cost-Effectiveness
                   Dover's net residential solid waste
               management costs dropped from $1.1 million
               in 1990 to  $798,000 in 1996 while adding
               more than  1,000 customers. Taking inflation
               into account, per household costs for solid
               waste management have been reduced from
               $122 in 1990 to $73 in 1996.
                   In 1996, trash collection cost  $115 per
               ton; and waste  reduction averaged $60 per ton
        RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
            PER  HOUSEHOLD PER DAY
 MATERIALS  RECOVERED
CURBSIDE:
  newspaper, magazines and catalogs, corrugated cardboard,
  mixed paper (including paperboard, mail, office paper, glossy paper, and
   phone books)
 juice boxes and milk cartons
  glass containers
  cans
  #1 and #2 plastic bottles
  aluminum foil
  leaves, and other soft yard trimmings (including grass clippings, garden
   plants, and pine needles but excluding brush and woody debris)
  large appliances and scrap metal (collected separately by appointment)

DROP-OFF:
  All materials collected at curbside (except milk andjuice cartons) plus:
   brush and holiday trees
   tires
   automotive and other
   batteries
   textiles
   empty aerosol cans
   oil filters
   wood
   construction and
   demolition debris
                     1990
                             1996
               Trash
                        Recycling
[Composting
     Source: institute for Local Se!f-Re!iance, 1999.
(recycling cost $75 per ton and composting
cost $27 per ton).  Per ton trash costs have
remained relatively constant since Dover
instituted its recycling and composting
programs and switched to a pay-as-you-throw
trash system; $111 in 1990 and $115 in 1996.
Overall budget savings have resulted from
significantly lower per ton costs for
waste reduction and reduced
generation both for the  city as a
whole and per household.

Tips for Replication
       Institute a user-fee based program.
       Research the bags used in bag-and-tag
system. It is important to have bags of the
correct size, strength, and  color.
       Talk about waste reduction plans to all
groups who will listen.
       Include low-income residents in the
program.
       Establish a newsletter to remind and
update residents on program changes.
       Track data.

   Contact
    Jeff Pratt
    Solid Waste Coordinator
    Dover Community Services Department
    Municipal Building
    288 Central Avenue
    PHONE:  603-743-6094
    FAX:  603-743-6096
    WEB  SITE:  http://www.ci.dover.nh.us

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017h
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Falls  Church,
Virginia
65% Residential Waste Reduction
Overview
    Falls Church made a commitment to recycling in 1989
when it hired its first Recycling Coordinator. A city code,
effective since 1991, requires the city to provide curbside
recycling and yard debris services to all residents receiving
city trash service. The city provides weekly trash and
curbside recycling services, and brush, fall leaves, and bagged
yard debris collection. In addition, the city operates a drop-
off facility for recyclables. Falls Church's waste reduction rate
increased from 39% in FY90 to 65% in FY97 (25% through
recycling and 40% through composting). The biggest gain
was in recycling, which rose from 10% to 25%. During the
same period, per household trash disposal was cut nearly in
half.

Keys to High Waste Reduction
    Collection of a wide range of materials for recovery, year-
round curbside yard debris collection, and community
involvement and education programs contribute to Falls
Church's waste reduction success. Falls Church accepts 14
types of recyclables in its  curbside collection program and
three additional categories at its drop-off facility.  Materials
accepted include paperboard, mail, aluminum foil and scrap,
   and some household batteries. Falls Church has many
   mature lawns and trees and yard debris is a significant
   component of the city's waste stream.
   Each household generates more than
  five pounds  of yard debris per day. The
  city's fall leaf collection and processing
  program is alone responsible for 45% of
   the city's total waste diversion. Falls
    Church operates a multi-faceted
    education and outreach program that
     includes personal contact, volunteer
     participation, written materials, and
     school and community programs.
     One notable program, the city's
                               DHALU
                                POPULATION:  9,578
                                  (1989); 10,000 (1996,
                                  estimate)
                                HOUSEHOLDS: 4,637 (1996);
                                  2,194 single-family
                                  households, 1,441 multi-
                                  family units, 431
                                  townhomes, 571
                                  condominiums

1 RESIDENTIAL PROGRAM SUMMARY 1
FY90
Tons Per Year 6,956
Percent Diverted 39%
Recycled 10%
Composted 29%
Average Ibs./HH/day 13.23
FY97
6,655
65%
25%
40%
12.45
Net Program Costs/HH $372.21 $215.21
Disposal Services $194.43 $104.30
Diversion Services $177.78 $110.91
Notes: 2,880 households served in 1990; 2,928 in 1997. 1990
dollars adjusted to 1997 dollars using the GDP deflator.
Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
                                         Source: institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-017).

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                "Recycling Block Captain" program involves
                more than 100 community volunteers who
                distribute recycling information in their
                neighborhoods and serve as a liaison between
                residents and the  city.

                Cost-Effectiveness
                   Falls Church  experienced a $420,000
                decrease in its solid waste management budget
                from FY90 to FY97.  In 1996, the city spent
                    about $215 per household served by city
                       waste management programs ($104  on
                            trash collection and disposal, $38
                             on recycling, and $73 on yard
                            debris collection and recovery).
                          On a per-ton basis, trash cost $139
                and waste  reduction cost $73 (recycling cost
                $62, and yard debris recovery $80).
                   The city's waste reduction program  is cost-
                effective due to a reduction in trash routes
                made possible by  decreased trash generation,
                and a fee structure whereby increased
                recycling does not increase costs because the
                recycling contractor is paid per household
  MATERIALS RECOVERED
 CURBSIDE:
   newspaper, magazines and catalogs, corrugated cardboard
   mixed paper (including mail, copier and computer paper, colored and glossy
    paper, envelopes, folders, note cards, paperboard, and phone books)
   glass containers
   metal cans
   #1 and #2 plastic bottles
   white goods
   brush, grass clippings, leaves, and other yard and garden debris

 DROP-OFF:
   all materials collected at curbside (excluding
    compostables)
    plus:
    aluminum foil
    and pie pans
    scrap metal
    some household
    batteries
    City workers vacuuming
autumn leaves in Falls Church
        RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
            PER  HOUSEHOLD PER DAY
         13.0
      S  9.0
                FY90
                        FY94
                                FY97
               Trash    ] Recycling
     Source: institute for Local Se!f-Re!iance, 1999.
Composting
served.  Falls Church reduced trash collection
from twice to once weekly in 1991, less than
one year after the city started multi-material
curbside recycling. As a result, the city cut
trash collection labor needs by one-third.
Unlike recycling, trash, brush, and yard debris
costs grow as these streams increase because of
tonnage-based tip fees the city pays for their
management. In the 1990s, the greatest
increase in the city's diversion rate resulted
from recycling.

Tips for Replication
       Community involvement and
encouraging volunteers are critical to keeping
residents motivated and  participating.
      Educate the community, especially
children, because children can have a big effect
on a household's behavior.
       Recover yard debris.
      Make program participation convenient.

