United States
                   Environmental Protection
         Solid Waste and
         Emergency Response
October 2000
teWise Updat
What You Need to
Know... 4

Improving Future
Acquisitions... 6

Managing Used
Electronics .... 7

Opportunities for
Manufacturers . . 12

Actions Governments
Are Taking ... 14
Preserving Resources,
 Preventing Waste
               r  ELECTRONICS REUSE
                  AND RECYCLING
                                       Printed on paper that conta
                             nt postconsumer fiber.

Waste Wise Update
Electronics   Reuse

and   Recycling
                  Do you have old, outdated electronic
                  products (e.g., personal computers and
                  peripherals, laptops, fax machines,
                  copiers, televisions, telephones, and
                  audio/visual or CAD equipment) in your
office or home? If so, you're not alone. According to the Institute for
Local Self-Reliance, approximately 75 percent of obsolete electronics are
currently being stored or warehoused until there is agreement on the best way to manage this materi-
al. As stockpiling continues, there is growing concern about the volume of used or obsolete electronic
equipment that will need to be managed responsibly when it emerges from storerooms or attics.
Why Are Used Electronics a

  Besides taking up space in empty cubicles and store-
rooms, end-of-life electronics pose several issues regarding
proper disposal and potential environmental consequences.
Discarded electronics:
• Represent a rapidly growing waste stream. Technological
  advances are rapidly rendering formerly cutting-edge elec-
  tronics obsolete. An estimated 20 million personal com-
  puters became obsolete in 1998. Most of these are in
  storage. Of the remainder, the bulk were disposed of;
  probably fewer than 6 percent were recycled. Currently,
  the useful life of a computer is only 3 to 5 years and
  shrinking. In 2005, more than 63 million personal com-
  puters are projected to be retired according to a recent
  study by the National Safety Council.
• Waste valuable resources. Electronic products are made
  from valuable resources, including precious and other
  metals, engineered plastics, glass, and other materials, all
  of which require energy to source and manufacture.
  Many electronic products also contain parts that could be
  profitably refurbished and reused with little effort. When
  we throw away old electronic  equipment, we're throwing
  away these resources and generating additional pollution
  associated with the need to access virgin materials and
  manufacture new products.
Contain hazardous or toxic substances. Some electronic
products (notably those with cathode ray tubes or CRTs,
circuit boards, batteries, and mercury switches) contain
What Can You Do With  Used

1. Assess the Equipment You Have.
• What type of equipment is it? How old is it? Is any of it
  still working?

2. Explore Your Reuse Options.
• If your equipment is working, is there a nonprofit orga-
  nization or school district in your area that could use it?
• Do you qualify for a tax break for donating equipment?
  (See box on page 5.)

3. Consider Repair or Upgrade.
• If your equipment doesn't work, can it be repaired, refur-
  bished, or used for parts to build or repair other systems?
• If your equipment can't be repaired, will the servicer
  send unsalvageable parts to be recycled?

4. Select a Recycler.
• What is the recycler's disposal policy?
• Does the recycler have (or need) a permit to operate in
  your state?
• Who pays for transportation—you or the recycler?

                                                                                                  WasteWise Update
   hazardous or toxic materials such as lead, mercury, cadmi-
   um, chromium, and some types of flame retardants, and
   do so in amounts that may cause them to test hazardous
   under Federal law. In particular, the glass screens, or
   CRTs, in computer monitors and televisions can contain
   as much as 27 percent lead. Some estimate that since
   many batteries (such as car batteries) have started to be
   removed from waste, electronic products represent the
   largest remaining contributor of heavy metals  to the solid
   waste stream. There is concern, particularly at the state
   and local levels, that products containing these con-
   stituents might pose some environmental risks if they are
   not properly managed at end-of-life.

What Are the  Benefits of

Electronics  Reuse  and Recycling?
   The most environmentally sound management of solid
waste is achieved when approaches are implemented accord-
ing to the U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency's  (EPA)
preferred order: waste prevention first, recycling second,  and
disposal last. There  are numerous environmental and societal
benefits to reusing or recycling used electronics. Proper end-
of-life management of electronics:
•  Diverts materials from disposal. Electronics reuse and recy-
   cling divert bulky equipment from landfills and incinerators.
   Massachusetts bans CRT disposal in municipal landfills, and
   a few other states  might consider doing the same.
•  Provides  social benefits. Reuse and donation of electronic
   products  extends their useful life and affords individuals
   or organizations that could not buy new equipment the
   opportunity  to make use of secondhand equipment.
•  Conserves natural resources and reduces pollution.
   Products reconfigured or redesigned to reduce materials and
   use greater recycled content use fewer virgin resources and
   require less energy to produce. When less virgin material
   and energy is used, pollution is reduced. These energy sav-
   ings also translate into reduced greenhouse gas emissions.
   When reuse is not an option, recycling electronic products
   creates a supply of parts and materials that can be used to
   refurbish older products or manufacture new ones. Many
   WasteWise manufacturers recycle used or off-spec electronic
   products internally through asset recovery programs.
   This issue of WasteWise  Update explores:
•  What you need to know before donating or recycling
   end-of-life electronics, especially the need to assess and
   move retired products quickly into the donation stream,
   as well  as issues surrounding recycling and disposal.
 Management Phases Define

 There are several commonly used—but often misunder-
 stood—phases in the management of used computers anc
 other electronics. Each  phase has distinct characteristics
 that relate to the degree of modification the equipment
 must undergo:

 •  Asset recovery typically refers to a manufacturer's
   internal program that recovers pre- and/or postcon-
   sumer materials or components for remanufacture or
   use in new products.

 •  Refurbishing and reusing involves fixing and reselling
   or donating used electronic equipment for its original
   intended purpose. This often involves repairing or repla'
   ing parts, upgrading memory or other components, anc
   installing new software. Technically, reuse is not consid-
   ered "end-of-life management" because a reusable
   product has not reached the end of its useful life.

 •  Demanufacturing or disassembling involves manual-
   ly breaking down equipment into its separate compo-
   nents, either to recover components for resale or reuse
   in other equipment,  or to sort components before recy
   cling or recovering raw materials.

 •  Recycling or salvaging refers to separating and pro-
   cessing raw materials such as plastics, metals, and
   glass for further processing or recovery.
Recommendations for improving future electronics
acquisitions through leasing or take-back programs and
evaluating the environmental attributes of electronics
before you purchase.

Methods for managing used electronics through reuse
(including repair, upgrade, and donation) and recycling.

Opportunities for manufacturers to minimize electronics
waste, including internal asset recovery programs and
product redesign for ease of repair and upgrades, improved
recyclability, or inclusion of greater recycled content.

