United States
  Environmental Protection
                              Issue 1  • May 2002  • EPA530-N-02-001

tribes and villages. An opinions forum
and an activity-packed kids page will
also appear in each issue. The TWJ will
be published annually to replace the
Native American Network newsletter.

   Interview with Grace Deragon
   and Judy Pratt-Shelly of the Red
   Building a Multifaceted
   Program	7
   Community Outreach and
   Involvement	10
   Keep Sites Clean	14
   Measurement	17

   RESOURCES  .   .  20
     RENIE the Recycling Robot
     Shop for Waste
     Pawnee Environmental
     Education Center
     Creative Projects for Young
United States Environmental
Protection Agency
Solid Waste and Emergency
Response (5306W)

Janice Johnson, Editor
Region 5 Contributors:
Dolly long and Chad Cliburn
                            THE  TRIBAL

                            Backyard  Burning  on
                            Redcliff Reservation:
                            A Mother/Daughter  Perspective
     ike many tribes, Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa has an
     open burning problem. Many tribal members, especially those in rural
   M areas, still burn their household trash in burn barrels. Recently, howev-
er, the Tribe has made significant progress on this issue, thanks, in large part,
to the work of Judy Pratt-Shelly, the Treaty/Natural Resources Division Chief
and Executive Environmental Programs Director for the Tribe. Red Cliff's
"Burn Barrel Incentive Program" has dramatically reduced the amount of
open burning, particularly in public housing areas (see box on page 5 for pro-
gram details). The Tribal Waste journal (TWJ) wanted to know how Ms. Pratt-
Shelly persuaded people to give up their burn barrels. With this and other
questions in mind, we spoke with Ms. Pratt-Shelly and her mother, Grace
Deragon, on October 12, 2001. The following are excerpts of the interviews:
                            Grace Deragon, Tribal Elder

                            TWJ: How has household trash
                            traditionally been handled on the

                            Ms. Deragon: I was born in 1933 and
                            grew up in Bayfield, Minnesota, 3
                            miles south of the reservation. We
                            had an open dump in Bayfield where
                            we took our tin cans. We never
                            burned, except for paper meat wrap-
                            pers in the cookstove. There just
                            wasn't a lot of trash, not like you see
                            now. We lived on fresh food, like deer
                            meat and vegetables from my grand-
                            mother's garden. We composted any
                              leftover food, which wasn't much
                              because my mother had six children
                              to feed.

                              TWJ: When did you begin to observe
                              changes in the way people on the
                              reservation handled their trash?

                              Ms. Deragon: The burning started
                              when packaging changed. Basic foods
                              like bread and meat started coming
                              wrapped in plastic. Traditionally, we
                              never had anything to burn. Deer
                              don't come in plastic wrap! (laughs).
                              Then, about 10 years ago, the Bayfield
                              dump closed, and we no longer had

                                                                        TRIBAL WASTE JOURNAL
anywhere to put our trash. It didn't
take long before everyone on the
reservation had a burn barrel.
TWJ: What environmental mes-
sages did you hear growing up?
Ms. Deragon: We never heard
environmental messages growing up.
We weren't aware of the dangers in
our environment. I remember we
sprayed our apple orchards with
DDT and our cows with a substance
to control flies. It wasn't until the
creation of the various environmen-
tal agencies that we heard these
things were dangerous.
TWJ: Have you noticed any
changes in people's attitudes
towards the environment?
Ms. Deragon: There have been lots
of changes in how we care for the
Earth. We were fortunate to have
Walt Bresette, a great environmen-
talist, as a member of our Tribe. He
told us that anything that we put in
the ground ends up in Lake
Superior. A lot of people laughed
when he  told them that. They had
no inkling of what goes around,
comes around. Tribal women take
care of the water. It's something we
can do to care for the Earth. I'm
fearful that something will happen
to Lake Superior. I realize that it's
not just one  lake, but a giant system
that feeds other lakes and rivers.
Judy Pratt-Shelly, Treaty/Natural Resources Division Chief
and Executive Environmental Programs Director
TWJ: How has household trash tra-
ditionally been handled on the
Ms. Pratt-Shelly: I know we had
open dumps, but  they didn't have a
lot of junk in them. And I never
saw them on fire. I was born in
1959, and we weren't a throw-away
society then. The dumps were kind
of like a shopping mall for us kids.
We'd go there to  find a toy or some
old clothes. But there was minimal
household garbage—potato peel-
ings, bones from meat, and chicken
guts—most everything else got com-
posted or eaten.
TWJ: Have you observed any
changes over the  years in the way
people on the reservation handle
their trash?
Ms. Pratt-Shelly: In the 1970s,
many changes occurred. Our
lifestyle had changed from a focus
on gathering our  food to buying it.
Corporate farms took over,  so many
of our people left the land and went
to work outside of the reservation.
Around this time, the Tribe started
burning the dump. I'm not sure why,
but I guess there was a lot more
garbage and the Tribe needed to
increase the life of the dump.
In 1991, another big change
occurred. [Federal] regulations
required all open dumps to be closed
unless they met certain criteria for
municipal solid waste landfills.
Since we don't have the tax base [to
fund the construction of municipal
solid waste landfills], the Tribe
closed our dump. Compounding the
problem, the neighboring town
didn't want tribes using their dump.
Without legal options to dispose of
trash, we experienced a big jump in
illegal dumping and burning.
Instead of having identified places
to put trash, the closure of open
dumps  resulted in people dumping
their garbage everywhere.
TWJ: Have you noticed any
changes in people's attitudes or
opinions concerning open dumping
or backyard burning?
TWJ: How did your daughter, Ms.
Pratt-Shelly, get her environmental
drive ?
Ms. Deragon: She's always had an
interest in biology and chemistry.
She's a real go-getter. When she
gets an idea in her mind, she's
always on someone's neck about it.
You know, up until a few years ago,
her dad had a burn barrel.
TWJ: How did she persuade her
dad to give up his burn barrel?
Ms Deragon: She was  persistent.
She said, "That's going to make you
sick." It's better to quit doing things
than listen to Judy (laughs).
Ms. Pratt-Shelly: We're a poor
Tribe, but the quality of our envi-
ronment is much more important
than money. I consider it my
responsibility to protect the health
of Lake Superior for my kids and
future generations. The Lake is who
I am—it's my spiritual center.
Besides giving me food, it nourishes
my mind and spirit. I tell people
that when we burn, we're putting
toxins into a living body that's
keeping us here.
TWJ: What environmental mes-
sages did you hear growing up?
Ms. Pratt-Shelly: I grew up in the
woods, close to the Earth. The out-
doors was my school. I foraged for
food outside everyday and gathered
medicines from the plants. If you
look real closely, you can see the

workings of nature. You recognize
that the plants, animals, and fish are
alive—and we're here to use these
resources, not conquer them.
TWJ: Do you think burning trash
on the reservation is harming your
people and the  environment?
Ms. Pratt-Shelly: Even before I
went to work for Red Cliff's envi-
ronmental program, I could smell
the toxins from all the backyard
burning. I learned more about the
toxins such as dioxin.  Until we
started using burn barrels, there
wasn't a lot that we, as individuals,
could do to stop incinerators and
others sources from spewing dioxins
into the air. But with burn barrels,
people can do something: we  can
stop using them.
TWJ: How do you recommend solv-
ing the illegal dumping problem on
your reservation?
Ms. Pratt-Shelly: In 1992, I started
a recycling program. I got a grant
from the Wisconsin Department of
Natural Resources, which allowed us
to hire a person to pick up trash
from roadsides. Grant funds also
helped us pay for disposal of the
recyclables. Recycling has been a
big success in reducing the amount
of garbage on the reservation. Then,
in 1996, we used Indian Health
Service construction funds to open
up a transfer station where tribal
members can dispose of garbage for
a small per bag fee and bring their
recyclables for free. I think people
are starting to recognize  that it costs
money to dispose of waste.
TWJ: What about backyard burn-
ing? What  are you doing about that?
Ms. Pratt-Shelly: The backyard
burning issue is tough. People don't
like to be told what to do, and they
don't want to give up something
they have. I have relatives that have
sworn never to give up their burn
barrels. I worked with EPA Region 5
on this issue, and we decided to
offer a voluntary burn barrel incen-
tive program. We held a community
meeting to explain the harmful
effects of backyard burning and
worked closely with our Indian
Housing Director to spread the word
about the program. After attending
our community meeting,  the Junior
Tribal Council drafted up a resolu-
tion  to ban the use of burn barrels
on the reservation, which they sub-
sequently passed.  It's really been the
voice of youth that has championed
the open burning issue.

