United States
                 Environmental Protection
               Solid Wa*te
               Response (5306W)
.Inly 2001
                 Waste Wise  Update
 Developing Your EPP
 Program ... 5

 Implementing Your
 EPP Program ... 8

 Assessing Your EPP
 Program .... 12
Preserving Resources,
 Preventing Waste
                                       1 Printed on paper that contains at least 30 percent postconsumer fiber.

Waste Wise Update
 Environmentally  Preferable
                Although the United States comprises
                less than 5 percent of the world's
                population, it consumes more than
                25 percent of the world's resources.
                To minimize the environmental bur-
den posed by this staggering consumption rate, an
increasing number of agencies,  businesses, and institu-
tions are changing the way they shop. By choosing sus-
tainably produced, environmentally sensitive products
and services, organizations adopting environmental
(green) purchasing programs are making their money work
for the environment. As a  result, more and more Americans
are taking actions to conserve natural resources, reduce air
and water pollution, decrease toxic and hazardous wastes,
and conserve energy.
What is EPP?1
  Environmentally preferable purchasing (EPP), a con-
cept that melds procurement and environmental sustain-
ability into an environmentally conscious purchasing
strategy, advocates multifaceted environmental purchasing
decisions. In short, EPP encourages government agencies,
businesses, and institutions to consider multiple environ-
 1 In this issue, we use the terms "environmentally preferable
  purchasing" and "green" purchasing synonymously.
  However, within the federal government, EPP has a very
  specific definition, as defined by Executive Order 13101
  and further elaborated by EPA's Final Guidance on
  Environmentally Preferable Purchasing for Executive
  Agencies (64 FR 4581 0). (See text box on page 4.)
  Regardless which terms are used, they all share the simple
  concept  of incorporating environmental considerations in
  purchasing decisions along with price and performance.
mental attributes of both products and services prior to
purchase. EPP includes a wide spectrum of activities, from
purchasing recycled-content supplies to reducing the
number of toxic chemicals purchased to minimizing ener-
gy consumption through energy-efficient technologies.
  Hundreds of WasteWise partners already recognize the
economic and environmental benefits of waste prevention
and recycling. Environmentally preferable purchasing
moves beyond the scope of WasteWise by encouraging
organizations to consider not only the durability, recycla-
bility, and recycled-content of products purchased, but
also the impact of their purchases on biodiversity, air and
water pollution levels, and worker and consumer safety.
By examining the characteristics of a product across its life
cycle, organizations have the information they need to
begin to reduce the environmental impacts of their pur-
chasing decisions. For example, products with reduced
environmental impacts include:

                                                                                                WasteWise Update
•  Chlorine-free or tree-free paper
•  Recycled-content office supplies
•  Paint with low volatile organic compound (VOC) content
•  Cellulose insulation
•  ENERGY STAR®-labeled electronic equipment
•  Recycled-content or organic clothing

Economic Benefits of EPP
   Businesses and organizations engaging in green pur-
chasing practices contribute to environmental sustainabil-
ity while demonstrating business savvy. Implementing
EPP strategies can help organizations save money by
decreasing purchasing and disposal costs. Organizations
can work with suppliers to alter many characteristics of
the products they purchase. For example, organizations
can avoid disposal costs while improving their recycling
and reuse rates by purchasing or requesting that suppliers
use uniformly sized wooden pallets.  Many organizations
also find that purchasing lightweight packaging for their
products leads to economic and environmental benefits.
Lighter packaging uses  fewer materials during manufac-
turing and reduces the amount of energy required to pro-
duce and transport it. Organizations can request that
suppliers use a greater percentage of recycled material in
packaging  and other products, including office supplies,
furniture, electronics equipment, and carpet. By purchas-
ing recycled-content products, organizations help fuel the
recycling market.
   Organizations can also improve their public image by
publicizing their commitment to  conserving natural
resources.  Believing that a cleaner, healthier environ-
ment goes hand in hand with a strong economy, New
Jersey-based utility company, Public Service Enterprise
Group (PSEG), strives to  demonstrate environmental
stewardship and corporate social responsibility. Strong
working relationships with its vendors play a key role in
enabling PSEG to meet environmental  purchasing goals.
In addition to  an extensive buy-recycled program (the
company spent more than $3-5 million on recycled-con-
tent products in 1999), PSEG has established a take
back program with its paint vendor, allowing the com-
pany to receive credit for unused  paint. The partner-
ships PSEG has formed with its vendors over several
years have paid off for  PSEG, allowing  the company to
save money, reduce waste, and conserve natural
    rom conserving natural resources to reducing the use o
    oxic substances, green purchasing can offer numerous
   environmental benefits. Evaluating products on a case-b
   case basis will help you assess the environmental impact
   of your purchases.
   Environmental benefits include, but are not limited to:
   • Reducing materials consumption
   • Providing a useful outlet for recycled material
   • Reducing greenhouse gas emissions
   • Conserving energy
     Conserving water
   • Increasing the use of renewable products
   • Reducing the presence of toxic materials in the environme