   Contact
    Annette Mills
    Coordinator
    Recycling and Litter Prevention
    City of Falls Church, Dept. of Public Works
    Harry E. Wells Building, 300 Park Avenue
    Falls Church.VA 22046-3332
    PHONE: 703-241-5176
    FAX:  703-241-5184

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017I
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
 Fitchburg,
 Wisconsin
 50% Residential Waste Reduction
Overview
    Fitchburg instituted the first mandatory recycling
ordinance and the first multi-family recycling ordinance in
Wisconsin and was the first city in the U.S. to implement
curbside polystyrene collection. The city's Solid Waste and
Recycling Ordinance  requires all occupants of residential and
commercial property to separate 16 recyclables from trash,
details proper preparation methods, requires the
implementation of multi-family recycling programs, and
prohibits delivery of recyclables to any disposal facility.
Fitchburg contracts with a private hauler to provide trash
collection and disposal, weekly curbside recycling collection,
and curbside collection of non-woody yard debris four times
a year. City crews  collect brush from the curb eight times a
year.  Residents pay an annual base rate for trash, recycling,
and yard  debris service and pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) rates
for excess trash.  From 1992 to 1996, total residential trash
disposal dropped despite a 20% increase in households served.
In 1996, the city diverted 50% of its residential waste from
disposal (29% through recycling and 21% through
composting).

Keys to High Waste Reduction
    Fitchburg achieved its high waste reduction through the
  recycling of many items, composting, and PAYT trash fees.
  Residents can recycle 21 types of
  materials: 17 through weekly curbside
  collection, two through monthly  curbside
  collection, one at the drop-off, and one
   by special appointment. Yard debris
   collection and drop-off programs accept
   leaves, grass clippings, and other yard
    and garden trimmings. A separate
     program collects and processes brush.
      PAYT trash rates serve as an incentive
      for decreased disposal. In FY97
      Fitchburg charged each household
                                DHALU
                                 POPULATION: 1 6,254
                                   (1992); 17,266 (1996)
                                 HOUSEHOLDS: 6,685(1990);
                                   3,057 single-family
                                   households and duplexes,
                                   3,628 multi-family units.
                                   7,500 (1996); 3,860 units
                                   in buildings with 1-4 units
                                                 1996
               Tons Per Year
         3,644
4,147
               Percent Diverted
                 Recycled
                 Composted
         35%
          24%
          11%
 50%
 29%
 21%
               Average Ibs./HH/day
          6.16
 5.89
               Net Program Costs/HH   $126.48     $108.12
                 Disposal Services       $72.08       $52.51
                 Diversion Services      $54.40       $55.61
               Notes: 3,243 households served in 1992; 3,860 in 1996. 1992
                 dollars adjusted to 1996 dollars using the GDP deflator.
                 Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
                                          Source: institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-Q17).

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$82 for recycling and yard debris
services, and collection and
disposal of one 32-gallon trash
can per week. The city also
provided each household with
10 tags which could be attached
to extra containers of trash. The
weekly collection cost of a 64-
gallon container was an extra $34.68 per year
and a 95-gallon container was an additional
$60.96 annually.  Additional tags for trash bags
cost $1.50  each at local retail stores.

Cost-Effectiveness
    Fitchburg's net solid waste  management
budget rose from 1992 to 1996, but so did the
city's  population and number of households
served. When the cost of inflation is taken
into account, average per household costs  for
waste management services have decreased
from  $126 in 1992 to $108 in  1996.  During
the same period, landfill tip fees increased  by
                                                                         RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
                                                                             PER  HOUSEHOLD PER DAY
 MATERIALS RECOVERED
CURBSIDE:
  newspaper, magazines and catalogs, corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper (including mail, white paper, brown paper bags, paperboard,
   and phone books)
  cans
  glass containers
  all plastic containers and #4 plastic container lids
  rigid and foam polystyrene
  reusable household items (e.g., clothing, books, small appliances,
   housewares, and toys)
  white goods
  grass clippings, leaves, brush, holiday trees, and other yard and garden
   debris
DROP-OFF:
all materials accepted
at curbside except:
   cans
   glass containers
   plastics
   reusable items
   white goods
                1992     1994    1996
             ] Trash    ^ Recycling      ^Composting
     Source: institute for Local Se!f-Re!iance, 1999.

17% in real dollars.  On a per-ton basis, trash
cost $100 and waste reduction cost $101
(recycling cost $ 117 per ton and yard debris
recovery $78). Fitchburg's low-cost drop-off
composting program helps the city contain
costs.  In 1996, residents delivered 534 tons
of yard debris (13% of their waste
stream) to the city drop-off site.
City staff land spread the material
over city land, avoiding higher cost
processing of the material.

Tips for Replication
       Listen to your line  employees.
Workers know the system and its strengths and
weaknesses.
       Get your hands dirty.
       Don't reinvent the wheel. Talk with
other recyclers when faced with problems.
Most likely someone else has encountered a
similar problem and can offer advice.
       Optimize.  Never stop striving to
improve; there's always room for improvement.
     Contact
      Kevin Wunder
      Project Manager
      Public Works Dept., City of Fitchburg
      2377 South Fish Hatchery Road
      Fitchburg,WI 53711
      PHONE: 608-270-6343
      FAX: 608-275-7154

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017J
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
 Leverett,
 Massachusetts
 53% Residential Waste Reduction
Overview
    Leverett's recycling system, like its trash program, operates
on a drop-off basis. In 1988, the city enacted a mandatory
recycling bylaw which banned recyclable paper, glass and cans
from its landfill. In 1990, Leverett began shipping its
recyclables to a state-developed materials recovery facility
(MRF) in Springfield, Massachusetts, and in 1993 revised its
recycling bylaw to ban all materials accepted at the MRF
from disposal with trash. Recycling extended the life of the
existing landfill by two years and reduced hauling and
disposal costs after the landfill closed in 1993 and the city
began disposing its trash in a landfill 27 miles from town.
The town's Recycle/Transfer Station is located on the site of
its former landfill. Residents can drop off recyclables at this
facility for free but must pay a per-bag fee for their trash.
The Recycle/Transfer Station is also the home of Leverett's
extensive reuse program. The town has no organized
program for the management of yard debris but it has banned
these materials from disposal. In FY97, Leverett residents
diverted 53% of their residential waste from disposal  31%
through recycling and 23% through yard debris diversion.
The town's current waste management program is cost-
effective compared to the costs of operating its own landfill
and disposing of all the town's waste.
   Keys to High Waste Reduction
       Leverett's yard debris disposal ban,
  the acceptance of 25 materials for
  recycling and reuse, and pay-as-you-
  throw  (PAYT) trash fees have
   contributed to Leverett's 53% waste
   reduction level. The town's disposal
    ban forces residents to manage their
     own yard debris. In the past the city
     has sold reduced price compost bins
       (120 bins in 1996) and provided
     those residents who purchased  them
                               DHALU
                                POPULATION: 1 .908
                                  (1996)
                                HOUSEHOLDS: 650(1996);
                                  all single-family homes
                                  and duplexes
                                     FY87
                    FY97
              Tons Per Year
          NA
 652
              Percent Diverted
                Recycled
                Composted
          0%
          0%
53%
31%
23%
              Average Ibs./HH/day
          NA
5.50
               Net Program Costs/HH    $84.46      $50.81
                Disposal Services        $84.46       $39.37
                Diversion Services       $0.00       $11.44
               Notes: 651 households served in FY89; 650 in FY97. 1986 dollars
                adjusted to 1996 dollars using the GDP deflator. Numbers may
                not add to total due to rounding.
                                         Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-017).

