WasteWise  Update





                 GLOBAL WARMING...
 Preserving Resources,
  Preventing Waste

Waste Wise Update
WasteWise:  Changing  with
the  Climate
                any WasteWise partners are already achieving substantial waste reductions
                throughout their entire operations and are moving beyond waste prevention
                and recycling towards reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other global
                sustainability efforts.
To better serve partners and offer a more cutting-
edge program, the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) is upgrading its
efforts to incorporate climate change educa-
tion and technical assistance throughout
the WasteWise program. Today, more and
more organizations are interested in the
global environmental impacts of our col-
lective actions and in opportunities for
reducing our ecological footprint in ways
that boost our economy.
          The mention of any company, product, or process in this publication does not constitute or imply
                    endorsement by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

                                                                                               WasteWise Update
   As part of that nationwide effort,
WasteWise has committed to launching a
national education campaign on the link
between climate change and waste and
serving as a vehicle for partners to
enhance, measure, and obtain recognition
for their proactive achievements. To
accomplish these goals, WasteWise will
publicize the climate and waste message
through publications and  events and pro-
vide  tools, technical  assistance, and volun-
tary incentives to help partners apply new
technologies and the power of the market-
place to achieve GHG reductions.
   As a first step in helping your organiza-
tion  understand and utilize the climate
message, this WasteWise Update explores
the connection between solid waste and
climate change, describes waste-related cli-
mate impacts, identifies ways to reduce
GHG emissions and minimize global cli-
mate change, and introduces the new
WasteWise Climate  Change Initiative  and
Climate Change Award.
BTU - British Thermo/ Unit
CH4 - /Methane
CCP - Cities for Climate
CO2 - Carbon Dioxide
DOE- U.S. Department of
EPA - U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
HDPE - High Density
GHG - Greenhouse Gas
ICLEI - International Council
for Local Environmental
WARM - Waste Reduction
LDPE - Low Density
LMOP - Landfill Methane
Outreach Program
MSW - Municipal Solid Waste
MTCE - Metric Tons of Carbon
MTCO2E - /Metric Tons of
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent
NAS - National Academy of
NCEPI - National Center for
Environmental Publications &
N2O - Nitrous Oxide
PAYT - Pay-As-You-Throw
PET - Polyethylene
RCRA - Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act
Simple Actions, Real Results
Waste reduction can significantly reduce GHG emissions. Each individual action — from double-sided printing to recycling a
soda can — contributes to real GHG reductions. The chart below demonstrates the cumulative results of reusing or recycling
everyday materials.
Corrugated cardboard*
402 MTCE
1,247 MTCE
244 MTCE
257 MTCE
307 cars
952 cars
52 cars
186 cars
196 cars
Corrugated cardboard*
339 MTCE
2,055 MTCE
192 MTCE
354 MTCE
259 cars
1,569 cars
29 cars
147 cars
270 cars
*For an explanation of the values for aluminum and corrugated cardboard, please see "WARM Calculations" on page 1 1.