   Such benefits in turn:
   • Improve public and occupational health and safety
   • Improve wildlife habitats
   • Decrease air, water, and soil contamination
   • Improve compliance with environmental regulations
   • Decrease costs associated with waste management, di
     posal, and cleanup
   • Promote a sustainable economy
   • Develop markets for environmentally preferable good:
     and services
resources. WasteWise distinguished PSEG as a 1999
Program Champion and a 1998  Partner of the Year for
its achievements in solid waste reduction.
   Businesses gain a competitive edge by promoting the
environmental attributes of their products and services. In
markets where price competition is intense, environmental
                 The mention of any company, product, or process in this publication does not constitute or imply
                                 endorsement by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Waste Wise Update
     Federal Agencies Go  Green with  EPP
     The federal government is the single largest purchaser in the United States, spending more than $275 billion annually on
     products and services. Associated with this purchasing power is the government's tremendous environmental footprint.
     Executive Order (E.O.) 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, and
     recent changes to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) aim to minimize the environmental impact associated with the
     federal government's purchase of everything from paper to computers to buildings, as well as a wide range of services such
     as custodial  and construction services. The E.O. and FAR mandate that all federal agencies purchase environmentally
     preferable products and services, i.e., those that have a lesser or reduced  effect on  human health and the environment
     when compared to products and services that serve the same purpose.
     EPA's Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) Program was established to provide guidance, tools, and information to
     assist agencies implement this requirement. Many of the EPP Program's activities are derived from the following five Guiding
     Principles, established to help Executive agencies identify and purchase environmentally  preferable products and services:
        1.  Include environmental considerations as part of the normal purchasing process.
        2.  Emphasize pollution prevention early in the purchasing process.
        3.  Examine  multiple environmental attributes throughout the product and services life cycle.
        4.  Compare environmental impacts when selecting products and services.
        5.  Collect accurate and meaningful information about performance of products and services.

     EPA's EPP Program provides a wealth of information about establishing individual EPP programs and determining environ-
     mental standards. The program also conducts case studies, publishes fact sheets, and offers an online environmental
     information  database, all  of which  are available on the EPP Web site .
performance can be the differentiating factor that influences
consumers' purchasing decisions. Increasingly, buyers want
to know what went into making a product as well as how
the product performs. For example, furniture manufacturer
Herman Miller conducts lifecycle analyses (LCAs) on the
products it manufactures in order to better assess the envi-
ronmental impacts of various material choices and produc-
tion processes. Furthermore, the results of LCAs provide  a
basis from which Herman Miller can reassure its customers
that the products they purchase are environmentally sustain-
able. The company regularly responds to inquiries about  the
environmental attributes of its products and actively pro-
motes its commitment to environmental sustainability
Herman Miller established a goal to complete a lifecycle
analysis on all of its new products by 2001.
  Whether you are starting from scratch or building upon
an existing environmental program, such as a waste reduction
or buy-recycled program, you can design an environmental
purchasing program to fit your organization's goals, needs,
and resources. This Update provides an overview of the EPP
concept and offers guidance for establishing your own pro-
gram. Snapshots of successful activities ofWasteWise part-
ners provide suggestions for developing, implementing, and
assessing an environmental purchasing program. For further
information about EPP, please refer to a comprehensive list of
resources provided at the end of this document.

                                                                           WasteWise Update
Developing  Your  EPP

            n effective EPP program depends on thorough planning and participation from numer-
            ous individuals. To design and implement an effective program, organizations need to
            outline achievable goals and develop a plan for attaining them. Successful environmen-
            tal pur chasing programs often contain the following elements:
      A green team to guide and promote the program-
      Measurable goals by which success can be evaluated.
      An organization-wide EPP policy highlighting philosophy and objectives.
      Support and involvement from all levels within your organization.
Establish an EPP Team
  With few exceptions, purchasing is not a single person's
responsibility—many different individuals within various
departments request products or services, while others are
responsible for obtaining them and negotiating contracts.
The most successful way to incorporate envi-
ronmental aspects into this process is
to establish a team of individuals
with purchasing and envi-
ronmental expertise. For a
small organization, a
team might consist of
just two or three
people, while larger
might opt to create
a team of employ-
ees from several dif-
ferent departments.
A diverse team with
different institutional
perspectives ensures that
all opportunities to incorpo-
rate environmental considera
tions will be explored.
  In the early stages, your team might need to meet
frequently to kick off the program, but eventually might
need to meet only periodically to monitor progress and re-
evaluate goals and purchasing practices. As your environ-
mental purchasing process evolves, some of the issues your
team may need to address include:
• Developing a written policy stating your organization's
  commitment to environmental purchasing.
• Obtaining support for the policy from both management
       and staff.
                  Reviewing purchases and research-
                   ing new products.
                        Educating employees
                        about purchasing proce-
                           •  Monitoring and
                              publicizing the
                              success of the pro-
                            •  Re-evaluating
                              goals and policies.
                            It is important to
                         keep team members
                       enthusiastic about the pro-
                     gram so they will commit
                  time and energy to the effort. To
              increase motivation and provide incen-
        tives, it may help to recognize team members at
meetings or in company newsletters. The EPP team
should also consider appointing a team leader to act as a
liaison between management and the team.