     The Red Cliff Tribe has significantly reduced the amount of backyard burning on its reservation through a volun-
     tary incentive program that gives people a chance to turn in their burn barrel and receive $20 worth of trash
     bags that can be used at the Tribe's transfer station. Since its inception last year, the Tribe has
     picked up 45 burn barrels in the public housing areas. Ms. Pratt-Shelly estimates that these burn
     barrels accounted] for about 90 percent of the burning occurring in the housing area. "No one is
     burning in the housing areas anymore," she said.
     When residents turn in their burn barrels, they sign a pledge acknowledging that they understand
     that burning trash in barrels causes harmful pollution. Program participants receive a certificate,
     along with 10 free trash bags. Ms. Pratt-Shelly credits much of the success among the housing
     residents to the cooperation she received from Red Cliff's housing  director, who notified resi-
     dents that open burning was  not allowed in the housing area.
     Red Cliff's Junior Tribal Council, consisting of elected tribal members 16 to 25 years old, proved
     to be an equally important ally in the Environmental Department bid to rid the reservation of
     burn barrels. After learning about the potential harm the various pollutants could be causing
     from tribal  members at a community meeting, the Junior Tribal Council swiftly drafted and
     passed a resolution banning the use of burn barrels on the reservation.  "It's really been the
     voice of youth that has championed the open burning issue," declares Ms. Pratt-Shelly.
     "It's now up to the Senior Tribal Council to ensure that open burning is
     unlawful on the reservation." The Senior Council has passed a motion to
     implement a burn barrel  ban. The ban is undergoing final  review and will
     be put out for public comment before being finalized.

                                                                 TRIBAL WASTE JOURNAL

Respect  Our  Resources:  Prevent  Illegal  Dumping
Develop a Solid
Foundation: Offer Waste
Disposal Alternatives and
Address  Past Habits
Illegal dump sites scar Indian lands
and other rural communities across
the nation. Tribal and non-tribal
members from on and off reserva-
tions illegally dump household
waste, white goods, scrap tires, old
cars, construction debris, and other
materials for two major reasons.
First, community members dump
illegally to  avoid curbside pickup
charges or transfer station tipping
fees. Second, illegal dumping is
habit for a number of individuals.
In some cases, generations of fami-
lies burned their trash or dumped
it in the woods. These practices
are linked to a time when tribal
members produced less waste,
before commercial items and pack-
aging became popular. Tribes have
discovered  that it is useful to con-
sider the forces driving illegal
dumping as they develop solutions
to the problem.
The Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of
Texas decided to open a transfer sta-
tion and cover all disposal costs for
its members as an incentive for
proper waste disposal. Tribal mem-
bers continued to use burn pits and
other illegal disposal methods, how-
ever. Consequently, the Tribe's Solid
Waste Department conducted an
aggressive door-to-door campaign
explaining the dangers of illegal
dumping and the benefits of using
the transfer station. The transfer
station became popular as awareness
increased. This example shows that
 "Getting people involved in
 your project is huge.
 Reservation Business
 Committee (RBC) approval
 is the first step. Once you
 have the RBC resolution,
 you can take it to schools
 and other organizations and
 ask them to participate.
 Having community mem-
 bers involved in the
 process—schools, clinics,
 human resources—makes
 the project run smoother."
  —Deanna Himango, Fond du Lac
   Resource Management Division
a successful illegal dumping preven-
tion plan should include affordable
waste disposal alternatives and
break old habits.
Build on the Foundation:
Implement a Multifaceted
In 1999, the Lac Courte Oreilles
Conservation Department drafted an
"Honor the Earth" illegal dumping
prevention plan. The plan represents
a coordinated effort to clean up
existing dump sites and encourage
residents to use the new tribal trans-
fer station instead of dumping illegal-
ly. It embodies a multifaceted
approach, developed by EPA Region
5, that a number of tribes have found
useful. This approach includes:
  • Cleanup and site maintenance
  • Community outreach and
  • Targeted enforcement
  • Program measurement
While all of these components are
important, tribes can shift emphasis
between them as their illegal dump-
ing programs mature and sources of
funding change. At the beginning, it
might be important to devote a
lion's share of available time and
resources to site cleanup to elimi-
nate immediate health threats.
Later, community outreach and tar-
geted enforcement help keep sites
clean. Measurement complements
cleanup, outreach, and enforcement
by helping tribes focus their efforts,


Contractors clean up an illegal dump site on White
Earth Reservation.
justify spending, and track success.
Working in concert with expanded
solid waste management options, the
program components go beyond
treating the symptoms of illegal
dumping—they get to  the root of
the problem.

Mobilize the Community:
Obtain  Support from
Tribal  Leaders
Support from the Tribal Council,
Reservation Business Committee,
and elders increases the success of
an illegal dumping program. When
tribal leaders deliver messages about
illegal dumping and respect for the
land,  they have a powerful influ-
ence. Leaders can ask tribal agencies
to get involved, mobilize communi-
ty support, and leverage funding and
other resources.

Partnering for Success: Your
Community Offers Many
Talents and  Resources
The Gila River Indian Community
held an illegal dumping workshop
for tribal officials attended by a
councilman, the Police Chief and
police officers, tribal rangers, a pros-
ecutor from the Law Office, the
Chief Judge and Assistant Judge, a
livestock officer, and representatives
from the Department of
Transportation, Emergency
Management, and Public Works.
         •  Attendees learned
            about the illegal
            dumping provision of
            the Tribe's Solid Waste
            Ordinance, discussed
            how to enforce it, and
            delegated specific
            enforcement responsi-
            bilities. Partnerships
            between tribal agen-
            cies can significantly
            improve program suc-
            cess. Each partner
            must have a clear
understanding of the problem and
his or her responsibility.
It is also important for tribes to form
partnerships with non-tribal groups.
For example, a number of tribes find
it useful to work with surrounding
  "Be patient and do what
  you can. Don't be discour-
  aged by the people who
  refuse  to cooperate...
  Hammer your message
  home with  the people who
  do want to  help."
     —Brett McConnell, Lac Courte
  Oreilles Conservation Department
counties to resolve jurisdiction
issues. Jurisdiction gets particularly
complicated when a reservation is
not contiguous. In Oklahoma, the
Pawnee Nation Reservation consists
of approximately 28,000 acres of
allotted and tribal land  interspersed
with private, county, state, and fed-
eral land. The Pawnee Nation
Department of Environmental
Conservation and Safety worked
closely with the Pawnee and Payne
county sheriff departments to iron
out jurisdictional issues  for illegal
dumping enforcement.
Some tribes also find it helpful to
work with neighboring county and
state agencies during illegal dumping
program development. Partnering at
this stage ensures that tribal, county,
or state illegal dumping codes and
programs are consistent. It can also
lead to new funding opportunities
and resource sharing.

Patience and Publicity:
Ingredients of Success
Behavioral change does not happen
overnight. It takes constant outreach
and sustained enforcement to stop
people from dumping illegally. For
generations, many illegal dumpers
have been using burn barrels or
throwing trash in the woods. Often,
they are unaware of the environmen-
tal and health implications of their
actions. They may need to hear why
illegal dumping is harmful more than
once before changing their ways.
Patience and persistence may eventu-
ally lead people to reconsider their
methods of waste disposal. Ken
McBride of the Red Lake Department
of Natural Resources believes that
patience was critical in his Tribe's ille-
gal dumping program. He  encourages
other tribes, "Don't give up! It is a
long process. If you keep preaching
the message it will be heard." It is also
important to remember that some
illegal dumpers might not be able to
afford or access current waste disposal
options. Affordable and accessible
waste disposal alternatives should be
part of any long-term strategy.
Publicity can be a valuable tool for
maintaining an illegal dumping pro-
gram. Keeping illegal dumping
issues in the public eye:
  • Sustains program momentum.
  • Generates support and under-
  • Helps justify continued funding.
  • Helps enforcement efforts
    through press releases to
    increase awareness of enforce-
    ment actions.


                                                                      TRIBAL WASTE JOURNAL
I.    Building  a Multifaceted  Program:  Cleanup
Identifying Illegal
Dump Sites
Designing a cleanup plan requires
an honest assessment of the situa-
tion and careful planning. Tribes
can prioritize cleanup efforts by
drawing maps and ranking sites
according to risk. The Lac Courte
Oreilles Conservation Department
initiated informal conversations
with community members to locate
major illegal dump sites on the
reservation. Department staff then
worked with the Lac Courte
Oreilles Ojibwa Community
College to develop a geographic
information system (CIS) map of
the sites. The San Carlos Apache
EPA also used a CIS mapping sys-
tem to pinpoint abandoned debris.
The Tribe distributed copies of the
map to cleanup workers to assist  in
locating hard to find dump sites.
The Gila River Indian Community
maps and categorizes its dump sites
into three levels according to risk.
The Community focuses cleanup
efforts on level one sites, which
pose a substantial health threat.
Maps and ranking systems help
tribes channel limited cleanup
resources to areas where they are
most needed.
Performing Cleanup
Cleanup efforts can proceed after
illegal dump sites are identified and
prioritized. The White Earth Band of
the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe
found a way to keep cleanup costs
down. The Tribe leveraged competi-
tion by allowing contractors to bid
on its Cherry Lake Road
cleanup project. A contrac-
tor came up with a bid that
was significantly lower than
the Tribe had anticipated.
The contractor used heavy
equipment to clean up the
large items, and the Tribe
hired local residents to pick
up the remaining items by
hand. Tribes can also keep cleanup
costs down by asking waste disposal
companies to donate equipment or
waive tipping fees.