Waste Wise Update
The   Climate-Waste

             Lots of people know that waste reduction is good for the environment and can also help
             an organizations bottom line.  What many people do not realize is that solid waste pre-
             vention and recycling also help reduce climate change impacts.  Creating less waste
             decreases the amount of heat-trapping GHG emissions linked to everyday trash.  This
             introduction explains the science behind the greenhouse effect and global climate
change, illustrates the connection between solid waste and climate change,  and explains how your
waste prevention and recycling programs can help reduce climate change.
   Learn More!
   Interested in learning more about the connection
   between climate change and solid waste? Want t<
   see what organizations are doing to mitigate the
   effects of solid waste management on the Earth's
   climate? Watch Why "Wasfe" a Cool Planet: MSW
   Solutions to Global Climate Change!
   This two-hour satellite forum video explores glob
   climate change by focusing on the role municipal
   solid waste (MSW) management plays in this phe
   Other EPA-sponsored satellite forum videos inclu
   •  Buying Recycled:  The Real Story About Cost
     Availability, and Quality
   •  Communities: Setting Trends in Waste Preventio
     and Recycling
   • Solid Waste Gefs a Higher Education: A Colleg
     and University Waste Reduction Satellite Forum
   • Waste Prevention Pays: Businesses Cut Costs by
      Cutting Waste
   To order a free copy of any of these videos, call t!
   WasteWise Helpline at 800 EPA-WISE (372-9473)
   e-mail .
The Changing Climate
  According to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS),
the federal government's scientific advisory society, GHGs
are accumulating in Earth's atmosphere as a result of human
activities, causing global mean surface air temperature and
subsurface ocean temperature to rise. Rising global tempera-
tures are expected to raise sea levels and change precipitation
and other local climate conditions. Changing regional cli-
mate could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies. It
could also affect human health, animals, and many types  of
ecosystems. Deserts might expand into existing rangelands,
and features of some of our National Parks might be perma-
nently altered. Most of the United States is expected to
warm, although sulfates might limit warming in some areas.
Scientists currently are unable to determine which parts of
the United States will become wetter or drier, but there is
likely to be an overall trend toward increased precipitation
and evaporation, more intense rainstorms, and drier soils.
Unfortunately, many of the potentially most important
impacts depend upon whether rainfall increases or decreases,
which cannot be reliably projected for specific areas.
  NAS also found new and stronger evidence that most of
the warming during the last 50 years is attributable to
human activities that have altered the chemical composition
of the atmosphere through the buildup of GHGs, primarily
carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide
(N2O). CO2 is released to the atmosphere by the burning of
fossil fuels, wood and wood products, and solid waste. CH4
is emitted from the decomposition of organic wastes in
landfills, the raising of livestock, and the production and
transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. N2O is emitted dur-
ing agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during

                                                                                                  WasteWise Update
                                                                   INSIDE THE GREENHOUSE

                                                                   Understanding the atmospheric phenomenon known
                                                                   as the greenhouse effect is critical to understanding
                                                                   global climate change. The atmosphere that sur-
                                                                   rounds the Earth contains many types of gases,
                                                                   including those known as "greenhouse gases"—
                                                                   water vapor, CO2, CH4, and N2O. GHGs regulate
                                                                   the Earth's climate by absorbing and holding heat
                                                                   from the sun in an atmospheric blanket around the
                                                                   planet's  surface.

                                                                   In the first step of the process, shortwave energy from
                                                                   the sun,  or solar radiation, passes through the
                                                                   atmosphere. Most of the radiation is absorbed by the
                                                                   Earth's surface and serves the life-sustaining func-
                                                                   tions of heating the ground,  melting ice and snow,
                                                                   evaporating water, and powering plant photosynthe-
                                                                   sis. Some of the energy, however, reflects off the
                                                                   Earth's surface back into space in the form of long-
                                                                   wave, or infrared, radiation. Atmospheric GHGs trap
                                                                   some of the outgoing energy, retaining heat some-
                                                                   what like the glass panels of a greenhouse. For more
                                                                   information on  how the greenhouse effect works, visit
                                                                   on EPA's Global Warming Site.
combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. In 1997, the
United States emitted about one-fifth of total global
   Climate change poses real risks. The exact nature of these
risks remains uncertain. Ultimately, this is why we have to
use our best judgement—guided by the current state of sci-
ence—to determine what the most appropriate response to
climate change should be. Fortunately,  many of the activities
that can be taken to mitigate climate change, such as reduc-
ing waste, increasing energy efficiency, or conserving forests,
are beneficial for other reasons.