Actions governments are taking to manage electronics
waste such as making computer donation and recycling
easier from a regulatory standpoint and helping to
encourage electronic product collection programs for
households and small businesses.
                 The mention of any company, product, or process in this publication does not constitute or imply
                                  endorsement by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Waste Wise Update
What  You  Need

to  Know  Before

Donating  or

Recycling  End-

of-Life  Electronics
                Many have the impression that retired elec-
                tronic products have substantial residual
                value. This is probably why so much
                older electronic equipment remains in
                storage—most of us just cant believe
it isn't worth something to someone. In fact, the older
equipment gets, the more quickly its value fades—and the
more we spend in wasted storage space and costs to hang
onto it. Once you decide to retire electronic equipment,
move quickly to identify potential donees or resellers to
maximize the value of transferring the equipment and
the potential tax write-offs you might qualify for.
Check Your Regulatory


  If no one is interested in taking your electronics for
reuse or refurbishing, recycling these products for their
parts or material value is the next best option. Be aware,
however, that in many cases, the material value of retired
electronic equipment does not cover the cost of disman-
tling or preparing the component materials for market.
Prices for recycling old electronic products vary widely,
depending on geographic area, quantities, and other
issues. For example, stripping proprietary data and
recording destruction methods for each individual

machine might be an additional expense. Still, recycling

can be the better course of action financially for many

organizations when compared with disposal. Several Web

sites listing recyclers, as well as organizations arranging

for donations, are listed in the Resources section at the

end of this Update.

  The cathode ray tubes (CRTs) in color computer moni-

tors and televisions are often hazardous when discarded

because of the presence of lead. Although the lead is prob-

ably not an environmental problem while the monitor or

television is intact, the lead might leach out under condi-

                                                                                                WasteWise Update
   Get Your Tax  Breaks  Here!

   To boost donation and reuse of computer equipment for schools, the U.S. Congress expanded tax incentives for private compa-
   nies that donate computer technology, equipment, or software to schools by passing the 21st Century Classrooms Act for Private
   Technology Investment, a provision to the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1 997. Since the Act took effect in January 1 998, companies
   that donate computers and related equipment to public or private schools, grades K-12, have been able to deduct their full pur-
   chase costs from their Adjusted Gross Incomes. A clause in the provision prevents the dumping of outdated equipment by
   requiring companies to show that their donations fit into the receiving school's curriculum  needs (e.g., electronics must be no
   more than 2 years old at the time of donation).
   Unfortunately, this tax break does not extend to individuals or sole proprietors; only large  companies can claim this computer
   donation deduction. Companies claiming the donation deduction can still take a depreciation deduction on a computer each
   year for the first 2 years they own it, allowing them to effectively double-deduct the computers they donate. For assistance with
   the paperwork and recordkeeping necessary to take advantage of the computer donation  tax deduction, visit Thomas L. Kearns'
   Charitable Contributions  Web site at .
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tions typical of municipal landfills. Federal regulatory
requirements applicable to handling these materials vary1
Facilities disposing of or recycling used CRTs should
always check their state regulatory requirements, which
might be different from federal regulatory requirements.
•  Households: Used computer monitors or televisions
   generated by households are not considered hazardous
   waste and are not regulated under federal regulations.
•  Donation or Resale: Monitors and televisions sent for
   continued use (i.e., resold or donated) are not consid-
   ered hazardous waste.
•  Small Quantities  Exempt: Businesses and other organi-
   zations are not regulated under most federal require-
   ments if the facility discards less than 100 kilograms
   (about 220 Ib.) of hazardous waste, including used
   CRTs, per month. (These wastes must still go to a facil-
   ity authorized to receive solid waste.)
                                      Large Quantities: Wastes from facilities that generate
                                      more than 100 kilograms of hazardous waste per month
                                      are regulated under federal law when disposed. CRTs
                                      sent for disposal from such facilities must be manifested
                                      as "hazardous waste" and sent to a permitted hazardous
                                      waste landfill. CRTs sent for recycling from such facili-
                                      ties are also currently subject to federal regulation; how-
                                      ever, EPA is in the process of streamlining requirements
                                      to make it easier and less costly to send CRTs for recy-
                                      cling. A proposed rule to this effect will be issued short-
                                      ly In the meantime, some states are addressing this issue,
                                      for example, by handling these materials as "universal
                                      waste," thereby reducing the management requirements
                                      applicable  to the  recycling of CRTs. Therefore, organiza-
                                      tions should consult with their state governments.
                                      1  This discussion summarizes relevant federal regulatory
                                        requirements. For the complete federal hazardous waste
                                        requirements for generators, consult 40 CFR Parts 260-262.

Waste Wise Update
 Improving   Future

                 To minimize the environmental impacts of
                 electronic products, consider various product
                 attributes before purchasing.  Choose products
                 that have reduced toxics content (i.e., reduced lead,
                 mercury,  and other heavy metals), greater recycled content, higher energy efficiency,
 longer life expectancy,  and ease ofupgradability, and contain features that facilitate recycling at end-
 of-life. Consider whether leasing electronic equipment is appropriate for your organization. Also, con-
 sider purchasing refurbished or remanufactured electronic equipment.
  When evaluating electronic equipment to determine if it can
be upgraded or repaired, purchasers should look for products that:
• Have modular designs that allow for easy installation and
  service of hardware or memory upgrades.
• Utilize latches or snap construction to enable quick access
  to internal components.
• Are manufactured without glue and/or fixing tape,
  because they are difficult to remove.
• Do not require special tools for removing or replacing
  parts or batteries.
   Giving  Electronics a  New
   Lease on Life
   Purchasers who don't want the responsibility of dealing
   with end-of-life equipment, but still prefer to use the most
   up-to-date products, should consider leasing instead of
   purchasing. This option allows them to return old equip-
   ment to the vendor for upgrades or credits toward future
   purchases. Leasing also eliminates consumer responsibili-
   ties for proper product disposal or management because
   they do not own the equipment. Another option involves
   selecting a dealer, retailer, or manufacturer that operates a
   product take-back program and allows consumers to
   return old equipment when purchasing new products or
   system upgrades.
   For a case study showcasing a leasing agreement between
   WasteWise partners Monsanto and Dell  Computer Corp., see
   the October 1 998 WbsteW/se Update: Extended Product
   Responsibility at .
  Purchasers also should look for product attributes that
will, when the time comes, facilitate recycling through ease
of dismantling and sorting. Select products that:
• Minimize the use of different types of materials (e.g.,
  plastic resins) because products containing diverse materi-
  als are more difficult and time-consuming to sort.
• Use screws and fasteners that are made of the same type
  of material as the parent part so that they may be recycled
• Don't contain foams, coatings, or paint that can contami-
  nate parts and prevent recycling.
• Have connections, such as breakaway joints and panels,
  that allow plastic housings to be removed easily.
• Eliminate labels by molding information directly onto
  parts, avoiding the need to use additional materials or
  chemicals that could contaminate plastic.
• Use internationally recognized symbols for coding plastic
  parts for easy sorting.
  Other questions to consider when selecting new electron-
ic equipment include:
• Is the product or its battery rechargeable?
• Does the product use replaceable parts that are readily
  available from the manufacturer or retailers?
• Does the product use remanufactured parts?
• Does the product contain recycled-content material?
  These characteristics can help extend the life of your elec-
tronic equipment, delay the need to purchase newer equip-
ment,  and reduce the cost of recycling at end-of-life.

