Waste Wise Updat
               BUILDING FOR
               THE FUTURE



 Preserving Resources,
 Preventing Waste

Waste Wise Update
Building   for  the   Future
            From the first moment of construction until the day it is demolished, a building
            affects its surrounding environment. It consumes energy, water, and materials; affects
            the air, land, and water around it; and creates an artificial indoor environment for
            those who work, live, or play in it. Buildings that are designed, constructed,  operat-
            ed, and ultimately removed in such a way as to minimize their environmental
impacts are referred to as "high-performance, "  "sustainable, " or "green" buildings—a hot topic in
both the environmental and construction arenas.
                     You can make your organization's buildings greener by improving their energy and water effi-
                      ciency, employing renewable sources of energy, improving indoor air quality, and using materi-
                        als more efficiently. This issue of the WasteWise Update looks primarily at the materials
                           efficiency aspects of green buildings, including the reduction, reuse, and recycling of
                             construction and demolition (C&D) debris, and the use of recycled, reused, and
                                otherwise "resource-efficient" building products.
                                     If green buildings are ultimately about the safe and efficient use of
                                    resources, then the ways in which materials are used and disposed of in
                                     the building process are essential to this growing movement. The
                                      United States Geological Survey has estimated that construction
                                       accounts for 60 percent of all materials used in the United  States for
                                        purposes other than food and  fuel.1 This amounts to billions of tons
                                          of material used every year to construct buildings, roads, bridges,
                                          and other structures.
                                                          USGS Factsheet FS-068-98, "Materials Flow
                                                          and Sustainability" (June 1998)

                                                                                                  WasteWise Update
      WasteWise Building Challenge
      In early 2002, WasteWise will launch the Building Challenge to provide program partners with an opportunity to gain
      technical assistance and recognition for reducing C&D waste and purchasing recycled-content building products. To help
      partners develop and implement Building Challenge programs, WasteWise will distribute CD-ROMs containing
      Environmental Building News archives to the first 50 partners that sign up. The CD-ROMs contain every issue of this green
      building newsletter from 1992 to 2000. For additional information about the WasteWise Building Challenge, please call
      the WasteWise Helpline at 800 EPA-WISE or send an e-mail to .
   The environmental impact of building, therefore, starts
when these materials are first harvested (e.g., trees) or
mined (e.g., metals, crushed stone, sand, gravel, and gyp-
sum). How they are extracted and how much is taken can
affect the surrounding environment, including the condi-
tion of soil, streams, and forests. Processing, manufactur-
ing, and transporting these products causes additional
environmental impacts, resulting from industrial pollu-
tion, the burning of fuel, and the processes employed.
Many steps of the production process  release greenhouse
gases into the atmosphere: burning fossil fuels releases  car-
bon dioxide; harvesting trees releases carbon dioxide
stored in forests; and landfilling biodegradable materials
can lead to methane releases. All of these effects together
constitute the life-cycle impact of a building.
   Although this Update focuses on solid waste and resource
conservation issues, it is important to remember that green
building has many different aspects, and your organization
will benefit most by taking a "whole-building" approach
that considers all the environmental impacts—and trade-
offs—of the building decisions you make.
                 The mention of any company, product, or process in this publication does not constitute or imply
                                  endorsement by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Waste Wise Update
&   Demolition
              onstruction and demolition
              (C&D) debris constitutes the
              waste generated during con-
              Cstruction, renovation, and demolition projects. C&D waste commonly includes
              building materials and products such as concrete, asphalt,  wood, glass, brick,
metal, gypsum wallboard, roofing, insulation, doors,  windows and frames, flooring, and furni-
ture. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that approximately 136 mil-
lion tons of building-related C&D debris were generated in 1996—the majority from demolition
(48 percent) and renovation (44 percent). New construction generated only 8 percent of building-
related C&D debris.
  Such a large and complex waste stream pre
sents many opportunities for reducing the
waste and costs associated with building
activities. Reducing C&D debris can cut
overall project expenses by avoiding dis-
posal costs and the purchase of new
materials, by generating revenue from
the sale of materials, and by creating
opportunities for tax breaks through
material donations. Other benefits
include conserving landfill space,
reducing the environmental effects of
producing new materials, helping
contractors and building owners
comply with local and state regula-
tions, and enhancing the public image
of the organization that is reducing the
debris. Many WasteWise partners spend
significant amounts of time and money
constructing, renovating, and/or demolish-
ing public, commercial, or academic buildings—
  including office buildings, factories, warehous-
  es, and other structures. Tackling the waste
    stream from these activities allows your
     organization to extend its WasteWise
     waste reduction successes into the new
      arena of C&D.
       To minimize the environmental
      impact of buildings and structures,
      your organization can take many steps
      to reuse and recycle used building
      materials and prevent waste. From
      incorporating used or environmentally
      preferable materials into a building's
      construction or renovation, to disas-
     sembling structures for the reuse and
     recycling of their components, each
    phase of a building's life cycle offers
  opportunities to reduce waste.

                                                                                                    WasteWise Update
Waste Reduction  in the

Design Phase
   Waste reduction opportunities begin with the earliest
choices made in the building process, including architec-
tural design and material selection. Effectively balancing
resource-efficient design concepts requires the attention of
skilled and environmentally conscious building profession-
als. These concepts include waste prevention, durability,
and recyclability.

