If you are a textile
manufacturer, your facility
might generate hazardous
waste. If so, you are
regulated by the U.S.
Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) under a
federal law called the
Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA).
Under RCRA, you are
required to follow certain
procedures when
generating, storing,
transporting, treating, or
disposing of hazardous
waste. RCRA in Focus
provides an overview of the
federal regulations you are
required to follow and the
wastes that are likely to be
hazardous in your business.
It also provides federal
recycling and pollution
prevention options to help
you decrease the amount of
hazardous waste you
Frequently Asked Questions About RCRA
The Life Cycle of a Typical Textile Manufacturing Waste
Requirements for Regulated Textile Manufacturers
Reduce or Minimize the Hazardous Wastes You Generate
Other Environmental Laws Affecting Textile Manufacturing Industry   10
Contacts and Resources
                                FOR MORE INFORMATION CALL:

                                RCRA Call Center
                                U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                800 424-9346 or TDD 800 553-7672.
                                In the Washington, DC, area: 703 412-9810
                                or TDD 703 412-3323.

What Is RCRA?
   RCRA is a federal law that encourages environmentally sound methods for managing
commercial and industrial waste as well as household and municipal waste. It regulates facilities that
generate, transport, treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste. Many textile manufacturing facilities
may be considered hazardous waste generators, rather than treatment, storage, and disposal facilities
(TSDFs), which are subject to more rigorous regulations.

   The term "RCRA" is often used interchangeably to refer to the law, the regulations, and EPA
policy and guidance. The law describes the waste management program mandated by Congress that
gave EPA authority to develop the RCRA program. EPA regulations carry out the Congressional
intent by providing explicit, legally enforceable requirements for waste management. EPAguidance
documents and policy directives clarify issues related to the implementation of the regulations.

   All of the  RCRA hazardous waste regulations can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR), Title 40, Parts 260 to 279. The CFR can be purchased through the U.S. Government
Printing Office (GPO) or is available online at .
Who Is Regulated?
   Any textile facility that generates hazardous waste is potentially subject to RCRA You must
conduct tests required by the regulations or use your knowledge of and familiarity with the waste
you generate to determine whether it is hazardous waste (as opposed to other types of waste). You
might be subject to substantial civil and criminal penalties if you fail to properly or completely
identify hazardous waste generated by your business.

What Is Hazardous Waste?
   To be considered hazardous waste, a material first must be classified as a solid waste. EPA defines
solid waste as garbage, refuse, sludge, or other discarded material (including solids, semisolids,
liquids, and contained gaseous materials). If your waste is considered solid waste, you must then
determine if it is hazardous waste. Wastes are defined as hazardous by EPA if they are specifically
named on one of four lists of hazardous wastes (listed wastes) or if they exhibit one of four
characteristics (characteristic wastes). Each type of RCRA hazardous waste is given a unique
hazardous waste code using the letters D, F, K, P, or U and three digits (e.g., D001, F005, P039).
See pages 8 to 11 for additional information on textile manufacturing waste codes.

   Listed Wastes. Wastes are listed as hazardous because they are known to be harmful to human
health and the environment when not managed properly, regardless of their concentrations. The
lists include the following three types of waste:
•  Non-Specific Source Wastes. These are material-specific wastes, such as solvents, generated
   by several different industries. Waste codes range from F001 to F039. Examples of potential
   textile manufacturing wastes that  fit this catergory are methylene chloride and toluene.
•  Specific Source Wastes. These are wastes from specifically identified industries. Waste codes
   range from K001 to K161. Textile manufacturing typically does not produce specific source
•  Discarded Commercial Chemical Products. Off-specification products, container residuals,
   spill residue runoff, or active ingredients that have spilled or are unused and that have been, or
   are intended to be, discarded. Waste codes range from P001 to P205 and U001 to U411.

     You may be regu-
     lated both by your
state hazardous waste
agency and EPA. RCRA
allows states to receive
legal permission, known
as authorization, to
implement the RCRA
hazardous waste pro-
gram. You must always
contact your state
authority to determine
which state require-
ments apply to your
  To operate a haz-
ardous waste program, a
state's regulations must
be consistent with, and
at least as stringent as,
the federal program.
Some states adopt more
stringent requirements
for facilities handling
hazardous waste, which
are considered part of
the authorized program.