                              WasteWise Update
Managing  Used


Repair  and


Product Lifespans

               Rapid strides in electronics tech-
               nology have improved products
               and increased consumer conve-
               nience. But they also have
               heightened desire to have the
newest, fastest equipment. If your company has
recently acquired—or is getting ready to
acquire—new  equipment, consider donating old
equipment to schools, nonprofits,  and charitable
organizations.  Some organizations even accept
nonworking equipment to repair for resale or to
use the parts to refurbish other systems.
Understand that not all used equipment is wel-
comed by schools and nonprofits,  however. Newer
equipment is more attractive to these users than
older equipment. This
raises the importance of
getting equipment out
of storage and into  the
hands of potential
users quickly. The
longer you hang onto
used electronics, the
quicker they lose any
potential value they
might have^to  others.
Aspen Skiing Company Lifts

Students7 Classroom Experience
  In a small town, word spreads fast. When WasteWise part-
ner Aspen Skiing Company's Environmental Affairs Director
Chris Lane heard that local schools needed computers, he
says "it was an easy decision." After a recent computer
upgrade, the company found itself with 60 perfectly good
486-microprocessor computer systems. "It wasn't
practical to sell them because we wouldn't get
much in return," says Information
Systems Manager Joe Zazzaretti. "So      - .
we donated them, and the feedback
from that was great."
  Basalt Elementary School was
one of the benefactors of the
company's donation, receiving
12 computers. In October
1999, the school received a
small grant from a local educa-
tional foundation to create the
Basalt Bugle, a student maga-
zine aimed at improving and
showcasing students' creative
writing skills. The students now
use the computers to write and
edit the publication. "The addition
of the computers donated by the Aspen
Skiing Company will enable a greater
number of students to participate in publish-
ing the Basalt Bugle," says former Basalt Elementary
School Principal Bill Vitany.
  The local press wrote about the donations, and soon
Aspen Skiing began receiving requests from other organiza-
tions, including a local police department. Currently, Aspen
Skiing is partnering with a local Internet service provider to
refurbish the computers and make them available to the
community's low-income residents to help their children
compete in school. For more information on Aspen's dona-
tion program, contact Chris Lane at .

Donation Done Right at Public

Service Enterprise Group
  What began as a small component of the lifecycle man-
agement program at WasteWise partner Public Service
Enterprise Group's (PSEG) Resource Recovery Center in
Paulsboro, New Jersey, has grown into an award-winning
operation. Over a 3-year period, this large power company
has donated more than $1 million worth of computers,
technology, and training to urban educational facilities and
organizations in New Jersey. In 1999 alone, PSEG's computer

Waste Wise Update
    Getting  Over the  Software Hurdle
    Due to copyright issues, operating systems—such as WordPerfect® or Microsoft Windows®—are often removed from computers
    prior to donation. Many schools and nonprofit organizations do not have the resources to purchase new software. As a result,
    these "empty" computers are essentially useless to them. Recently, more generic operating programs have been developed that
    can be loaded onto computer equipment and remain with the system following donation, even if proprietary programming or
    other software applications are removed. One example of this so-called "spare-tire" software is made by NewDeal, Inc.
    NewDeal's comprehensive suites of communication, productivity, and curriculum  software include a word processor, spread-
    sheet, database, Internet browser, and email and can run on any PC, from a 286 to a Pentium III.  For more information, visit
    the company's Web site, .
recovery operations prevented nearly 120,000 pounds of
electronics, or the equivalent of more than 1,500 desktop
computer systems, from entering the waste stream. Of this
amount, PSEG donated $220,000 in equipment to more
than 80 organizations and sold $105,000 in equipment to
more than 300 customers, avoiding almost $57,000 in dis-
posal costs. This program earned PSEG the New Jersey
Department of Environmental Protection's Environmental
Excellence Award  in the Safe and Healthy Communities cat-
egory in June 2000.

   How does a company determine whether a computer
should be reused internally,  donated, or sold? The
Information Technology (IT) group at PSEG tests  all
"retired" equipment to see if it meets the company's corpo-
rate standard. If not, the group looks at whether the equip-
ment might meet  the needs of less technology-intensive
businesses, educational facilities, or personal residences.
PSEG has committed a large space to evaluate and test its
equipment. Equipment that does not meet the corporate
standard for reuse within the company is considered for
resale or donation. PSEG tries to sell enough high-end com-
puters to balance the cost of refurbishing computers prior to
donation. This effort provides used computers that are still
high in value, so recipients do not feel they are getting sec-
ond-tier products. The cost of reconditioning and donating
computers is roughly $160 per system, while the sale of one
high-end computer might generate as much as $500. Proper
demanufacture and recycling, on the other hand, would
have cost $35 per system in processing and recovery fees.

  According to Tom Costantino of PSEG's Resource
Recovery Center, the key steps in implementing a solid
computer recovery and donation program include:
• Establishing criteria for determining how equipment will
  be handled (i.e., upgraded, remanufactured, donated,
  sold, or demanufactured  and recycled).
• Removing all  sensitive information and personal files
  from the hard drives.
• Finding recipients with whom you are comfortable.
  A common mistake companies make, Costantino says, is
dropping equipment off at a donation site without making
sure it will function and  be  reused properly. PSEG goes to
some effort to make sure its computers are reused to their
fullest potential.  At the Resource Recovery Center, the com-
pany cleans the hard drives, removes sensitive and personal

                                   WasteWise Update
information, and adds Microsoft Windows® operating soft-
ware through a cooperative agreement with Microsoft Corp.
Microsoft provides older versions of software that will not be
competitive on the market. (See box on page 8.) At the
donation site, PSEG technicians evalu-
ate whether the recipients are able to
accommodate and make use of the
equipment, then finally set up and
test the computers to ensure they
are operating properly before releas-
ing them.
   "A financial commitment is vital to
implementing a successful computer dona-
tion program, but that financial commitment
will pay dividends," Costantino says. Bulk
sale is a tempting option because it
requires  less of a capital investment. But,
Costantino cautions, "It has its environ-
mental perils. PSEG avoids compromis-
ing its environmental ethic by selling
quality equipment and by not selling to
people who are not going to properly
recycle the equipment."
  For more information on PSEG's
electronics donation program, contact
PSEG's Manager of Resource
Recovery Al Fralinger at 856 224-
1638 or by e-mail at