Waste Wise Update
Establish Goals for the EPP
   Depending on the size of your organization and EPP
team, the program might need to begin on a small scale.
Consider focusing the program's goals on a single
attribute, such as recycled-content percentages, and then
eventually expand your goals  to include multiple environ
mental attributes or even decreasing the environmental
impact of a product throughout its entire life cycle, from
its manufacture to its disposal. In the beginning of what
is currently an extensive EPP program, the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts focused on
purchasing recycled-content paper
and envelopes. Building
upon experience gained in
this area, the common-
wealth expanded its pro-
gram to consider
additional environ-
mental attributes,
including low-toxici-
ty cleaning products,
biobased lubricants, and
energy-efficient lamps and
office equipment, just to
name a few.
                                                            To establish program goals, the EPP team should
                                                          review current purchasing practices, including the pro-
                                                          curement of services, invoices, and resource consumption
                                                          records (e.g., water and electric bills). Examining these
                                                          records will help you identify areas and materials where
                                                          policies will be most effective. Whenever possible, the
                                                          team should establish measurable goals and a time period
                                                          by which they can be met (e.g., reduce solid waste genera-
                                                          tion by 20 percent in 12 months;  increase spending on
                                                          green products and services 30 percent by the next fiscal
                                                          year; and increase number of environmentally enhanced
                                                                   contracts  over next 24 months).  The method
                                                                     used for tracking your progress will depend

   The goals your EPP
team develops should be
based on the environmental
attributes that your organi-
zation can effectively
address without adversely
affecting the performance
and cost  of products and services.
Although it is  important to
remember that not all attributes
will be applicable to every organiza-
tion, some that you may want to
consider  are:
•  Recycled-content percentages
•  Energy- and water-efficiency ratings
•  Toxic materials content
•  Use of renewable resources
•  Occupational health and safety impacts
•  Non-renewable resource consumption
•  Bioaccumulative pollutants
•  Chemical releases
•  Waste  generation (solid, hazardous, air emissions, etc.)
                                                                              upon the size of your organization
                                                                              and the level of your commitment
                                                                               to  environmental purchasing. For
                                                                               example, a small business may
                                                                               choose to simply replace specific
                                                                                office products with those made
                                                                                 with recycled materials.  On the
                                                                                   other hand, larger organiza-
                                                                                     tions may want to conduct
                                                                                        an  audit and establish a
                                                                                         baseline for measuring
                                                                                           future progress.
                                                                                                 Next, the EPP
                                                                                                team will need to
                                                                                                 determine how
                                                                                                 the organization
                                                                                                 will meet the
                                                                                                 established goals.
                                                                                               This might
                                                                                           include creating  lists
                                                                                        of approved or unaccept-
                                                                                        able products, establishing
                                                                                        approved supplier lists,
                                                                                        and negotiating  perfor-
                                                                                         mance-based contracts
                                                                                        requiring vendors to
                                                                                demonstrate their ability to meet
                                                                environmental goals. The team should assess and
                                                          identify commonly used products and services that could be
                                                          replaced with green alternatives. Contact current vendors to
                                                          discuss alternative products that meet the new purchasing
                                                          criteria and check with other suppliers to see what they can
                                                          offer. A number of state and local environmental or natural
                                                          resource offices have programs that can provide you with
                                                          additional resources on how to meet your environmental
                                                          goals through green purchasing. Additionally, consulting
                                                          with other businesses and organizations in your industry
                                                          may prove helpful in identifying opportunities for environ-
                                                          mental purchasing and waste reduction.

                                                                                                   WasteWise Update
   Sample EPP  Policy
   The purchase and use of products and services can profoundly impact the
   environment. [NAME OF ORGANIZATION] recognizes the positive impact that it
   can make on the environment through the purchasing decisions that its employees
   make. It is the intent of [NAME OF ORGANIZATION] to integrate environmental
   considerations into every aspect of acquisition. Although the environment might
   not be the core of our professional mission, the integration of these factors will
   result in economic, health, and environmental gains that will further our goals.

   Overall Statement of Policy

   •  Personnel should seek to reduce the environmental damages associated
      with  their purchases by increasing their acquisition of environmentally  ,
      preferable products and services to the extent feasible, consistent
      with  price, performance, availability, and safety considerations.
   •  Environmental factors should be taken  into account as early as
      possible in the acquisition planning and decision-making process.
   •  Responsibility for environmentally preferable purchasing should be
      shared among the program, acquisition, and procurement personnel.
   •  Environmentally preferable purchasing represents one important
      component of this organization's commitment to pollution prevention.

   [NAME  OF ORGANIZATION] is committed to the following:

   •  Increasing the acquisition of environmentally preferable products
      and  services.
   •  Identifying and implementing pilot projects to test the best ways to
      incorporate environmental preferability into acquisition.
   •  Establishing incentive and  award programs to recognize those people,
      teams, and workgroups that are most successful at promoting the
      purchase of environmentally preferable products.
   Adapted from U.S. EPA's EPP Web she: .
Write  an EPP Policy
   Developing an organization-wide EPP policy helps gener-
ate greater momentum for your efforts and makes it clear to
all staff that green purchasing principles are to be incorporat-
ed into routine operations. An environmental purchasing pol-
icy should highlight the environmental attributes and goals
most important to the organization and include a require-
ment that employees maximize one or more of the attributes
when making purchasing decisions. The  policy might briefly
address the "who, what, and why" of environmental purchas-
ing and include the organization's general EPP philosophy, a
statement of commitment, the scope of the program,  objec-
tives, and benefits. The policy should receive endorsement
from upper management and, if applicable, be incorporated
into  a company's overall environmental management system.