      Call the RCRA
      Call Center at
800 424-9346 or TDD
800 553-7672 for addi-
tional information about
RCRA rules and regula-
tions. In the Washington,
DC, area, call 703 412-
9810 or TDD 703 412-
                                        TEXTILE MANUFACTURING


     !CRA regulates the
     treatment, storage,
and disposal of hazardous
waste being generated
now and in the future.
Superfund was created to
pay for the  identification,
inspection,  investigation,
ranking, and cleanup of
abandoned  or uncon-
trolled hazardous waste
sites that people responsi-
ble for contamination are
unable or unwilling to
clean up. Call the RCRA
Call Center for more
Characteristic Wastes. Even if your waste does not appear on one of the hazardous waste lists, it still
   might be regulated as hazardous waste if it exhibits one or more of the following characteristics:

•  Ignitability. Ignitable wastes create fires under certain conditions or are spontaneously
   combustible, and have a flash point less than 60 °C (140 °F). One example is spent solvents from
   cleaning and dyeing operations. The waste code for these materials is D001.

•  Corrosivity. Corrosive wastes are acids or bases that are capable of corroding metal containers,
   such as storage tanks, drums, and barrels. Bleaching waste with a pH greater than 12.5 is one
   example. The waste code for these materials is D002.

•  Reactivity. Reactive wastes are unstable under "normal" conditions. They can cause explosions,
   toxic fumes, gases, or vapors when mixed with water. Examples include lithium-sulfur batteries
   and explosives. The waste code for these materials is D003.

•  Toxicity. Toxic wastes are harmful or fatal when ingested  or absorbed. When toxic wastes are
   disposed of on land, contaminated liquid may drain (leach) from the waste and pollute ground
   water. Toxicity is defined through a laboratory procedure called the Toxicity Characteristic
   Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Certain chemical wastes and heavy metals generated from dyeing
   textiles are examples of potential toxic wastes. The waste codes for these materials range from
   D004 to D043.
How Are Generators Regulated?
   If your textile business generates hazardous waste, you must manage it according to regulations
for your specific generator type. Hazardous waste generators are divided into three categories,
according to how much they generate in a calendar month:

•  Large Quantity Generators (LQGs). LQGs generate greater than or equal to 1,000 kg
   (approximately 2,200 Ibs) of hazardous waste per month, or greater than 1 kg (approximately 2.2
   Ibs) of acutely hazardous waste per month.

•  Small Quantity Generators (SQGs). SQGs generate greater than 100 kg (approximately 220
   Ibs) but less than 1,000 kg of hazardous waste per month.

•  Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generators (CESQGs). CESQGs generate less than
   or equal to 100 kg of hazardous waste per month, and less than or equal to 1 kg of acutely
   hazardous waste per month.

   Some states do not recognize the CESQG class. Contact your state environmental agency to find
out if the CESQG status is recognized. To find your appropriate state contact, call the RCRA
Call Center at 800 424-9346.

   Under the federal RCRA requirements, your generator status might change from one month to
the next as the quantity of waste you generate changes. State requirements vary widely. You must
comply with whichever standard is applicable for a given month. In many cases, small businesses
that fall into different generator categories at different times choose to always satisfy the more
stringent requirements (usually state requirements) to simplify compliance. Generators must
"count" the amount of waste generated, which involves adding up the total weight of all quantities
of characteristic and listed waste generated at a particular facility. Certain wastes, such as those that
are reclaimed or recycled continuously on site, are not counted under the federal regulations but
might be counted under some state regulations.
                              RCRA IN FOCUS

Do Exclusions Exist?
   The RCRA regulations contain many exclusions for wastes and waste management practices that
are not considered to be hazardous. Several exclusions and exemptions pertain specifically to the
textile manufacturing industry. Some states, however, do not recognize the federal exclusions.
 Exclusions and Exemptions     Description
 Domestic Sewage Exclusion
 Point Source
 Discharge Exclusion
 Wastewater Treatment Unit
 Elementary Neutralization
 Unit Exemption
 De Minimis Exclusion
Mixtures of domestic sewage and other wastes that pass
through a sewer system to a publicly owned treatment works
(POTW) for treatment are excluded from the definition of
solid waste. Generators are encouraged to contact their local
POTW for prior approval.
Point source discharges of industrial waste waters that are
subject to regulation under §402 of the Clean Water Act are
excluded from the definition of solid waste.
Any hazardous waste tank system used to store or treat the
wastewater that is managed at an onsite wastewater treatment
facility with a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) permit or that discharges to a POTW is
exempt from the RCRA regulations.