From  MSW to  GHGs
   Every stage of a product's life cycle—extraction, manufac-
turing, distribution, use, and disposal—indirectly or directly
contributes to the concentration of GHGs in the atmos-
phere and affects global climate. At most  stages, the energy
expended during the transport and production processes is
the main source of GHG emissions. Disposing of organic
materials like food, paper, and yard waste in landfills can
also lead to CH4 emissions from decomposition. In addi-
tion, cutting down trees to extract wood or other raw mate-
rials decreases carbon  storage, the ability of plants to absorb
and store carbon from CO2.

   Whether you are the manufacturer or user of a product,
you can analyze the entire product life cycle to determine
where your organization can make changes, such as prevent-
ing waste, recycling, or buying or manufacturing recycled-
content products, to reduce its impact.

   For manufacturers, life cycle analysis might uncover
opportunities for producing goods using less material, which
means that less energy is needed  for extracting, transporting,
and processing raw materials and for transporting end prod-
ucts. Manufacturing goods from recycled materials is also
beneficial because it typically requires less energy than pro-
ducing goods from virgin materials. If energy demand
decreases, so does the  burning  of fossil fuels and the emis-
sion of GHGs to the atmosphere. At the same time, energy
and raw materials savings  usually produce cost savings.

   To produce high-grade office paper, for example, a paper
manufacturer uses  gasoline-powered machinery  to cut down
trees (which store carbon), diesel trucks to carry the lumber
to the paper mill, fossil fuels or wood products to power the
mill, and more diesel trucks to distribute  the product to
customers.  By increasing  the amount of recycled-content in
the paper, the  manufacturer can eliminate GHG emissions
1 Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000, U.S. EPA, Office of Atmospheric Programs, April 2002.

Waste Wise Update
associated with extraction and transport of wood needed to
make the paper. The manufacturer can similarly reduce
emissions by improving resource efficiency in its production
process to make the same amount of paper with less raw

   A product user also has many opportunities to reduce
waste. If an organization is a buyer of high-grade paper it
can practice waste reduction techniques like purchasing
recycled-content paper or instituting a double-sided copying
policy. Purchasing recycled-content paper would eliminate
the extraction and transport of some of the raw materials
needed to make the paper, and double-sided copying would
half the amount of paper used along with its associated
energy consumption.

   Overall, waste  reduction has significant potential for
decreasing GHG  emissions. EPA estimates that simply
increasing our national recycling rate from its current level
of 30 percent to 35 percent  would reduce GHG emissions
by another 10 million tons of carbon equivalent (MTCE).
That  amount is equal to the average  annual emissions from
the electricity consumed by roughly 4.6 million households.
By recycling all of its paper, plastic, and corrugated card-
board waste generated in one year, an office  building of
7,000 workers could reduce GHG emissions by 2,287
MTCE. This amount is equivalent to taking about 1,677
cars off the road that year. If just  one household generated 5
percent less waste—including newspapers, aluminum, steel
cans,  and plastic containers—and then recycled what
remained, it could reduce 367 pounds of carbon equivalent.2
     Data  Made Easy:  GHG

