United States
Environmental Protection
Solid Waste
and Emergency
Response (5306W)
January 2001

Printed on paper that contains at least 30 percent postconsumer fiber.

You've just learned that a solid waste trans-
fer station developer is proposing to build a
facility in your community. Like many citi-
zens, you may have concerns, including
uncertainties about potential safety and
health impacts. You may even wonder what
a waste transfer station is. In simple terms, a
transfer station is a facility where solid waste
is unloaded from smaller trucks and
reloaded into larger vehicles for transport to
a final disposal site.
   Waste transfer stations make solid waste collection more effi-
cient and reduce overall transportation costs, air emissions,
energy use, truck traffic, and road wear and tear. This saves you
and your community money and lowers the cost of your solid
waste management services.
   The selection of a site for any waste-related facility can be a
sensitive issue, particularly for those living nearby. In principle,
most people realize that such facilities are needed and will be
needed in the future. In some cases, however, concern arises
about a specific location for a
waste transfer station and
whether the facility will be
properly managed.
   You and your neighbors can
help influence decisions on
transfer stations. This booklet
provides key information you
will need to develop an opinion
about a proposed or modified
transfer station. It also provides
ways or ideas on how to get
involved to enhance the value
of the waste transfer station.
Located, designed, and operated to ensure the
public health, safety, and welfare of the com-
munity and environment.
Located so as to minimize incompatibility with
the character of the surrounding area.
Located where traffic patterns to or from the
facility minimize the impact on existing traffic
Consistent with state, local or tribal regulations
and solid waste management plans.

A waste transfer station is a light industrial-type facility where
trash collection trucks discharge their loads so trash can be
compacted and then reloaded into larger vehicles (e.g., trucks,
trains and barges) for shipment to a final disposal site, typically
a landfill or waste-to-energy facility. Transfer station operators
usually move waste off the site in a matter of minutes or hours.
Transfer stations serve both rural and urban communities. In
densely populated areas, they are generally fully enclosed.
   Waste  transfer stations handle the trash that you set out for
collection. At many transfer stations, workers screen incoming
wastes on the receiving floor or in an earthen pit, recovering
materials from the waste stream that can be recycled and sepa-
rating out any inappropriate wastes (e.g., tires, large appliances,
automobile batteries) that are not allowed in  a disposal facility.

Why  Are Transfer  Stations Needed?
Communities need transfer stations to move  their waste effi-
ciently from the point of collection to distant, regional landfills
or waste-to-energy plants. By consolidating solid waste collec-
tion and disposal points,  transfer stations help communities
reduce the cost of hauling waste to these remote disposal sites.
                                 Waste transfer stations may
                               be the most cost-effective
                               when they  are located near a
                               collection area. The use of
                               transfer stations lowers collec-
                               tion costs, as crews spend  less
                               time traveling to and from
                               distant disposal sites and
                               more time collecting waste.
                               This reduces costs for labor,
                               fuel and collection vehicle
                           I   maintenance.

Why are transfer stations growing in popularity around the
United States? Besides reduced transportation costs, here are a
few of the benefits. The waste transfer station:
•  Reduces overall community truck traffic by consolidating
   smaller loads into larger vehicles.
•  Offers more flexibility in waste handling and disposal
   options. Decision-makers can select among different disposal
   options and secure the lowest disposal fees or choose a
   desired method of disposal (e.g., landfilling, waste-to-energy).
•  Reduces air pollution,  fuel consumption, and road wear by
   consolidating trash into fewer vehicles.
•  Allows for screening of waste for special handling. At many
   transfer stations, workers screen incoming wastes on con-
   crete floors or conveyor belts to separate out readily recycla-
   ble materials or any inappropriate wastes (e.g., tires,
   automobile batteries) that are not allowed in a landfill or a
   waste-to-energy facility.
•  Reduces traffic at the disposal facility. The fact that fewer
   vehicles go to the  landfill or waste-to-energy facility reduces
   congestion and operating costs and increases safety.
•  Offers citizens facilities for convenient drop-off of waste
   and recyclables. Some transfer stations have a designated
   area, often called a convenience center, where residents drop
   off waste or recyclables in collection containers.

• • ••      f~*        --^

Traffic, noise, and odor may exist around waste transfer sta-
tions. Other problems that can result from an improperly
designed or operated facility, include:
•  Rodents and birds.
•  Litter.
•  Air emissions.