Going for  the  Gold

(or  Silver,  or Platinum...)
  Electronics recycling is a new industry emerging to man-
age the growing volumes of discarded electronics. In the
past, scrap dealers collected used or discarded electronic
products to recover precious metals such as gold, silver,
platinum, and palladium contained within. Today, electron-
ic products contain fewer precious metals, but electronics
recyclers are finding ways to repair, reuse,  and recycle more
of the materials in used electronics. Many use innovative
techniques and high-tech instruments (coupled with old-
fashioned manual labor) to pinpoint malfunctions and
repair products, to dismantle electronic equipment into
component parts for reuse or recycling, and to separate
commodities for further processing or recycling.
Recycling  Electronics in Large

Organizations:  The USPS's

First-Class  Plan
  How does an organization with more than 35,000 loca-
tions in the United States, each connected to the second
largest electronic communications network in the world
        (behind the Internet), deal with the sheer volume
           of electronic equipment arising from rapid
            turnover in technology? The U.S. Postal
            Service (USPS) found that an organization-
            wide approach to recycling outdated electronic
            products made economic sense. Used equip-
            ment in storage represents frozen assets. "The
            longer  it sits out of use, the more value it
           loses," says USPS—Northeast Area
           Environmental Compliance Coordinator
          Charlie Vidich. Two years ago, USPS headquar-
        ters selected the USPS—Northeast Area, a 1999
       WasteWise  Partner of the Year, for a feasibility
     study on electronics recycling.

  Vidich suggests a team approach to evaluating recycling
facilities. In the case of USPS, this means drawing input
from various  departments, such as environmental, purchas-
ing, materials management, and information technology.
• Establish a baseline. First, the USPS cataloged existing
  methods of collection, storage, and disposal. Most of its
  equipment was being taken to storage facilities in each of
  its nine  postal districts. Districts reused or donated equip-
  ment whenever possible, but the system was not centrally
• Determine reuse  and recycling strategies. During the
  second phase, USPS established reuse and recycling
  strategies for various types of electronics equipment,
  including PCs, keyboards, laptops,  integrated retail termi-
  nals, fax machines, and telephones.
• Screen potential  recyclers. USPS hired a firm to study
  the electronics recycling industry in the Northeast. To
  help standardize evaluation of the companies, the USPS
  team required potential recyclers to complete an audit
  questionnaire. The team then evaluated the recyclers'
  compliance records; pollution prevention and recycling
  practices; potential Comprehensive Environmental
  Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA
  or Superfund) liabilities; and environmental manage-
  ment systems.
• Conduct site visits. Vidich advises site visits to elec-
  tronics recyclers.  "It's not possible to fully evaluate the
  liabilities of doing business with these companies without

Waste Wise Update
  visiting their facilities, and in some cases
  visiting their subcontractors or affiliated
  businesses that manage their waste
  streams," he says. One concern
  for many organizations is that
  some companies might land-
  fill the materials that can-
  not be reused, resold, or

  Empty mail trucks
deliver the outdated
equipment to a cen-
tral collection facili-
ty in each of the
nine Northeast
postal districts.
Recycling compa-
nies under contract
to the USPS collect
the  equipment
from these ware-
houses for recycling.
The USPS pays recy-
clers for their services
based on the costs to
pick up, transport, and
recycle the equipment.
If the recycler successful-
ly resells valuable parts or
materials, it shares the rev-
enue with the USPS, which
has  a special account to track
these transactions.
  For more information about the
USPS—Northeast Area's electronics
recovery efforts, contact Charlie Vidich at

Electronics Recycling Means
Business for DMC
  Every week, WasteWise partner  DMC The Electronics
Recycling Company receives truckloads of outdated elec-
tronics—ranging from televisions and personal computers
to mainframes—from Fortune 500  companies, government
agencies, manufacturers, and service companies. DMC
processes 750,000 pounds (375 tons) of equipment per
week—that's equivalent to 39 million pounds (19,500 tons)
            per year—at its facilities in Newfields, New
                 Hampshire, and Hagerstown, Maryland.
                    When the electronics arrive at DMC
                       (customers are responsible for trans-
                          porting used equipment), every-
                            thing is weighed and separated
                             according to the appropriate
                               disposition method for that
                                material. While DMC can
                                 refurbish approximately
                                   10 to 15 percent of the
                                   components for resale,
                                    everything else is
                                     demanufactured to its
                                     original parts and
                                      sold to the appropri-
                                      ate materials dealer.
                                       "DMC has a buyer
                                       for every type of
                                       material except bat-
                                       teries, which are
                                       managed as haz-
                                       ardous waste," says
                                       Rick Campbell,
                                      DMC's director of
                                      corporate relations.
                                     "DMC continually
                                     strives to improve our
                                    service to ensure that
                                   we  reuse what we can
                                   and  recycle the rest
                                 without landfilling."
                                  DMC has a strong com-
                              mitment to end electronics
                             disposal  in the United States
                           and abroad, so the company
                         takes time to educate the public
                      and work with environmentalists and
                   industry leaders to  avert the accumula-
               tion of millions of tons of scrap and surplus
         electronic equipment. "We participate in many
   speaking engagements to educate corporations about the
   importance of recycling electronics,"  Campbell says. The
   company is also ISO 14000-certified.
     The electronics industry shows no sign of slowing pro-
   duction, and consumer demand is expected to grow, so the
   market for electronics recycling will most likely continue,
   keeping demand for DMC's services humming for some
   time to come. Contact Rick Campbell at 603 772-7236, or
   send e-mail to . For more infor-
   mation on  electronics recycling or selecting an electronics
   recycler, visit DMC's Web site at .

WasteWise Update
How  Are   Computers  Recycled?

Some products destined for recycling, such as aluminum cans and newspapers, find themselves reborn as like products.
But tracing the path of recycled electronic products is considerably more complicated. What follows are some of the steps a
typical computer could undergo during recycling:

Most circuit boards and some hard drives can be marketed for resale as operational parts. Unusable circuit boards are
chopped into a  powder and separated into fiberglass, metals, and precious metals through  a process called fire assay.