Obtain Support from  All Levels
   Upper management support is important to making envi-
ronmental purchasing a priority and facilitating  the develop-
ment of the program. To "sell" the concept to management,
the EPP team should stress the advantages of implementing
environmentally preferable purchasing, such as health and
safety benefits, regulatory compliance, cost savings, and
improved public relations.
   After establishing an EPP policy and goals and gaining
management's approval, the program should be presented to
the entire organization. Consider a kickoff event  at which a
senior member of the organization presents the program's
goals and  policy. Let employees know that this is an evolving
program and that their participation and suggestions for
improvement are the key to its success. Employee participa-
tion may be encouraged through the use of incentives—offer
prizes or awards to departments that implement the most
environmental purchasing initiatives or recognize individual
employees who actively participate in your environmental
purchasing program in newsletters or at staff meetings.
   The EPP team should periodically promote the program
after the kickoff meeting by publicizing achievements and
changes in goals or policy. Sharing information and program
updates through staff meetings, company newsletters, or e--
mail announcements helps keep employees in  the EPP loop.

Waste Wise Update
                                       Your  EPP
               rganizations that have estab-
               lished successful EPP pro-
               grams take a comprehensive
               approach to procurement by
               encouraging purchasers to
examine an array of product attributes in addi-
tion to cost and performance factors. Many com-
monly used products and services, including office
supplies, cleaning products, electronics, and build-
ing materials, can  be replaced with more environ-
mentally preferable alternatives.
                                       'Closing the Loop" with

                                       Office Supplies
                                          Office supplies manufacturers are increasingly offer-
                                         ing a wide range of products made from recycled
                                          materials. Taking advantage of the ready availability
                                           of recycled-content products and the steady need
                                            for supplies, many organizations find purchasing
                                             office supplies to be a natural starting point.
                                               These products generally compare favorably
                                                 in both quality and price to similar
                                                   items made from virgin materials,
                                                     and they divert material from the
                                                       waste stream into productive
                                                        use. By purchasing recycled-
                                                          content office products,
                                                           your organization can
                                                             help close the recy-
                                                              cling loop and
                                                              strengthen market
                                                              demand for recy-
                                                              cled goods.

                                                                                                   WasteWise Update
Commonly available recycled-content office supplies
•  Paper products, such as notebooks, calendars, file
   folders, copier and printer paper, envelopes, and self-
   adhesive notes.
•  Computer supplies, such as diskettes, CDs, toner car-
   tridges, and mouse pads.
•  Plastic items, including desktop accessories, binders,
   transparencies, bubble wrap, wastebaskets, recycling
   receptacles, and report covers.
•  Pens, pencils, and art supplies.
   Modern manufacturing techniques have closed the per-
formance gap between recycled-content and virgin office
supplies. Most organizations find that experimentation
with content percentages and brand names can yield a
competitively priced, recycled-content office product.
Some organizations also augment green purchasing efforts
by giving preference to  manufacturers that offer recyclable
or reusable office supplies. A simple way to encourage
employees to purchase recycled office supplies is to high-
light products' recycled-content percentages in internal
supply listings or catalogs.
   An increasing number of office supplies can be selected
for environmental attributes in addition to recycled con-
tent. One example is paper products manufactured using a
combination of kenaf and  tree pulp. Kenaf is an annual
crop that can be cultivated on existing farmland, where its
life cycle encourages farmers to practice beneficial crop
rotation  methods. Kenaf paper, which has been used for
printing catalogs and books, requires less energy and fewer
chemical additives to process than traditional wood pulp.
Your organization also can switch from liquid correction
fluid to less toxic correction tape and use refillable pens
and tape dispensers to reduce the environmental impacts of
your purchases.
Cleaning "Green"
   Certain chemicals and cleaning products can pose a seri-
ous threat to workers' health, causing respiratory distress
and irritating the eyes and skin. They also can include
ozone-depleting substances, toxic materials that adversely
affect plant and animal life, and chemicals that can accu-
mulate in the environment with potentially harmful conse-
quences. Using these substances can be expensive to store
and dispose of, and can lead to decreased worker produc-
tivity through illness. In 1999, Yellowstone National  Park
began purchasing environmentally preferable cleaning
products when an initial assessment revealed that many
cleaning agents used in its facilities contained potentially
harmful chemicals. Adopting 12  environmental criteria for
How can you verify manufacturers' claims that their prod-
ucts are environmentally preferable? Although there is no
standard "official" designation process, a  number of
third-party organizations benchmark various products for
their environmental attributes and certify a product or
service as preferable compared to similar products. For
example, Green Seal  sets stan-
dards and  awards a "Green Seal of Approval" to prod-
ucts that cause less harm to the environment than other
similar products. In its Environmental  Partners Program,
organizations such as  colleges, businesses, and  govern-
ments agree to buy green products. Green Seal  provides
partners with the 1 10-page Office Green  Buying Guide
and the Choose Green Reports, a monthly series that
examines environmentally preferable  products and ser-
vices and provides a comparative list  of manufacturers
and sources. Scientific Certification Systems (SCS)
 certifies specific  environmental claims
(e.g., percent of recycled content) made by manufactur-
ers. SCS also produces an environmental "report card"
for key lifecycle aspects of products. The Global
Ecolabeling Network (GEN)  is a non-
profit association of ecolabeling organizations from
around the world. GEN promotes and develops the eco-
labeling of products and services by fostering information
exchange among its members and disseminating infor-
mation to the public.