   Thoughtful design choices and well-managed operations can
and do address potential negative impacts. This section will
describe typical concerns and offer suggestions that you can
take to your transfer station developer to help resolve your con-
cerns. A more detailed discussion of ways to reduce the impacts
of waste transfer stations is provided in EPA's Waste Transfer
Stations: A Manual for Decision-Making,  Draft EPA530-D-01-005,
February 2001.

                               Transfer stations reduce overall
                               traffic by consolidating smaller
                               loads into larger vehicles. The
                               transfer station, however, will
                               generate additional amounts of
                               traffic in its immediate area.
                               This traffic can contribute to
                               increased road congestion, air
                               emissions, noise, and wear on
                               roads. For this reason, waste
                               transfer stations are often locat-
                               ed in industrial areas that have
                               ready  access to major road-
ways. Travel routes and resulting traffic impacts typically
receive significant attention during transfer station siting and
design. Some important design and operating features that
should be used include:
•  Selecting sites that have direct access to truck routes, high-
   ways and  rail or barge terminals.
•  Providing adequate space within the facility site so that cus-
   tomers waiting to use the transfer station do not interrupt
   traffic on public roads or impact nearby residences or busi-
•  Designating haul routes to and from the transfer station that
   avoid congested areas, residential areas, business districts,
   schools, hospitals and other sensitive areas.
•  Designing safe intersections with public roads.

Heavy truck traffic and the operation of heavy-duty facility
equipment (e.g., conveyors and front-end loaders) are the pri-
mary sources of noise from a transfer station. Design and oper-
ating practices that help reduce noise include:
•  Confining noisy activities within buildings or other enclo-
   sures as much as possible.
•  Using landscaping, sound barriers, and earth berms to
   absorb exterior noise.
•  Arranging the site so that traffic flows are not adjacent to
   properties that are sensitive to noise.
•  Providing setback distances, called buffer zones, to separate
   noisy activities from adjacent land uses.
•  Conducting activities that generate the most amount of noise
   during the day.

Garbage, particularly food waste and grass, has a high potential
for odor. Proper facility design can significantly reduce odor
problems. Carefully positioning the building and its doorways
with respect to neighbors is a  good first step. At the transfer
building itself, exhaust fans with air filters and rooftop exhaust
vents can further reduce off-site odor impacts.
   Some of the operating procedures that can help reduce odors
•  "First-in, first-out" waste handling practices that keep waste
   on site only for short periods of time.
•  Removing all waste from the tipping floor or pit by the end
   of each operating day so that these surfaces can be swept
   clean and washed down.
•  "Good housekeeping" measures, including regular cleaning
   and disinfecting of surfaces and equipment that come into
   contact with waste.
•  Water misting and/or deodorizing systems.

               Rodents and Birds
               Rodents and birds can be a nuisance and a potential health
               concern at waste transfer stations, but few basic design and oper-
               ational elements can control them. For instance, good housekeep-
               ing practices are a simple and effective means of minimizing
               their presence. These practices include removing all waste deliv-
               ered to the facility by the end of each day, and cleaning the
               receiving floor daily (small, rural facilities may require several
               days to accumulate a full container of waste for transport).
               Receiving waste only within an enclosed structure and otherwise
               preventing litter can reduce the presence of birds. If problems
               persist in the vicinity, baiting and trapping can control rodents.
      When a public hearing was held to announce the siting of a proposed waste transfer
      station in Auburn, New Hampshire, the town's citizens wanted to make sure their
concerns would be addressed. Residents raised a number of issues about potential odor,
noise, and truck traffic from the transfer station, which would consolidate waste from
Manchester, New Hampshire, and surrounding communities, including Auburn. In addition,
town officials voiced concerns about storm-water runoff from the transfer station.
   A private firm specializing in transfer stations and other waste management services
listened to the issues raised at the hearing. The company showed its willingness to
address these concerns by proposing changes to the transfer station's design and operat-
ing plans. Modifications included:
•  Reorienting the transfer station building so warning alarms from trucks backing up
   would be directed away from residential areas.
•  Closing the transfer station doors to reduce odor whenever  trucks are not delivering
•  Providing a trash drop-off area apart from commercial vehicles and  extending operat-
   ing hours to make site use more convenient for residents.
•  Setting up a gated fence around the site to maximize security and safety.