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              with instruction booklets.  The
              Recycle/Transfer Station accepts all materials
              processed at the Springfield MRF and provides
                        recycling and source reduction
                       opportunities for  other goods. Most of
                        the structures at the town's
                        Recycle/Transfer Station are devoted
                        to reuse; the most active is the "Take  it
                         or Leave it."  At this facility, residents
                       have moved items such as hand and
                   power tools, small and large appliances,
                exercise equipment, toys, furniture,
              housewares, building materials, and even a
              snowblower into the reuse  stream. The second
              most popular component of the town's reuse
              operations is its clothes bin where residents can
              deposit their own unwanted clothing or take
              items left by other residents.  Residents must pay
              per-bag fees for the disposal of all waste. In
              FY97, disposal fees were $1.50 per 30-gallon
              bag and $0.75 for  15-gallon bags.

              Cost-Effectiveness
                   In FY97, Leverett's gross costs for
              residential waste management were $37,600.
                 iwjauau
DROP-OFF:
  newspaper, magazines, corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper (including paperboard, mail, office paper, phone books and
   other books, and kraft paper bags)
 juice and milk boxes
  glass containers
  cans
  all plastic bottles, tubs, trays, andjars
  lead-acid batteries
  household batteries
  textiles
  reusable goods
  white goods
  paint
  scrap metal
        RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
            PER HOUSEHOLD PER DAY
         5.0
         4.0
         3.0
         2.0
         1.0
         0.0
                        FY97
             ] Trash    ^ Recycling     ^Composting

     Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.

Of this, about 72% was spent on trash
collection and disposal and 28% was spent on
recycling.  On a per-ton basis, trash cost $91
and recycling cost $51 ($36 with material
revenues).  Leverett pays an average of $58 per
ton in landfill tip fees, while the town pays no
tip fees for delivering recyclables to the  MRF.
The town's PAYT trash fees, lack of tip  fees for
recycled materials, and reuse programs have
contributed to the cost effectiveness of it waste
management program. In FY87, before the
town expanded its waste reduction program,
waste disposal cost $84 per household.  The
town's current costs for waste management are
only $58 per household  ($53 per household
when revenues from recyclables are included).

Tips for Replication
       Don't waste time reinventing the wheel.
       People have to  live  with your
recycling/reuse program.  Make it  as easy, and
as useful to them, as possible.
       Try not to get too caught up in the
numbers game (recycling rates); focus on how
to help your community deal with the waste
issues that are or will be important to them.
The recycling rate will take care of itself.
                                                                     Contact
                                                                     Richard Drury
                                                                     Recycling Coordinator
                                                                     Town of Leverett, Town Hall
                                                                     Leverett, MA 01054
                                                                     PHONE: 413-367-9683
                                                                     FAX: 413-367-9611

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017k
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Loveland,   Colorado
56% Residential Waste Reduction
Overview
    In the early 1990s, Loveland overhauled its waste
management system in response to rising worker
compensation insurance rates and aging trash trucks in need
of replacement. The city instituted a dual-collection system
for trash and recycling and a separate system for curbside
collection of yard debris. In addition, the city instituted pay-
as-you-throw (PAYT)  trash fees to encourage waste
reduction. In 1996, the city diverted 56% of its residential
waste from disposal; 19% was recycled and 37% was
composted.  Average trash landfilled per household dropped
from 6.6 pounds per day in 1989 to 2.6 pounds per day in
1996  a 60% reduction.  Residents pay a mandatory flat
monthly fee for recycling and composting services plus a fee
for each bag of trash disposed.  They can also subscribe to
weekly curbside pick-up of yard debris or take the material
to a central drop-off site. A drop-off site for recyclables not
collected at  curbside is also  available. The new waste
management system, fully implemented citywide in 1993,
results in fewer staff injuries, integrates recycling with  trash
collection, and contains costs.

Keys to High Waste Reduction
    Keys to  Loveland s high diversion rate are PAYT trash
rates, convenient collection  of recyclables, and diversified yard
debris recovery. PAYT trash fees encourage participation in
   curbside  and drop-off waste reduction programs.
   Residents must either buy a stamp
   ($0.85 for 30  gallons or $0.45 for 13
  gallons) to place on their own trash can
  or bag, or  they must purchase special
  trash bags printed with the  city logo
   ($1.00 for 32-gallon blue bags and
   $0.55 for 15-gallon green bags). The
    city's weekly curbside recycling
    program accepts eleven different
     materials. The city provides
      recycling bins to participating
      households and requires minimal
                                DHALU
                                POPULATION: 37,352
                                  (1989); 44,300 (1996)
                                HOUSEHOLDS: 17,476
                                  (1996); 15,220 single-
                                  family households, 2,256
                                  multi-family units
                                                1996
               Tons Per Year
        15,680
17,973
               Percent Diverted
                 Recycled
                 Composted
          0%
          0%
          0%
  56%
  19%
  37%
               Average Ibs./HH/day
         6.63
  5.86
               Net Program Costs/HH   $63.16      $85.48
                 Disposal Services       $63.16      $40.36
                 Diversion Services          $0      $45.12
               Notes: 2,880 households served in 1990 ;2,928 in 1997. 1990
                 dollars adjusted to 1997 dollars using the GDP deflator.
                 Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
                                          Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-017).

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sorting of materials by residents (two major
segregations are required: paper and
commingled containers).  Loveland residents
have a variety of options for diverting their
yard debris from disposal. They can subscribe
to the seasonal curbside collection service,
which operates from April through November
at a cost of $4.25 per month; use  the city's
drop-off site; or handle their own materials
through mulch mowing and home
composting. In 1996, drop-off accounted for
two-thirds of yard trimmings collected for
composting in the city program.