Securing the Sites
Tribes have discovered that many
illegal dumping areas continue to
experience problems after being
cleaned up. Cleanup plans are more
successful when they include a
visionary strategy to deal with future
illegal dumping incidents.  In addi-
tion to outreach, education,
enforcement, and expanded waste
management,  this strategy involves
Before and after shots spell success for a White Earth cleanup project.
site controls and a long-term main-
tenance plan.

Signs, lighting, barriers, and land-
scaping are examples of site controls.
Signs inform potential dumpers that
their actions are illegal and can
carry a stiff penalty. The other con-
trols make illegal dumping more vis-
           ible, limit access to
           illegal dumping hot
           spots, and keep former
           dump sites from revert-
           ing back to their previ-
           ous condition. Red
           Lake Band of
           Chippewa strategically
           posted more than 25
           "No Dumping" signs at
accesses to off-road areas and other
high risk locations. The signs state
that dumping is prohibited and pun-
ishable by fine. They also include
the pertinent tribal resolution num-
ber. The Tribe keeps litter away from
the "No Dumping" signs to give the
message credence.  The Wyandotte
Environmental Department worked
with Ottawa County to clean up a
4-acre area on the  reservation, adja-
cent to a county road. The county
provided equipment and manpower
to dig a ditch along the shoulder of
the road to prevent more people
from driving off the road to dump.
The Wyandotte Environmental
Department also cleaned up a small-
er dump site near a local school.
The Tribe used a fence to limit
access to the area.  The White Earth
Natural Resources  Department sup-
plemented its Cherry Lake Road
cleanup project with a beautification
effort. One of the consequences of
using heavy equipment to clean the
site was that most of the onsite veg-
etation was destroyed. The
Minnesota Department of Natural
Resources donated 1,000 trees to


stabilize the soil and make the
area attractive.
Long-term site maintenance is also
a critical component of any vision-
ary cleanup strategy. Site mainte-
nance is often built into
enforcement by making cleanup
part of the penalty for illegal dump-
ing. But, what
happens if the
illegal dumpers
are not  caught?
Who cleans up?                Environmental
Tribes have
developed sys-
tematic site
maintenance  plans. When the
Seminole Nation of Oklahoma dis-
covers new illegal dump sites, it
hires Seminole County to clean
them up. Fond du Lac conducts an
annual spring cleanup event. During
the event, community members
have an extra opportunity to report
dump sites that sprang up over the
year. The Tribe hires crews of three
to five people to clean them up.
Leaders Leverage Cleanup
Funding and  Community
Tribal leaders can appropriate funds
for cleanup and increase communi-
ty participation in the project. For
example, the Fond du Lac spring
             cleanup event is
             sponsored by the
             Reservation Business
             Committee (RBC)
             and funded by the
             Tribe. Tribal funding
             can augment federal
             cleanup funding from
EPA, the Bureau  of Indian Affairs
(BIA), and the Indian Health
Service (IHS). Gila River com-
bined IHS and tribal  funding to ini-
tiate a "Beautification 2001" project
to clean up sites that  pose a sub-
stantial health risk. Even if tribes
do not have money to spare for
cleanup projects, tribal leaders can
still increase community participa-
tion. The Fond du Lac Natural
Resources Division obtained a reso-
lution from the RBC in support of
the illegal dumping prevention pro-
gram. The division brought the res-
olution to Fond du Lac Elementary
School and Ojibwe High School
and asked them to participate  in an
Earth Day cleanup. Administrators
and teachers worked with students
to clean up and adopt the road in
front of the school.

Diversify Cleanup
Resources:  Build
The Pawnee Nation Department of
Environmental Conservation &
Safety staff knew that many of the
reservation's illegal dump sites  posed
a severe health threat. The Tribe,
however, did not have the equip-
ment or finances  for cleanup. The
department turned to BIA for help.
BIA responded by providing fund-
ing, personnel, and equipment for
the project. By partnering with BIA,

     In 2000, the San Carlos Apache EPA worked with BIA and IHS to collect unwanted and abandoned cars and
     white goods and haul them to a landfill or scrap metal yard. San Carlos Apache EPA staff pinpointed abandoned
     debris on a CIS generated map of illegal dump sites on the reservation. A tribal EPA technician also ventured
     out into the field with spray paint and marked some of the abandoned cars to make them easier to spot.
     Guided by the map and spray paint, BIA and IHS used heavy equipment to pick up the items. BIA and IHS recy-
     cled as much as possible and hauled items that did not have recycling potential to a landfill. BIA focused on
     abandoned items while IHS collected unwanted items from residents' homes.
    A local scrap metal vendor agreed to buy cars and scrap metal with reuse or recycling potential
    from the Tribe. Many of the automobiles, refrigerators, and other goods collected contained haz-
    ardous materials such as batteries, oil, and freon. The Tribe used money from the sales of the
    scrap metal to cover the costs of removing these hazardous materials.
    In their unwanted car removal efforts, the agencies were concerned about trespassing on private
    property. To alleviate this concern, the San Carlos Apache EPA developed a waiver for residents
    to sign. The waiver gave  BIA and IHS permission to pick up old cars and released the agencies
    from liability. The waiver also required residents to enter the vehicle identification number and
    other basic information about the car. The scrap metal hauler could not take the vehicles with-
    out this information. IHS, BIA, and the tribal attorney reviewed and approved the form.
    By working together, the agencies collected more than 900 unwanted
    and abandoned cars!

                                                                         TRIBAL WASTE  JOURNAL
Pawnee Nation expanded its
resource base and cleaned up all but
3 or 4 of its 40 known dump sites.
Partnerships between tribal, county,
and state agencies can also supple-
ment cleanup resources. As men-
tioned earlier, the Wyandotte
Nation used BIA funds to hire a
contractor for site cleanup and part-
nered with Ottawa County to dig a
ditch to prevent future dumping
incidents. The county provided
equipment and manpower for the
project. This example  highlights an
important cleanup resource: labor.
In several cases, partnerships helped
tribes avoid using precious cleanup
funds to pay for expensive  labor. All
volunteers and non-professionals
should attend safety briefings before
participating in cleanup. During
the summers of 2000 and
2001, the Red Lake
Tribe's welfare-to-work
program provided
workers for an annual
tire collection effort.
Workers removed tires
from streams, rivers,
lakes, and other illegal
dump sites across the reserva-
tion. The Red Lake Courts'
C.R.A.F.T (Creating Restitution
and Follow Tradition)  Program has
also provided laborers  for site
cleanups. BIA and IHS provided
labor for a San Carlos  Apache EPA
project that  involved collecting
unwanted and abandoned cars and
white goods.

Publicity  Helps Preserve
Clean Sites
Publicizing cleanup events sends a
clear message to illegal dumpers  and
concerned community members.
Illegal  dumpers learn that their
actions are unacceptable and come
at a cost to the community.
Publicized events increase commu-
nity awareness and show that the
Tribe is serious about addressing the
problem. Community members
might also feel empowered to report
other illegal dumping incidents and
assist with future cleanup efforts.
The White Mountain Apache
Environmental Planning Office used
the "Adopt a Highway" program to
catalyze community interest in its
illegal dumping prevention program.
The Solid Waste Department con-
tacted residents and tribal businesses
to locate volunteers and the tribal
Environmental Planning Office pro-
vided trash bags.  In a one-day
event, community members cleaned
up along many of the reservation's
highways. The White Earth Natural
Resources Department took a differ-
    ent approach. It worked with
        tribal and  local papers to
          make the Cherry Lake
           Road cleanup project
           Publicizing cooperative
           cleanup efforts demon-
         strates the power of part-
       nerships. High publicity,
   cooperative cleanups can rein-
force alliances between tribal, coun-
ty, state, and federal agencies. For
example, the Gila River Indian
Community worked with the City
of Phoenix on a number of joint
cleanups. These projects generated
awareness both on and off the reser-
vation and  fostered a positive
working relationship between
the two communities. The
White Earth Natural Resources
Department worked with the
Minnesota  Department of Natural
Resources, the surrounding counties,
and private groups to develop three
demonstration cleanup projects.
The partners selected high profile
sites, such as a location next to a

     Identify and map dump sites.
     Rank dump sites according to
     Where possible, use competi-
     tive bidding to lower cleanup
     Use site controls such as signs,
     lighting, barriers, and landscap-
     ing to secure cleaned sites.
     Develop a long-term site main-
     tenance plan.
     Secure tribal leadership
     involvement and support.
     Partner with tribal, county,
     state, and federal agencies.
     Conduct and publicize high
     profile cleanups.
church, and worked together to
clean them up. The projects demon-
strated that tribal and non-tribal
agencies are serious about working
together to solve the reservation's
illegal dumping problem.