   Town officials also hired a consultant to address additional citizen concerns. The com-
pany worked with the consultant to develop methods for safely managing storm-water
runoff from the transfer station. The revised design included new drainage structures and
roadway modifications. As a final condition for receiving a transfer station permit, the
company developed an operating manual that employees will be required to follow. Town
officials reviewed the operating manual and after additional modifications, the town
approved the transfer station.

In the course of facility operations, it is likely that stray pieces
of waste may become litter in and around the waste transfer
station. Measures that can help reduce litter include:
• Positioning the main transfer building so that predominant
  winds are less likely to blow through the building and carry
  litter off-site.
• Installing perimeter  landscaping and fencing to reduce wind
  speeds at the transfer station site and to trap any litter.
• Ensuring that tarps on open top trucks are secure.
• Providing skirting around loading chutes.
• Removing litter frequently to reduce the opportunity for it to
  travel offsite.
• Patrolling nearby access roads to control litter from truck

Air Emissions
Air emissions at transfer stations can come from unloading dry,
dusty waste delivered to the transfer station, exhaust from
trucks, loaders and other equipment, and driving over unpaved
surfaces.  The following can reduce air  emissions:
• Requiring trucks delivering and picking up waste at the facil-
  ity to reduce unnecessary engine idling.
• Working with fleet operators to reduce engine emissions
  (e.g., engine improvements or use of cleaner fuels).
• Spraying dusty wastes with water as they are unloaded.
• Ensuring that street sweeping operations use enough water
  to avoid kicking up dust.
• Paving all surfaces where trucks operate.

Every solid waste management facility is required to obtain cer-
tain government permits. Permit requirements may be estab-
lished by state, local, or tribal governments. Regulations, which
serve as the basis for permits, vary from jurisdiction to jurisdic-
tion. Typical types of permits that a transfer station may be
required to obtain include:
• Solid waste facility permits—usually issued by state, local,
  or tribal agencies, which can govern siting, design, and
• Site development permits—usually issued by local or tribal
  agencies, which include zoning requirements, building per-
  mits, utility connections.
• Environmental siting approvals—which are addressed by
  various levels of government and can pertain to wetlands,
  flood plains, culturally significant sites, or other protected
  For a state-by-state checklist of major transfer station regula-
tory issues see EPA's document, Waste Transfer Stations: A
Manual for Decision-Making, Draft EPA530-D-01 -005, February
2001, Appendix A.
• Talk with authorities that plan, permit, and regulate waste
  transfer stations at the state level. (See the list of state solid
  waste contacts at the end of this guide).
• Seek to understand the role of the various agencies. Learn
  about the types of decisions they have authority to make and
  the activities they can influence or control.
• Talk to the waste transfer station developer and find out
  about his plans. The developer may be either a private
  company or government agency. Make sure the developer
  is aware of your concerns  as early as possible so he can
  take steps to address them. Find out the name and phone

  number of the developer's contact
  person whom you can call for infor-
  mation, to check on progress, and to
  share your concerns.
                                            effective and constructive opportu-
• Check the site against the rules ol your
  state or locality. Ask your state or trib-
  al government representative for
  copies of the regulations or where you
  can find them.
                                          LI,-. _...i-f-\f)I ir XAMctp F^pilitip**" Anril 900(1
• Get on mailing lists of the developer,
  local agencies (e.g.,  zoning, planning,
  solid waste), and state agencies.

• Attend public information meetings, hearings, and decision
  meetings to express your interests.
• Request a visit to the developer's completed and operating
  waste  transfer stations.
• Work with state  and/or local oversight agencies to see how
  you can assist in monitoring the waste transfer station's

• Your state, tribal, or local government agencies will deter-
  mine if the proposed waste transfer station meets current
  regulations. However, you and your neighbors may want to
  work with the transfer station developer to negotiate a sepa-
  rate agreement documenting commitments that you expect
  the developer to keep. This agreement can include both per-
  formance measures to ensure the community is not unduly
  impacted as well as possible benefits the developer will pro-
  vide to offset the facility's impacts. Benefits can range from
  commitments to employ local residents, construction of day
  care centers, parks or other facilities that enhance the com-
  munity to actual payment of a fee to enable the community
  to provide other neighborhood improvements.