Tanks used for neutralizing waste that is hazardous solely
because of its  corrosive characteristic are excluded from the
permitting requirements. Waste treated in these units is not
considered hazardous while in the units.
Small quantities of some solvents and other chemicals are
exempt from the regulations when they are mixed with
wastewater in a wastewater treatment system discharging
according to the Clean Water Act.
                                           TEXTILE MANUFACTURING

      YDu've just cleaned your process equipment. Now
      you have spent solvents that must be managed.
      fou own a small business that produces a wide
variety of hazardous wastes. You know it is time to investi-
gate and follow the RCRA regulations.

   This example details one typical waste life cycle at a
textile mill. This life cycle presents the hazardous waste
management requirements for an SQG from generation to
shipment off site. Other waste life cycles could be differ-
ent depending on the waste, whether onsite treatment will
occur, the type of waste management units used, and the
facility generator status.

     First identify whether your
     textile waste is hazardous by
     running tests or using knowl-
     edge of the waste. Based on
     these analyses, determine the
     appropriate RCRA hazardous
     waste codes for the spent sol-
     vents generated by your tex-
     tile equipment cleaning.

           SEND WASTE
           SITE FOR   S
           STORAGE, OR
           Using a registered hazardous
           waste transporter, send the
           waste to a RCRA hazardous
           waste TSDF accompanied by
           the appropriate manifest. You
           can choose from any permit-
           ted or interim status TSDF.
           Optional destinations for sol-
           vents include a hazardous
           waste incinerator that will
           landfill the incinerator ash, a
           hazardous waste fuel blender
           that will blend the solvents
           with other wastes and then
           burn them for energy recov-
           ery in  a boiler or industrial
           furnace, or a facility that will
           recycle the solvents.
Ensure that all hazardous
waste sent off site for treat-
ment, storage, and disposal is
accompanied by appropriate
notifications and certifications
(initial shipments only).
Next, determine how much
hazardous waste you have
produced in a calendar
month. You do not need to
count wastes discharged in
compliance with the Clean
Water Act directly to a public
sewer leading to a PO'l'W or
waste recycled only in an
onsite process subject to reg-
ulation, without first being
stored or accumulated.
                    RCRA IN FOCUS
Send a manifest along with
all hazardous waste sent off
site to a TSDF, and keep
your copy on site for 3 years.
The manifest contains a cer-
tification stating that you
have a program in place to
reduce the volume and toxic-
ity of waste generated to the
degree economically practica-
ble, and that you have select-
ed a treatment, storage, and
disposal method currently
available that minimizes cur-
rent and future threats from
the waste.

Add together all haz-
ardous wastes to deter-
mine that you have pro-
duced more than 100 kg,
but less than 1,000 kg in
the past month, which
means you are an SQG
in this calendar month. If
the amount of waste you
generate fluctuates from
month to month, you
may wish to satisfy the
more stringent require-
ments each month to
simplify compliance.
To identify your business as a
hazardous waste generator,
obtain an EPA identification
number by submitting Form
8700-12 (Notification of
Regulated Waste Activity),
which is obtained from your
state hazardous waste agency.
Remember, your state
requirements might be dif-