Waste Wise Update
    Working with Vendors

    Organizations implementing an EPP program
    inevitably realize the importance of working with
    manufacturers, distributors, and contractors to
    achieve environmental goals. Consult with vendors
    for information on the environmental  attributes of
    their products. Reviewing vendors' environmental per-
    formance, sharing your environmental philosophy
    with vendors, and requesting products that contain
    attributes set forth by your EPP policy will  help estab-
    lish clear lines of communication about your purchas-
    ing goals. For example, Canon USA, Inc.'s
    environmental procurement guidelines include an
    index for evaluating the potential environmental
    impacts of both products and suppliers. The index
    evaluates product manufacturers using 35 criteria in
    7 categories, including corporate environmental phi-
    losophy, environmental management systems, and
    corporate environmental reporting. Additionally, a
    number of WasteWise partners, including Herman
    Miller and Anheuser-Busch Companies, have inte-
    grated environmental criteria into their supplier selec-
    tion process. For more ideas and case studies on
    working  with vendors, see the WasteWise  Update:
    Building Supplier Partnerships.
cleaning product procurement developed by the City of
Santa Monica, the park reduced the number of cleaning
products used from more than 130 to 9, all of which were
significantly less harmful but just as effective as the tradi-
tional products they replaced.

   Environmentally preferable cleaning supplies help pro-
tect human health by limiting exposure to potentially
harmful chemicals. Some organizations experience fewer
serious job-related accidents and worker compensation
claims after switching to alternative cleaning products.
Generally, products that are less harmful to human health
also minimize environmental impact. For example, low-
toxicity cleaning products reduce air and water pollution.
Switching to environmentally friendly cleaning products
that are available in recyclable, recycled-content, or bulk
packaging also can reduce solid waste generation.
Combined, these factors have persuaded many organiza-
tions to search out green substitutes.

   In addition to price and performance, organizations
may choose cleaning products according  to product  con-
tent, overall environmental impact of manufacturing
process (if known), product packaging, or product use
and disposal. EPA's April 2000 EPP Update includes an
article highlighting "green" cleaners and provides an
extensive list of resources about  cleaners at
             HR        I
   Expanding  EPP to Electronics
      Most businesses and organizations use personal comput-
   ers, photocopiers, and other electronic equipment as an inte-
   gral part of their daily operations. However, these appliances
   typically consume large quantities of energy, draining
   resources and costing organizations thousands of dollars
   each year. Much of this energy is wasted when unused com-
   puters are left on. ENERGY STAR®, a voluntary labeling pro-
   gram jointly established by EPA and the U.S. Department
   of Energy, addresses this problem by identifying computers
   and photocopiers (in addition to numerous household appli-
   ances) designed to automatically power down after a period
   of inactivity. Typical ENERGY STAR®-labeled computers or
   imaging devices can reduce energy use by 50 percent,
   although they cost no more than their traditional counter-
   parts. This energy savings can add up to significant dollar
   savings for businesses over the lifetime of these products. For
   more information about savings associated with these and
   other ENERGY STAR®-labeled products or to find out where
   to purchase specific items, please consult the ENERGY STAR®
   Web site at .
      Due to rapid advances in technology, many organiza-
   tions frequently replace computers  and peripherals.
   Organizations can lengthen the lifespan of computers by
   requesting that vendors provide easily upgradable systems

                                      WasteWise Update
with modular components and easily expandable memory.
Leasing equipment or requiring the vendor to take back
used equipment are additional options your organization
may wish to explore. Organizations purchasing new com-
puters and peripherals may also  request that manufacturers
use recycled and/or recyclable materials, or less packaging.
For example, bidders on computer contracts with the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts receive points on the
commonwealth's product evaluation scorecard for meeting
desirable environmental  criteria  in their computers and
computer packaging. Packaging  criteria include recycled-
content packaging, packaging return programs, and mini-
mal polystyrene use. Other computer criteria include
reduced toxics use and design for recycling.
   To help close the recycling loop and save money, organi-
zations can also purchase remanufactured or refurbished
computers. For information on alternative and disposal
options for your organization's end-of-life electronics equip-
ment, please consult the  WasteWise Update: Electronics Reuse
and Recycling.