Waste Prevention
   Waste prevention techniques minimize the amount of
materials used during construction and renovation. For
example, a technique from the homebuilding field, known
as "optimum value engineering (OVE)" or "efficient fram-
ing," reduces the amount of wood used in the framing
process without sacrificing structural integrity. Additional
information on OVE techniques can be found on the
Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing
Technology Inventory at .

   Although durable products can be more expensive and
contain more material than their traditional counterparts,
they offer many long-term benefits through avoided mainte-
nance and  replacement costs. Additionally, products that are
more durable can enhance safety and prevent a building's
other high-performance features—such as energy efficien-
cy—from deteriorating. The durability of a building comes
not only from the materials used to build it,  but from the
quality of the construction. For example, building to avoid
problems such as water infiltration will do much to ensure
that materials last as long as possible.

   Recyclability considers the end-of-life management of
building products from the very start. The University of
Florida's Center for Construction and Environment is cur-
rently conducting research on the concept of designing
buildings to facilitate the ultimate disassembly and reuse of
their components.
WasteWise would like to thank the following individuals for their
assistance in reviewing this publication: Cathy Berlow, Brad Guy,
Karen Kivela, Alison Kinn, and Bill Turley.
EPA Builds Waste  Reductio
into  New Facility

The foundation of a green building is set long before t
digging begins. For EPA's mammoth 1-million-square-
laboratory and office complex in Research Triangle Par
(RTF), North Carolina, project managers scrutinized ev
aspect of the design phase—working closely with designs
contractors, and the local environmental agency—to ensi
that waste  prevention, recycling, and recycled products
were incorporated into the construction  plan and executi

EPA worked with its design firm, Hellmuth, Obata, and
Kassabaum (HOK), to choose the most environmentally
preferable materials and products for its facility. HOK
developed a survey asking manufacturers and vendors
provide information on the environmental aspects of 1
products throughout their life cycle. The result is HOK
Healthy and Sustainable Building Materials Database,
available online at .

The designers created ample space for recycling room
and containers. They also encouraged future waste pre-
vention by employing  "modular design," which reduce
remodeling waste by creating moveable walls and pa
tions, thereby allowing the larger structure, as well as
lights, sprinklers, and  outlets, to remain stationary.

With the design phase complete,  reducing and  manaj
scrap materials generated during construction was this
challenge. Contractors traditionally place all debris int
the same receptacle and haul it to a landfill. On this :
EPA incorporated waste separation and recovery into 1
contract specifications and closely monitored every step of
the process,  including the initial clearing of the land, Hur
ing which the contractor sold trees for timber and gro
remaining  wood into mulch.  Once the project was coi
pleted, more than 20  million pounds of materials hac
been diverted from the landfill—an 80  percent  recove
rate, according to EPA project manager Chris Long.

"As far as recycling is  concerned,  [contractors] are ger
ly not used to it, but they are capable of doing  it," Lor
said. With  a  cooperative contractor—who went the exl
mile  and hired individuals to monitor recovery activitis
in addition to persistence, supervision, and education,
800-person crew successfully addressed the green buildinc
goals set forth by EPA. For both EPA project managers and
contractors, Long  says "it has been a growing experience.

Recognizing  RTF as a  model for recycling construction
waste, the  U.S. General Services Administration (GSA)
honored the facility with a GSA Environmental Aw
April 2001. To read more about this new co—'"
many other green features, visit the project''

Waste Wise Update
     Greening the  Code

     Building codes establish the minimum acceptable require-
     ments necessary for protecting public health, safety, and
     welfare in a building's environment.  The following examples
     illustrate how communities are incorporating green or sus-
     tainable standards into building codes and guidelines.

     •  Santa Monica, California's Green Building program
       includes requirements for C&D waste management. The
       requirements include recycling C&D waste in construction
       contracts, specifying the reuse of salvaged building and
       landscape  materials, and designing interior  building
       components for future disassembly, reuse, and recycling.
       Other sections of the code  require specifying wood from
       sustainably managed sources and the use of low-emis-
       sion finishes and materials to reduce indoor pollution.

     •  The U.S. Navy requires contractors to incorporate green
       building components into their designs. The  Sustainable
       Development Requirements in the Navy Family Housing
       Project state:

       "All Navy Family Housing Construction, Improvement,
       Repair and Privatization projects shall incorporate
       Sustainable Development principles. Application of these
       principles will reduce consumption of energy, and other
       non-renewable resources; minimize waste of water and
       materials; prevent pollution and associated environmen-
       tal impacts and liabilities, increase energy and resource
       efficiency, and improve  human health. The result will
       reduce life-cycle  operating  costs for Navy Families."

     •  Portland, Oregon's building codes mandate that all
       building projects with costs exceeding $25,000  (including
       construction and demolition), must recycle materials gen-
       erated onsite.
Contracts and Specifications
   Incorporating environmental guidelines into your con-
tracts and specifications will clarify your expectations of
architects and builders and ensure that they integrate your
goals into the building plans. Sample green building specifi-
cations can be used as templates. Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design (LEED), a rating system created by
the U.S.  Green Building Council, provides green building
guidelines that organizations can follow to qualify their
buildings as environmentally sound. LEED includes stan-
dards on topics such as maximizing the salvage of existing
structures, maximizing recycling and reuse during construc-
tion, and specifying recycled or reused building materials.
Even if your organization does not go through the entire
LEED rating process, you can incorporate elements of the
LEED standards into your building contract specifications.
An increasing number of organizations and governments,
such as the city of Seattle and the U.S. General Services
Administration, require that their buildings be built to meet
or exceed LEED standards.