Cost-Effectiveness
    In 1996, the city spent about  $1.45 million
to provide trash, recycling, and yard debris
services to  16,422 households   about $90
per household served.  Materials revenues
reduced this by $81,000 to $1.40  million  (or
$85 per household served).  Per household
costs are higher under Loveland's  current waste
management system than they were before the
 MATERIALS RECOVERED
CURBSIDE:
  newspapers, corrugated cardboard
  brown grocery sacks
  glass containers
  cans
  scrap metal (including aluminum foil, pie, food trays, white goods, and
   aerosol cans)
  narrow-necked #1 and #2 plastic bottles
  grass clippings, leaves, brush, and other yard and garden debris

DROP-OFF:
  magazines and catalogs, mixed office paper, phone books
  motor oil, antifreeze, transmission fluid
  automotive
   batteries
  fluorescent tubes
  grass clippings,
   leaves, brush, and
   other yard and
   garden debris
                                                                         RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
                                                                             PER  HOUSEHOLD PER DAY
                                                                         8.0
                                                                         7.0
                                                                                      1989     1996
                                                                             ] Trash     ] Recycling

                                                                     Source: institute for Local Se!f-Re!iance, 1999.
changes ($63 in 1989; $85 in  1996).  However,
residents receive more services than before, and
waste reduction may also ensure future cost-
effectiveness for Loveland's waste management
systems as it cushions Loveland against
expected increases in landfill tip fees.l The
city estimates it saves $100,000  per year
through its dual-collection system as compared
to separate trash and recycling collection.

Tips for Replication
       Be  prepared for resistance to change.
Try to anticipate likely questions.
       Enact PAYT trash fees.
       Do your own homework to
fit program to your community.
       Sell program to  those
active in the community.
1At $10 per ton, Loveland pays the lowest tip fee of the
  record-setters profiled (and among the lowest in the
  country). If tip fees had been just $25 per ton in 1989, per
  household costs for solid waste management would have
  dropped between 1989 and 1996.
    Contact
     Bruce Philbrick, Solid Waste Superintendent
     Mick Mercer,  Manager of Streets  & Solid Waste
      Services
     Solid Waste Management Utility
     City of Loveland
     105 West Fifth Street
     Loveland, CO 80537
     PHONE: 970-962-2529
     FAX: 970-962-2907

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017I
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Madison, Wisconsin
50% Residential Waste Reduction
jS+^tyfa
: 50J
r 
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              multi-family households source-
              separate designated materials. The
              city can issue tickets to residents
              that fail to recycle but has not
              done so although it has
              ticketed residents for
              scavenging recyclables and illegal
              trash dumping.

              Cost-Effectiveness
                   The cost-effectiveness of Madison's solid
              waste management program is enhanced by
              high diversion levels, low diversion costs for
              yard trimmings, the use of large capacity clear
              bags for recycling, and a revenue-sharing
              contract with the materials  recovery facility.
              High diversion levels allowed the  city to
              decrease the number of trash routes serving
              residents and helped to hold landfill tip fees in
              check.  The city's yard debris management
              program diverts 34% of its residential waste
              stream  at a lower per-ton cost than recycling
              or disposal. The large 30-gallon bags that
              residents use for recyclables avoid  the cost of
CURBSIDE:
  newspaper, magazines and catalogs, corrugated cardboard
  brown paper bags, phone books
  glass containers
  cans
  #1 and #2 plastic containers
  appliances
  scrap metal
  tires
  brush, holiday trees, grass clippings, leaves, and other organic yard and
   garden debris
DROP-OFF:
  leaves, brush, grass
   clippings, and other
   yard trimmings
  used oil
  appliances
  other large items

        Brush collection in
       Madison using tow-
      behind brush chipper
        RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
            PER  HOUSEHOLD PER  DAY
                1988

             | Trash

    Source: institute for Local Seif-Reiiance, 1999.
1991     1996

Recycling     HComposting
purchasing bins and allow some residents to set
out recyclables every other week.  Under its
MRF contract, the city receives 80% of
revenues from the sale  of recyclables. The city
also reduced costs by closing its drop-off site
for recyclables.  In  1996, the city spent about
$10.7 million for trash, recycling, and yard
debris services  about $185 per  household
served.  Material revenues from recycling
reduced this by  $550,000 to $10.1 million -
$175 per household served. Madison's per
household waste management costs rose 8%
from $163 in 1988 to $175 in  1996. The
increase can wholly be explained by rising
disposal fees, which more than doubled during
the same period.

Tips for Replication
      Don't fudge numbers in order to sell
your solid waste management program.
      Know your markets.
      Not  collecting a material is better than
collecting it for recycling and then  landfilling it.
      Build political support.
    Contact
    George Dreckmann
    Recycling Coordinator
    Street Division
    City of Madison Dept. of Public Works
    1501 West Badger Road
    Madison, WI 53713
    PHONE: 608-267-2626
    FAX: 608-267-1120

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017m
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Portland, Oregon
50% Municipal Solid Waste Reduction
(40% Residential Solid Waste Reduction: 52% Institutional/Commercial
Solid Waste Reduction)
jS+^tyfa
'50J
r 
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               and scrap paper along with three of the
               following additional materials: corrugated
               cardboard, magazines, tin cans, glass containers,
               or plastic bottles. A city ordinance  effective
                 January 1996, requires all Portland businesses
                      to recycle 50% of their waste.  Portland
                       instituted PAYT trash rates in 1992.
                     The city sets the rates charged for each
                 service level. To encourage residents to
               reduce waste, a 20-gallon "mini-can" service,
               the lowest service available, is priced below the
               cost of service at $14.80 per month and  fees for
               service levels above 60-gallons of trash per week
               include a disincentive premium. Portland
               residents receive weekly curbside collection of
               18 recyclable materials; the city requires haulers
               to collect residents' recycling and trash on the
               same day. In 1971, the state enacted a 5(
               deposit on most carbonated beverage
               containers.  In  1996, Portland diverted 2% of its
               waste through this deposit system.

               Cost-Effectiveness
                   Net  costs households pay for residential
               solid waste management services decreased from
wasl
CURBSIDE:
  newspaper, magazines and catalogs, corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper (including mail, paperboard, kraft paper bags, paper egg
   cartons, and phone books)
  milk cartons and aseptic containers
  glass containers
  aluminum cans and other clean aluminum
  all plastic bottles
  ferrous cans and lids
  ferrous and non-ferrous scrap
   (limited amounts)
  used motor oil
  aerosol cans
  leaves, grass, brush, and other
   yard debris

DROP-OFF:
  (varies by site)

        RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
            PER  HOUSEHOLD PER DAY
   Source: institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.

$241 per household in 1992 to $211 per
household in 1996.1  Improved collection
efficiency and a drop  in average trash can
weights reduced trash management costs from
$187 per household to $144 per household.
Net diversion costs have increased from $54 per
household in 1992 to $67 per household in
1996, representing a 25% cost increase while
per household diversion increased 59%.