     The federal government and an increasing number
     of states are developing reports known as "GHG
     Inventories." These inventories provide annual GHG
     emissions data by sector (e.g., energy, agriculture,
     waste), source (e.g., transportation emissions,
     manure management), and gas (e.g., CO2, CH4).
     The official U.S. government GHG inventory is cur-
     rently available on the Web at .
     Thirty-eight states and Puerto Rico have completed
     inventories in partnership with EPA's State and Local
     Outreach  Program, and another two states have
     inventories in progress. Summaries of all these inven-
     tories are  available on the Web at
Across the country, WasteWise partners are redu<
reusing, and recycling waste, and reducing GHG
the same time. Highlights include the following:
By Preventing
The Seydel Companies, Georgia-based chemical
manufacturers, work hard to prevent plastic wast
Through packaging waste reductions and change
their manufacturing processes, Seydel prevented
disposal of 813 tons of high density polyethylene
(HOPE), reducing GHG emissions by approximat
400 MTCE.
By Recycling
In 2001, the Public Service Enterprise Group (PS
a utility company based in Newark, New Jersey,
31,000 tons of coal combustion by-products, su<
fly ash, as a replacement for virgin materials. PS
used these by-products as Portland cement repla
ments, roofing-shingle manufactured components,
blasting grits, and surface abrasives. The manufacture
of each ton of Portland cement with coal fly ash
vented approximately 1 ton of CO2 from being  e
ted into the atmosphere.
By Educating
To accomplish its waste reduction goals, Battelle
Memorial Institute, of Columbus, Ohio, impleme
a comprehensive employee education campaign
includes an extensive internal Web site, quarterly
newsletters, daily bulletins, promotional signs, anc
helpful reference labels. These outreach activities
have helped Batelle report WasteWise emissions
reductions of 443 MTCE,  and its efforts to encou
employees to reduce waste at home and educate
other community members should lead to even
greater GHG reductions.
By Reusing
Kessler Consulting, Inc. of Tampa, Florida, main1
an internal reuse system for folders, standard an
legal size paper, and files and envelopes, encou
ing employees to reuse office materials rather th
purchase  new ones. In 2000, Kessler reported pi
venting several tons of
mixed paper from
being sent to the
landfill, where it
would decom-
pose and emit
 Figures based on 1999 EPA WARM emissions factors.

                                                                           WasteWise Update
 Solutions:   Corporate,

 Community,   and

 State  Actions
            From boardrooms and factories of major corporations to
            state governments and local communities, real action to
            reduce climate change is taking place. In many cases,
            these actions reflect stakeholders' decisions to voluntarily
            help mitigate the climate change problem. EPA and other
federal agencies champion this approach by engaging businesses, states,  and
 localities in voluntary "win-win"partnerships that address the challenge of
global climate change while strengthening the economy and improving communities.
What Are Stakeholders Doing?
  Many different types of organizations are working to bet-
ter understand and respond to the challenge of climate
change. Actions include increasing energy efficiency, pursu-
ing renewable energy sources, decreasing transportation
emissions, and conserving forests and planting trees to
increase carbon storage. Many stakeholders are also explor-
ing ways to mitigate climate change by reducing waste, and
they are finding that their efforts pay multiple dividends.
  Large corporations are conducting environmental audits
and product life-cycle assessments to learn how to reduce
GHGs through better product design, resource manage-
ment, and manufacturing processes. As a result they are dis-
covering operational efficiencies, reduced energy costs, and
increased market share—all things that contribute to a
healthier bottom line. Small businesses are assessing the
impacts of their waste disposal and purchasing habits and
are finding easy ways to simultaneously reduce emissions
and save money.
  Cities and states across the country are preparing GHG
inventories and developing programs that tackle GHG emis-
sions by increasing recycling, capturing landfill gas, and edu-
cating community members. The outcome is cleaner air, less
waste, and new energy sources. Overall, these cities and
states are providing smarter growth, making their communi-
ties more attractive and their economies more competitive.
  These examples prove that stakeholders can achieve
impressive results when they are given the flexibility and
opportunity to explore and implement solutions that fit
their unique needs and capabilities.

Innovative Partnerships
Produce  "Win-Win" Results
  EPA and other federal agencies support the types of activ-
ities mentioned above by engaging stakeholders in voluntary
partnership programs. By providing flexibility, technical
assistance, and recognition, partnership programs leverage
innovation and  outstanding environmental performance
while preserving economic health. In addition to
WasteWise, several other partnership programs facilitate
waste-related emissions reductions:
• In communities with Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) pro-
grams (also known as unit pricing or variable-rate pricing),
residents pay for MSW collection based on the amount they
throw away. Communities with PAYT programs have
reported significant increases in recycling and reductions in
waste due primarily to  the direct economic incentive to recy-
cle more and generate less waste. The City of Gainesville,
Florida, a WasteWise partner, saw an 18 percent decrease in
solid waste collected and a 25 percent increase in recyclables
recovered after switching to a PAYT program. Another
WasteWise partner, the City of Dover, New Hampshire,