   A number of organizations and governments have devel-
oped their own specifications—for example, New York City
created its own high-performance building guidelines (see
Resources section for more information). Although most
local green building programs have a broad focus, which
includes waste reduction and recycled product sections,
WasteSpec is a set of specifications that focuses exclusively
on waste issues. Developed by North Carolina's Triangle J
Council of Governments, WasteSpec provides model lan-
guage to  address the use of waste reduction techniques, reuse
of construction waste material, salvage of C&D waste for
sale or reuse, and return of unused construction material to
vendors. WasteSpec is available free of charge at

                                                                                              WasteWise Update
The Construction  and

Renovation Phases
   Once your organization breaks ground on a new con-
struction, renovation, or remodeling project, numerous
opportunities for reuse and recycling can be identified.
During these phases, you will need to ensure that contrac-
tors fulfill the waste reduction goals or specifications out-
lined in your contracts. Because incorporating reuse and
recycling activities  into the construction and renovation
phases may be new to building professionals, developing
new standard operating procedures is recommended.
Education and motivation of construction staff may also
prove beneficial. One way to motivate contractors is to let
them keep revenues from recycling and savings from
avoided landfill costs due to waste reduction.
   Building contractors should be required to develop a
plan for reducing,  reusing, or recycling the wastes they
generate onsite.  First, careful estimation of required
materials  to be ordered will help reduce the amount  of
wasted materials. Second, markets for recyclable products
should be identified. Some materials (such as metals,
cardboard packaging, bricks,  concrete, and wood) often
have strong markets; others (such as drywall, vinyl prod-
ucts, or carpeting) may vary from region to  region. It
may take  creativity and persistence to find markets for
certain materials. One resource is the Construction
Materials Recycling Association  (CMRA), an association
of C&D debris generators, haulers, processors, recyclers,
and remanufacturers. CMRA provides information and
technical  assistance about C&D debris  recycling.
   After establishing recycling systems at the construc-
tion site, both contractors and subcontractors should
receive instructions on sorting their waste. Renovation
projects in particular may present opportunities for
recovering high-quality building components or fixtures
for reuse. Hundreds of building material reuse stores
around the country accept used  materials as a tax-
deductible, charitable contribution. Habitat for
Humanity's national network  of Re-Stores sell used and
surplus building materials to  fund new building projects.
Other  groups involved in the  resale of building materials
include local nonprofit organizations and military
groups. The Used  Building Materials Association
(UBMA), and the  Reuse Development Organization
(ReDO)  also provide information on locating and work-
ing with reuse stores. Refer to the Resources section  for
more information.
U.S. Green  Building  Council's
Leadership in  Energy and
Environmental Design  (LEED)
Green  Building Rating Systei

LEED, a self-certification system developed  by the U.S.
Green Building Council, rates the "greenness" of new c
existing commercial, institutional, and multi-family resic
tial buildings. LEED helps builders design sustainable
buildings that save resources and provide environment
and health benefits to owners, occupants, and the comm
nity. Buildings must be designed, constructed, and operat
ed according to specific sustainable criteria in order to
earn LEED credits. Buildings that meet the LEED criter
are awarded the "LEED Building" designation within t
appropriate  level  of certification (Platinum,  Gold, Silve
and Certified). The criteria  include both mandatory pr
uisites and a range of optional credits.
LEED's commercial building rating system is based on
categories: Sustainable Site Planning,  Improving Energy
Efficiency, Conserving Materials and Resources, Enhancing
Indoor Environmental Quality, and Safeguarding Wa
Several credits focus on resource conservation, recycl
and reuse. For example, one of LEED's prerequisites  is
"provision of a centralized, ground-floor location for s
age and collection of recyclables." LEED credits are a
awarded for activities such  as:
• Rehabilitating an existing building instead of demo
  ing and rebuilding.
• Reusing salvaged materials.
• Using materials with high recycled content.
• Developing a construction waste management pla
• Using local materials.

A similar rating system, LEED Commercial  Interiors (L
Cl), is being developed for tenants of  commercial bui
ings and the designers and architects they  hire.