Tips for Replication
       Institute PAYT trash rates, which
encourage customers to reduce waste and
increase diversion.
       Know the public and conditions in your
jurisdiction and plan  accordingly.
       Be responsive to the  public.
       Focus on convenience.
Notes:
1 Portland residents pay franchised haulers
  directly for services. Reported costs
  represent cumulative payments by
  customers to haulers for waste services.
   Contact
    Solid Waste and Recycling Specialist
    Portland Bureau of Environmental Services
    1120 SW 5th, Room 400
    Portland, OR 97204
    PHONE:  503-823-5545
    FAX:  503-823-4562
    WEB SITE: www.europa.com/
     environmentalservices/gar.htm

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017n
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Ramsey  County,
Minnesota
47% Municipal Solid Waste Reduction
Overview
    In 1996, Ramsey County diverted 47% of its municipal
solid waste from disposal (39% through recycling and 8%
through composting). The 17  communities reporting data to
Ramsey County each operate their own municipal solid
waste (MSW) management system. County MSW activities
include providing grants, technical assistance, and educational
resources; ownership of a material recovery facility and a
network of yard trimmings drop-off and processing facilities;
and tracking data about waste management activities. The
county requires trash haulers to charge both residential and
commercial customers pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) trash rates
and directs municipalities to assure curbside recycling is
available to all residents.

Keys to High Waste Reduction
    Ramsey  County's 47% waste reduction level is due to
commercial sector recycling, PAYT trash fees, state disposal
bans, and residential recycling requirements. The county
supports business recycling through the Ramsey County
Business Waste Assistance Program, which provides technical
assistance to help reduce waste. Residential and business waste
reduction is encouraged through PAYT trash fees.  Haulers
   must charge PAYT rates but these rates often vary among
   haulers and by neighborhood. In Saint Paul, the largest
   community in Ramsey County, trash haulers offer residents
   four levels of PAYT service  ranging from low-
  volume/senior rates to unlimited/full
  service. A  Minnesota Statute effectively
  bans leaves, grass clippings, garden debris,
   and tree and shrub waste from state
    landfills and incinerators. Recovery of
    this material accounted for 8% of
     Ramsey County's MSW in FY96.
     The state also prohibits many other
     materials such as tires, and major
     appliances from disposal.  Ramsey
                                RAMSEY COUNTY
                                POPULATION: 496,068
                                  (1996)
                                HOUSEHOLDS:197,500
                                  (1996, est); -138,250
                                  single-family dwelling
                                  (three or fewer units per
                                  building), -59,250 multi-
                                  family dwellings
                                BUSINESSES: 14,417
                                  (1996, est.)
                                POPULATION: 270,441
                                  (1996)
                                HOUSEHOLDS:100,327,
                                  73,745 in 1-11 unit
                                  properties, 26,582 in
                                  apartment complexes with
                                  12 or more
                                BUSINESSES: 7,794
                                  (1996, est.)
               PROGRAM  SUMMARY
                                    1991
                    1996
              Tons Per Year
      483,929
673,298
              Percent Diverted
                Recycled
                Composted
         41%
         32%
   47%
   40%
    8%
              Notes: Figures above cover Ramsey County total MSW. Numbers
                may not add due to rounding. Per household generation and
                cost data not available because the county does not track data
                according residential versus institutional/commercial origin.
                                         Source: institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half:  Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-Q17).

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              County directs municipalities to ensure that
              curbside recycling is available to all residents.  In
              Saint Paul, for instance, the city contracts with
              the Saint Paul Neighborhood Energy
              Consortium and the Macalester Groveland
              Community Council to provide residential
              recycling services.
                  Saint Paul's residential recycling program
              serving single-family homes includes a unique
              program for durable household goods.
              Residents  simply bag  reusable household
              durables (such as textiles, books, working small
              appliances, and toys) for donation and set them
              out with their recyclables.  Recycling
              contractors collect these reusable  items  on the
              same truck as recyclables.  Goodwill processes
              the goods  for sale in its retail stores.

              Cost-Effectiveness
                  According to a study performed by the
              Saint Paul-Ramsey County Department of
              Public Health, Ramsey County's  single-family
              households spent approximately $237 in 1996
CURBSIDE COLLECTION  IN  SAINT  PAUL:
  newspaper, magazines and catalogs, corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper (mail, office paper, paperboard, and phone books)
  cans
  glass bottles and jars
  durable household goods (including textiles, books, working small
   appliances, hardware and tools, unbreakable kitchen goods, games, toys)
  yard debris collection (for an extra fee)

DROP-OFF COLLECTION  IN SAINT PAUL:
  plastic containers
  hard-to-handle materials at annual neighborhood clean-up events (such as
   tires, furniture, appliances, concrete, brush)
  DROP-OFF
   COLLECTION
   IN RAMSEY
   COUNTY:
  grass clippings,
   leaves, and other
   soft-bodied yard
   debris
for regular municipal solid waste services.
Trash collection and disposal was $196 per
household; yard debris management was $3.70
per household; recycling collection and
processing was $28 per household; and
administration and education was $4.61 per
household.  PAYT trash rates and low-cost
drop-off yard debris collection help residents
keep costs in check.
    Since  1987,  Saint Paul Public Works  has
coordinated a neighborhood clean-up program
for hard-to-handle household discards (such as
tires, furniture, appliances, concrete, and brush).
The program offers  an inexpensive disposal
option for citizens and  maximizes recovery of
the materials dropped  off.  The  city's  1996
expenditure of $108,700 was a fraction of what
residents would otherwise have paid for disposal
of items accepted  at  clean-ups.  The program
recovered over 1,800 tons of materials in 1996,
saving an additional $75,000 in disposal fees.

Tips for Replication
      Talk to your customers and
give the  public feedback.
      Keep promotion simple and
targeted to your audience. Repeat messages
in a variety of media.
      Offer consistent, dependable, and cost-
effective  recycling service.
    Contacts
    Cathi Lyman-Onka
    Program Analyst, Environmental Health  Section
    St. Paul-Ramsey County Dept. of Public Health
    1670 Bean Avenue, Suite A
    Maplewood, MN 55109
    PHONE: 651-773-4444
    FAX: 651-773-4454

    Hatti Koth
    Recycling Outreach Coordinator
    The St. Paul Neighborhood Energy Consortium
    623 Selby Ave.
    Saint Paul, MN 55104
    PHONE:  651-222-7678
    FAX: 651-221-9831

    Rick Person
    Solid Waste and Recycling
    800 City Hall Annex
    Saint Paul, MN 55102
    PHONE:  651-266-6122
    FAX: 651-298-4559

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-0170
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
 San  Jose,  California
 43% Municipal Solid Waste Reduction
 (45% Residential Solid Waste Reduction; 42% Institutional/Commercial
 Solid Waste Reduction)
 Overview
     Prior to implementation of the Recycle Plus Program
 in 1993  part of San Jose's Integrated Waste Management
 (IWM) Program  residents set out unlimited trash for a
 flat monthly fee and recycled only five material categories.
 Now they can set out more types of recyclables (including
 mixed paper, corrugated cardboard, mixed plastics, scrap
 metals, and textiles), multi-family dwellings (MFDs) are
 offered recycling and yard debris collection services, and
 recycling contractors are paid per household and per ton
 recycled. 1  As a result, from  1992 to 1996, the single-family
 household participation rate increased from 66% to 83% and
 the single-family waste reduction level increased from  33%
 to 55%.  In FY97, San Jose diverted 45% of its residential
 waste and  42% of its commercial waste. Overall diversion
 was 43% (34% was recycled and 9% was composted).