Waste Wise Update
reduced total annual residential solid waste by a remarkable
65 percent, while simultaneously cutting its annual solid
waste budget from $1.2 million to $878,000. In addition to
lowering waste management costs, the increased recycling
and waste prevention activities that PAYT encourages results
in reduced GHG emissions associated with the manufacture,
distribution, use, and subsequent disposal of products. See
 for more information on the PAYT
•  EPA's Landfill Methane Outreach  Program (LMOP) is a
voluntary assistance and partnership program that helps
facilitate and promote the use of landfill gas as a renewable
energy source. Landfill gas emitted from decomposing
garbage is a reliable and renewable fuel option that remains
untapped at many landfills in the United States, despite its
significant value. By controlling landfill gas instead of allow-
ing it to migrate into the atmosphere  where it is a powerful
GHG, LMOP helps businesses, states, and communities
protect the environment and build a sustainable future.
Participation also leads to  cost savings and helps meet energy
demand. Several WasteWise partners also participate in
LMOP. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) makes land-
fill gas a key component, along with solar and wind power,
of its Green Power Switch program, which produces electric-
ity from cleaner, renewable sources. TVA's Middle Point
Landfill in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, currently produces 2.6
megawatts of generating capacity and  expects to increase
capacity in the future. Other WasteWise partners that par-
ticipate in LMOP include Detroit Edison Company,
General Motors, International Truck & Engine, the Los
Angeles Department of Water and Power, the
Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection,
and Northeast Utilities. See  for more
information on the LMOP program.
•  Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) is a global cam-
paign of the International Council for Local Environmental
Initiatives (ICLEI). More than 475 local governments
worldwide participate in the campaign, including more  than
100 cities and counties  in the  United States. The CCP cam-
paign goal is to reduce GHG emissions from fossil fuel
burning and other human activities that contribute to air
pollution. Emissions reduction efforts focus on two primary
GHGs—CO2 and CH4. Local governments can play a key
role because they directly influence and control many of the
activities that produce these emissions, such as burning fossil
fuels and managing landfill methane emissions. Local deci-
sions regarding land use and development, investments in
public transit, energy-efficient building codes, waste  reduc-
tion, and recycling programs affect local air quality and  liv-
ing standards as  well as  global  climate.
   CCP recently initiated a Waste Challenge and Peer Match
Project that promotes innovative waste management projects
that reduce GHGs. Nine cities, including WasteWise part-
ner the City of San Francisco, were selected for this special
    Packaging Changes Decrease GHGs
    There is a reason why Allergan, Inc. has been named a WasteWise Large Business Program Champion 3 years in a row. Ir
    2000, not only did the pharmaceutical company prevent 760 tons of boxboard waste and 400 MICE of GHGs, but it incoi
    rated an innovative new waste reduction process into the design of all products.
    Allergan performs a full assessment of potential waste during new product development, evaluating the environmental imp
    of each step in a product's life cycle. To assess all potential waste, Allergan includes the impact of product packaging in ec
    product's overall environmental profile. The company also evaluates existing products for opportunities to minimize packac
    During each assessment, Allergan focuses on:
    • Reducing—Minimizing product packaging by reducing the layers or weight of packaging  materials
    • Reusing—Creating reusable packaging
    • Recycling—Increasing the recycled content in packaging material and ensuring the packaging itself can be recycled
    Mike Whaley, Allergan's director of environmental health and safety, attributes much  of his knowledge about the relationsh
    between MSW and global warming to WasteWise. "Allergan was aware indirectly through various EPA reports and other pi
    lished articles that reducing waste also reduces GHGs. The WasteWise estimates of GHG emissions reductions were the fin
    quantifications we received directly attributable to our actions," he said.
    To reduce GHG emissions through  packaging:
    • Prevent waste before it is created
      Purchase products with the least amount of packaging
      Purchase products with packaging containing recycled material
      Purchase products that can be recycled or whose packaging can be recycled
      Ship and purchase products in bulk to prevent packaging waste