Waste Wise Update
   Aspen Skiing Company
   Prevents Mountains of Waste

   No stone was left unturned—literally—when Aspen Skiing
   Company (ASC) sought to deconstruct its Sundeck Restaurant
   and Snowmass Lodge and Club in 1 999. ASC salvaged as
   much as it could, including the stones comprising Sundeck
   Restaurant's fireplace. The company donated the stones to
   the Aspen Historical Society, which in turn auctioned them for
   a total of $25,000. In this project, ASC salvaged 84 percent
   of the building, saved thousands of dollars, and rebuilt the
   restaurant and lodge into a LEED-certified complex.
   "Deconstruction and salvage takes more time and energy,
   but it extends the life of the landfill and helps protect nat-
   ural resources," said Auden Schendler, ASC's Director of
   Environmental Affairs. Rather than hiring a new contractor,
   ASC worked with its existing contractor to salvage parts
   and separate materials.
   For a successful salvage, ASC needed an outlet for the mate-
   rials and products. The project managers planned a parking
   lot "yard sale" and advertised the event with posters and
   newspaper announcements. An hour before the sale started,
   20 pickup trucks had already lined up filled with eager
   homeowners, contractors, and hotel owners refurbishing
   their own facilities. In only 4  hours, all of the items were
   gone. ASC sold 100 sliding doors, 80 windows, 24 fir closet
   doors, a few 40-foot beams, and a trash bin full of plywood
   and TGI (pressed wood "I") beams. ASC netted $10,000
   from the yard sale and earned another $58,000 by selling
   old furniture to employees at a discount.
   ASC also rented a grinder to process the concrete,
   sheetrock, and wood generated from the deconstruction.
   Grinding these materials reduced their volume by 500
   percent, which cut costs by reducing the number of times
   the contractor sent trucks to the landfill. ASC used the
   ground concrete as backfill and sent the ground wood and
   sheetrock to the landfill's windrow composting operation.
   The landfill  manager waived the $21 .50  per-cubic-yard
   tipping fee for the wood and sheetrock because  he could
   later sell the finished  compost.
   Schendler said his biggest piece of advice for other
   WasteWise partners  is to negotiate with contractors to
   incorporate cost savings and revenues into the contract.
   By demonstrating that deconstruction can be cost-effective,
   ASC hopes to start a trend among builders, and a broader
   movement within the skiing industry. For more information
   on ASC's environmental programs, visit
The Demolition/

Deconstruction  Phase
   Although Rome's Coliseum is still standing after 2,000
years, most of our buildings are not quite so durable. When
a building comes to the end of its useful life, the amount of
waste created by its removal can be minimized through
waste reduction techniques. Most buildings are taken down
through demolition, and rubble is sometimes recycled for
uses such as road-building aggregate. In fact, some sites have
demonstrated that enormous amounts of debris from the
demolition of existing structures can be reused in new struc-
tures being built at the demolition site. When the Seattle
Kingdome was torn down in March 2000, a remarkable 97
percent of the project waste was recycled into the new stadi-
um complex. This resulted not only in savings of more than
$3 million, but reduced truck traffic to and from the site by
an estimated 4,500 trips.
   Today, interest in an alternative—or complementary—
practice known  as "deconstruction" is increasing.
Deconstruction maximizes the salvage of building materi-
als for reuse or recycling by selectively disassembling
buildings. Currently, valuable items, such as chandeliers
and fixtures, are frequently removed from buildings before
demolition. Deconstruction, however, goes one level deep-
er and concentrates on recovering items such as flooring,
siding, windows, doors, bricks, plumbing fixtures, ceiling
tiles, and structural components. As a result, deconstruc-
tion is labor-intensive  and often relies on the use of hand
tools and manpower to take apart buildings and struc-
tures. The potential benefits of deconstruction  include job
creation, resource conservation, and waste reduction. In
the future, mechanized deconstruction using a  combina-
tion of manual labor and machinery may increase the
speed and efficiency of the deconstruction process. When
deconstructing buildings, workers should take precautions to
protect themselves from exposure to substances such as lead-
based paint and asbestos. EPA's Lead Program
(www.epa.gov/opptintr/lead/) and Asbestos Program
(www.epa.gov/oppt/asbestos) offer useful information about
these toxins.
   Whereas traditional  demolition treats a building as a
financial liability, deconstruction recognizes the inherent
value in the building's components and can reduce the over-
all cost of demolition. Before constructing the Four Times
Square Office Tower in Manhattan, the contractor first
removed six existing buildings. By salvaging all usable mate-
rials and recycling as much of the remaining C&D debris as
possible, the contractor saved more than $800,000 by selling
the salvaged material and reducing disposal fees.
   In fact, not every building will warrant deconstruction. A
building should be assessed to determine the condition and

                                                                                                  WasteWise Update
                                                     Donates  Building Supplies

                                                     New and used plumbing fixtures, paints, carpeting, and lumber
                                                     from the Walt Disney World® Resort properties in Orange County,
                                                     Florida, found a second home through Disney's Recycle Plus pro-
                                                     gram. In 2000 alone, Reedy Creek Improvement District (RCID)
                                                     and Walt Disney World® Resort donated more than $65,000 of
                                                     reusable building supplies to local affordable housing programs,
                                                     churches, and nonprofit organizations through the Orange County
                                                     Community Distribution Center. When the  program began, it pri-
                                                     marily donated unused construction supplies, but it gradually
                                                     expanded to include virtually any type of building material—new or
                                                     used—that could be used in an affordable housing program.