Plastic housings are separated from the electronic equipment, and materials such as labels and foam insulation are
removed through air classification. Unfortunately, plastic housings on computers and monitors will not fit on newer equip-
ment. At present, these plastics are difficult to market because they contain mixed or unmarked resins that cannot be readi-
ly identified or separated, as well  as some additives such as flame retardants that complicate recycling. Some near-term
uses  of these plastics include use  in roadbed fill. Efforts are under way, however, to find higher value applications for these
plastics in products such as flooring, computer, and automotive parts.

The small plastic parts inside computers are typically made from uniform-colored,  high density polyethylene (HOPE). This
makes them easier to remove, grind, and process. Recyclers must take great care not to mix other materials (e.g., metals)
or different resins in with these plastics. Even a small amount of contamination can cause a buyer to reject an entire load.
If ground plastic resins appear to  have contamination from mixed resins, the recycler can hydroseparate them because of
their  varying densities.

Screws, clips, and small metal components are sorted and separated magnetically into ferrous and nonferrous  groups.
The metals are sold as scrap.

Monitors are  handed over to a separate demanufacturing  line, where workers remove the plastic housings, metal supports,
and circuit boards. The cathode ray tube (CRT) itself is a funnel-shaped, leaded glass tube with a metal frame inside. The
worker separates the funnel from  the front panel glass. The CRT is then crushed, and the leaded glass and metal are sepa-
rated. The glass  is screened, processed, and inspected for  contaminants. Much of it can  be sold to CRT manufacturers for
use in new CRT glass. The metal is sold for its scrap value.

Waste Wise Update
Opportunities   for

Manufacturers   to  Minimize

Electronics  Waste
                   Most older electronic equipment is difficult to upgrade and hard to disassemble for
                   reuse and recycling because it was never designed with these ends in mind. But
                   public policy trends and industry initiatives are increasingly promoting "greener"
                   products—those with lower lifecycle environmental impacts, including impacts at
                   product end-of-life. As a result, more manufacturers are designing for the envi-
ronment (DfE). This includes reducing toxic constituents in products, using more recycled materials, and
designing products to be more easily upgraded and recycled. Some manufacturers are also beginning to
offer "asset management services" to their clients, including product take-back and recycling.
  Producers of high-tech products face multi
pie challenges in the design process. In this
fast-paced and highly competitive field,
they must meet consumers' perfor-
mance and cost expectations at the
same time they strive to minimize
lifecycle environmental impacts.
Some manufacturers are addressing
this challenge by taking environ-
mental considerations into
account at the earliest stages of
product design. What follows
are some of the design changes
that are making a difference:
•  Standardization of material
  types. Standardizing material
  types not only facilitates
  product recycling by minimiz-
  ing the different types of plas-
  tics and parts that need to be
  sorted, but also reduces manu-
  facturing costs. WasteWise part-
  ner Sharp Electronics Corp.
  incorporated material reduction
  techniques into a number of its prod-
  ucts, including televisions that use 50
  percent fewer types of plastics and 33 per
by Example

                                   The Electronic Industries
                                Alliance (EIA), a trade association
                                representing the electronics industry
                               and a WasteWise endorser, is encourag-
                              ing its members to design for the environ-
                               ment (DfE). ElA's Environmental Issues
                              Council has published a summary of steps
                               its members are taking to improve the
                               environmental attributes of their products
                                and processes. See ElA's Web site at
                                  for more informa-
                                tion. Other organizations active in
                                  electronics recycling and DfE
                                   are listed in the Update's
                                     Resources Section.
cent fewer parts than traditional sets.
  Similarly, Sharp reduced the product
   weight of its VCRs by 27 percent and
    the number of parts by 15 percent.
      •  Use of recycled-content materials.
       Who will use all the materials
       recovered from end-of-life elec-
        tronics? Some manufacturers are
         helping to boost the market for
         these materials  by looking for
         ways to use recycled content in
         their new products. WasteWise
         partner Pitney Bowes Inc.'s
         plastic injection operations inte-
         grate an average of 5 percent
         preconsumer plastic into its
         components, and purchases of
         components from outside ven-
         dors contain up to 3 percent
        recycled content.
       • Use of refurbished/recondi-
       tioned parts. Voluntary asset recov-
      ery programs reuse or refurbish
    equipment that may no longer serve
   the needs of the original customer, but
  that retains value and might be beneficial
to other users. For example, WasteWise

                                      WasteWise Update
  From  Drawing  Board  to
  Circuit Board
  WasteWise partner Motorola, Inc., is making efforts to
  design its  products with the  environment in mind. In
  addition to manufacturing products, Motorola has
  braved new territory—electronics demanufacturing.
  Motorola's Plantation, Florida, facility is the company's
  main center for electronics demanufacturing and
  reuse. The demanufacturing program started in 1993
  when the company faced a  semiconductor shortage.
  The company decided to recycle assembled, precon-
  sumer circuit boards. Four years in the making,
  Motorola's asset recovery program relies on engineer-
  ing overruns of preconsumer circuit boards as a princi-
  pal source of valuable components.
  Numerous rounds of rigorous tests were performed  to
  prove that products made with recovered components
  perform just as well as products  made with virgin com-
  ponents. The success of  Motorola's semiconductor
  recovery and reuse program prompted the company to
  extend recovery efforts, reaching out to manufacturing
  facilities worldwide and  encompassing reuse and recy-
  cling of all product components.
  For more information, contact Jaime A. Santiago,
  manufacturing manager at  Motorola's Material
  Demanufacturing Center, at 954 723-4744, or e-mail
  him at .
•  Remanufacturing. Used electronics can be disassembled
   and remanufactured into new products, thereby reducing
   production costs and minimizing waste generation. In
   1999, WasteWise partner Xerox Corp. remanufactured
   equipment and parts from more than 30,000 tons of
   returned machines, reducing energy consumption and
   diverting valuable equipment from disposal.  Because
   products are designed with remanufacturing  in mind, the
   company offers the same guarantees for remanufactured
   equipment as for all-new equipment. The company
   reports that the financial benefits of these efforts amount
   to several hundred million dollars each year.
•  Recyclability. Labeling materials (such as plastic resins)
   used in products and reducing reliance on paints and
   coatings (which can contaminate secondary materials
   streams) help make sorting and recovering secondary
   materials more cost-effective. WasteWise partner Hewlett
   Packard Company, for example, uses material identifica-
   tion codes and marks all plastic parts according to ISO
   11469- Additionally, the company molds user instruc-
   tions into  the plastic rather than using a paper  label.
   For a more detailed discussion of DfE, see the October 1998
WasteWise Update: Extended Product Responsibility  (EPA530-N-
98-007) at .
partner Sun Microsystems, Inc., has a comprehensive
reuse program that accepts used systems from customers
and separates materials according to a "save list" that out-
lines key components for reuse. Returned systems that are
unsuitable for remanufacture or components not includ-
ed on the "save list" continue to circulate and perform
other useful functions.
                                             \   *  ,•"•