                                                                                                   WasteWise Update
project and will receive targeted assistance from ICLEI and
EPA staff to design, implement, and quantify advanced
waste and GHG reduction projects. The CCP campaign is
an excellent opportunity for cities and counties to take prac-
tical steps to reduce GHG emissions and generate multiple
benefits for their communities. Other CCP partners that are
also active WasteWise partners include Alachua County,
Florida; the City of Chicago, Illinois; the City of Durham,
North Carolina (2001 Program Champion); King County,
Washington (2001 Program Champion); Los Angeles
Department of Water and Power (2001 Program
Champion); the City of Meza, Arizona; and the City of San
Diego, California. See  for more infor-
mation on ICLEI and the CCP program.
•  Climate Leaders is a voluntary EPA-industry partnership
that encourages partners to develop long-term, comprehen-
sive greenhouse gas reduction. Climate Leaders establish
GHG reduction goals and report to EPA annually on their
progress. To set a GHG reduction goal,  an organization first
determines its GHG emissions using either the Department
of Energy 1605b Voluntary GHG Emissions Reporting
Protocol or the GHG Emissions Inventory Protocol devel-
oped by the World Resources Institute and World Business
Council for Sustainable Development. Because each compa-
ny has a unique mix of GHG emissions and potential reduc-
tion opportunities, each partner might use a slightly
different approach to mitigating its greenhouse has emis-
sions footprint. All partners report their direct emissions
from onsite fuel consumption and waste incineration,
process-related emissions, and indirect emissions from elec-
tricity use.  Additionally, companies can  broaden their initia-
tives to include optional activities, such  as reduction and
recycling, product transports, employee  commuting, busi-
ness travel, or investments that offset emissions. WasteWise
partners Bethlehem Steel, General Motors, and PSEG are
charter Climate Leaders. For more information about the
Climate Leaders program, visit .
   In all of the above programs, participants have received
targeted technical assistance and the flexibility to develop
custom-tailored goals and activities. As a result, participants
achieve meaningful and quantifiable results that are good for
the environment and the economy. As part of high-profile,
nationally recognized partnership programs, participants also
benefit by being recognized as environmental stewards that
have voluntarily undertaken special actions to improve their
environmental performance. See the resources list on page
15 to learn where to  find more information on these
exciting programs.
CCP Program  Participant
Gets WasteWise Value
Recently, the Los Angeles Department of Water
and Power (LADWP), a member of CCP, noted
that many of its ideas for waste reduction activi-
ties came from its involvement in WasteWise.  In
2000, LADWP prevented approximately 16,000
tons of CO2 emissions through its recycling pro-
gram! The  department recycles materials such as
office paper, yard trimmings, plastics, and wood,
and boasts a recycling rate of 76 percent. The
organization also promotes waste prevention
activities such as donation programs, office sup-
ply swaps,  and double-sided copying.
Several of LADWP's waste reduction  activities
reduce GHG emissions. LADWP tracks estimated
GHG emissions reductions using the formulas
provided by the WasteWise program and is cur-
rently working with recycling vendors to obtain
accurate information about the types of materials
being diverted from the landfill. The  department
uses the information gathered from its WasteWise
activities to constantly assess and improve its
waste reduction activities. To decrease future CO2
emissions,  LADWP plans to expand its  recycling
program to ensure that even the smallest of the
department's 300 sites recycles.
"WasteWise reminds us that we are not just recy-
cling for the department, but also for the com-
munity at large," says Recycling Manager Karen
Higgins. "Tracking the data helps us determine if
we are in line with the recycling program goals
and are actually increasing diversions, as well as
reducing GHG emissions."