                                                     In a collaborative effort, Disney worked with the Orange County
                                                     Community Distribution Center to  redistribute the materials to
                                                     local organizations. Supplies were collected from Disney's numer-
                                                     ous properties in Orange County and delivered to the distribution
                                                     center,  which was staffed by county inmates as part of a ware-
                                                     house training program. By redistributing supplies, the Recycle
                                                     Plus program simultaneously prevented materials from being sent
                                                     to a landfill and provided needed  supplies for refurbishing and
                                                     building homes.
value of its materials and identify potential outlets for them.
This assessment should look not only at the value of selling
salvaged materials, but also the value of giving them away as
tax-deductible contributions and the savings
from avoided disposal costs. Although
the extra labor required to decon
struct a building may represent
an added cost, deconstruction
is being used in some areas
as a prime opportunity to
utilize and train at-risk
youths,  welfare-to-work
program participants, and
others in the construction
trade. For example, the
Institute for Local Self
Reliance (ILSR) worked with
the Hartford (Connecticut)
Housing Authority (HHA) to
deconstruct six units of a local housing
complex. The project trained nine public hous-
ing residents, providing them with the skills to obtain full-
time positions with a local deconstruction company. In this
way, the removal of a building can represent an exciting
opportunity for WasteWise partners to  empower and engage
their surrounding communities.
Deconstructing Kodak  Park
   Located in Rochester, New York, Eastman Kodak
           Company's offices and manufacturing facilities
                reside on a 1,900-acre park. Six years ago,
                    the company began consolidating
                       space among its 200 buildings. As
                         part of this effort, Kodak decon-
                          structed more than 40  buildings
                            on the site,  reusing  as much of
                            the original construction
                            material as possible. George
                            Thomas, manager  of Kodak's
                            pollution prevention  program,
                            described the effort  as "a good
                          way to minimize costs and 'do
                         the right thing.'" Many of the
                      buildings ranged  from  10 to 100
                   years old. Valuable wooden beams
               prized by collectors were  reused by the
         demolition contractor. The company  also  recovered
more than 50,000 tons of brick, concrete, and asphalt from
its old buildings. Kodak stockpiled this material, hired a con-
tractor to crush it into aggregate twice each year, and reused
the material onsite as fill. Thomas explained that the cost of
new  aggregate was comparable to the cost per ton of crushing
the salvaged material, but Kodak saved big—nearly  $2.7 mil-
lion—in avoided disposal fees.

Waste Wise Update

Building   Materials
                There are many widely available high-performance
                and cost-effective green alternatives to traditional
                construction and renovation materials. WasteWise partners
               familiar with green building methods have noticed a steady increase in the avail-
                ability, quantity, and variety of recycled construction and renovation supplies over
the years.  This increase reflects growing demand as more and more organizations are discovering the
economic and environmental benefits of green building.
  Sustainable Landscaping
  Green building can include the green stuff outside the
  building too—lawns, gardens, even golf courses. From
  using hydraulic mulch (a mixture of wood waste and paper
  fiber), to landscaping lawns with recycled-content rubber
  edging, organizations can use a variety of environmentally
  sustainable lawn and garden products. EPA's
  Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines offer information
  on an array of recycled-content landscaping materials
  such as garden and soaker hoses, plastic lumber land-
  scaping timbers, and compost made from yard trimmings
  or food waste.
  Additional information about the uses and benefits of
  compost can be obtained from the U.S. Composting
  Council Web site, .
     Recycled-content products belong to a broader category
   of green building supplies including products made without
   hazardous substances, energy-efficient products (including
   ENERGY STAR®-labeled products, ranging from roofing to
   appliances to windows), and water-conserving devices2.
   Although there is a wide variety of "resource-efficient" build-
   ing products, this section of the Update focuses specifically
   on building products with recycled content.
     Many recycled-content building products on the market
   are more common, available, and affordable than you might
   think. The National Recycling  Coalition's Buy Recycled
   Business Alliance (BRBA) developed case studies of 18
   organizations that have incorporated recycled  materials into
   their buildings. These case studies demonstrate the wide
   range of products being used in construction and renova-
   tion projects today. WasteWise  partners featured in the
   BRBA case studies include:
   •  Ben and Jerry's uses countertops made from recycled
     marble  and plastic, and wainscoting and wall paneling
     with recycled cork.
   •  The Body Shop's American headquarters features carpet-
     ing made from 100 percent recycled  PET plastic soda
     bottles and floor tiles containing recycled glass.
   •  Bridging the Gap furnished  it's headquarters in Kansas
     City, Missouri, with desks made from discarded wooden
     doors. It also used a variety of recycled-content and envi-
     ronmentally sensitive products throughout its offices.

   •*  For a comprehensive definition  of green building products, see
     the Environmental Building  News article, "Building Materials:
     What Makes a Product Green?" at 

                                       WasteWise Update
The Wider World of Green Buildings

Green buildings and the suppliers, researchers, media outlets, associations, and programs that support
and promote them are springing up across the country and around the world. Most of these programs
take a holistic approach, treating a building as one unit with many diverse environmental impacts.
Following are some of the issues beyond materials and waste that help define the up-and-coming
field of sustainable building:

•  Energy Efficiency: The energy your building uses can be a significant drain on both the envi-
   ronment and your budget. Therefore, energy efficiency is an essential part  of sustainable
   building. EPA's Energy Star for Buildings  program offers a comprehensive five-step program
   to reduce energy consumption in your building. The elements of this program include
   replacing your lighting and other appliances with more energy-efficient models, improv-
   ing maintenance and operations procedures, and upgrading heating, ventilation, and
   cooling systems. Energy Star for Buildings also provides an online benchmarking tool
   that allows your organization to measure its building energy usage and compare the
   performance of your building against the average for your building type. If your
   building scores in the top 25  percent of energy performance, and you meet other
   requirements (including good indoor air quality), you can qualify to advertise your
   high-performance building with an Energy Star for Buildings label. See  for more information.
•  Renewable Energy: Once you've reduced your building's energy needs, you might
   want to consider supplying those needs with energy sources that renew themselves nat-
   urally. These sources include solar, geothermal, wind, biomass, hydrogen,  and other
   power sources. The U.S.  Department of Energy has information about using renewable
   energy technologies at .
•  Water: EPA's water efficiency partnership program,  known as WAVE (Water Alliances for
   Voluntary Efficiency),  helps organizations identify and implement water conservation activi-
   ties. WAVE partners sign an agreement to survey water-using equipment and, where prof-
   itable, install water-efficient upgrades within a prearranged time frame. Partners also agree
   to consider using water-efficient equipment in the design of all new facilities. Although WAVE
   once focused exclusively on the lodging industry, it is now open to organizations with office
   buildings and educational  institutions as well. See  for
   more information.
•  Indoor Air Quality: Whereas other aspects of sustainable building focus on effects on the out-
   door environment, buildings create their own indoor environments as well. This is important for
   organizations to remember because indoor environmental quality can affect  the health of those who
   occupy buildings, impact worker productivity, and even be a source of liability for organizations that
   do not monitor this issue. EPA's Indoor Environments Program has information about how to improve
   indoor air quality in building types, including office buildings and schools, at .
McDonald's used numerous recycled construction prod-
ucts in a Kent, Washington, restaurant, including table-
tops, cabinets, and trash receptacles made of recycled
particleboard, ceiling tiles containing recycled paper, and
menuboards containing recycled plastic and aluminum.