Waste Wise Update
Actions  Governments  Are

Taking  to   Manage

Electronics  Waste
               As the pace of new product development and obso-
               lescence steadily accelerates, policy-makers
               across the United States are focusing on
               how to manage the growing waste
               from electronic products. More
and more state and local governments are experi-
menting with collection, donation,  and recycling
of used electronics products, as well as ways to
involve producers of electronics in helping to
recover these products at end-of-life. Some
states, as well as the federal government, are
working to make their policies less burdensome for generators of used electronic products to encourage
donation and recycling instead of disposal. Businesses and others who are considering donation, recy-
cling, or disposal of electronic products should check their state regulations and policies. These policies
vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Some of the major initiatives are summarized below:
  Streamlining regulatory status of cathode ray tubes
  (CRTs) bound for recycling. Most CRTs (especially color
  monitors for computers or televisions) are considered haz-
  ardous under federal and state regulations because of the
  presence of lead. To encourage more collection and recy-
  cling of CRTs, EPA will be proposing rulemaking
  changes to streamline existing federal management
  requirements, which currently add expense and paper-
  work to CRT recycling. EPA has already made similar
  rule changes to encourage the recycling of certain batter-
  ies, thermostats, hazardous waste lamps, and pesticides.
  Several states currently have or are considering changes to
  do the same for CRTs.
  Banning disposal of CRTs. WasteWise partner the
  Commonwealth of Massachusetts recently banned dis-
  posal of CRTs in its municipal waste landfills. For pro-
  gram details, visit the Massachusetts Department of
    Environmental Protection's CRT Reuse and Recycling
    Web site at . Florida also might consider doing the
    same, but only after ensuring that an adequate recycling
    infrastructure exists. Information on Florida's strategy for
    end-of-life electronics is available at the Florida
    Department of Environmental Protection's Web site at
    Setting up local collection sites. In recent years, an
    increasing number of communities have experimented
    with various ways of collecting end-of-life electronics.
    There are now periodic or ongoing electronics collection
    and/or drop-off programs in many states. Some of these
    experiences are profiled in an EPA report called Analysis
    of Five Community Consumer/Residential Collections of
    End-of-Life Electronic and Electrical Equipment. This
    report is available on USEPA-New England's Web site at

                                      WasteWise Update
   For information on additional collection pilots, check the
   National Recycling Coalition's Web site at
    and EPA's
   Extended Product Responsibility Web site, under
   Electronics, at .
   Charging a recycling fee at point of sale. South
   Carolina's Recycling Market Development Advisory
   Council (RMDAC) is seeking industry input and legisla-
   tive support for an electronic equipment recycling pro-
   gram in that state. The council has proposed a fee on the
   purchase of new electronic equipment containing CRTs,
   such as televisions and computer monitors, to help devel-
   op a state infrastructure for scrap electronic equipment
   recovery and recycling. The monies would provide grants
   and loans to local governments and businesses that col-
   lect, transport, process, and recycle discarded electronics.
   South Carolina continues to pursue this initiative by
   gathering information and additional support from
   industry allies. Watch the RMDAC Web site at
   the latest developments.
   Labeling products containing hazardous substances.
   Vermont requires manufacturers of certain mercury-
   containing products to label these products for sale in the
   state. To discard labeled mercury-added products, con-
   sumers must drop them off at a designated  collection point
   or a facility authorized to accept such items. The Northeast
   Waste Management Officials Association's (NEWMOA's)
   "Model Mercury Legislation" calls for this type of labeling
   as well as other requirements, including producer take
   back, for mercury-containing products. For more informa-
   tion on this model legislation, see .
   Investigating extended product responsibility. Some
   states are looking at ways to engage producers of electron-
   ic products in the collection and recycling of these prod-
   ucts at end-of-life. New York has proposed take-back
   legislation for electronic equipment that would require
   manufacturers to establish  collection and/or disassembly
   centers for recovery of at least 90 percent of the waste
   equipment. Manufacturers would be required to accept
   such equipment at no charge to consumers.2 Minnesota's
   Office of Environmental Assistance (OEA) initially pro-
   posed  a product stewardship policy that would mandate
   producer responsibility for CRTs and some other  prod-
   ucts. 3  The state,  however,  is currently investigating  the
   degree to which voluntary assistance partnerships with
   industry can address this waste stream (see article below
   for details on this initiative). For more information on
   OEA's product stewardship  efforts in general, go to
   . The NEWMOA states are con-
   sidering model legislation to mandate producer take back
   of mercury-containing products (see the previous bullet).

Public-Private  Partnership
Proves Positive for Recycling
   Growing concern over the disposal of electrical and elec-
tronic products in the municipal solid waste stream
prompted the Minnesota OEA to sponsor a recycling
demonstration project targeting residential and small busi-
ness electronic discards. WasteWise partner  Matsushita
Electric Corporation of America (Panasonic) and
WasteWise endorser the American Plastics Council  par-
tially funded the demonstration project along with Sony
Electronics, Inc.,  and the Waste Management-Asset
Recovery Group (WM-ARG). The pilot compared various
collection techniques and costs and assessed collection and
recycling infrastructure  development needs.  It encom-
passed 65 recycling centers serving approximately one-
third of Minnesota's residents. Recognizing that no single
collection strategy (e.g., curbside, dropoff, or retail collec-
tion centers) could provide the solution, the project  part-
ners tested several strategies to see which were most
successful at capturing material or reducing  costs. During a

                                    (Continued on Page 16)
   King-Size Local Effort

   One of the newest programs of WasteWise Partner King
   County, Washington, Department of Natural Resources is a
   4-month pilot Computer Recovery Project. The project aims
   to collect, among other things, computer central processing
   units (CPUs), monitors, keyboards, and mice from county
   residents and small- to medium-sized businesses. King
   County is currently working with  1 6 computer repair/resale
   vendors and nonprofit organizations to serve as collection
   points. These collection sites will  sort equipment and decide
   what can be resold as is, repaired for resale, or recycled.
   For more information about King County's Computer
   Recovery Project, contact Lisa Sepanski at 206 296-4489,
   or send e-mail to .
   Information is also available on the Internet at

2 Kadas, Madeleine Boyer, and Paul E. Hagen. Beveridge &
  Diamond, PC. Electronics Take-Back and Recycling Update on
  Recent U.S. State Initiatives. February 29, 2000. p. 1 1.
3 Ibid. p. 8

Waste Wise Update
Government (continued from page 15)

3-month timeframe from July 31 to October 31,  1999,
centers collected nearly 700 tons of used electronic prod-
ucts. WM-ARG spent the next 3 months processing the
collected materials. After segregating the electronics into
five broad product categories (TVs, monitors, PC units,
consumer electronics, and mixed electronics), WM-ARG
identified eight scrap materials to be extracted from the
products. Project partners chose to evaluate the secondary
markets for glass and plastics, which are the two materials
that retain the most value at the end-of-life.