     FOLLOW U.S.
     Before shipping waste off site
     for treatment, storage or dis-
     posal, package, label, and
     mark waste containers in
     accordance with all applicable
     DOT requirements. For
     more information, call
     the DOT Hotline at
     800 467-4922.
     To send waste off site to a
     TSDF, contract with a regis-
     tered hazardous waste trans-
     porter. To locate a reliable
     transporter, contact a col-
     league to obtain a reference.
When the waste is generated,
place it in an appropriate
accumulation unit (e.g., a
tank or container) that meets
the design and management
requirements for that type of
unit. Mark accumulation
containers with the date the
waste was placed in the unit;
mark accumulation tanks and
containers with the words
"Hazardous Waste." Do not
accumulate wastes onsite for
longer than the allowed
accumulation times
(180 days, or 270 days if
wastes must be shipped more
than 200 miles).
                                                                                              IMPLEMENT SQG
                                                                                              Check to be sure that emer-
                                                                                              gency preparedness and pre-
                                                                                              vention requirements are
                                                                                              met. These include identify-
                                                                                              ing an emergency response
                                                                                              coordinator and notifying
                                                                                              local emergency response
                                                                                              authorities. Post emergency
                                                                                              response information near
                                                                                             the telephone.
     Be sure that your personnel
     are familiar with hazardous
     waste handling and emer-
     gency procedures.
                                             TEXTILE MANUFACTURING

 The following table presents an overview of the federal RCRA regulatory requirements for textile manufacturers that are either LQGs, SQGs, or CESQGs. As noted, your state
 might have different or more stringent requirements.
 EPA Identification
 Hazardous Waste
 Used Oil Standards

 Waste Counting

 Accumulation Area
 Other Accumulation
 Areas (Time and
 Quantity Limits)
 Storage Unit
 Air Emissions

 Preparedness and
                                                RCRA  REGULATORY  REQUIREMENTS
                            Obtain an EPA identification number for each facility within your company. EPA and states use this 12-character identification number
                            to track hazardous waste activities.
                            Obtain an EPA identification number by submitting form 8700-12 (Notification of Regulated Waste Activity), which is provided by your
                            state hazardous waste agency. This is a one-time notification. Contact your state regarding the need for renotification if circumstances
                            at your facility change.

                            Identify whether you generate hazardous waste to determine if you are subject to the RCRA hazardous waste regulations. Test proce-
                            dures are described in "Test Methods for the Evaluation of Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods, SW-846" or tests can be per-
                            formed by a local laboratory.

                            If you generate used oil, you are subject to a separate set of management standards from the hazardous waste management stan-
                            dards, if the used oil will be recycled. If the used oil is to be treated and disposed of, perform the hazardous waste identification step
                            listed  above.

                            Determine how much hazardous waste you generate to determine your generator status.

                            You can accumulate waste in a "satellite accumulation area" with minimal regulatory burden. This area must be at or near the point of
                            generation and under the control of the operator of the process generating the waste.
                            There is no time limit on accumulation in the satellite accumulation area for waste under 55 gallons.
                            There is a 55-gallon accumulation limit in the satellite accumulation area. Excess waste beyond the 55-gallon limit must be moved
                            from the satellite accumulation area within 3 days.
                            You must accumulate the waste in containers.
                            Waste containers must be marked with the words "Hazardous Waste" or other words that identify their contents.
                            This waste is exempt from other accumulation provisions while in the satellite accumulation area.

                            If waste accumulation does not meet the requirements for satellite accumulation, it is subject to more stringent requirements. LQGs
                            can accumulate waste on site for up to 90 days without a permit. SQGs can accumulate waste for 180 days, or 270 days if the SQG
                            must transport the waste more than 200 miles to a destination facility.
                            Begin counting accumulation time when waste is first placed in the accumulation unit.
                            Waste must be put in an exempt unit, recycled, or sent off site within the proper time period stated above.
                            If an LOG accumulates wastes beyond the allotted time period, the facility is fully subject to the requirements of a hazardous waste
                            storage facility unless granted an exemption. SQGs cannot accumulate more than 6,000 kg of hazardous waste at any time.
                            CESQGs cannot accumulate more than 1,000 kg of hazardous waste, more than 1 kg of acutely hazardous waste, or 100 kg of spill
                            residue from acutely hazardous waste at any time.