Greening Buildings
   Construction and renova-
tion projects offer organi
zations an excellent
opportunity to
incorporate a range
of environmental-
ly sustainable
features into
their buildings.
Many tradition-
al construction
materials are
using non-renew-
able resources. Paints,
adhesives, and sealants
may contain highly volatile
compounds that can pose
threats to human health.  By using
environmentally preferable  alternatives for
these products, organizations  constructing new facilities or
renovating existing sites can implement goals to conserve
limited natural resources.
   Most green building materials perform comparably to
their traditional counterparts  and all are subjected to the
same government safety standards. Many organizations have
incorporated environmentally sensitive features into building
design, construction, and renovation by using:
•  Less toxic adhesives, cements, and sealants.
•  Flooring made from renewable resources, including bam-
   boo, cork, wool, linoleum, and sisal or carpeting made
   from recycled plastic bottles.
•  Recycled-content lumber, wallboard, drywall, and insula-
•  Energy-efficient lighting and natural light.
•  Alternative fuel sources.
•  Low-flow bathroom fixtures.
•  Recycled-content traffic control products and playground
•  Recycled or less toxic paint.
•  Furniture made from recycled-content or environmentally
   sustainable components.
   The Department of Natural Resources in King County,
Washington, considered environmental quality, resource
efficiency, and indoor air quality when it began construction
              of its eight-story King Street Center in
                      Seattle, Washington, in 1998.
                          Through assistance from the
                              Seattle Light and Design
                                 Lab, the county installed
                                   a lighting system that
                                      used only 66 per-
                                       cent of the  energy
                                       allowed under
                                        building code.
                                           In an exam-
                                        ple of alternative
                                        power sources,
                                       the EPA Region 9
                                       laboratory in
                                   California, is powered
                                 using energy obtained
                              from a local landfill gas
                          plant. EPA is buying wind
                      energy for its Golden,  Colorado, lab-
              oratory and has contracted for green electric-
ity purchases in Washington State, Massachusetts, and Ohio.
   If your organization is interested in pursuing specific
green construction or renovation goals, the next issue of the
WasteWise Update will focus on green buildings. Additional
guidance is available online using King County,
Washington's green construction page at .

Waste Wise Update
Your   EPP
                After implementing
                your EPP program,
                you need a way to
                measure your success.
                Start by reviewing the goals
and objectives outlined in your EPP policy. What
were some of the goals that your organization hoped to
accomplish? You might have very specific goals, such as reduced spending
on hazardous materials, or more general goals, such as amount of recycled products purchased.

The following guidelines are designed to help you think about ways to assess your program, but the
list is not comprehensive. It is more likely that you will discover alternative metrics that work better
for you and your organization. Tracking your progress before and after you implement your program-
is an important part of the assessment process and the key to measuring your success. Assessing your
program will enable you  to provide documented results to staff members and management about the
benefits of your EPP program, and it will give you opportunities to revise and strengthen your goals.
Cost Savings
  Savings can be found by looking beyond the initial cost of
a product or procedural change and examining the savings
that will result from reduced material handling, pollution
abatement, avoided disposal costs, or energy and water con-
servation measures. PSEG saved more than $2 million by
streamlining its purchasing process and reducing the number
of its chemical suppliers from more than 270 to only 9- The
new system allows PSEG to avoid excess inventory and dras-
tically reduces disposal costs for outdated or unnecessary
chemicals. Likewise, DaimlerChrysler saved almost $45 mil-
lion by tracking and screening all chemical purchases, reduc-
ing the number of plastic resins purchased, substituting less
hazardous chemicals when possible, and investing in energy-
saving measures.
  Improved Worker Health
  and Safety
    Minimizing employee contact with hazardous products,
  such as chemicals or cleaning supplies, not only creates a safer
  working environment, but also improves employee health.
  Tracking sick leave records, worker compensation claims, acci-
  dent rates, and changes in employee productivity are possible
  evaluation measures. Since implementing an environmentally
  preferable cleaning products program, Yellowstone National
  Park has noticed a significant increase in the morale of custo-
  dial workers exposed to the products on a daily basis. Using
  new cleaners, the employees no longer report the dizziness,
  nausea, and watery eyes that they frequently experienced in
  the past. Since the project was initiated, 22 other National
  Parks have followed Yellowstone's lead.

                                      WasteWise Update
Product Attributes
   Assessing the environmental attributes of your purchases
will depend on the goals of your organization. For example, if
your organization decides to concentrate on a single attribute
such as recycled-content purchases,  a simple database or
spreadsheet will work for tracking your purchases. PSEG
works with its vendors to track the attributes, quantities, and
amount spent on its purchases. Through an agreement with
its primary office products supplier, Boise Cascade, PSEG
receives customized catalogs that provide information on the
recycled content and postconsumer content of all products.
Each year, Boise Cascade increases the number of recycled-
content products it offers. Additionally,  the vendor maintains
records of the products PSEG purchases, the quantities it pur-
chases, and the total amount it spends, allowing PSEG to
track its annual usage of recycled-content products.
   As your program grows and your  goals expand into multiple
attributes or lifecycle analysis, your method of measurement is
likely to change. You will need to quantify the  environmental
benefits of your products based on the goals that your EPP
team established during the development phase. For example,
you could measure reductions in natural  gas consumption as a
result of energy-efficiency projects or the  decreased purchases of
products containing VOCs. DaimlerChrysler evaluates its pur-
chases on multiple environmental attributes—including toxici-
ty, chemical exposure, and release—and recyclability, in
addition to cost and performance factors. The company con-
ducts a lifecycle cost analysis of the products it purchases, main-
taining databases with information on more than 800,000
components and products. When a product has been identified
as preferable based on the lifecycle analysis, the database ensures
that the preferred product is purchased.

Resource  Conservation
   If you are focusing on conserving water or energy, com-
pare your water, sewer, fuel, or electricity bills from before
you implemented conservation practices with those after. Not
only will this demonstrate whether  your efforts are successful,
the information can be used  to increase awareness of the
need to conserve water and energy  throughout the company.