   Important elements of an effective public partici-
   pation process may include the following:
  •  Advance notice of any proposed public or pri-
    vate solid waste transfer stations.
  •  Advance notice of opportunities for public
    involvement in the approval process.
  •  Local decision officials hear and address com-
    munity social, economic, and health concerns
    in advance of site selection and permit filing.
  •  Open sharing of relevant information.
  •  Access to facility planning and/or permitting
  •  Reasonable time to review documents and, if
    warranted, the assistance of independent tech-
    nical experts.
  •  A facilitator for public meetings who is experi-
    enced or trained in working with communities
    and addressing controversial issues.
  •  Availability of interpreters for public meetings
    and multilingual fact sheets, public notices and
    other outreach materials.
  •  Feedback from state/tribal/local officials on
    how they intend to address community con-
   It's important to get
involved early to share your
concerns with the waste
transfer station developer
and government regulators
and discuss what the devel-
oper can do for you and your

How can communities
open up the lines of
Contact your local
Find answers to the following
   The Planning Process
•  Where can you obtain a
   copy of the locality's solid
   waste plan?
•  What is the process for
   approving or amending the
   solid waste plan? Determine
   if it has been followed.
•  Who is in charge of waste
   management planning and
   siting new facilities?
                •  What is the process for establishing a new facility or modify-
                  ing an existing one?
                •  What area/communities will this facility serve?
                •  Who is the appropriate contact at the local level for project-
                  specific information?
                •  Has an application for a new or modified facility been sub-
                  mitted to the local government, state, or tribe? If so, ask for a
                  copy or where you can view it.
                •  Are the facilities publicly or privately owned?

  Applicable Regulations
• What regulations/standards apply to waste transfer station
  siting, design, operation? Who enforces them?
• Find out if there is a solid waste planning committee and, if
  so, when it meets.
• Do the zoning ordinances specify where waste transfer sta-
  tions are allowed and the process for special exceptions to
  the existing zoning plan?
  Opportunities for Public Participation
• What opportunities are there for public input?
• Is there a central repository for documents for public review?
• When is the zoning hearing and what are the procedures for
Contact your local elected official.
Find answers to the following questions:
• What information is available on the project?
• What is the schedule for building the facility?
• What is the size of the facility?
• What are the proposed tonnages that the facility will handle,
  and what communities will they be coming from?
• How much traffic will the
  facility generate?
• When is the public meeting
Contact your state solid waste
or tribal environmental
Find answers to the following
• What administrative require-
  ments exist, including public
  hearings for waste transfer

               •  What is the process for requesting a public hearing?
               •  What are the regulations that apply to transfer stations? Do
                 they address your concerns. If not, why not?
               •  What is the permitting and regulatory process? Does regula-
                 tory authority rest with the state agency, a local agency or a
                 combination of the two? If located on a reservation, does
                 authority rest with the tribal council or another tribal envi-
                 ronmental entity?
               •  Where can the  public review the state application for a waste
                 transfer station?

               How do I get involved?
               Form or join a community  advisory panel.
               A community advisory panel (CAP) should reflect local diversi-
               ty and include residents, businesses, and industry. CAPs can
               provide insight and external input and may oversee administra-
               tion of host benefits or amenities agreed upon as part of siting
               discussions. For instance, a CAP might be formed to administer
               funds allocated for job training programs.
                 To formulate your position on the proposed waste transfer
               station, review the information you have collected. Identify
               operating and design measures that will protect the public
               interest. Write down your concerns and thoughts in a concise,
               logical, and constructive manner. Attempt to understand other
               perspectives and acknowledge them while meeting your goals.
               Select your best spokesperson to present your position at the
               public meeting or hearing.
               Attend public meetings or hearings.
               Find answers to the following questions:
               •  What benefits would the waste transfer  station provide?
               •  How will the waste transfer station affect the community and
                 the environment?
               •  How will the community be affected by truck traffic?
               •  What types of litter, noise, and vector controls will the facility

• Will all waste be removed or containerized at the end of the
• How will storm water and wash water runoff be managed?
• How will the community be economically impacted?
• What type of odor control will the facility have?
• How will the waste transfer station save you money?
• What potential hazards may be expected and how will they
  be addressed?
• Does the community get any special benefits?
Secure follow-up on your concerns from the local
regulatory authority.
Ask questions such as the following:
• How will the local regulatory authority monitor resolution of
  your concerns?
• When will you be able to
  meet with project manage-
• Who will provide long-
  term oversight of facility
• What provisions are being
  made so that the public
  can review the facility's
  operating history and per-
  mit compliance after regu-
  lar operations begin?
• Can the community be
  involved in site inspec-
  tions and reviews?
• Will the authority help schedule a visit to a similar facility?