                            Accumulate waste only in units that are in good condition, remain closed except when adding or removing waste, are inspected at
                            least weekly, are compatible with the types of waste, and meet special standards for ignitable waste and incompatible waste.
                            LQGs can use accumulation tanks and containers that have been assessed for integrity, have a secondary containment system, and
                            are inspected each operating day. SQGs can use certain accumulation tanks as well.
                            LQGs can use containment buildings as well.
                            For all units, the date that the accumulation period begins must be clearly marked and visible on each  container. All containers and
                            tanks  must be clearly marked or labeled with the words "Hazardous Waste" and accumulation units must be shut down and closed
                            permanently in accordance with standards at the end of the unit life.
                            LQGs and SQGs can treat their waste without a RCRA storage permit in accumulation units that meet standards.

                            LQGs must comply with organic air emissions requirements.

                            LQGs and SQGs must comply with preparedness and prevention requirements, including the following:
                            —    An adequate internal alarm or communications system.
                            —    A device capable of summoning emergency personnel.
                            —    Portable fire control enuinment.

Contingency Plan
Personnel Training
DOT Packaging
Offsite Management
of Waste

Onsite Management
of Waste
Land Disposal
Hazardous Waste
Biennial Report

—    Portable fire control equipment.
—    Adequate water pressure to operate fire control systems.
—    Adequate testing and maintenance of all emergency systems.
—    Access to communication or alarm systems during waste handling activities.
—    Adequate aisle space for emergency response.
—    An arrangement with local emergency response authorities.

LOG facilities must prepare a facility contingency plan in accordance with regulations.
The contingency plan must be designed to minimize hazards from fires, explosions, or any unplanned release of hazardous waste or
A copy of the contingency plan must be kept on site and an additional copy must be submitted to all local emergency services
LQGs and SQGs must have an emergency coordinator on site or on call at all times to respond to emergencies.
Emergency response information must be posted next to the telephone.
In the event of a fire, explosion, or release that could threaten human health outside the facility or when a spill has reached surface
water, the emergency coordinator must notify the National Response Center at 800 424-8802.

LQGs must have a personnel training program in accordance with regulatory standards.
—    Training must instruct facility personnel about hazardous waste management procedures and emergency response.
—    Training must be completed within 6 months from the applicability of requirements.
—    The facility must undertake an annual review of  initial training.
SQGs must ensure that all employees are thoroughly familiar with proper waste handling and emergency procedures relevant to their

Before being transported, waste must be packaged, labeled, and marked in accordance with applicable DOT requirements. Call the
DOT hazardous materials information line at 202 366-4488 for information.

Hazardous waste sent off site for handling may only be sent to a hazardous waste TSDF or recycling facility unless otherwise exempt.
CESQGs: See onsite management of waste below.

CESQGs may either treat waste on site, if it qualifies as one of the following types of facilities, or ensure delivery of waste to one of
the following types of facilities:  permitted RCRA TSDF;  interim status TSDF; authorized to handle hazardous waste by a state with an
approved hazardous waste program; permitted, licensed, or registered by state to handle municipal solid waste according to  stan-
dards; permitted,  licensed, or registered by state to handle non-municipal waste; if managed after January 12, 1998, facility is permit-
ted, licensed, or registered by state to handle non-hazardous waste in accordance with standards; facility beneficially uses or reuses,
or legitimately recycles or reclaims its waste; facility treats its waste prior to beneficial  use, reuse, or legitimate recycling or reclama-
tion; or a universal waste handler in accordance with standards.

Hazardous waste sent off site must be accompanied by a manifest, a multipage form that documents the waste's progress through
treatment, storage, and disposal. It can usually be obtained from your state agency.
The manifest must have enough copies to provide the generator, each transporter, and the destination facility with one copy for their
records and a second copy to be returned to the generator after completion by the destination facility operator.
SQGs that have a contractual agreement with a waste reclaimer that specifies the types and frequencies of shipments do not need to
manifest the wastes  if they retain a copy of the agreement in their files.

Your waste must meet certain treatment standards under the LDR program. Waste must be treated to reduce the hazardous con-
stituents to levels set by EPA or the waste must be treated using a specified technology. All waste sent off site for treatment, storage,
and disposal must be accompanied by appropriate LDR program notifications and certifications. There are no required forms, but
these papers must indicate whether or not wastes meet treatment standards or whether the waste is excluded from the definition
of hazardous or solid waste, or is otherwise exempt.