 II.    Community  Outreach  and  Involvement:
 Building  Support  for Your  Program
 Identify Your Target
 Effective community outreach
 begins with identifying your target
 audience, allowing you to customize
 outreach campaigns to meet situa-
 tion-specific needs. Identifying your
 audience is actually a multi-step
 process. The first step is to deter-
 mine who  is dumping illegally.  It
 might be useful to investigate exist-
 ing illegal dump sites for clues.  Most
 illegal dump sites within the Gila
 River Indian Community, for exam-
 ple, are located along the border of
 the reservation, indicating that
 most of the illegal dumpers are  from
 outside of the community. Armed
 with this information,
 the Gila River
 Department of
 Quality designed an
 outreach campaign
 that extends beyond
 the borders of the
                      No Dumping
                     Source: Gila River Indian
The next step is to
identify the unique
characteristics of your
illegal dumpers and tailor outreach
efforts accordingly. For example,
because the counties surrounding
the Gila River Indian Community
have a large population of Spanish
speakers, the Gila River Department
of Environmental Quality recognized
the need for new "No Illegal
Dumping" signs with an internation-
al symbol for "no dumping."

Knowing why individuals are dump-
ing illegally will help make your out-
reach campaign more effective.
Again, illegal dump sites may con-
tain clues. Dump sites that consist of
                                   It is important to educate
                                   the citizens of this county
                                   on illegal trash dumping.
                                   They need to be aware of
                                   the problems created by
                                   dumping on the sides of the
                                   road, in creeks, etc.
                                      —Olen Carr, Seminole Nation
                                            Environmental Officer
primarily household trash might
indicate that current waste disposal
options are too costly or inconven-
ient. Dump sites located next to
closed dumps or burn pits might
           indicate that tradition-
           al habit is driving the
           problem. Informal con-
           versations with com-
           munity members can
           also expose the reasons
           behind illegal dumping.

           After identifying who
           is responsible for illegal
           dumping, expand the
           audience to include
           people who can influ-
ence the behavior of the illegal
dumpers. Educate people who can
pass the information on and maxi-
mize message impact. For example,
if traditional habit is driving illegal
dumping, educate children and trib-
al leaders about the problem. When
these groups explain the dangers of
illegal dumping, the community
tends to listen. Refer to the Kids
Page to learn creative ways to edu-
cate children about illegal dumping.
                                  As you think about the target audi-
                                  ence, do not forget about enforce-
                                  ment. Conservation officers,
rangers, police officers, and other
law enforcement officials need to
understand the illegal dumping
problem, Solid Waste Ordinances,
illegal dumping codes, and enforce-
ment procedures. The Fond du Lac
Band of Lake Superior Chippewa
developed language in its Solid
Waste Ordinance to clarify penalties
and enforcement for illegal dumping
and educated tribal conservation
officers about their new responsibili-
ties. Finally, it is important to
remember that other community
members can play a role in enforce-
ment by reporting suspicious dump-
ing activities and new illegal dump
sites. Building broad community
support through outreach and edu-
cation can also sustain program
funding and momentum. For these
reasons, the target audience might
include the entire community.

Create a  Powerful
Message:  Keep it Simple
and Incorporate Culture
Tribes have found it is useful to
develop a clear, simple message to
which the target audience can relate.
The message can be as simple as "No
Dumping" or "Keep it Clean." The
message can then be supported with
information persuading the audience
to comply, including:
  • Listing fines and penalties.
  • Indicating that areas are under
  • Showing photographs of dump
  • Quantifying the costs  of clean-
    ing up sites.
  • Listing proper disposal sites and


                                                                         TRIBAL WASTE JOURNAL
The Keweenaw Bay Indian
Community posts "No Dumping"
signs and produces a pamphlet
detailing the environmental prob-
lems associated with illegal dump-
ing. The pamphlet also instructs
community members to report ille-
gal dumping and educates them
about proper waste disposal meth-
ods. The Community distributes the
pamphlet at public events and
includes it with hunting and fishing
license applications.
Several tribes have also incorporat-
ed culture into illegal dumping out-
reach efforts. Cultural messages
personalize an education campaign
and catch the eyes of community
members. For example, the Red
Lake high school students produced
an educational video with the main
message, "Put Garbage in its Place."
The secondary message built upon
the Red Lake Tribe's historical and
cultural philosophy, "Treat Mother
Earth with respect." The students
further incorporated tribal culture
and tradition into the video by
including a spirit narrator. The spir-
it explains where waste goes,
describes  the impact of illegal
dumping on the community, and
informs polluters that they are abus-
ing Mother Earth.
The White Earth Natural Resources
Department discovered a creative
way to combine culture with sus-
tained education and outreach. The
department coordinated  production

Tribes are constantly finding new ways to educate community members
about illegal dumping. Examples of successful projects include:
   • Gila River Indian Community—Gila River Indian News publishes arti-
    cles on the Tribe's illegal dumping prevention program regularly. The
    program also receives coverage in a number of off-Community news-
    papers and on TV news programs.
   • Pawnee Nation—The Department of Environmental Conservation
    and Safety publishes information from the Solid Waste Disposal Act
    in local papers.
   • White Mountain Apache—The Solid Waste Department produced a
    brochure that includes excerpts from the solid waste code, the curb-
    side pickup schedule, a hotline number for reporting illegal dumping,
    a picture of an illegal dump site, and a reminder list for proper waste
    disposal. The department distributed a copy to each resident through
    the reservation's post offices.
   • Alabama-Coushatta—The Solid Waste Department sent out memos
    about the new transfer station to each tribal member and conducted
    door-to-door visits to approximately 60 percent of the residences.
   • White Earth—The Natural Resources Department distributes mag-
    nets, posters, and notepads that educate residents about proper
    waste disposal.
   • Seminole Nation—The Tribe uses  a tribal radio program to encour-
    age community members to report illegal dump sites and distributes
    stickers with slogans such as, "You Pollute It, You Drink It!"
   • Fond du Lac—The Resource Management Division produced a 10-
    minute video titled, "Environmental Stewardship: Protecting Our
    Mother Earth," which  incorporates testimonials from respected elders
    and community  members as well  as footage of the reservation and
    illegal dump sites. The video included strong cultural overtones
    through the narration  and music. The Resource Management
    Division also developed four commercials that air  on local TV sta-
    tions. One commercial juxtaposes a pristine site with a shot of
    garbage on the side of the road. In this commercial, a hunter teaches
    a young boy about protecting the land.
   • San Carlos Apache—The tribal EPA used public access chanr~'
    announcements to advertise cleanup efforts.


of a calendar to increase environ-
mental awareness among communi-
ty members. For the cover, artists
from the White Earth Land
Recovery Project  created an illustra-
tion of a turtle, which incorporates
traditional Oj ibwa patterns and col-
ors symbolic to the Ojibwa people.
The body of the calender includes
scenic photography from a White
Earth tribal member and environ-
mental quotations from chiefs of
various tribes. Portions of the calen-
dar were printed in Oj ibwa and the
back page contains information
about the Tribe's Solid Waste
Ordinance and illegal dumping. It
also requests that  residents report
illegal dumping incidents to the
Natural Resources Department.

Increase Message  Potency:
Get  Support from  Tribal
Fond  du Lac discovered  that tribal
leaders deliver powerful  outreach
messages. The Tribe's Resource
                                Management Division obtained a
                                resolution from the Reservation
                                Business Council (RBC), which is
                                well-respected by community mem-
                                bers. The resolution states the goal
                                of preventing illegal dumping, lists
                                applicable laws, and supports rele-
                                vant outreach and education. The
                                RBC chairman also wrote a personal
                                letter of support. The Resource
                                Management Division employed the
                                same strategy in its illegal dumping
                                prevention video by including testi-
                                monials from respected elders.
                                Similarly, the White Earth Natural
                                Resources Department decided to
                                include quotations from tribal chiefs
                                in its calendar.

                                Partnerships and Outreach
                                Campaigns Go Hand in
                                Partnerships and outreach activities
                                complement one another. Outreach
                                is required to generate support and
                                create partnerships. In turn, partner-
                                ships are crucial to conducting fur-
ther outreach and sustaining your
illegal dumping program. For exam-
ple, if you want tribal leaders to pro-
mote your program, it is important
to convince them that it is worth
promoting. Start by educating the
potential partners. The Fond du Lac
Resource Management Division
began its outreach campaign by edu-
cating the RBC, which then educat-
ed other community members
through a resolution. A Lac Courte
Oreilles Band of Lake Superior
Chippewa warden was educated on
illegal dumping issues before he vis-
ited Community Circle meetings to
talk about illegal dumping. The
Gila River Indian Community held
a workshop to educate tribal
rangers, police officers, prosecutors,
judges, and other individuals about
the problem. The White Earth
Natural Resources Department
formed an illegal dumping task force
consisting of all the major agencies
involved with, and affected by, the
illegal dumping. Solid partnerships
                                                                                       LIE COURT?
The Lac Courte Oreilles have discovered the secret to successful community out-
reach. The Tribe's outreach campaign leverages support from children, tribal leaders,
and enforcement officials and focuses on changing the behavior of illegal dumpers.
The Lac Courte Oreilles Conservation Department works with faculty at the Lac
Courte Oreilles Ojibwa Community College to implement a week-long education
gram in the reservation schools. Students learn about proper waste disposal, recy-
cling, and illegal dumping. The week culminates in a  coloring contest with a recycl
theme. All of the students take home magnets that list the tribal transfer station ho
Support from tribal leaders is part of the Lac Courte Oreilles' recipe for success. The conservation dep;
developed a letter on solid waste management, and the Tribal Council voted to send it to all of the reservation
residents. The letter explains the benefits of using the tribal transfer station and highlights the penalty for illegal
dumping and the associated health and environmental  threats. The Tribal Council also supported efforts to pub-
licize the  illegal dumping program through the tribal  paper. In  one issue, the entire front page was dedicated to
illegal dumping. The article included an eye-catching title  and a large photograph of a dump site.
The conservation department also asked a tribal warden to spread the word about illegal dumping. The warden
traveled to the Tribe's "Honor the Earth" powwow and Community Circle Meetings throughout the reservation
to reach a large audience. He set up a huge geographic information system map and showed the community
members exactly where the dump sites were and how  big they were. He compared traditional methods of
waste disposal with the new transfer station and described the environmental hazards associated with illegal
dump sites. The  presentation closed with a short video on illegal dumping.