               What kinds of community benefits might be
               Based on the experience of communities around the country,
               there are many neighborhood benefits that can be negotiated if
               you communicate and meet with the waste transfer station
               developer. The range of community benefits depends on several
               factors, including availability of alternate sites, population densi-
               ty, land use of surrounding areas, and the economics of the pro-
               posed facility. Benefits that communities have asked for include:
               •  Landscaping, lighting, and local park areas.
               •  Limitations on waste generation sources (e.g., off reservation,
                 out of county, out of state).
               •  Funding of public road/infrastructure improvements.
               •  Restrictions on truck traffic, including designated routing.
               •  Guaranteed preference to the community's residents for
               •  Commitment to regularly pick up litter and sweep streets in
                 and around the waste transfer station.
               •  Participation in site inspections and operation reviews.
               •  A hotline with the name and phone number of someone that
                 will act on and respond to complaints.
               •  Restrictions on operating hours.
               •  Commitment to cleaning up the tipping floor at day's end.
               •  Free or reduced-cost use of the facility for the community's
                 residents and businesses.
               •  Improvements to community schools, recreation programs,
                 fire department, etc.
               •  Free recyclables collection and/or processing.
               •  Guarantees for housing values.
               •  A fee paid to the local government for every ton of waste
                 received at the facility.
                 You can also negotiate to require that community representa-
               tives have access to the facility during operations to monitor

     Thanks to the Santa Fe, New Mexico, Solid Waste Management Division's door-to-
     door informational campaign and the involvement of concerned citizens, the solid
 waste transfer station was designed in a way aesthetically pleasing to the residents. City
 officials responded to a number of citizen concerns regarding the design and proposed
 operation of the transfer station, including a request for the transfer station to conform to
 the stucco-and-tile architectural style prevalent in the Santa Fe area.
    To inform residents about the proposed waste transfer station, which opened in  1997,
 city officials conducted public hearings, met with neighborhood associations, and went
 door-to-door distributing newsletters with proposed details on the transfer station's
 design and  how the decision-making process would be implemented. During the public
 involvement process, residents expressed concerns regarding traffic impacts, stray litter,
 odor and dust, and the visual effect of the transfer station. The city responded with a
 number of changes that included:
 •  Building and upgrading roads to ensure large transfer trucks would travel north of the
    neighborhood, away from major streets.
 •  Having crews daily pick up litter that might blow or fall onto neighborhood streets.
 •  Washing down the transfer station twice each week and removing transfer station
    waste at the end of each day.
 •  A powerful ventilation system to limit odors.
 •  Incorporating the design of the transfer station to be in the Santa Fe architectural style.
    It is important to note that the  citizens most affected by the transfer station had  lived
 for some time near the city's closed landfill. Over the years, city officials consistently
 responded to citizen concerns about illegal dumping and stray litter from the landfill,
 resulting in a positive, trusting relationship with  the community. This  relationship likely facil-
 itated the public involvement process.
performance. Safety concerns and potential for interference
with daily operations must be addressed if this provision is
Information Available  From EPA
The following publications are available through the RCRA
Hotline. To order a document, call 800 424- 9346 (or 800 553-
7672 for the hearing-impaired). In Washington, DC, the number

                is 703 412-9810 or TDD 703- 412-3323. The RCRA Hotline is
                open from Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., EST

                •  Waste Transfer Stations: A Manual for Decision-Making
                   (EPA530-D-01-005) (Draft, February 2001.)