Metro, a regional government covering three counties in
the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area, located its new
headquarters in a 71-year-old building, which it remod-
eled with components such as 100 percent recycled  paint
and recycled rubber floor tiles. The agency also salvaged
159 tons of hardwood flooring, carpeting, doors, and fix-
tures for reuse.

Waste Management built its Government Affairs  Office
in Washington, DC, with approximately 85 percent
reused or recycled materials, including ceiling tiles con-
   taining steel slag and newsprint; countertops manufac-
   tured from recycled cardboard, newsprint, woodwaste,
   and recycled steel studs; and furniture containing recycled
   wood from old movie sets.

Types of Materials Available
   The Comprehensive Procurement Guideline (CPG)
Program is part of EPA's ongoing effort to promote the use
of materials recovered from the solid waste stream. The pro-
gram offers purchasing guidelines to federal agencies and
their contractors by recommending recycled-content materi-
als. Many non-federal organizations also use the CPG to
develop their own recycled-product purchasing programs.
The CPG Program recommends high-performance con-
struction products, including:

Waste Wise Update
    In the fall of 1999, King County's Department of Natural Resources (DNR) moved into the King Street Center Building, a fa
    designed to be a model of environmental integrity and sustainability. Located in a historic district in downtown Seattle, the E
    story office building encompasses 327,000 square feet.

    The building employs a water reclamation system that collects rainwater from the roof, filters the water, and uses it in the bi
    ing's toilets. The building's water reclamation system also contributes to its sustainability,  supplying 64 percent of the annuo
    "flushing budget" and greatly reducing DNR's water costs, particularly during droughts. The system offers environmental be
    fits as well—each year, the system reclaims 1 .4 million gallons of rainwater that would otherwise drain directly to Puget Sou

    Additional features of the King Street Center include recycled-content cement, ceiling tiles, bathroom stall partitions, and pc
    Furthermore, the county reused latex paint collected as part of a residential program and installed refurbished carpet squar
    designed to be replaced individually instead of traditional wall-to-wall carpet.

    You can learn more about King County's experiences and sample contract language for  green construction and renovation
    efforts online at .
   Green  Building  Materia	
   New  Headquarters

   When Louisiana-Pacific (LP) moved its headquarters to
   accommodate a need for more space, it made every ef
   to create an environmentally sustainable office. Workim
   closely with its architect to ensure this goal was met, LP
   required each contractor and supplier to submit informi
   tion on the environmental aspects of its operations. As a
   result, the company's new offices reflect an environmental
   commitment  and vision for sustainability. Green building
   features of LP's new office include:

   * Recycled wood flooring, used in the reception areas
     and elevator landings, manufactured from trim piece:
     of laminated veneer lumber from LP's Mines, Oregon
   • High-performance, bio-composite tile, placed in the
     employee lunchroom, manufactured using an energy-
     efficient process that is free of volatile organic compounc
   • Cabinets,  located in the copy and coffee rooms, mad
     from medium-density fiberboard, a product manufac-
     tured from sawdust and fines.
   • Office furniture containing recycled-content steel, susta
     ably harvested wood, and non-hazardous materials.
   • Energy-efficient timing devices that shut off office ligl
     after 30 minutes of inactivity.

   Hugh Donnelly, LP's corporate facilities manager,  notec
   that "it wasn't hard  to find suppliers who were eager to
   talk about the green aspects of their business. What's
   more, LP's move to the Fox Tower was completed  on tim
   and under budget."
•  Building insulation. Recycled-content building insulation
   is available in standard forms (rolls, loose fill, and spray
   foam) and contains a range of recovered materials, includ-
   ing glass cullet, plastics, paper fiber, and blast furnace slag.

•  Carpet. Your organization can use recycled fiber polyester
   or nylon carpet. Environmentally responsible carpet is
   also available with recycled-content backing.

•  Cement and concrete. These materials can be  made using
   fly ash recovered from coal-burning power plants and
   ground blast furnace slag recovered from iron production.

•  Consolidated and reprocessed latex paint. Consolidated
   paint, produced by mixing different types of collected
   postconsumer paint, is only recommended for outdoor
   applications. Reprocessed paint is sorted according to
   color, finish, and type during collection and can be used
   outdoors or indoors.