                                                                         TRIBAL WASTE  JOURNAL
often open the door to new funding
and an expanded resource base.
Tribes have also found it useful to
build partnerships and outline out-
reach strategies with other tribes at
regional conferences and workshops.
For example, the San Carlos
Apache EPA delivers a PowerPoint
presentation on its illegal dumping
prevention program at regional con-
ferences sponsored by the Arizona
Department of Environmental
Quality and U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency.

High-Profile Events Generate
Community Support
High-profile events quickly and dra-
matically increase community
awareness. They can also reinvigo-
rate illegal dumping prevention pro-
grams. Several tribes have found it
useful to hold regular community
collections to focus attention on
proper waste disposal. Fond du Lac
works with the Western Lake
Superior Sanitary District to hold
household hazardous waste (HHW)
collections twice a summer.
Residents  drop off their
HHW for  free and
receive prizes for partici-
pating. Last summer, the
Tribe also  held an elec-
tronics waste collection
event for VCRs, TVs,
computers, and other
electronics. Once a year,
the White Mountain
Apache Tribe subsidizes a
"Clean Your House Day,"   DELAWARE
in which tribal residents
are encouraged to bring their white
goods to large bins placed through-
out the reservation. Delaware
Nation conducts a HHW and white
goods collection during the week of
Earth Day. Pawnee Nation sponsors
recycling days for pesticides. All of
these collection events provide resi-
dents with safe alternatives to illegal
dumping and remind them that
proper solid waste disposal is impor-
tant. The "Adopt a Highway" pro-
gram and other high-profile
cleanups are variations on these col-
lection events.
Community gatherings provide out-
reach opportunities even if they are
not related to your illegal dumping
prevention program. Community
circle meetings, festivals, and other
events draw large crowds and can
often accommodate a booth or pres-
entation on illegal dumping. The
White Earth Natural Resources
Department distributes outreach
materials at the annual health fair.
Keweenaw Bay passes out a pam-
phlet on illegal dumping at the July
Powwow. The Fond du Lac
Resource Management Division
plays its illegal dumping video at
community events.

Equip Enforcement
Officials with Essential
It is important to supply enforce-
ment officials with the training,
          support, and equipment
          they need to be effective.
          EPA's Criminal
          Enforcement Division,
          the U.S. Forest Service
          Law Enforcement Office,
          and other federal agen-
          cies can sometimes assist
          with surveillance opera-
          tions. Sometimes tribal
          officials are authorized
          only to enforce tribal
          civil laws, but illegal
dumping generally constitutes a vio-
lation of tribal criminal law. Tribes
must acknowledge such limitations
and work around them. The
Alabama-Coushatta addressed the
problem by sending four tribal secu-
rity officers to police  officer training
because certified police officers have
                                          FROM  TRIBES

                                        Identify your target audience.
                                        Create a clear and simple mes-
                                        Incorporate culture when pos-
                                        Be creative and explore a vari-
                                        ety of outreach options.
                                        Obtain tribal leader support.
                                        Perform outreach to build part-
                                        Use partnerships to increase
                                        the success of outreach.
                                        Take advantage of high-profile
the authority to enforce both tribal
civil and criminal law. In 1998,
Pawnee Nation upgraded its conser-
vation officers to rangers. Like
police officers, rangers can enforce
tribal criminal laws and have access
to special law enforcement training
for which conservation officers do
not qualify.
Enforcement officers also need
equipment to carry out surveillance,
investigation, and citation duties.
At the minimum, they need vehi-
cles to conduct routine patrols or
stakeouts. For illegal dumping hot
spots, some tribes provide video sur-
veillance systems, which can pro-
duce cost savings over time because
they reduce the staff time required
for vigilant surveillance. The Fond
du Lac invested in hidden cameras
for several of its illegal dump sites.
As a result, the Tribe's conservation
officers issued more illegal dumping
tickets than in the past. Equipment
such as cameras are also important
for investigating and documenting
illegal dump sites.


        Keep Sites  Clean:  Use
Targeted  Enforcement
 Develop a Strong Solid
 Waste Ordinance
 Enforcement is ineffective without a
 solid waste ordinance to back it up.
 A strong solid waste ordinance out-
 lines acceptable waste disposal
 methods and prohibits illegal dump-
 ing. This section focuses specifically
 on creating and enforcing the illegal
 dumping provisions of an ordinance.
 It is important, however, to coordi-
 nate enforcement actions with all
 components of your solid waste
 An illegal dumping provision should
 include clear definitions of key
 terms, outline investigative proce-
 dures, set penalties and fines for
 noncompliance, and delegate
 enforcement authority. Ordinance
 language must be precise to avoid
 gray areas. For example, the
 Seminole Nation Solid
 Waste Ordinance requires
 enforcement officers to
 investigate illegal
 dump sites.
 Prosecution can pro-
 ceed only  if the offi-
 cers find at least
 three pieces of evi-
 dence linking a specif-
 ic individual to  the
 crime. Officers search
 through bags of abandoned trash
 for envelopes or documents with
 names and addresses. The ordinance
 gives responsible parties the oppor-
 tunity to clean up their trash, but if
 they fail to comply, officers are
 directed to issue a citation that
 includes a fine.
 Tribes use  penalties and fines to sup-
 port their  illegal dumping preven-
 tion programs. Penalties can be as
simple as requiring offend-
ers to clean up their waste.
In 1998, Pawnee Nation
approved a Solid Waste
Disposal Act that goes a
step further, offering
offenders an out-of-court
settlement that includes
cleaning up the site and
paying an administra-
tive fee. The Tribe uses
these administrative
fees to help fund the
enforcement program.
If offenders fail to
comply, the Tribe's
charges the admin-
istrative fee and a fine for
cleanup. Illegal dumping cases roll
over to a Pawnee or Payne County
       court if offenders still refuse
          to pay the fine.
             Jurisdiction is com-
               plicated for many
               tribes, particularly
               when reservations
               are not contiguous
               or when they bor-
               der several coun-
             ties.  Designing illegal
           dumping regulations
        and penalties that are con-
sistent with those of surrounding
counties alleviates part of the prob-
lem. The Fond du Lac Reservation
shares property with St. Louis and
Carlton Counties. The tribal
Resource Management Division
invited both counties to participate
in developing a solid waste ordi-
nance for the Tribe. The illegal
dumping provisions in the resulting
ordinance mirrors those of the
counties. Consequently, tribal con-
servation officers can issue illegal
dumping citations on county prop-
erty within the reservation.
It is critical to involve tribal leaders
as you develop the ordinance
because, ultimately, they must
approve it. After the ordinance is
finalized, they can also help by pro-
moting it to community members.
The Alabama-Coushatta, for exam-
ple, received an environmental jus-
tice grant in 1999 to develop a solid
waste management plan. The tribal
Solid Waste Department drafted an
ordinance and is now working with
the Tribal Council to refine it. The
final ordinance will codify illegal
dumping regulations, specify fines,
and give tribal police officers
enforcement authority.


                                                                          TRIBAL WASTE JOURNAL
Solidify Key Partnerships:
Assemble an  Illegal
Dumping Task  Force
After a solid waste ordinance is in
place, the focus shifts to enforce-
ment. Although the ordinance dele-
gates enforcement authority,
responsible parties might not be
aware of their new duties. One solu-
tion is to invite key enforcement
parties to participate in an illegal
dumping task force to open up lines
of communication. This way, parties
can learn about their responsibilities
and refine a plan to make the
enforcement process run smoothly
from start to finish.
The Wyandotte Environmental
Department included the tribal
Police Department and the Ottawa
County Sheriff's Office on its illegal
dumping task force. The department
educated tribal and county enforce-
ment officials about the Tribe's
Solid Waste Ordinance. The three
agencies developed a coordinated
system for cleanup and enforcement
that delegates responsibility for sur-
veillance, site investigation, and
prosecution. The tribal and county
enforcement officials formalized pro-
cedures through a written agree-
ment that allows for "cross
deputization." The tribal police
patrol roads that run through the
reservation and notify the
Environmental Department when
an illegal dump site is discovered. If
the dump site is small, the depart-
ment cleans it up. If it is large, the
department contacts the Ottawa

The Gila River Indian Community designed an illegal dumping enforce-
ment program that combines partnerships with continual publicity to
achieve results. In 2000, the Community's Department of Environmental
Quality (DEQ) sponsored an illegal dumping workshop for tribal rangers,
police officers, prosecutors, and judges. DEQ staff delivered a presenta-
tion on the Community's Solid Waste Ordinance to familiarize attendees
with specific provisions on illegal dumping. Workshop participants col-
laborated to develop consistent enforcement protocols, and they created
a single citation form for both trespassing and illegal dumping. The form
makes it easy for police officers or rangers to tack an illegal dumping vio-
lation onto a trespassing violation.