 Keys to High Waste Reduction
     Key elements of the IWM Program are weekly residential
 curbside collection of 19 categories of recyclables (available to
 all MFDs too),2 pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) fees for single-
 family household trash  pick-up, weekly year-round residential
  yard trimmings collection, and financial
  incentives for businesses to recycle and
  reduce waste. To encourage participation,
 the city provides three yellow stacking
   bins to single-family households and
   sets of three 96-gallon recycling carts to
   MFDs. PAYT trash fees are an
   economic incentive to divert materials
   from the trash through recycling and
    composting. Yard trimmings account
     for about two-thirds of material
     recovered. The city's unique "loose-
      in-the-street" collection system
      allows residents to set out more yard
       debris than would fit in a typical
        cart. (MFDs also have curbside
       yard trimmings pick-up.)  In order
                                  DHALU
                                  POPULATION: 849,363
                                    (1996), 873,300
                                    (1997)
                                  HOUSEHOLDS: 259,365
                                    (1993), 269,340(1996);
                                    188,900 single-family
                                    households, 80,440 multi-
                                    family units
                                  BUSINESSES: 27,000
                                       FY93
                     FY97
               Tons Per Year MSW          NA    1,315,436
                  Tons Per Year RSW      283,000      433,576
                  Tons Per Year ICW	NA      881,860
               Percent MSW Diverted       NA        43%
                  Percent RSW Diverted      33%        45%
                  Percent ICW Diverted       NA        42%
               Average Ibs./HH/day
          8.61
8.82
                Net Program Costs/H HI  $206.85     $187.03
                  Disposal Services       $142.78       $81.95
                  Diversion Services       $64.07      $105.09

                Key: MSW = municipal solid waste RSW = residential solid waste
                   ICW = institutional and commercial waste
                   NA = not available
                Notes: 1992 dollars adjusted to 1996 dollars using the GDP
                  deflator.
                1 Figures reflect residential sector only. FY93 tonnage data represents
                  180,000 single-family dwellings only; multi-family dwellings
                  were included in commercial service at that time. In FY97,
                  269,340 single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings were
                  served.
                                            Source: institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-Q17).

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               to encourage waste reduction among
               businesses, San Jose charges trash haulers
               serving businesses fees of more than $3 per
               cubic yard for trash; in contrast, recycling
               collection firms pay no fees for commercial
               recyclables hauled.

               Cost-Effectiveness
                   The financial elements of the IWM
               Program are varied and complex. There are
               numerous funding sources, multiple programs
               serving a variety of customers, and oversight
               of more then 25 residential and commercial
               contracts. All of the  city's  fees encourage
               maximum waste reduction.  Its recycling
               contractors, for instance, receive additional
               payments for  each ton they actually market to
               an end  user. As a result, recycling costs were
               $206  per ton  in FY97, more than twice as
               high as per ton trash or yard trimmings
               management costs.3  However, the net cost of
               single-family residential waste services has
               remained relatively stable ($207 per household
        SFD RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENER-
        ATION PER HOUSEHOLD PER  DAY
 MATERIALS RECOVERED
CURBSIDE:
  newspaper, magazines and catalogs, corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper (including mail, colored and white paper, envelopes, bags, egg
   cartons, paperboard, and phone books)
  glass containers
  cans
 juice and milk cartons
  plastic bottles/jugs and polystyrene packaging
  scrap metals (e.g., aluminum foil and plates, small metal appliances, hub
   caps, metal pots)
  textiles
  used motor oil
  grass clippings, leaves,
   brush, and other yard
   and garden debris
  holiday trees
  bulky goods (collected for
   a small fee)
DROP-OFF:
  the city operates no public
   drop-off facilities
         Recyclables set out at
          curbs/tie in San Jose
      g  5.0
                     FY93       FY97

              ] Trash    ^ Recycling     | Composting

     Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliancer 1999.

in FY93 compared to $210 in FY97). The
city spends less per household for the
provision of trash services to MFDs compared
to single-family dwellings so that net program
costs per  household for all 270,000 San Jose
households averaged  $187 in FY97.

Tips for Replication
       Set up a cost structure that encourages
recycling and waste reduction (for households,
for businesses, and for contractors).
       Know customers and implement a
program that balances needs of city and
customers.
       Create a relationship with haulers that is
conducive to continuous improvement.
       Pilot programs and collect data (put
reporting requirements in contracts).
Notes:
ifhe contractor serving MFDs is paid per ton only not per
  household.
^Residents in multi-family dwellings can recycle the same
  materials at curbside as  residents in single-family dwellings
  with the exception of used oil.
3fhe city has since renegotiated its contracts with its haulers to
  reduce recycling costs.

    Contact
    Ellen Ryan
    Program Manager                   *!:-
    City of San Jose Environmental Services Department
    Integrated Waste Management Program
    777 North First Street, Suite 450
    San Jose, California 95112
    PHONE: 408-277-5533
    FAX: 408-277-3606
    RESIDENTIAL WEB SITE: www.recycleplus.org
    COMMERCIAL WEB SITE:
      www. sjrecycles. org/business/

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017p
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Seattle,  Washington
44% Municipal Solid Waste Reduction
(49% Residential Solid Waste Reduction: 48% Institutional/Commercial
Solid Waste Reduction, 18% Self-haul Waste Reduction)
Overview
    Seattle faced a trash disposal crisis in the late 1980s after
two city-operated landfills closed.  Because of citizen
opposition to incineration, the city opted to  pursue an
aggressive waste reduction program. In 1988, the city set a
goal to recycle  60% of its residential and commercial waste by
1998. Curbside recycling service for single-family homes
began in 1988, and an apartment recycling program  and
curbside collection of source-separated yard debris in began
1989. The city has charged pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) rates
for trash disposal since 1981. In 1996, Seattle diverted 49% of
its residential waste stream, 48%  of its commercial waste
stream, and  18% of the materials delivered to its drop-off
sites.  Overall, Seattle  diverted 44% of its waste stream (34%
through recycling and 11% through composting).  Private
companies provide residential waste  management services
under city contracts and compete  on the open market for
commercial customers. City waste management staff functions
include  operating two transfer stations, providing education
and publicity, and overseeing contractors.
                                 DHALU
                                  POPULATION: 534,700
                                    (1996)
                                  HOUSEHOLDS: 248,970 total
                                    units: 149,500 SFDs (4 or
                                    fewer units in building),
                                    99,470 MFDs
                                  BUSINESSES: 45,000
Keys to High Waste Reduction
    Comprehensive curbside recycling and
yard debris programs, PAYT trash rates,
   strong private sector recycling, and
   multi-family recycling service
   contribute to the effectiveness of
  Seattle's waste reduction program.
  Seattle's single-family curbside  recycling
  program accepts 16 categories of
   materials; its apartment program accepts
    13.  In 1996, Seattle residents diverted
    14% of their waste through the city's
     curbside yard debris collection
     program.  The city's PAYT  trash rates
      have been so successful, the city
     added two small-volume subscription
                                             PROGRAM SUMMARY
                                      1987
                     1996
               Tons Per Year MSW         NA     767,144
                 Tons Per Year RSW     233,230      288,106
                 Tons Per Year ICW         NA      379,166
                 Tons Per Year Self-Haul      NA       99,843
               Percent MSW Diverted       NA        44%
                 Percent RSW  Diverted      19%        49%
                 Percent ICW Diverted       NA        48%
                 Percent Self-Haul Diverted   NA        18%
               Average Ibs./HH/dayi
          5.61
6.34
               Net Program Costs/HHI  $155.33     $154.93
                 Disposal Services      $155.33      $101.14
                 Diversion Services        $0.002       $53.79
               Key:  MSW = municipal solid waste RSW = residential solid waste
                   ICW = institutional and commercial waste
                   NA = not available
               Notes: 1987 dollars adjusted to 1996 dollars using the GDP
                 deflator. Numbers may not add due to rounding.
               ^Figures above reflect residential sector collection only. 227,890
                 households served in 1987, 248,970 in 1996.
               2Reported recycling in private sector. The city incurred no costs for
                 this recycling.
                                            Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-017).