•  Floor tiles. Recycled-content floor tiles and patio blocks
   can contain high percentages of plastic or rubber salvaged
   from truck and airplane tires.

•  Shower and restroom dividers/partitions. These dividers
   can contain between  20 and 100 percent recycled-content
   plastic or steel.

•  Laminated paperboard and structural fiberboard.
   Paperboard contains kraft paper and can be ideal for
   indoor decorative applications  such as millwork and fur-
   niture components. Fiberboard is manufactured using
   recycled wood, cane,  or paper and can be used as struc-
   tural material, insulation, or acoustical tile.

   For more  detailed information about CPG guidelines for
construction and other products,  visit .

                                                      WasteWise Update
                   e      s      o
                             r      c       e       s
                        for  C&D   and  Green   Building
  Resources —
      Waste    &
EPA Construction &
Demolition Debris Web site

This brand-new Web site brings together
information from EPA and other sources on
C&D debris prevention, reuse, recycling,
and management, including numerous
documents and links. A companion site on
the broader issues of green building will
be accessible through this site.

Characterization of Building-
Related Construction and
Demolition Debris in the U.S.
June 1998.

This report characterizes the quantity and
composition of building-related C&D
debris generated in the United States and
summarizes management practices for this
waste stream. It focuses on construction,
demolition, and renovation of residential
and nonresidential buildings.

Building Savings: Strategies
for Waste Reduction of
Construction and Demolition
Debris from  Buildings.
EPA530-F-00-001. June 2000.

This series of case studies on construction
materials diversion provides valuable tips
on C&D reuse and recycling. The case
studies, covering projects ranging from an
apartment complex to a grocery store, pro-
vide details on implementation costs, cost
savings, and tips for replication.
EPA's Comprehensive
Procurement Guidelines (CPG)

CPG provides a wealth of information
about buying recycled-content products.
Ranging from construction to landscaping
products, CPG offers recommended recy-
cled-content levels as well as contact
information for manufacturers and sup-
pliers of recycled-content products and
EPA's Environmentally
Preferable Purchasing (EPP)
< www.epa.gov/oppt/epp>
This Web site features a searchable data-
base containing contract language and
voluntary standards for more than 600
products and service categories—many of
which relate to construction. Numerous
case studies highlighting green construc-
tion successes, such as EPA's Region 10
remodeling effort and the Fort Worth Post
Office, are also provided.

EPA's Jobs Through Recycling
Program —  Construction
Materials  Commodity Page
< www.epa.gov/jtr/comm/construc.htm>
This Web site profiles construction materi-
als reuse and  recycling, and provides  links
to various reports, organizations, and  list
server postings covering everything from
asphalt to particle board.

2000 Buy-Recycled Series:
Construction Products.
EPA530-F-00-009. June 2000.

This fact sheet lists EPA's recommended
postconsumer recycled-content percent-
ages of various construction products.
Geared toward federal facilities and con-
 tractors seeking assistance in complying
 with EPA's Comprehensive Procurement
 Guidelines, the information provided is
 also applicable to a wide audience. The
 fact sheet includes short case studies on
 local, state, and federal government con-
 struction projects.
 ENERGY STAR, a collaborative effort between
 U.S. EPA and the U.S. Department of
 Energy (DOE), encourages businesses and
 consumers to make energy-conscious deci-
 sions through the purchase of energy-effi-
 cient products. ENERGY STAR also qualifies
 homes and buildings as energy-efficient.

 EPA's Indoor Environments
 This Web site highlights information on
 issues related to indoor air quality. Topics
 discussed include asthma, radon, and
 mold. The site also provides indoor air
 quality information that is specific to
 homes, schools, and buildings.

 Water Alliances for Voluntary
 Efficiency (WAVE)
 < www.epa.gov/owm/faqw.htm>
 This Web site provides information about
 WAVE, a voluntary partnership program
 that encourages commercial businesses
 and institutions to practice water efficiency.
 Upon joining the program, members
 receive free technical support and access
 to water-use analysis software.

Waste Wise Update
A Guide to Deconstruction.
U.S. Department of Housing
and Urban Development.
February 2000.

This guide reviews the components and
benefits of deconstruction and links it to
community revitalization efforts. The guide
provides 1 0 detailed case studies of
deconstruction materials reuse and recy-
cling efforts throughout the country.

National Recycling  Coalition's
Buy Recycled Business
Alliance Case Studies
< http://brba.nrc-recycle.org/
casestudies.htm >
These case studies feature leading U.S.
companies that used recycled-content
materials and products for building con-
struction and interior design.
Designing With Vision:
A Technical Manual for
Material Choices In
Sustainable Construction.
California  Integrated Waste
Management Board.
July 2000.
< www.ciwmb.ca.gov/GreenBuilding >
This manual highlights sustainable waste
management principles for planning,
design, and construction of large-scale
projects. It includes information on choos-
ing, locating, and purchasing recycled-
content building products; provides sample
contract language and recycled-content
building product specifications; and identi-
fies strategies for reusing and reducing
construction materials and managing job-
site waste.
Sustainable Architecture
Compendium. National
Pollution Prevention Center
for Higher Education,
University of Michigan.
August 1998.

Part of the Pollution Prevention in
Architecture Series, this instructive group of
reports features recycling and reuse
"modules" on topics such as C&D recy-
cling, adaptive reuse, and design for mate-
rials recovery.