The Community's Solid Waste Ordinance allows law enforcement offi-
cials to confiscate vehicles involved in illegal dumping incidents and
assess a fine. Vehicle impoundment increases the chance that an illegal
dumper that does not reside on the reservation will appear in court later.
Police, prosecutors, and judges established a system to make the
impoundment process run smoothly. The Community uses an outside
company to impound the vehicles.
DEQ supplied rangers and police officers with a map of dump sites to tar-
get patrolling efforts. Workshop attendees agreed that law enforcement
would contact DEQ about cases involving businesses dumping illegally.
DEQ works with law enforcement officials and prosecutors to develop
these cases. Workshop attendees also decided to coordinate with the
Community's Public Information Office to issue press releases about
enforcement actions to increase  awareness and deter potential offenders.
DEQ met with Maricopa County and Pinal County to share joint strate-
gies for enforcement. The counties helped DEQ develop guidelines for
determining illegal dumping fines consistent with their own. Working
with surrounding counties to establish illegal  dumping protocol increases
the likelihood that non-community members will accept the tribal
process if they are caught. The DEQ  and Maricopa and Penal Counties
have a positive working relationship and frequently share information.
Gila River rangers do their best to patrol reservation borders and illegal
dumping hot spots. They perform routine patrols, conduct stakeouts at
night (a popular  time for illegal dumping),  and respond to illegal
dumping reports from residents.  As a result, the Communi*- :"
having more success with catching and prosecuting illegal
dumpers. In one high-profile case, a waste material
pumper truck driver was caught  discharging waste int
an irrigation canal next to Gila River. The driver
received a citation for trespassing on  Community
land, and the company received  an illegal  dumping
citation. The company, DEQ, and the tribal prose-
cutor reached a settlement in tribal court under
which the company had to clean the  contami-
nated soil and pay an $8,302 penalty to the
Community. DEQ developed a press  release


       FROM   TRIBES

    Develop a strong solid waste
    Assemble an illegal dumping
    task force.
    Partner with tribal leaders,
    enforcement officers,  prosecu-
    tors, and judges.
    Partner with county, state, and
    federal agencies.
    Finalize a detailed enforce-
    ment plan.
    Develop common reporting
    Communicate consistently
    with your partners.
    Provide enforcement officials
    with appropriate training, sup-
    port, and equipment.
    Start an illegal dumping
    Publicize enforcement actions.
County Sheriff's Office, which has
an officer who specializes in illegal
dumping incidents. The "trash cop"
investigates the site for clues about
the illegal dumper. If the offender is
caught, he  or she is prosecuted at
the county court. If the offender can
not be found, the Tribe and county
work together to develop a cleanup
Developing common reporting pro-
cedures can also alleviate jurisdic-
tional tension. The White Earth
Natural Resources Department is
working with tribal, county, and
state enforcement officers on devel-
oping common illegal dumping cita-
tion forms. The White Earth
Reservation shares property with
Mahnomen, Clearwater, and Becker
Counties in a checkerboard pattern.
Common citation forms will make it
easier for the Tribe and counties to
maintain consistent enforcement.
Another way to achieve consistent
enforcement is by modifying exist-
ing tickets to include a check-off
box for illegal dumping.
The Gila River Indian Community
found that it is also important to
invite prosecutors and judges to  par-
ticipate  in illegal dumping task
forces. Gila River Department of
Environmental Quality staff deliv-
ered a presentation on the Tribe's
Solid Waste Ordinance to represen-
tatives from the tribal court system
at an illegal dumping workshop.
Attendees learned that the ordi-
nance states that illegal dumpers
can be fined up to $10,000 dollars.
The workshop increased coopera-
tion between the tribal court system
and police department. Prosecutors
and judges understand that illegal
dumping is a big problem  and sup-
port police officers by taking illegal
dumping cases seriously.
Partnerships with counties allow
tribes to pursue offenders  even if
they do  not have a tribal  court sys-
tem. If illegal dumping occurs on
county land within reservations,
tribes can potentially prose-
cute offenders in county
After the illegal
dumping task force
develops a detailed
enforcement plan,
regular meetings
maintain communica-
tion between partners
and reinforce the  importance
of teamwork. Communication is
critical to Pawnee Nation's illegal
dumping enforcement plan. Under
the plan described earlier, tribal
rangers,  the Environmental
Regulatory Commission, and
Pawnee  and Payne County courts
share enforcement and  prosecution
duties. The plan would fail without
good communication and coordina-
tion between all three partners.

Involve  Community
Members: Start an  Illegal
Dumping Hotline and
Publicize Enforcement
An illegal dumping hotline increases
enforcement success and builds com-
munity support for your program.
Tribes can empower reservation resi-
dents by providing them with a num-
ber to call when they witness illegal
dumping activities. Because it is diffi-
cult for enforcement officials to
patrol rural communities, community
members who are on the lookout
provide a greater chance of catching
an offender in the  act. The White
Earth Natural Resources Department
produced a calendar that includes a
phone number for  residents to call
when they witness illegal dumping
incidents.  The San Carlos Apache
Tribe encourages residents to call the
tribal EPA to report illegal dumpers.
The Seminole Nation offers a small
reward for information leading to the
conviction of an illegal dumper and
   advertises its reward program on
       the radio and in the local
           Publicizing enforcement
            actions deters potential
            offenders and informs
            community members
           that the Tribe is taking
          preventative action. The
        Seminole  Nation publishes
    the names of illegal dumpers in
the police report section of the
newspaper, and the Gila River
Indian Community follows enforce-
ment actions with a press  release.
This publicity makes illegal dumpers
look bad and takes advantage of
positive community pressure.

                                   TRIBAL WASTE JOURNAL
        Measurement: Gauging  Your  Program's  Success
Measurement is an important com-
ponent of any illegal dumping pre-
vention program. Measurement can
take many forms and serve multiple
purposes. In the early stages of pro-
gram development, you can use it
to help set program goals and prior-
ities. During program implementa-
tion you can gauge your program's
effectiveness, progress, and success-
es by measuring program mile-
stones. Publicizing program goals
and achievements can help commu-
nity members understand the pro-
gram and increase support. The
sections below describe in detail
how measurement plays a role in
each phase of your illegal dumping
prevention program.

One of the first steps in the cleanup
process is identifying and inventory-
ing existing illegal dumps sites. This
initial count serves as a baseline by
which to measure cleanup progress.
Establishing a baseline allows you to
Before and after shots at Seminole Nation demonstrate cleanup project success.
track increases or decreases in the
occurrence of illegal dumping and
identify new dump sites. Estimates
of the amount of waste at each
dump site can also  be useful in help-
ing plan and prioritize site cleanups.
The Pawnee Nation Department of
Environmental Conservation and
Safety, for example, performs a year-
ly site assessment of its reservation
to identify new dump sites. In its
initial assessment in 1996, about 40
sites were identified; each contained
between 2 to 3 tons of waste. The
Pawnee use this information to
direct their cleanup efforts, and to
ensure that previously cleaned sites
are not being reused. The Pawnee
Nation's cleanup efforts have been
very successful, evidenced by the
fact that the most recent assessment
identified only four remaining ille-
gal dump sites.
The Seminole Nation also identifies
and inventories illegal dump sites
on its land. When the Tribe identi-
fies a new site, it shares this infor-
mation with the neighboring county

    EPA Region 5 has created a useful tool for assessing and measuring the costs of illegal dumping activities. One
    function of the IDEA (Illegal Dumping Economic Assessment) Cost Estimating Model is the ability to model the
    costs of cleanup activities for a single illegal dump site, specific groups of sites, or all of the illegal dump sites on
    a reservation. The IDEA model's other functions include:
       • Conduct cost analyses for different cleanup methods, equipment investments,
        and other illegal dumping-related activities.
       • Assess indirect costs of surveillance and prevention activities.
       • Compile actual cleanup and enforcement costs.
    For more information on the IDEA Model visit
    , or contact:
       Paul Ruesch
       U.S. EPA Region 5
       77 West Jackson Boulevard (DW-8J)
       Chicago, IL 60604
       Telephone: 312  886-7598


commissioners who clean up the
site. To date, more than 100 illegal
dump sites have been counted.
Measurement is also valuable during
and after site cleanup. Measuring
the tons of garbage, number of tires,
number of appliances, or the num-
ber of abandoned cars removed from
a site are ways to quantify a
cleanup's success. Two examples of
extremely successful cleanups
include a collaborative project
involving the San Carlos Apache,
the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and
Indian Health Service that removed
more than 900 abandoned cars from
the reservation, and the Cherry
Lake Road dump cleanup by the
White Earth Band of Chippewa that
removed 2,000 tons of household
trash and other bulky items.
Publicizing such measurements is an
excellent way to  show the commu-
nity the extent of the illegal dump-
ing problem and  what progress is
being made in addressing the prob-
lem. For example, the Gila River
Indian Community tracks and pub-
licizes the number of illegal dump
sites it has cleaned to demonstrate
to the community its commitment
to rectifying the illegal dumping