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               levels  (the 12-gallon "micro-can" and the 19-
               gallon "mini-can") in response to public
               requests.  Strong local markets for recyclable
               materials and a city tax incentive provide
                 support for recycling in the private sector.
                      Since more than 40% of Seattle
                      households are located  in multi-family
                      units, providing recycling to these
               households is a critical element in the success of
               Seattle's waste reduction program.
                   Seattle involves its citizens  in its
               comprehensive education programs. The city's
               Master Composter and Friends of Recycling
               programs provide free training  to residents who
               then perform outreach.

               Cost-Effectiveness
                   Cost-effectiveness of Seattle's waste
               reduction efforts is due to the city's PAYT
               trash fees and lower per ton costs for recycling
        RESIDENTIAL WASTE  GENERATION
            PER HOUSEHOLD  PER DAY
         7.0
 MATERIALS RECOVERED
CURBSIDE (SFDs):
  newspaper, magazines and catalogs, corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper (mail, colored and white paper, bags, paperboard, and phone
   books)
  glass containers
  cans
 juice and milk cartons
  #1 and #2 bottles
  ferrous metals and white goods
  leaves, grass clippings, brush, holiday trees, and other yard debris

CURBSIDE (MFDs):
  aluminum and tin cans, glass bottles and jars, newspaper, mixed paper,
   white goods (two of the four private haulers that service apartment
   buildings also collect plastics)
DROP-OFF:
  all items collected
   curbside plus:
   lead-acid batteries
   used motor oil
   oil filters
   clean wood scrap
   and lumber

     Seattle's micro-can
     and 32-gallon trash
     can sizes
                    1987
                              1996
                         Recycling
and composting as compared to trash disposal.
On a per-ton basis, total waste management
cost $154 per ton; trash cost $173 per ton;
recycling; $121  per ton; and composting; $142
per ton. The city's PAYT trash fee structure
encourages residents to recover rather than
dispose of materials. Doing so also saves the
city money as fees paid to its contractors are
based on per-ton  fees.  In 1996, per household
waste management costs averaged $155, the
same as in 1987.

Tips  for Replication
       Recover mixed  paper for recycling.
       Distribute  bins to all participants.
       Institute  PAYT  rates for trash  service.
       Invest in education programs,  support
the programs with market research, and target
messages to people of all ethnicities.
       Accept some or all the risk of
secondary materials prices.
       Pay trash haulers partly based  on tons
collected so as recycling increases, savings
result.
   Contact
    Jenny Bagby
    Resource Management Branch
    The Seattle Public Utilities
    710 Second Avenue #505
    Seattle, WA 98104
    PHONE: 206-684-7808
    FAX: 206-684-8529
    WEB SITE: http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/util

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017q
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Visalia,  California
50% Residential Waste Reduction
Overview
    In 1991, Visalia began its waste reduction program in
order to meet California's state mandated recycling goals.
The city tried several curbside recycling pilot programs
involving bins and bags and manual collection. However
none of the programs were implemented due to poor
productivity and high worker compensation rates as
compared to the city's existing automated trash collection
system. Instead the city, in partnership with a local trash
equipment distributor, designed a special 110-gallon split
container for trash and recyclables and a dual-compartmented
automated truck that allows crews to collect trash and
recyclables simultaneously. The  city implemented this
innovative automated dual-collection system citywide in
1996.  At the same time, it reduced trash collection frequency
to once a week (from twice a week) and added a weekly
"green waste" collection program.  In FY97,Visalia diverted
50% of its residential waste from disposal  33% through
composting and 16% through recycling.

Keys to High Waste Reduction
    Recycling program convenience, collection of 15
categories of recyclable materials, the replacement of the city's
previous second-day trash pick-up  with a green waste
collection day, the state bottle bill, and an extensive outreach
campaign contribute to the success ofVisalia's waste reduction
   program. Residents can commingle
   virtually  all paper products, and metal,
   plastic, and glass containers for recycling
  in one side of their wheeled, split
  containers. Visalia diverts 33% of the
  city's residential waste through its yard
   debris program. All green waste is taken
   to a local compost facility. Visalia
    diverts nearly 3% of its residential
     waste through the state  container
     deposit and redemption program.
       The  city undertook an extensive
      outreach campaign to teach residents
                                 DHALU
                                  POPULATION: 91 ,314
                                    (1996), 92,677 (1997)
                                  HOUSEHOLDS: 28,869
                                    (1996), 25,346 single-
                                    family households, 3,523
                                    multi-family units
                                                  FY97
               Tons Per Year
        45,395
50,806
               Percent Diverted
                 Recycled
                 Composted
                     50%
                     16%
                     33%
               Average Ibs./HH/day
         10.58
 10.71
               Net Program Costs/HH   $190.33      $202.20
                 Disposal Services       $190.33      $108.77
                 Diversion Services1          $0       $93.43
               Notes: 23,500 households served in 1994; 26,000 in 1996 and 1997.
                 1994 dollars adjusted to 1996 dollars using GDP deflator.
                 Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
               1Diversion represents deposit container recovery only in FY94,
                 therefore; there were no direct costs to the city.
                                           Source: institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half:  Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-Q17).

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               how to use the new system and emphasize the
               importance of recycling.