To encourage generators to produce less hazardous waste, LQGs are required to have a program in place to reduce the volume and
toxicity of waste generated to the degree economically  practicable, and must select a currently available treatment, storage, or dispos-
al method that minimizes present and future threats.
LQGs and SQGs must sign a certification of hazardous waste minimization on the manifest.
SQGs must make a good faith  effort to minimize waste generation and to select the best available waste management method that
they can afford.

LQGs must submit biennial reports of waste generation and management activity by March 1 of  every even-numbered year.  EPA,
other agencies, and the public use this information to track trends in hazardous waste management.

LQGs must maintain personnel training records until the facility closes.
LQGs must keep copies of each biennial report for 3 years.
LQGs and SQGs must keep a copy of each manifest for 3 years.
LQGs and SQGs must keep records of test results, waste analyses, and other hazardous waste determinations for 3 years.

                  REDUCE  OR MINIMIZE THE
      The following
    examples show
   hazardous wastes
  typically generated
 by the textile manu-
   facturing industry
 and provide sugges-
tions for how to recy-
 cle, treat, or dispose
 of them according to
  federal regulations.


  Wastes Generated

    Possible RCRA
      Waste Codes

 Potential Recycling,
    Treatment, and
   Disposal Methods
  Potential Pollution
 Prevention Methods
          Recycling and pollution prevention measures can significantly reduce your regulatory
          burden and may save your facility considerable money. This section presents informa-
          tion on hazardous wastes typically generated by various textile manufacturing process-
          es and provides suggestions for how to recycle them or implement pollution preven-
          tion measures. This list might not cover all chemicals used or wastes produced by the
textile industry. Consult the hazardous waste lists and characteristics to determine if you generate
other hazardous wastes.

  Only the federal hazardous waste codes are provided here. Your state might have different codes
for some waste streams. You should check with your state hazardous waste authority for additional
waste codes and requirements.
  Hydrogen peroxide, sodium silicate, and organic stabilizer.
     Treat waste in an elementary neutralization unit.
     Collect hazardous waste and ship to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment
     and disposal.
     Use least-toxic bleach solutions.

  Wastes Generated

    Possible RCRA
      Waste Codes

Potential Recycling,
    Treatment, and
  Disposal Methods
  Potential Pollution
Prevention Methods
                         Alkali and sodium hydroxide.
D002 (alkali and sodium hydroxide), if disposing of contaminated raw materials.
    Treat waste in an elementary neutralization unit.
    Collect hazardous waste and ship to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment
    and disposal.
    Use least-toxic bleach solutions.
    Maximize equipment efficiency.
  Wastes Generated
    Possible RCRA
      Waste Codes
Potential Recycling,
     Treatment, and
  Disposal Methods
  Potential Pollution
Prevention Methods
Equipment Maintenance
Tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, chlorobenzene, toluene, methyl
ethyl ketone, benzene, xylene, ethylene dichloride, isopropyl alcohol, and mineral spirits
D001 (isopropyl alcohol and mineral spirits), D018 (benzene), D021 (chlorobenzene), D035
(methyl ethyl ketone), D039 (tetrachloroethylene), D040 (trichloroethylene), F001- F005
(benzene, chlorobenzene, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrachloroethylene,
trichloroethylene, toluene, xylene), U019 (benzene), U037 (chlorobenzene), U077 (ethylene
dichloride), U080(methylene chloride), U159 (methyl ethyl ketone), U210
(Tetrachloroethylene), U220 (toluene), U228 (trichloroethylene) and U239 (xylene).
    Reclaim used solvents on site or contract with a recycling facility.
    Reuse solvents.
    Collect hazardous waste and ship it using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste
    TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    Treat wastewaters  in a wastewater treatment unit regulated by the Clean Water Act.
    Don't overclean materials.
    Use as little solvent as necessary.
    Keep solvent containers sealed when possible to prevent volatilization and
    reduce emissions.
    Substitute less-hazardous or nonhazardous solvents.
                                          TEXTILE  MANUFACTURING


     To review the
     RCRA regulations
referred to in this docu-
ment, consult the fol-
lowing citations in 40

Part 260—Hazardous
waste management sys-
tem: general.