Measuring the effectiveness of a tar-
geted enforcement program can be
as simple as counting the number of
enforcement actions taken (e.g.,
citations, settlements, penalties col-
lected, hours of community service,
completed, arrests, vehicle
impoundments).  The Gila River
Indian Community, for example,
recently took steps to strengthen
and better coordinate its enforce-
ment program. Since taking these
steps, rangers confiscated more than
30 vehicles involved in illegal
dumping acts. By tracking these
types of enforcement actions and
the significant increase in the num-
ber of citations issued, the Gila
River Indian Community knows
that its efforts have been successful
and should be continued.
The Lac Courte Oreilles also tracks
the number of citations issued by its
three newly trained wardens. In the
short period of time that the war-
dens have been on the job,  they
have already issued more than 30
        by order of
      L-C.O.  TRIBAL
       Violators will
     be subjected to
        fine* up to
The Pawnee Nation likewise
employs this practice. Specifically,
they count the number of citations
issued by rangers and the number of
out-of-court settlements reached. In
the first year of the enforcement
program, 14 citations were issued
and nearly all of the violators
cleaned up their trash. The follow-
ing year, rangers began assessing
penalties through out-of-court set-
tlements and leveling an adminis-
trative fee. All of these cases were
settled to the Tribe's satisfaction.

Outreach and  Education
Measuring the success of outreach
and education efforts, while at times
difficult, can be an extremely useful
assessment and planning tool. Most
outreach and education  programs
have two primary goals:  reaching as
many people as possible, and effect-
ing a change in their thinking or
Measuring the number of people
who received your materials or mes-
sage is a fairly simple approach. This
can be expressed as the number of
attendees at meetings or workshops;
the number of brochures, posters,
calendars, flyers, magnets, and other
educational materials distributed;
the number of survey responses
received; the number of people con-
tacted via door-to-door campaigns;
or the number of information
requests received from the public.
Measurement can also be used to
identify the most effective outreach
and education methods and help in
planning future initiatives. The
Alabama-Coushatta Department of
Solid Waste, for example, found
that its door-to-door campaign
reached a much larger percentage of
the population than previous efforts.
Prior efforts, consisting of presenta-
tions at  tribal community meetings
by department representatives,
proved to be largely ineffective due
to the low public turnout, whereas
department representatives  and vol-
unteers spoke to 60 percent of the
households on the reservation
through the door-to-door campaign.
Measuring the size of potential audi-
ences can also help direct your edu-
cation and outreach efforts. The
Pawnee Environmental Education
Center,  a collaborative project
between the Tribe and the City of
Pawnee, Pawnee Public Schools, the
Pawnee County Conservation
District, and the Pawnee Education
Foundation, serves more than
50,000 students from area schools.
By distributing environmental out-
reach materials, including illegal
dumping information, through the
center, the Pawnee Nation  can
reach a large number of children.


                                                                         TRIBAL WASTE JOURNAL
Many tribes like to work with the
school system to deliver their envi-
ronmental messages.
Measuring the success of your out-
reach and education program in
changing tribal members' thinking
or behavior can be more difficult,
but several tribes have been success-
ful. The Pawnee
Department of
Conservation and
Safety (DEC&S), for
example, measures its
outreach success by
tracking the number
of phone calls
received after the
Pawnee Environmental Education
Center opened. According to Monty
Matlock of the DEC&S, the number
of calls reporting illegal dumping
incidents skyrocketed after the cen-
ter opened in 1998. Mr. Matlock
attributes this to an increased aware-
ness created by the Tribe's outreach
materials, not to an increase in actu-
al incidents. Similarly, the Alabama-
Coushatta measures the success of its
outreach efforts by tracking the
increase in the number of residents
using the Tribe's transfer stations
after its door-to-door outreach cam-

Measuring the Overall
Impact of  Programs  and
While measuring the success and
effectiveness of your illegal dumping
prevention program's individual
components is important, the ulti-
mate measurement will be  the over-
all impact your integrated program
is having. The Fond du Lac and sev-
eral other tribes track changes in
the number of illegal dumping inci-
dents  occurring each year to assess
the overall impact of their integrat-
ed prevention programs. The White
Earth Band of Chippewa, the White
Mountain Apache, and the
Wyandotte Tribe all track the num-
ber of residents using collection
services or transfers stations, the
number of new illegal dumping
sites, and the number of cleaned
sites that remain waste-free to judge
the effectiveness of their cleanup,
                enforcement, and
                outreach initia-
                tives. The Red
                Lake track the
                number of calls
                reporting illegal
                dumping incidents
                as a measure of its
                program's impact.
Measuring and comparing clean up
costs and the other costs associated
with dealing with illegal dumping to
proper waste management costs is
another useful exercise. Some tribes
will observe an increase in their dis-
posal costs as illegal dumping
decreases. This is because more peo-
ple are using the proper waste dis-
posal services. Comparing these
small cost increases to the overall
cost of managing illegal dumping
can be an effective way of justifying
investments in the integrated illegal
dumping program, such as enforce-
ment officers' salaries, outreach and
education initiatives, and other pre-
vention efforts.
       FROM   TRIBES

    Identify and inventory existing
    illegal dump sites to create a
    baseline and track progress.
    Measure and track cleanup
    achievements and milestones
    to evaluate program success.
    Measure the size of the audi-
    ence outreach and education
    materials reach to determine
    the most effective methods.
    Track enforcement actions and
    their impact on behavior.
    Use these measurements to
    publicize and promote your
Measuring changes in the occur-
rence of illegal dumping can also be
used to assess the impact of new
solid waste management programs
or policies. For example, in 1998,
the San Carlos Apache EPA closed
the three open dumps historically
used by tribal members. Almost
immediately, illegal dumping on the
reservation increased. The dumping
occurred at several existing sites and
14 newly identified sites.
Recognizing  the increase in illegal
dumping as a manifestation of reser-
vation residents' refusal to pay for
waste collection services, the San
Carlos Apache EPA began investi-
gating alternative waste manage-
ment options. In response, two
transfer stations were built. The
transfer stations are conveniently
located and feature white good
drop-off zones and reasonable user
fees. The Tribe is still gauging com-
munity willingness to use these new
facilities in lieu of illegally disposing
of waste, but the initial response
appears encouraging.


         opies of the following publications can be obtained at no charge by calling the EPA RCRA/UST,
         Superfund, and EPCRA Hotline at 800 424-9346 or 703  412-9810 in the Washington, DC, metropoli-
         tan area. You will need to provide the document number for the publication(s) you wish to order.
Education and Outreach Materials
Don't Trash It! Super Fun (EPA530-K-95-005)
Environmental Protection: Native American
Lands: Second Edition. The Center for Indian
Community Development, Humboldt State
University (Grades 1-12) (http://tismil.
Planet Protectors Club Kit (EPA530-E-98-002)
Planet Protectors Create Less Waste In the
First Place! (grades K-3 activity book) (EPA530-
The Quest for Less (a teacher's guide to reduc-
ing, reusing, and recycling) (EPA530-R-00-008)

Hazardous Waste Management
Collecting Used Oil for Recycling/Reuse: Tips
for Consumers Who Change Their Own Motor
Oil and Oil Filters (Brochure)  (EPA530-F-94-008)
Household Hazardous Waste Management: A
Manual for One-Day  Community Collection
Programs (EPA530-R-92-026)
How to Set Up a Local Program to Recycle
Used Oil (EPA530/SW-89-039a)
Managing Hazardous Waste in Your
Community (EPA530-E-00-001)

Solid Waste Management
A Collection of Solid Waste Resources: Fall
2000 Edition (CD-ROM) (EPA530-C-00-003)
The Consumer's Handbook for Reducing Solid
Waste (EPA530-K-96-003)
Grant Resources for Solid Waste Activities in
Indian Country (EPA530-R-98-014)
IDEA Cost Estimating Models: User's Guide
EPA Region 5 (EPA905-B-00-002)
Illegal Dumping Prevention Guidebook EPA
Region 5 (EPA905-B-97-001)
Partnerships in Solid Waste Management
Preparing Successful Grant Proposals
Publications on Solid Waste Management in
Indian Country (EPA530-B-98-004)
Recycling Guide for Native American Nations
Resources on Waste for Your Home and
Community (EPA530-B-98-002)
Training and Technical Assistance Directory for
Tribal Solid  Waste Managers (EPA530-B-99-07)
Waste Reduction Tips for Hotels and Casinos
in Indian Country (EPA530-F-00-007)
Waste Transfer Stations: Involved Citizens
Make the Difference (EPA530-K-01-003)