                •  Social Aspects of Siting RCRA Hazardous Waste Facilities

                •  Decision-Maker's Guide To Solid Waste Management

                •  Sites for Our Solid Waste: A Guidebook for Effective
                   Public Involvement (EPA530 SW 90 019)
     An initial siting choice for a waste transfer station in Leon County, Florida, failed to gain
     the approval of citizens and local business owners. In response, the county board
 held a series of public meetings and workshops for almost a year, to evaluate approxi-
 mately 15 potential alternative sites for the transfer station. Attended by hundreds of peo-
 ple, this public process resulted in a final site selection, after which the county board
 appointed a site development review committee whose mission was to develop operat-
 ing and design criteria that would meet the needs of businesses and residents in this sub-
 urban area of West Tallahassee.
    The committee comprised a neighborhood association representative, a local business
 representative, a university professor, a private consultant, and transportation, public
 works, and solid waste officials from city and county government. The committee
 requested transportation and noise studies to help it develop recommendations for
 reducing the transfer station's environmental impacts.
    The studies persuaded the county's solid waste department to change the transfer
 station from a top-load to a compactor-type design that would reduce noise, building
 height, and overall costs, plus provide for cleaner operations. The modified design also
 made funds available to improve the sound absorption of the transfer  station's interior
 walls. The review committee also developed operating criteria addressing other potential
 hazards and nuisances to the community. One requirement included having an industrial
 hygienist monitor the safety of the transfer station annually.
    To compensate the community for hosting the transfer station, the committee
 approved a "host fee" of 50 cents per ton of waste. The community will  use revenue
 from this host fee, expected to generate $75,000 in the transfer station's  first year of
 operation, to pay for  neighborhood improvements such as local sewer repairs.
    Leon County's transfer station has yet to be built, however. Despite extensive public
 involvement, a group of adjacent property owners is challenging the final  site selection,
 even though they participated in the decision-making process.

Additional Information from EPA
• The Model Plan for Public Participation, EPA National
  Environmental Justice Advisory Council. Contact EPA Office
  of Environmental Justice (http://es.epa.gov/oeca/main/ej/
• Constructive Engagement Resource Guide: Practical Advice
  for Dialogue Among Facilities, Workers, Communities, and
  Regulators (EPA745-B-99-008) June 1999. Contact EPAs
  National Service Center for Environmental Publications at
  1-800-490-9198 or visit the Web at www.epa.gov/

Other  Selected Sources of  Information
• Solid Waste Transfer in Illinois: A Citizen's Handbook on
  Planning, Siting and Technology. Contact Dupage County
  Solid  Waste Department, Wheaton Illinois. Telephone: 630
• National Environmental Justice Advisory Council
  Regulatory Strategy for Siting and Operating Waste
  Transfer Stations (report #500-R-00-001). Contact Kent
  Benjamin at EPA at 202 260-2822 or visit the web at:

Selected Internet Resources
• EPAs Office of Solid Waste (www.epa.gov/msw)
• EPAs Office of Environmental Justice
• EPAs Office of Civil Rights (http://www.epa.gov/civilrights)

State Solid  Waste Contacts
Alabama Department of Environmental Management, Land
Division, Solid Waste Branch, P.O.  Box 301463, Montgomery, AL
36130-1463, Phone: 334/271-7730, Fax: 334/279-3050
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation,
Environmental Health Division, Solid Waste Program, 410

              Willoughby Avenue, Juneau, AK 99801-1795, Phone: 907/465-
              5350, Fax: 907/465-5164
              Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Waste Programs
              Division, Solid Waste Section, 3033 North Central Avenue,
              Phoenix, AZ 85012, Phone: 602/207-4208, Fax: 602/207-2383
              Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, Solid
              Waste Division, P.O. Box 8913, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913,
              Phone: 501/682-0600, Fax: 501/682-0611
              California Integrated Waste Management Board, 8800 Cal
              Center Drive, Sacramento, CA, 95826, Phone: 916/255-2182,
              Fax: 916/255-2227
              Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment,
              Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Division, 4300
              Cherry Creek Drive South, Denver, CO 80222-1530, Phone:
              303/692-3300, Fax: 303/759-5355
              Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau
              of Waste Management, 79 Elm Street, 4th Floor, Hartford, CT
              06106-5127, Phone: 860/424-3021, Fax: 860/424-4060
              Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental
              Control, Air and Waste Management Division, Hazardous and
              Solid Waste Management, 89 Kings Highway, Dover, DE 19901,
              Phone: 302/739-4764, Fax: 302/739-5060
              District of Columbia
              DC Department of Public Works, Solid Waste Administration,
              2750 South Capitol Street, S.E., Washington, D.C. 20032, Phone:
              202/645-7044, Fax: 202/645-6040
              Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of
              Waste Management, Bureau of Solid & Hazardous Waste, Solid
              Waste Management Section, 2600 Blair Stone Road, Tallahassee,
              FL 32399-2400, Phone: 850/488-0300, Fax: 850/414-0414

Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental
Protection Division, Land Protection Branch, Solid Waste
Management, 4244 International Parkway, Suite 104, Atlanta,
GA 30354, Phone: 404/362-2537, Fax: 404/362-2654
Hawaii Department of Health, Environmental Management
Division,  Office of Solid Waste Management, 919 Ala Moana,
Room 300, Honolulu, HI 96814, Phone: 808/586-4250,
Fax: 808/586-4370
Idaho Division of Environmental Quality, Solid Waste Program,
410 North Hilton Street, Boise, ID 83706, Phone: 208/373-0502,
Fax: 208/373-0417
Illinois Environmental  Protection Agency, Bureau of Land, Solid
Waste Management Section, P.O. Box 19276, Springfield, IL
62794-9276, Phone: 217/785-9407, Fax: 217/557-4231
Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Office of
Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, P.O. Box 6015,
Indianapolis, IN 46206-6015, Phone: 317/232-3210,
Fax: 317/232-3403
Iowa Department of Natural
Resources, Land Quality
Bureau, Solid Waste Section,
900 East Grand Avenue,
Henry A. Wallace Bldg., Des
Moines, IA 50319-0034, Phone:
515/281-4968, Fax: 515/281-
Kansas Department of  Health
and Environment, Division of
Environment, Bureau of Waste
Management, Forbes Field,

              Building 283, Topeka, KS 66620, Phone: 785/296-1612,
              Fax: 785/296-1592
              Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Division of
              Waste Management, Solid Waste Branch, Frankfort Office Park,
              14 Reilly Road, Frankfort, KY 40601 Phone: 502/564-6716,
              Fax: 502/564-4049
              Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Solid
              and Hazardous Waste, Solid Waste Division, P.O. Box 82178,
              Baton Rouge, LA 70884-2178, Phone: 225/765-0249,
              Fax: 225/765-0299
              Maine Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of
              Remediation and Waste Management, Division of Solid Waste
              Facilities Regulation, 17 State House Station, Augusta, ME
              04333-0017, Phone:2 07/287-2651, Fax: 207/287-7826
              Maryland Department of the Environment, Waste Management
              Administration, Solid Waste Program, 2500 Broening Highway,
              Baltimore, MD 21224, Phone: 410/631-3304, Fax: 410/631-3321
              Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau
              of Waste Prevention, Solid Waste Division, One Winter Street,
              Boston, MA 02108, Phone: 617/292-5953, Fax: 617/292-5778
              Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Waste
              Management Division, Solid Waste Program, P.O. Box 30241,
              Lansing, MI 48909, Phone: 517/335-9523, Fax: 517/373-4797
              Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Policy and Planning
              Division, 520 Lafayette Road, St. Paul, MN 55155-4194,
              Phone: 651/297-8502, Fax: 651/297-8676
              Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of
              Pollution Control, Solid Waste Management Branch, P.O. Box

10385, Jackson, MS 38289, Phone: 601/961-5171, Fax: 601/354-
Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of
Environmental Quality, Solid Waste Management Program, P.O.
Box 176, Jefferson City, MO 65102, Phone: 573/751-5401,
Fax: 573/526-3902
Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Permitting and
Compliance Division, P.O. Box 200901, Helena, MT 59620-0901,
Phone: 406/444-5270, Fax: 406/444-1374
Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality, Waste
Management Division, 1200 N Street, Suite 400, Lincoln, NE
68509-8922, Phone: 402/471-4210, Fax: 402/471-2909
Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Waste
Management, Solid Waste Branch, 333 West Nye Lane, Capitol
Complex, Carson City, NV 89710, Phone: 702/687-4670,
Fax: 702/885-0868
New Hampshire
New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Waste
Management Division, 6 Hazen Drive, Concord, NH 03301-
6509, Phone: 603/271-2905, Fax: 603/271-2456
New Jersey
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division
of Solid and Hazardous Waste, P.O. Box 414, Trenton, NJ 08625,
Phone: 609/984-6880, Fax: 609/984-6874
New Mexico
New Mexico Environment Department, Environmental
Protection Division, Solid Waste Bureau, 1190 St. Francis Dr.,
P.O. Box 26110, Santa Fe, NM 87503, Phone: 505/827-2855,
Fax: 505/827-2902
New York
New York  State Department of Environmental Conservation,
Division of Solid & Hazardous Materials, 50 Wolf Road, Albany,
NY 12233-7250, Phone: 518/457-6934, Fax: 518/457-0629