Waste Wise Update
 Calculating  the   Cooling

 Effects   of Waste   Reduction
       In the mid 1990s,  EPA created WARM—the Waste Reduction Model—
       to calculate the climatic benefits of preventing waste, recycling, and
       composting along  with the impacts of landfilling and combustion.
       WARM estimates  GHG emissions associated with producing and
       managing 27 different materials and mixed material categories.
 Communities and organizations across the  United States have been
 using WARM to quantify waste reduction benefits and plan for the
future.  This section:
 •  Explains how EPA developed WARM
 •  Describes WARM measurement units and calculations
 •  Introduces the online and Microsoft Excel© versions of the tool
 •  Provides examples of how WasteWise partners use WARM results

WARM GHG Emission Factors
  In 1994, EPA recognized the connection between solid
waste and climate change and called for accelerated source
reduction and recycling. The Agency then realized that
quantifying GHG emissions reductions associated with these
activities would be extremely valuable and began to develop
emission factors for 11 different types of materials and
wastes including aluminum cans, HDPE plastic, and corru-
gated cardboard.

  Using life cycle assessment methodology, EPA examined
each material from cradle to grave to determine all the
GHG emissions and sinks associated with each commodity.
For example, analysts determined the GHG emissions and
the energy required to produce and dispose of 1 ton of alu-
minum cans. They evaluated each step in the production
process, beginning with aluminum ore extraction, and
examined each waste management option—waste preven-
tion, recycling, landfilling, and combustion. Finally, they
  converted energy use into GHG emissions. The cradle-to-
  grave emission factors for aluminum waste prevention and
  recycling are -2.49 and -4.11 MTCE per ton. The GHG
  emission factors for landfilling and combustion are 0.01 and
  0.02 MTCE per ton. These numbers indicate that waste
  prevention and recycling reduce GHG emissions while land-
  filling and combusting release GHGs.
    After extensive peer review and public comment, the
  original GHG emission factors and project methodology
  appeared in EPA's Greenhouse Gas Emissions From
  Management of Selected Materials in Municipal Solid Waste
  (EPA530-R-98-013). EPA then released emission factors for
  additional materials, and, in 2002, the Agency published
  Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gases: A Life-Cycle
  Analysis of Emissions and Sinks (EPA530-R-02-006) to
  explain the emission factors for all 27 materials and mixed
  material categories. For a free copy of this report, visit
   or contact EPA's RCRA Call
  Center at 800 424-9346.

                                     WasteWise Update
WARM Calculations
   WARM uses emission factors to calculate GHG emissions
generated by managing specific quantities of each material.
For example, WARM uses the following equation to calcu-
late GHG emissions associated with recycling:

              GHG EMISSIONS (MTCE)
   For example, the recycling emission factor for HDPE is -
0.38 MTCE per ton. In other words, recycling 1 ton of
HDPE reduces GHG emissions by 0.38 MTCE. Suppose
that an organization recycles 2 tons of HDPE; according to
the WARM equation, the organization reduces 0.76 MTCE.

      2 TONS HDPE  X -0.38 MTCE PER TON =
                      -0.76 MTCE
   WARM demonstrates that, in general, waste prevention
and recycling reduce GHG emissions. WARM also demon-
strates that waste prevention usually reduces more GHGs
than recycling. Landfilling 1 ton of office paper releases 0.62
MTCE, for example, while recycling 1 ton reduces 0.68
MTCE. Preventing 1 ton of office paper waste reduces 0.80
   Occasionally, WARM shows that recycling reduces more
GHGs than waste prevention. According to WARM, for
example, recycling  1 ton of aluminum cans reduces 4.11
MTCE while preventing 1 ton of aluminum waste only
reduces 2.49 MTCE. For the waste prevention emission fac-
tor, EPA analysts assumed that each ton of aluminum waste
contains  some recycled  content because the average alu-
minum can contains almost 50 percent recycled material.3
The analysts therefore calculated the energy required to pro-
duce 1 ton of 50 percent recycled-content  aluminum. For
the recycling emission factor, EPA analysts evaluated energy
production costs for virgin aluminum rather than recycled-
content aluminum, assuming that if a can is not recycled, it
must be replaced entirely with virgin material. Consequently,
WARM shows that recycling aluminum has a greater climatic
impact than waste prevention. The same logic holds true for
corrugated cardboard. Recycling 1 ton of corrugated card-
board reduces 0.71  MTCE while preventing 1 ton of corru-
gated cardboard waste only reduces 0.51  MTCE.