   Initial evaluation of the pilot indicated the following
needs: 1) improvements in recycling technologies;  2)
increased procurement of secondary materials for the manu-
facture of new products; and 3) regulatory relief for legiti-
mate electronics recyclers. The study concluded that these
changes will help facilitate expansion of electronics recycling.

   For more information, contact Mark Sharp, assistant gen-
eral manager of Panasonic's Corporate Environmental
Department, at 202 223-2575 or .
To contact Minnesota regarding this project, call Tony
Hainault, Minnesota OEA, at 612  215-0298; e-mail him at
; or go to
   If you have received this publication in error or want to
    be removed from the WdsfeW/se Update mailing list,
    please call the WasteWise Helpline at 800 EPA-WISE
   (372-9473) or send  a copy of this page, with the mail-
    ing label, back to WasteWise at the  address below.
   Many WasteWise publications, including the WasteWise
   Update, are available electronically on the WasteWise
         Web site at .
       A New WasteWise Challenge
       for  Today's  Technology—

       To help partners reduce the
       growing waste stream of
       used electronics,
       designed a new
       Challenge. This is
       the second in a series of WasteWise
       Challenges. The Transport Packaging Challenge,
       introduced last year, focused on  items such as pal-
       lets, wraps, and totes, and resulted in substantial cost
       savings and waste reduction for  participating partners.
       Here's an opportunity to extend the life of electronic
       products and perhaps qualify for tax write-offs. In addi-
       tion, WasteWise will offer Challenge participants techni-
       cal assistance and opportunities  for recognition  and

       Some examples of electronics waste reduction activities

       • Refurbishing and/or upgrading existing electronics
         equipment instead of buying new equipment.
       • Buying remanufactured or recycled equipment.
       • Contracting with suppliers to lease  electronics or to
         take back and  reuse/recycle equipment that is no
         longer needed.
       • Donating reusable electronics  equipment (e.g., to
         schools or other nonprofit groups).

       Call the WasteWise Helpline at 800 EPA-WISE (372-
       9473)  to request  a pledge card, or sign up electronically
       on the Partner Network section of the  WasteWise Web site
       at .
    United States
    Environmental Protection Agency
    Washington, DC 20460

    Official Business
    Penalty for Private Use $300

     for   Electronics   Waste  Management
 And  Databases
International Association of
Electronics Recyclers (IAER)
The trade association for the elec-
tronics industry has several
resources available electronically,
including a comprehensive list of
electronics recyclers. The Web site
also contains information about the
Electronics and the Environment
Summit, held May 2000.

National Recycling Coalition's
Electronics Database
This section of the National
Recycling Coalition's Web site
hosts a database of electronics
recyclers, reuse organizations,
and municipal programs that
accept old electronic equipment.

National Safety Council's
Electronic Product Recovery
& Recycling (EPR2) Directory
This Web site contains a list of
electronics recycling and donation
Publishers (PEP) National
Directory of Computer
Recycling Programs
This directory lists organizations
throughout the U.S. and the world
that accept and prepare comput-
ers for donation.
Share the Technology
This nonprofit corporation's
national database lists computer
donation offers and requests from
all over the United States and
from other countries.
Carnegie Mellon Green
Design Initiative
This Web site provides a compre-
hensive international resource list
for information about end-of-life
options for electronic products. It
includes links for computer, soft-
ware, component, and diskette
recycling; federal, state, and local
recycling/donation programs; elec-
tronics manufacturers' programs;
dealers of used and refurbished
equipment; school and charity
donation coordinators; and aca-
demic and research institutions.
This volunteer computer training and
support organization's Web site pro-
vides a list of electronics recycling
and reuse organizations nationwide.

Computers for Learning
This Web site allows schools and
educational nonprofits to register to
request surplus federal computer
equipment. Federal agencies use
the Web site to donate computers
based upon indications of need.

Electronic Industries
Alliance (EIA)
ElA's Environmental Issues
Council  serves as a forum for
industry executives.  The site has
information about various envi-
ronmental issues, including end-
of-life management of products.
Read about Design  for the
Environment examples in
"Addressing End-of-Life
Electronics Through Design."
    The mention of any company,
   product, or process in this publica-
    tion does not constitute or imply
      endorsement by the U.S.
    Environmental Protection Agency.

Goodwill Industries
International, Inc.
Gateway Country stores will give
a $100 discount off a new PC to
anyone who donates a function-
ing, 386-class or better computer
of any brand to Goodwill.
Goodwill might take 286 or
newer computers, but you need to
check with your local Goodwill
chapter for complete details.

National Cristina
This organization brings donated
computers to the disabled, eco-
nomically disadvantaged, and
students at risk. The Web site con-
tains donation  instructions and
answers to tax  benefit questions.

National Recycling
Coalition's Electronics
Recycling Initiative
This Web site contains information
about electronics recycling and
donation, policies and programs,
reports and publications,  and
transcripts from past online chats
about electronic product recovery.

National Safety Council's
Electronic Product Recovery
and Recycling (EPR2) Project
This section of the EPR2 Project
Web site includes EPR2 confer-
ence summaries and an order
form for the EPR2 Baseline Report:
Recycling of Selected Electronic
Products in the  United States. The
report provides results of the first
large-scale survey and  analyses
of end-of-life electronics recycling
and reuse.
Recycler's World
This Web site lists computer and
telecommunications equipment
recyclers and refurbishers, and
hosts a worldwide electronics
materials exchange.

Southern Waste
Information  exchange
This Web site is a clearinghouse
for information about recycled
products, market development,
and current legislation and regu-
lations. It contains a  resource
guide about used televisions and
computer recycling management
in Florida. This site will soon link
to an electronics equipment
exchange program.

U.S. SPA'S Extended Product
Responsibility (EPR) Page
This site is dedicated to EPR, a
product-oriented approach to sus-
tainable development. Currently,
it features examples of public and
private sector initiatives to pro-
mote EPR in electronic and pack-
aging products.

The Wireless Foundation
This organization collects and dis-
tributes cellular phones for neigh-
borhood crime  prevention, domes-
tic safety, and education  pro-
      Articles &
Analysis of Five Community
Collections: End-of-Life
Electronic and Electrical
U.S. EPA. 1999.
This publication is a collection of
data from five electronics recycling
pilots and ongoing programs.