Reduced Consumption  of Chemicals
   One possible way to measure your consumption of chemi-
cals is to keep a database that tracks  your organization's use  of
hazardous chemicals. In its Green Procurement Standards,
Canon USA, Inc., includes lists of more than  300 chemicals
that are used in routine facility operations or that remain in its
products. Canon has prohibited the use of many of the chemi-
cals and strives to reduce the use of all chemicals on the lists.
You can build your own database  by obtaining copies of the
material safety data sheets (MSDSs)  for the  chemical products
you purchase. MSDSs provide information about the manu-
facturer, hazardous substance content, first aid emergency pro-
cedures, personal protection, and special precautions.
   Promoting  EPP
   It is important for your organization to promote its EPP pro-
   grams both internally and externally. Internal promotion will
   educate staff and management about the benefits of EPP
   and foster organizational support for your program. External
   promotion publicly demonstrates your organization's com-
   mitment to the environment and advertises its actions.
   Herman Miller publishes its environmental goals in its
   Environmental Report, highlights them on the Web site, and
   distributes them to customers. As well as informing the public
   of the company's initiatives, this publicity allows employees
   to take pride in the company's environmental stewardship.

   External Promotion

      •   Display the environmental attributes of the prod-
         ucts you buy and sell.
      •   Circulate a letter to each supplier about your envi-
         ronmental goals and objectives.
      •   Organize vendor fairs for environmentally friendly
      •   Donate environmentally preferable products to
         local charities and nonprofit organizations.
      •   Provide information about your EPP program on
         your Web site.
   Internal Promotion
      •   Host green purchasing workshops/training sessions
         for employees.
      •   Invite vendors to demonstrate environmentally
         friendly products.
      •   Include environmental performance as part of the
         annual reviews.
      •   Offer staff bonuses.
      •   Sponsor competitions between departments.
      •   Disseminate information through e-mails and
   It is important that vendors making environmental claims take
   heed of the Federal Trade Commission's "Green Guides,"
   located at 

Waste Wise Update
        for   Environmentally  Preferable   Purchasing
       O n I i  n  e
                  r c  e s
EPATs Environmentally
Preferable Purchasing
Program Web Site

Includes EPA's guidance on EPP,
descriptions of federal pilot projects,
and tools and resources—including
the EPP database, collections of case
studies, and electronic copies of the
EPP Update.

EPP Update

EPA's semi-annual newsletter on EPP
program activities. Issues of this publi-
cation are available online.

EPP Database
< http://notes.erg.com >
Contains information on more than
600 products and services. It provides
links to contract language and specifi-
cations created and used by federal
and state governments and others to
buy environmentally preferable prod-
ucts and services.


The Northeast Recycling Council
(NERC) established  the EPPNET list
server to link federal, state, local,  and
private procurement and environmen-
tal officials. Potential participants must
first register for approval.
Hospitals for a Healthy
Environment (H2E)
Environmentally Preferable
Purchasing Guide

While aimed at hospitals, the princi-
ples and steps in this EPP guide are
applicable to any type of organization.
This Web site is a cooperative project
of the U.S. EPA and the American
Hospital Association.

National Pollution  Prevention
Roundtable (NPPR) EPP
Discussion Group

The EPP Discussion Group was formed
in 1999 to promote networking and
communication among people practic-
ing EPP and people interested in learn-
ing about EPP;  minimize duplication of
effort on EPP issues through increased
communication; and serve as a resource
to NPPR members interested in EPP
Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory EPP Training Slide

Though focusing on purchasing
requirements set forth by E.O. 13101
for federal agencies, this site provides
an online, printable slide presentation
on EPP that can be used by any orga-
The Environmentally
Preferable Purchasing Guide

Published by the Solid Waste
Management Coordinating Board, a
group consisting of six metropolitan
counties in Minnesota, this online EPP
guide is aimed at government and
school purchasers. The guide reviews
more than 30 product areas, provid-
ing information on cost, performance,
specifications, and availability.
King County, Washington
Environmental Purchasing

King County's Web site provides a his-
tory of the county's EPP policies,
descriptions of its experience with vari-
ous environmentally preferable prod-
ucts, bid and contract specifications,
and local vendor information.
Environmentally Preferable
Products Procurement

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is
one of the first states in the country to
initiate an EPP program. Its Web site
includes state EPP policies and regula-
tions, bid and contract specifications,
and product information and experience.
Minnesota Materials
Management Division
Environmentally Responsible

Provides new updates on various prod-
ucts available to state agencies, lists
environmentally responsible products
and services available, highlights state
legislative and executive order require-
ments, and includes an electronic ver-
sion of the state's biennial report on EPP

                                                   WasteWise Update
City of Santa Monica's
Purchasing Policy

Provides criteria for procuring products
and services, negotiating contracts and
bid specifications, and complying with
city ordinances through environmen-
tally preferable purchasing.

Office of the  Federal
Environmental Executive

The Office of the Federal
Environmental Executive serves to
implement E.O. 13101, which is
designed to further expand and
strengthen the federal government's
commitment to recycling and buying
recycled-content  and environmentally
preferable products. The Web site con-
tains various reports and resources.