Part 261—Identification
and listing of hazardous
Part 262—Standards
applicable to generators
of hazardous waste.

Part 263—Standards
applicable to transporters
of hazardous waste.

Part 264—Standards for
owners and operators of
hazardous waste and
specific types of haz-
ardous waste manage-
ment facilities.

Part 265—Interim status
standards for owners and
operators of TSDFs.

Part 266—Standards for
the management of spe-
cific hazardous wastes
and specific types of
hazardous waste man-
agement facilities.




   The Water Pollution Control Act, commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), is the fed-
eral program designed to restore and maintain the integrity of the nation's surface waters. CWA
controls direct discharges to surface waters (e.g., through a pipe) from industrial processes or
stormwater systems associated with an industrial activity. It also regulates indirect discharges, or dis-
charges to POTWs, through a public sewer system, by requiring industrial facilities to pretreat their
waste before discharging to a public sewer. Industrial pollutants from the textile industry that might
be regulated by CWA include solvents, heavy metals, and alkaline wastes.

CWA Resources:
•  40 CFR Parts 100 to 129 and 400 to 503
•  Internet access:
•  EPA Office of Water: 202 260-5700
•  Your state water authority, regional EPA office, and local POTW

Oil Pollution  Prevention Under the CWA
   The Oil Pollution Prevention regulations were promulgated under the authority of the CWA.
These regulations establish requirements for facilities to prevent oil spills from reaching the naviga-
ble waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines. The regulations apply to non-transporta-
tion-related facilities with a specific aboveground or underground oil storage capacity that, because
of their location, can reasonably be expected to discharge oil into the navigable waters of the United

Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation Resources:
•  40 CFR Part 112
•  Internet access:

   The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulates air pollution. It includes national emission standards for new
stationary sources within particular industrial categories. It also includes national emission stan-
dards, which are designed to control the emissions of particular hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).
Textile facilities generate some HAPs such as volatile organic compounds in organic solvents. The
CAA also seeks to prevent the accidental release of certain hazardous chemicals and to minimize the
consequences of such releases.

CAA Resources:
•  40 CFR Parts 50 to 99
•  Control Technology Center, Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards, EPA, general infor-
   mation: 919 541-0800, publications: 919 541-2777
•  Internet access:

   The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of
1980, commonly known as Superfund, authorizes EPA to respond to releases, or threatened releas-
es, of hazardous substances that might endanger public health, welfare, or the environment, that
might come from any source. Superfund also grants EPA the authority to force parties responsible
for environmental contamination to clean it up or to reimburse response costs incurred by EPA.
The most important part of this act applicable to textile manufacturers is the hazardous substance

release reporting requirement. The person in charge at your business must report to the National
Response Center (phone: 800 424-8802) any release of a hazardous substance that exceeds a desig-
nated "reportable quantity" for that substance within a 24-hour period.

Superfund Resource:
•  Internet access:

   The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 created the Emergency
Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). This law was designed to  improve com-
munity access to information about potential chemical hazards and to facilitate the development of
chemical emergency response plans by state and local governments. The EPCRA regulations estab-
lish several types of reporting obligations for facilities that store or manage specified chemicals.
Certain notification requirements apply to textile facilities that use or store extremely hazardous
substances, such as chlorine. Also, many of the chemicals used by textile manufacturers may be con-
sidered hazardous chemicals as defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA).
Contact your local OSHA office if you have questions about whether the chemicals used in your
textile manufacturing business are considered hazardous under OSHA. Textile facilities generating
xylene, methanol, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene must comply with the  Toxic Chemical
Release Inventory requirements as well.

EPCRA Resources:
•  40 CFR Parts 350 to 372
•  The State Emergency Response Commission (contact available from RCRA Call Center)
•  Internet access: and

   The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) mandates that EPA establish regulations to protect human
health from contaminants  present in drinking water. Under the authority of SDWA, EPA developed
national drinking water standards and created a joint federal-state system to ensure compliance with
these standards. EPA also regulates underground injection of liquid wastes under the SDWA to pro-
tect underground sources of drinking water.