Designing for the
Environment: A Design
Guide for Information and
Technology Equipment
American Plastics Council.
This guide provides a synopsis of
basic environmental  design con-
siderations applicable to comput-
ers  and other information tech-
nology equipment.

Eco-Design Checklists
Surrey Institute of Art and
Design—The Centre for
Sustainable Design. 1999.
This is a guide for electronics  man-
ufacturers, "systems integrators,"
and suppliers of components  and
sub-assemblies in planning for
environmental design.

End-of-Life Computer and
Electronics Recovery Options
for the Mid-Atlantic States
Mid-Atlantic Consortium of
Recycling and Economic
Development Officials.
March 2000.
As computers quickly become
outdated, electronics disposal is
becoming a  major issue.  This
report discusses electronics recov-
ery options and  models, plus
markets and economic develop-
ment. It identifies key issues to
consider for  policy development
and makes recommendations for
further investigation.

Plug into Electronics  Reuse
Institute for Local Self-
Reliance. 1997.
This report provides contact infor-
mation on 150 computer recovery
facilities as well  as indepth pro-
files of the operating experiences
of 1 3 that focus on computer
reuse. Operations profiled are all
replicable and many are  interest-
ed in starting similar enterprises
in other cities. $15.

Residential Collection of
Household End-of-Life
Electrical and Electronic
Equipment Pilot Collection
U.S. EPA. 1998.
This report features results from
two EPA-sponsored residential
collection pilot programs held
in 1996 and  1997 in Binghamton,
New York, and Somerville,
Massachusetts. Copies are
available by contacting Fred
Friedman with the USEPA-New
England RCRA Research Library
at 61 7 918-1807 or
San Jose Computer Collection
and Recycling Pilot
EPA & Vista Environmental.
July 1998.
Prepared by Vista Environmental
for EPA's Common Sense
Initiative, this document discusses
a pilot project that examined the
potential for collecting used com-
puter equipment at retail stores
for recycling. The report identifies
potential barriers and examines
economic feasibility. It concludes
that while the  cost of recycling
computer monitors is substantial,
it is nevertheless lower than costs
associated with landfilling used
computer equipment.

The following  is a list of
articles from various trade
publications that cover the
topic of electronics recy-
cling and reuse. Call the
WasteWise Helpline at 800
372-9473 for information
on  contacting the trade

"Demanufacturing:  The
emergence  of an urban
Resource Recycling. February
As technology advances, many
computers once considered top-
of-the-line are now technological
relics. To electronics demanufac-
turers, however, piles of obsolete
computers can turn into virtual
gold mines. Each computer con-
tains valuable components such
as gold, silver, and copper that
can be salvaged and recycled.
This article discusses the chal-
lenges demanufacturers face and
offers projections for this indus-
try's future expansion.
"Reach out and touch
someone: Cellular tele-
phone refurbishers foresee
expanding global market"
Waste News. October 18, 1999.
Two Michigan-based companies,
ReCellular and Telesource, found
a profitable niche market in refur-
bishing cellular telephones.
Industrywide, an estimated $500
million worth of cell phones will
be refurbished and resold this
year—more than twice the
amount 5 years ago. This article
discusses how the market for
refurbished cellular phones works.

"Making electronic
recycling connections"
Recycling Today. September
Of the estimated  14 to 20 mil-
lion computers that become out-
dated each year, only 30 percent
are resalable. The remaining 70
percent are usually thrown away
if they are not recycled. This arti-
cle answers the following ques-
tions: what are the benefits of
recycling computers; what are
some of the best electronics recy-
cling methods; how can comput-
er recycling become profitable;
what are the dangers in recover-
ing materials; and where is elec-
tronics recycling headed?

"Electronic product discards"
Resource Recycling. June 1999.
This article highlights public and
private programs that promote
electronics reuse and recycling.
Topics include a "Computers for
Learning" program, electronic
product reuse organizations and
collections, and how manufactur-
ers handle electronic product dis-
cards. The article also includes a
list of Internet resources.

"The leasing option"
Governing. May 1998.
This article highlights how leasing
office equipment and computers
is becoming a popular choice for
governmental organizations.
Because computers quickly
become outdated, it is more cost-
effective to replace the technology
by renewing a lease rather than
purchasing new equipment.
Another benefit of leasing is the
warranty support and services
that are included.
"Electronics recycling
collection: Targeting the
commercial sector"
Resource Recycling. December
The Rhode Island Department of
Environmental Management con-
ducted  a study to determine the
feasibility of recyclable electronics
collection among commercial
enterprises. The study highlights
collection options and strategies
for improving collection efficiency
and effectiveness among various
commercial sectors. Recyclable
electronics collectors can use the
study to maximize efficiency
among different sectors.

"What to do when comput-
ers pile up"
Recycling Times. November
Many organizations accept old
computers and  fix them for reuse.
This article highlights what some
organizations are doing with used
computers and  includes a list of
nationwide organizations that
accept  old equipment.
"The Conundrum of
Computer Recycling"
Resource Recycling. May 1999.
This article discusses personal
computer (PC) disposal and the
effect of increased PC use and
rapid technological advances on
computer recycling. It also
describes processing methods for
used computers, regulatory issues
surrounding PC disposal, local
and state government activities,
and strategies for reducing the
number of discarded PCs in the
waste stream.

Asset Recovery and
Recycling Programs
COMPAQ Computer Asset
Recovery Services
COMPAQ Computer Asset
Recovery Services (CARS) serves
as a single convenient, responsi-
ble source for disposition of any
brand of computer-related equip-
ment. Call the CARS access line
at 800 580-7370 to learn more.
 Dell Financial Services
 (DFS) Asset Recovery
 DFS offers two asset disposition
 services—Value Recovery Services
 for functional equipment and PC
Recycling Services for nonfunc-
tional or outdated equipment—to
help customers manage used
electronic equipment. For addi-
tional information or a  quote on
your equipment, e-mail Dell at
< US_DFS_AssetRecovery@
Dell.com> or call 800  955-3355,
ext. 36634.
IBM Product End-of-Life
Management (PELM)
IBM's PELM Service offers a con-
venient and affordable way for
customers to return unused and
unwanted IBM and non-IBM
equipment for refurbishment and
recycling. Customers in the U.S.
are advised to contact their IBM
representative for additional
Micron Green Recycling
Micron's Green Recycling
Program allows customers pur-
chasing new Micron equipment to
return old equipment for recy-
cling. A $75 per system disposal
fee is charged for returns of fewer
than five systems—companies
might qualify for a rebate on
quantities of five systems or more.
Customers must purchase at least
as many new Micron systems as
the number of systems returned.