               Cost-Effectiveness
                   In 1996, the city spent about $5.26 million
               for trash, recycling, and yard debris management
               services  about $202 per household served.
               Of this, about  54% was spent on trash collection
               and disposal, 18% was spent on recycling, and
               28% was spent on yard debris collection and
               processing. On a per-ton basis, trash cost $117
               and waste  reduction programs cost $96 
                            recycling, $114 and green waste
                           recovery, $87.1  Overall, net solid
                          waste management costs per
                           household served have increased
                          from $190 in FY94 to $202 in
                         FY97.  During this same time period,
                       per ton trash tip fees increased 10%.  If
                       these fees had not risen, per household
                      waste management costs in FY97 would
               have been within 5%  of per household costs in
               FY94. In  FY94, per ton trash costs were $101
               per ton, now waste  reduction and trash services

 MATERIALS  RECOVERED
CURBSIDE:
newspaper, magazines, corrugated cardboard
mixed paper (including mail, paperboard, and office paper)
glass containers
cans
all plastic containers
milk andjuice cartons
scrap wood and lumber (except creosote or treated wood)
grass clippings, brush, leaves, and other yard and garden debris

DROP-OFF:
same materials as curbside plus holiday trees
    Fully automated dual
  collection truck used to
       collect trash and
    recyclables in Visalia
        RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
            PER HOUSEHOLD PER DAY
         11.0
        6.0
                     FY94
                                 FY97
            I	|  Trash   |	| Recycling
     Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
\ Composting
cost $106 per ton. Recyclables processing and
composting costs are less expensive per ton than
landfill tip fees, helping to contain costs.

Tips for Replication
       Investigate the dual-collection split-
container system and automated collection.
       Focus on education to teach residents
how to use the system.
       Seek out committed staff and
administration  to ensure program.
       Find processor willing
to receive commingled
recyclables.
       Put together a Citizen
Advisory Group or find other
ways to obtain resident input.
Note:
line differences in the per-ton costs in these figures are largely reflections of
  the per-ton costs for recycling and composting processing and trash
  disposal. Visalia does not track curbside collection costs for recyclables, yard
  debris, and trash separately and reports per-ton collection costs for all
  materials as the total system average curbside collection cost.
    Contact
    Kathy Onsurez, Conservation Coordinator
    Torn Baffa, Solid Waste Services Manager
    City of Visalia Public Works Department
    336 N. BenMaddoxWay
    Visalia, California 93292-6631
    PHONE: 209-738-3531 or 209-738-3569
    FAX: 209-738-3576


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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017r
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Worcester,
Massachusetts
54% Residential Waste Reduction
Overview
    In the early 1990s, Worcester faced looming state landfill
bans for recoverable materials, and the city needed to transfer
trash costs from its tax base to user fees. In 1993, the city
implemented curbside recycling and a pay-as-you-throw
(PAYT)  trash system. The per-bag trash fees offer financial
incentives for residents to reduce trash disposal, recycle at
curbside, and deliver their yard trimmings to one the city's
three yard debris drop-off sites.  Per-bag trash fees combined
with a city ordinance that prohibits the disposal of recyclables
and yard debris with trash resulted in the city nearly tripling
its residential waste reduction rate from 15% in 1992 to 44%
in 1994.   In  1996, Worcester switched from biweekly to
weekly recycling collection and  the residential waste
reduction rate further increased to  54% (27% through
recycling and 27% through composting).

Keys to High Waste  Reduction
    The variety of materials collected at curbside, pay-as-you-
throw trash fees, a state bottle bill, and diversion of yard debris
all contribute to the city's high diversion rate.  Worcester's
weekly curbside recycling program collects up to 18 types of
recyclables (including mixed paper, all plastic containers, and
milk and juice cartons).  Residents can also recycle large items,
   such as appliances, through a special bulky items collection
   program.  Residents must place trash in
   special yellow bags or  city trash crews
  will not collect it. A 30-gallon bag costs
  504 and a 15-gallon bag costs 25(t.
   Massachusetts' container deposit law
   requires consumers to pay a 5(t deposit
    on many beverage containers. In 1996,
    approximately 4% of Worcester's
     residential waste stream was recovered
     through the  deposit system.
      Worcester provides fall leaf
     collection and operates drop-off sites
                                DHALU
                                POPULATION: 1 71 ,226
                                  (1995), 169,759
                                  (1996)
                                HOUSEHOLDS: 63,588
                                  (1996); 22,500 single-
                                  family households (one
                                  unit per building), 41,088
                                  multi-family units
                                                1996
              Tons Per Year
       53,087
57,573
               Percent Diverted
                 Recycled
                 Composted
         15%
          7%
  54%
  27%
  27%
               Average Ibs./HH/day
         5.84
  6.20
               Net Program Costs/HH      NA     $75.34
                 Disposal Services          NA      $48.15
                 Diversion Services         NA      $27.19
               Notes: 49,824 households served in 1992; 50,868 in 1996. 1992
                 dollars adjusted to 1996 dollars using the GDP deflator.
                 Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
                                         Source: institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-Q17).

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              for other yard debris from April through
              November. Residents can deliver their yard
              debris to these facilities at no charge.  In 1996,
              more than one-quarter of the city's residential
              waste was composted in the city's yard debris
              collection and processing program.

              Cost-Effectiveness
                   In  1996, the city spent $3.8 million for
              trash, recycling, and yard debris services 
              about $75 per household served.  Of this, 64%
              was spent on trash collection and  disposal, 20%
              was spent on recycling, and 16% was spent on
              yard debris collection and recovery. On a per-
                ton basis, trash cost $96, while waste
                        reduction cost $47  ($54 for recycling
                           and $40 for yard  debris
                            recovery).  The city has
                        contained  costs by reducing the
                V  number of trash crews and the number
              of workers  on the crews in response to
              decreasing trash disposal.  Since recycling
              began, trash crews service the same number of
              houses but  do  so  for one-third less labor costs.
              The number of city  Solid Waste Management
              program employees dropped from 58 in 1993
              to 46 in  1996.
       RESIDENTIAL WASTE GENERATION
           PER  HOUSEHOLD PER DAY
       7.0
              1992    1994    1996
           ] Trash     ] Recycling      | Composting

   Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliancer 1999.
Tips for Replication
       Implement a pay-as-you-throw trash
system.
       Collect as wide  a variety of materials as
possible.
       Make program participation convenient.
       Avoid adding a material to the recycling
program and then taking it away, especially in a
pay-as-you-throw system. Residents do not
like to be told they have  to pay to dispose of
something that had been free.
 MATERIALS RECOVERED
CURBSIDE:
  newspaper, magazines and catalogs, corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper (mail, office paper, paperboard, paper bags, and phonebooks)
  milk andjuice cartons and boxes
  glass containers
  scrap metal
  aluminum cans, trays, and tins
  steel food and beverage containers
  all plastic containers (except motor oil and antifreeze containers and pails
   or buckets)
  white goods
  leaves

DROP-OFF:
  leaves, grass clippings, brush, Christmas trees, and other yard and garden
   debris
  Contact
   Robert Fiore
   Assistant to the Commissioner
   Department of Public Works
   20 E.Worcester Street
   Worcester, MA 01604
   PHONE: 508-799-1430
   FAX: 508-799-1448
   WEB SITE:  http://www.ci.worcester.ma.us/
     services /dpw/index.html

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