EPA Web Sites
Office of Solid Waste Kids Page
Illegal Dumping Prevention Project (Region 5)
Waste Management  in Indian Country

       Ihe Tribal Waste Journal would like to thank everyone who shared illegal dumping prevention stories for
       this  issue. Interviewee contact information is provided below for those who are  interested in learning
       more about specific tribes' programs.
Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas Livingston,
TX • Darrell Battise, Solid Waste Department •
936 563-4391

Delaware Tribe of Western Oklahoma
Anadarko, OK  • Rebecca Ware • 405 247-
2448 •

Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa
Cloquet, MN • Deanna Himango, Natural
Resources Division • 218 878-8007 •

Gila River Indian Community Sacaton, AZ •
Patricia Mariella, Ph.D., Executive Director,
Department of Environmental Quality •  520
562-2234 •
Keweenaw Bay Indian Community Baraga, Ml
 • Mike Sladewski, Keweenaw Bay Tribal  Center
 • 906 353-6623
 Lac Courte Oreilles Chippewa Tribe  Hayward,
 Wl • Brett McConnell, Environmental
 Specialist, Lac Courte Oreilles Conservation
 Department • 715 865-2329

 Pawnee Nation  Pawnee, OK • Monty
 Matlock, Director, Pawnee Nation Department
 of Environmental Conservation & Safety • 918
 762-3655 •
 Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa
 Indians Bayfield, Wl • Judy Pratt-Shelly,
 Treaty/Natural Resources Division Chief and
 Executive Environmental Programs Director •
 715 779-3700 •

 Red Lake Band of Chippewa  Red Lake, MN  •
 Ken McBride, Environmental Program Director,
 Red Lake Department of Natural Resources •
 218 679-3959
 San Carlos Apache Tribe San Carlos, AZ •
 Loretta Stone, Program Specialist, San Carlos
 Apache EPA • 520 475-2218 •
 Seminole Nation of Oklahoma Seminole, OK
 • Mickey Douglas, Coordinator, Seminole
 Nation of Oklahoma Environmental Protection
 Office •  405 382-5112 •

 White Earth Band of the Minnesota Chippewa
 Tribe  Mahnomen, MN • Monica Hedstrom,
 General Assistance Program Coordinator, White
 Earth  Natural Resources Department •  218
 935-2488 •
 White Mountain Apache Tribe Whiteriver, AZ
 • Becky Johnson, Solid Waste Department,
 Environmental Planning Office •  520 338-4346
 ext 263

 Wyandotte Nation Wyandotte, OK • Barbara
 Collier, Environmental  Department • 918 678-
 2297  ext. 241 •
  To be placed on our mailing list or submit a success story, send an e-mail to Janice Johnson at .


   As the voices of the future, chil-
   dren inspire a community con-
   science and they can have a signif-
   icant impact on illegal dumping
   prevention programs. Illegal dump-
   ing is  a habit for many living on
   reservations, and today's children
   could be tomorrow's illegal
   dumpers. Tribes can break the
   cycle  by teaching  children about
   the dangers of illegal dumping
   and providing them with environ-
   mental values. Children tend to
   share  their enthusiasm with par-
   ents and other adults, compelling
   them  to think about the harmful
   effects of illegal dumping.
   Children may even motivate adults
   to change their behavior and
   ensure a bright future.
Deanna Himango works for the Fond
du Lac Resource Management Division
and agrees that it is important to bring
environmental messages close to
home. She conducted a door-to-door
mercury thermometer exchange with
the reservation's ninth and tenth
graders. Before venturing out into the
community,  students learned about the
health threats associated with dispos-
ing of hazardous materials at dump
sites. After Ms. Himango's lesson, they
went to private residences with non-
mercury thermometers and exchanged
them for mercury thermometers.
"Outreach activities with the schools assisted in
getting the message of preventing illegal dumping
into the hearts and minds of the young as well as
into the families of the Fond du Lac Community."
—Deanna Himango, Fond du Lac Natural Resource Division
RE WE  the Recycling  Robot

The Wyandotte Tribe creat-
ed RENIE (Recyclable
Environmental Needs in
Education), a remote-con-
trol robot, to educate chil-
dren about proper waste
management and recycling.
RENIE is a legend due to
the dedication of Barbara
Collier and the rest of the
Wyandotte Environmental
Department.  Ms. Collier
designed RENIE as an attractive trash truck with a smile
for a grill. She secured grant funding to have a company
produce the robot. Although the project was expensive, it
paid off. RENIE truly captures the imagination of children
and makes it  fun for them to learn about environmental
issues. The Environmental Department prepares
PowerPoint presentations, and RENIE delivers them to a
captivated audience. One of the most successful presenta-
tions involved placing waste reduction and reuse into a
cultural context by reminding children that Native
                            Americans used every
                            part of the buffalo. They
                            didn't waste anything
                            and, consequently, did
                            not produce trash. RENIE
                            has visited approximately
                            100 schools, reaching
                            children in numerous
                            tribes and towns.
                                       MAY 2002

Education Center
In 1997, the Pawnee Nation decided to
take environmental education to the
next level by building an environmen-
tal education center. The City of
Pawnee provided land for the project,
donating 25 ecologically diverse acres
that include earthen ponds, upper- and
bottom-land forest, an old aquaculture
facility, and a series of rock buildings.
The Pawnee Nation, City of Pawnee,
Pawnee Public Schools, Pawnee
County Conservation district, and
Pawnee Education Foundation pooled
their resources in a total community
effort to  get the center running. They
decided to use the rock buildings as
classrooms. Americorps  and the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service also con-
tributed by supplying volunteers to
build boardwalks and by providing
earth-moving services to replace the
               The environmental
                education center
                serves more than
               50,000 students in
surrounding schools. Educators gather
curriculums from sources such as
Project Wild (a national environ-
mental education program) and tailor
programs to take advantage of the
center's unique ecological setting.
Classes visit on field trips  and learn
about everything from biodiversity
and soil conservation to proper solid
waste disposal. Programs frequently
focus on watersheds and activities
that  threaten water quality, such as
illegal dumping, and certain programs
are designed to include parents.
The  center has instilled a strong
environmental conscience through-
out the community. Since it opened,
the Pawnee Department of
Environmental Conservation &
Safety has experienced a flood of
phone calls from community mem-
bers  reporting illegal dumping inci-
dents. The Tribe has discovered that
the easiest way to reach parents is

    Sixth graders in the White
    Mountain Apache participate in
    a program called "Shop for
    Waste." Becky Johnson, who
    works in the Tribe's
    Environmental Planning Office,
    developed the program to teach
    children about the waste stream.
    Ms. Johnson encourages stu-
    dents to conduct a waste assess-
    ment in their own homes to find
    out what is being thrown away.
    She asks them to determine
    which products could be recy-
    cled and which resources are
    non-renewable. Students list
    waste prevention activities, dis-
    cuss recycling, and identify envi-
    ronmentally preferable products.
    The program also touches on
    proper solid waste disposal and
    the dangers of illegal dumping.
through their children and that the
best way to deliver an environmental
message is to bring it close to home.

   • The Lac Courte Oreilles Conservation Department
     holds an annual poster contest, with a recycling
     theme, for elementary school students. Winners are
     published in the tribal paper.
   • Red Lake High School students developed and pro-
     duced an educational video around the theme,
     "Put Garbage in Its Place."
   • The Delaware Nation prints illegal dumping activity
     sheets with "Tidy Turtle" and "Rude Rat," charac-
     ters that are culturally significant to the Tribe.
   • The White Earth Natural Resources Department dis-
     tributes  a video titled, "Respect the Earth: It's
     Home"  to Head Start programs and elementary
     schools  across the reservation.
   • The Pennsylvania Resources Council sponsored a
     "Lens on Litter" photo contest. Contestants take
     photos that expose the scenic, health, and environ-
     mental impacts of illegal dumping.
   • On Earth Day, Fond du Lac students cleaned up
     and adopted the road in front of their schools.
                   Forestry Center Scavenger Hunt
                   Ms. Himango reaches younger students through a scav-
                   enger hunt at the Tribe's Forestry Center. School groups
                   have to answer questions about recycling and illegal dump-
                   ing to obtain clues that lead them to hidden items. The
                   center's natural setting makes the message more powerful.
                   Ms. Himango explains, "It hits home that we won't con-
                   tinue to have places like this if illegal dumping continues."
                   Ms. Himango asked students to answer the following pol-
                   lution prevention questions before distributing scavenger
                   hunt clues:

                    -& What are some ways you could reduce  your paper use?

                    -&- What are some ways you could reduce your food waste?

                    -& What are some ways you could reduce
                       the amount of waste at home?

                    -&- What are some ways you could help
                       your community prevent pollution?

                    -&- What can you do to make your
                       home more energy efficient?