              North Carolina
              North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural
              Resources, Division of Waste Management, Solid Waste Section,
              P.O. Box 27687, Raleigh, NC 27611-7687, Phone: 919/733-0692,
              Fax: 919/733-4810
              North Dakota
              North Dakota Department of Health, Division of Waste
              Management, P.O. Box 5520, Bismarck, ND 58506-5520, Phone:
              701/328-5166, Fax: 701/328-5200
              Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Division of Solid and
              Infectious Waste Management P.O. Box 163669, Columbus, OH
              43216-3669, Phone: 614/728-5333, Fax: 614/728-5315
              Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, Waste
              Management Division, P.O. Box 1677, Oklahoma City, OK
              73102, Phone: 405/702-5100, Fax: 405/702-5101
              Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Waste
              Management and Cleanup Division Solid Waste Planning &
              Program  Development Section, 811 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Portland,
              OR 97204, Phone: 503/229-5072, Fax: 503/229-6977
              Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau
              of Land Recycling and Waste Management, Division of
              Municipal and Residual Waste, P.O. Box 8471,Harrisburg, PA
              17105-8471, Phone: 717/787-2388, Fax: 717/787-1904
              Rhode Island
              Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management,
              Division of Waste Management, 235 Promenade Street,
              Providence, RI 02908, Phone: 401/222-4700, Fax: 401/222-3813
              South Carolina
              South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental
              Control, Bureau of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management,
              Division of Solid Waste Management, 2600 Bull Street
              Columbia, SC 29201, Phone: 803/896-4007, Fax: 803/896-4001

South Dakota
South Carolina Department of Environment and Natural
Resources, Division of Environmental Services, Waste
Management Program, 523 East Capitol, Foss Bldg., Pierre, SD
57501-3181, Phone: 605/773-3153, Fax: 605/773-4068
Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation,
Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, Solid
Waste Management Unit, 5th Floor, L & C Tower, 401 Church
Street, Nashville, TN 37243-1535, Phone: 615/532-0780,
Fax: 615/532-0886
TX Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Permits
Division, P.O. Box 13087, Austin, TX 78711-3087, Phone:
512/239-6787, Fax: 512/239-2007
Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Solid
and Hazardous Waste, Solid Waste Section, P.O. Box 144880,
Salt Lake City, UT 84114-4880, Phone: 801/538-6170,
Fax: 801/538-6715
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, Waste
Management Division, Solid Waste Management, 103 South
Main Street, Waterbury, VT 05671-0404, Phone: 802/241-3444,
Fax: 802/241-3296
Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, Waste Division,
P.O. Box 10009, Richmond, VA 23240-0009, Phone: 804/698-
4221, Fax: 804/698-4234
Washington State Department of Ecology,  Waste Management
Programs, Solid Waste and Financial Services Program,  P.O. Box
47600, Olympia, WA 98504-7600, Phone: 360/407-6103,
Fax: 360/407-6102
West Virginia
West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Office
of Waste Management, Solid Waste Management Section, 1356

              Hansford Street, Charleston, WV 25301-1401, Phone: 304/558-
              5929, Fax: 304/558-0256
              Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Air and Waste
              Division, Bureau of Waste Management, P.O. Box 7921, Madison,
              WI 53707, Phone: 608/266-1327, Fax: 608/267-2768
              Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Solid and
              Hazardous  Waste Division, 122 West 25th Street, Cheyenne, WY
              82002, Phone: 307/777-7752, Fax: 307/777-5973
              American Samoa
              Environmental Quality Commission, American Samoan
              Government, Department of Public Works, Pago Pago, American
              Samoa 96799, Phone: 684/633-4141, Fax: 684/633-5801
              Guam Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Land
              Division, P.O. Box 22439, GMF Barrigada, Guam 96921, Phone:
              671/475-1658, Fax: 671/477-9402
              Northern Mariana Islands
              Division of Environmental Quality, Commonwealth of the
              Northern Mariana Islands, 3rd Floor, Morgen's Bldg., San Jose,
              P.O.  Box 1304, Saipan, MP 96950, Phone: 670/234-6114,
              Fax:  670/234-1003
              Puerto Rico
              Environmental Quality Board, Office of the Governor,  Land
              Pollution Area, P.O. Box 11488, Santurce, PR 00910, Phone:
              787/763-4448, Fax: 787/766-0150
              Virgin Islands
              Department of Planning and Natural Resources, Government of
              the Virgin Islands, Division of Environmental Protection,
              Building 111, Apartment  114, Christiansted,  St. Croix, VI 00820,
              Phone: 809/773-0565, Fax: 809/773-9310