C&D Recycler. Recyclingtoday
Media Group.
< www.recyclingtoday.com/magazine>
This bimonthly journal includes feature sto-
ries; industry, product, and equipment
news; and editorials on the construction
and demolition recycling industry. Articles
from the current issue are available online.

Environmental Building News
< http://buildinggreen.com>
This leading newsletter on environmentally
responsible construction features compre-
hensive, practical information on topics
from energy efficiency and recycled-con-
tent materials to land-use planning and
indoor air quality. It also includes industry
news, product reviews, and case studies.
Some articles and article summaries are
available online.
Environmental Design +
Construction. Business News
Publishing II LLC.

This bimonthly journal covers all aspects of
environmentally sound building design and
construction, including recycled building
products and systems of waste  disposal
and reuse. The Web site includes a search-
able online buyers' directory that lists com-
panies offering environmentally preferable
products and services.

King County, Washington:
Map of Recycled Content
< http://dnr.metrokc.gov/market/
This site allows visitors to take a virtual tour
of sustainable buildings located in the
Pacific Northwest. A list of recycled-content
materials used in various buildings is also

California  Integrated  Waste
Management Board (CIWMB)
< www.ciwmb.ca.gov/condemo >
CIWMB's construction and demolition recy-
cling Web site is an excellent resource,
providing commodity profiles, online
reports, case studies, and sample C&D
recycling ordinances for local govern-

Institute for Local Self
Reliance's (ILSR's) Building
Deconstruction Page

Part of ILSR's Waste to Wealth waste reduc-
tion and recycling-based economic devel-
opment program, the building
deconstruction page highlights  some of the
organization's projects and publications.

                                                        WasteWise Update
Sustainable Building Sources

This site features a Green Building
Professionals Directory, Sustainable
Building Events, and a Sustainable Building
Sourcebook that provides information on
building materials as well as water and
energy efficiency technologies.

Minnesota Sustainable Design

This online guide serves as a design tool
that can be used to address environmental
issues during the design, construction, and
operation of new and remodeled facilities.
O r g a nizations
Associated General
Contractors (AGC)
< www.agc.org/EnvironmentaHnfo/
Recycle_This.asp >
AGC is the largest construction trade asso-
ciation in the country. Their Web site
includes fact sheets and a brochure on
C&D debris recycling.

Center for Resourceful
Building Technologies (CRBT)

A project of the National Center for
Appropriate Technology, CRBT promotes
environmentally responsible practices in
construction. CRBT conducts research and
provides education  on practicing  resource
efficiency in building design, materials
selection, and construction practices.
Construction Materials
Recycling Association (CMRA)

This organization supports the needs of the
rapidly expanding North American con-
struction waste and  demolition debris pro-
cessing and recycling industry.

U.S. Green Building Council

The flagship organization for green build-
ings, the USGBC rates green buildings
through its Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design program. Its more
than 500  members  include architects, con-
tractors, governments, nonprofit organiza-
tions, product manufacturers, and

University of Florida Center
for Construction and

One of the few academic centers of its
kind in the country,  the Center for
Construction and Environment conducts
research and undertakes projects to mini-
mize environmental impacts from building
construction and demolition. The Web site
includes case studies on  past and current
deconstruction projects.

Used  Building Materials
Association (UBMA)
< www.ubma.com>
This nonprofit, membership-based organi-
zation represents companies and organiza-
tions involved in the acquisition and/or
redistribution of used building materials. Its
Web site features the Used Building
Materials  Exchange.
 Green Building Codes,
   Specifications, and
WasteSpec. Model
Specifications for Construction
Waste Reduction, Reuse, and
Recycling. Triangle J Council
of Governments. July 1995.
< www.tjcog.dst.nc.us/cdwaste.htm>
This 1 14-page manual provides architects
and engineers with model specifications
and background information on waste
reduction, reuse, and recycling before and
during construction and demolition.

Navy Family Housing Project

This document outlines the standards and
criteria for designing, renovating, and con-
structing Navy family housing and associ-
ated facilities. Green building topics
include energy efficiency and sustainable

Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design (LEED)

LEED—a system designed for rating new
and existing commercial, institutional, and
high-rise residential buildings—offers an
abundance of resources pertaining to
green buildings. This site provides an
overview of the LEED rating system, links to
resources, and a list of LEED-certified and
LEED-registered projects.

Governor's Green
Government Council (GGGC)
< www.gggc.state.pa.us >
The state of Pennsylvania's GGGC pro-
vides guidelines for creating high-perfor-
mance green buildings. The council also
offers information on Model Green Office

Waste Wise Update
Leasing Specifications and renovating and
retrofitting existing structures.
New York City Department of
Design and Construction

New York City's High Performance Building
Guidelines encompass a wide array of
green building topics ranging from design
process and site planning to building ener-
gy use and material and product selection.
 Building Product
       Direct 01

The Harris Directory
This computer database for Windows lists
construction products made with recovered
materials in a Construction Specifications
Institute format. Contact Ms. BJ. Harris
RO. Box 311 33 Santa Fe, NM 87594 USA
505/983-2962; e-mail:

Oikos Green Product Gallery

This online gallery provides information on
a variety of green building products such
as flooring, natural  oil-based finishes, non-
ozone-depleting insulation foam, and
structural components.

< http://greenorder.com>
This online catalog offers  information on
construction  products, including concrete,
thermal and  moisture protection products,
furnishing, and equipment.
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