SDWA Resources:
•  40 CFR Parts 141 to 148
•  SDWA Hotline: 800 426-4791
•  Internet access:

   The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) allows EPA to collect data on chemicals to evaluate,
assess, mitigate, and control risks that might be posed by their manufacture, processing, and use.
Textile facilities may be affected by some of the TSCA requirements.

TSCA Resources:
•  40 CFR Parts 702 to 799
•  TSCA Hotline: 202 554-1404
•  Internet access:

Part 268—Land  disposal

Part 270—EPA adminis-
tered permit programs: the
Hazardous Waste Permit

Part 271—Requirements
for authorization of state
hazardous waste programs.

Part 272—Approved state
hazardous waste manage-
ment programs.

Part 273—Standards for
universal waste manage-

Part 279—Standards for the
management of  used oil.

     For additional informa-
     tion on any of these
laws, contact the RCRA
Call Center at
800 424-9346 or
703 412-9810 in the
Washington, DC, area.
TDD (hearing impaired):
800 553-7672 or 703 412-
3323 in the Washington,
DC, area.
                                           TEXTILE  MANUFACTURING


RCRA Call Center
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
or TDD 800 553-7672
In the Washington, DC, area:
703 412-9810, or TDD 703 412-3323
Home page: 

Answers questions on matters related to
RCRA solid waste, hazardous waste, and
underground storage tanks, EPCRA, and

Small Business Ombudsman
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Small Business Ombudsman (2131)
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW.
Washington, DC 20460
Fax: 703 305-6462
Home page: 

Helps private citizens, small businesses, and
smaller communities with questions on all
program aspects within EPA.

EPA Headquarters Library
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Headquarters Library
EPA West Building
Constitution Avenue and 14th Street, NW
Room 3340
Washington, DC 20460
Fax: 202 566-0562
Home page: 

Maintains environmental reference materials
for EPA staff and the general public, including
books, journals, abstracts, newsletters, and
audiovisual materials generated by government
agencies and the private sector. Also provides
access to online computer service bulletin
boards and CD-ROM systems.
Public hours: 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. (EST)
Pollution Prevention
Information Clearinghouse
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
Pollution Prevention Clearinghouse (PPIC)
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW (7407)
Washington, DC 20460
Phone: 202 260-1023
Fax: 202 260-4659

U.S. Department of
Hazardous Materials Information Center
Phone: 800 467-4922

Provides information about DOT's hazardous
materials regulations.

U.S. Government Printing
Superintendent of Documents
P.O. Box 371954
Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Phone: 202512-1800

Prints and distributes the Code of Federal
Regulations. Title 40, Parts 260 to 299, contains
most of the RCRA requirements.

National Response Center
Phone: 800 424-8802

In the event of a fire, explosion, or other
release of hazardous waste that could threaten
human health outside the facility, call the
NRC to report  the emergency. The NRC will
evaluate the situation and help you make
appropriate emergency decisions.


EPA Home Page

EPA RCRA Hazardous Waste Resources

Code of Federal Regulations


(contains technical, policy, and general infor-
mation on pollution prevention topics)

EPA Library Resources


American Textile Manufacturers Institute
Phone: 202 862-0500
Home page: 

American Association of Textile Chemists
and Colorists
1 Davis DriveEO. Box 12215
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
Phone: 919 549-8141
Fax: 919 549-8933

Northern Textile Association
Phone: 617 542-8220


Encouraging  Environmental
Excellence (E3)

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Created by the American Textile
Manufacturers Institute (ATMI) in 1992 to
challenge textile companies to strengthen their
commitment to the environment, E3 focuses
on environmental efforts in the areas of recy-
cling and waste reduction, pollution preven-
tion, and water and energy conservation.

Design for the Environment

One of EPA's premier partnership programs,
DfE works with individual industries to
address the environmental risks and costs of
existing and alternative products, processes,
and practices. DfE's Garment and Textile Care
Partnership is committed to promoting envi-
ronmentally benign technologies for garment
and textile care through a systems approach to
the development, manufacture, distribution,
and care of garments and textile products.


There is no "official" process for designating
a product as environmentally preferable.
A number of third-party organizations,
however, benchmark various products for their
environmental attributes and certify a product
as preferable compared to similar products.