U.S. Department  of Energy's
Federal Energy Management
Program (FEMP)

FEMP seeks to help government agen-
cies reduce energy and water use,
manage utility costs, and promote
renewable energy. This Web site  pro-
vides information about the program's
mission, technical assistance
resources, and documents  highlighting
program success stories.
       Articles  &
To order hard copies of these pub-
lications (except WasteWise
Updates),  contact The Pollution
Prevention Information
Clearinghouse at 202 260-1023
or by e-mail: ppic@epa.gov.
The following documents also
are available online at

Federal Pioneers:
Environmentally Preferable
Purchasing Stories from the
Federal Government.
EPA 742-F-00-008. September
Includes case studies on 27 successful
applications of EPP in the federal gov-
ernment. The examples include every-
thing from photocopiers to custodial
services. They are from a diverse
group of agencies—from the
Department of Interior to the Navy—
demonstrating the different ways EPP
can be  applied and providing models
for other federal  purchasers.

Private Sector Pioneers Report.
EPA742-R-99/001. June 1999.
Highlights the EPP efforts of 18  private
companies.  Besides expanding the
market  of green products, many of the
companies in the report are preventing
pollution and saving millions of dollars
through EPP.

State  and Local Government
Pioneers: How State and
Local  Governments Are
Environmentally Preferable
Purchasing Practices.
EPA742-R-00/004. November
Illustrates  how more than 40 state and
local governments are implementing
EPR The study shows that green pur-
chasing is expanding beyond recycled
content products  to include many other
environmental attributes such as chlo-
rine-free,  reduced volatile organic
compounds  (VOC) content, use of
alternative fuels, and reduced product
Green Spending: A Case
Study of Massachusetts'
Environmental Purchasing
EPA742-R-98/002. August 1998.
Highlights the unique approach taken
by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
in its environmental purchasing pro-
gram. The commonwealth's proactive
decisions regarding environmental pur-
chasing have made the state a leader
among state governments in EPR

The City of Santa Monica's
Environmentally Preferable
Purchasing Efforts.
EPA742-R-98/001. January 1998.
Examines  how the City of Santa Monica,
California, adapted its purchasing poli-
cies to begin buying environmentally
preferable products and services.
Cleaning Products Pilot Project.
EPA/742/R-97/002. February 1997.
Documents the collaborative effort
between the U.S. General Services
Administration (GSA) and the EPA to
develop a framework for identifying
and comparing  environmentally prefer-
able commercial cleaning products.
Leading by Example: How EPA
Incorporated Environmental
Features into New Buildings.
EPA742-R-98/001. January 1998.
Provides two case studies to demon-
strate how large building projects can
cost-effectively incorporate environ-
mental features, while also addressing
the concerns unique to each site. The
case studies describe how EPA bal-
anced function, cost, and environmen-
tal impact while designing and
constructing two new EPA facilities.
Defending the Environment at
the Department of Defense.
EPA742-R-99/002. July 1999.
Documents how the U.S. Department
of Defense (DOD) introduced EPP into
routine renovations of the Pentagon
and several other DOD facilities. In the

Waste Wise Update
course of this project, DOD assessed
the environmental performance of
more than 300 construction products.
 Painting the Town Green: The
 Aberdeen Proving Ground
 Paint Pilot Project.
 EPA742-R-99/005. November
 Documents a pilot project to reduce the
 number, volume, and environmental
 effects of the paints used at Aberdeen
 Proving Ground. Aberdeen contracted
 with Green Seal to help identify the
 environmental attributes relevant to
 paint and then established environ-
 mentally  preferable paint standards.

 Paving the Road to Success:
 The Department of Defense's
 Parking Lot  Repair and
 Maintenance Contract: An
 Environmentally Preferable
 Purchasing Case Study.
 EPA742-R-96/007. December 1997.
 Describes in detail how the
 Department of Defense evaluated and
 purchased environmentally preferable
 products  to repair and maintain park-
 ing lots. The EPP pilot project involved
 specifying baseline environmental
 attributes of paving products and
developing innovative contract lan-
guage to encourage the contractor to
go beyond those baselines.
WasteWise Updates
All past issues of the WasteWise
Update can be downloaded from the
publications page of the WasteWise
Web site .
Some topics most relevant to EPP are
Remanufactures Products, Closing the
Loop, Building Supplier Relationships,
Extended Product Responsibility, and
Electronics Reuse and  Recycling.

GreenSeal  Choose Green
< www.doi.gov/oepc/gseal.html >
These monthly reports closely examine
environmentally responsible products
and services and compares their attrib-
utes among manufacturers and sources.


EPA and DOE's voluntary labeling pro-
gram is designed to identify and pro-
mote energy-efficient products.
ERATs Comprehensive
Procurement Guidelines (CPG)

EPA's CPG Web site contains informa-
tion on buying recycled-content products
in categories including office products,
paper products, construction products,
and transportation products. Fact sheets
provide information on EPA-designated
recycled-content products;  recycled-con-
tent recommendations; case studies
from around the country; and key
resources, associations, and Web sites.
Chlorine Free Products

This trade association represents com-
panies dedicated to implementing
advanced technologies and groups
supporting products free of chlorine.
Oikos Green Buildings Source

A database of green building products
that features special "products of the
   If you have received this publication in error or want to be removed from the WasteWise Update mailing list, please call the WasteWise Helpline
   at 800 EPA-WISE (372-9473) or send a copy of this page, with the mailing label, back to WasteWise at the address below. Many WasteWise
   publications, including the WasteWise Update, are available electronically on the WasteWise Web site at .
    United States
    Environmental Protection Agency
    Washington, DC 20460

    Official Business
    Penalty for Private Use $300