Two  Versions of  WARM
   EPA created two versions of WARM: a Web-based tool
and a Microsoft Excel© spreadsheet.  Both versions contain
                                                                      WARM MEASUREMENT UNITS
   WARM results appear in several types of units. British ther-
   mal units (BTUs) describe energy the same way feet or
   meters describe length. One BTU is approximately equal to
   the energy released by burning a wood match. Climate sci-
   entists use a standard conversion factor to translate energy
   use (BTUs) into GHG emissions, which are measured in
   terms of MTCE—a unit that represents the atmospheric
   warming potential of greenhouse gasses. Metric tons of car-
   bon dioxide equivalent (MTCO2E) is a similar term for mea-
   suring emissions, which is related to MTCE by the formula:
   [MTCE = 12/44 *MTCO2E].
many of the same features and are available through the
WARM Web page . Each ver-
sion asks users to enter information about baseline and alter-
native waste management practices, then calculates the
GHG emissions associated with different waste management
strategies, allowing users to quantify past achievements and
plan for the future.

   For each material, users input the quantity generated and
waste  management practice employed. For example, in
2001, WasteWise  partner Amtrak recycled 115 tons of cor-
rugated cardboard. WARM calculated that this activity pre-
vented 81.7 MTCE, which is equivalent to taking more
than 60 cars off the  road for a year.  The baseline alternative,
landfilling,  would have released 9-2  MTCE.

   WARM  also asks  users to define  transportation distances.
Suppose a recycling  facility is 100 miles away, but a landfill
is only 10 miles away.  Do the climatic costs of transporta-
tion outweigh the climatic benefits  of recycling? WARM can
answer this question by calculating  GHG  emissions due to

   Another WARM  feature relates to landfill gas recovery.
Organic wastes decompose in landfills, releasing CH4 and
other GHGs. Some  landfills capture these gases, offsetting
climactic impacts. WARM users can specify if their local
landfill recovers gas, and WARM  will factor GHG recovery
into emission calculations.

Online WARM
   Web-based WARM is quick  and  straightforward. Users
simply visit the online WARM Web page, follow the
prompts, and click "Create Summary" to view their WARM
report. Figure  1 is a  sample Online  WARM Summary
 Source: Can Manufacturer's Institute .

Waste Wise Update
WARM Spreadsheet
   To access the Microsoft Excel© spreadsheet version
of WARM, users must first download it from the
WARM Web page. The spreadsheet contains three tabs
that access different worksheets. Users input data into
the first worksheet and click on the other tabs to view
WARM results.
   An added benefit to using the spreadsheet version  of
WARM is that users can save and circulate an  electronic
copy of the final WARM report.
   WasteWise uses the WARM spreadsheet to  calculate
GHG emissions reductions for program partners. When
partners submit an annual report, they receive a WARM
report that demonstrates the climatic benefits of their
waste prevention and recycling activities.
   If you  have questions about the WARM emission fac-
tors or need assistance using WARM, please call  the
Helpline  at 800 ERA-WISE (372-9473).
          Figure  1: Sample Online
          WARM Summary  Report
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        Consumers WARM  up to WasteWise  Partner Achievements
   "Weplan to use WARM results to inform employees, commu-
nity leaders and members, and consumers of our efforts to
reduce greenhouse gases. We hope to  inspire them to reduce waste
and greenhouse gas emissions. "
    o        o
     —Don Curran, Resource Recovery Recycling Manager
                                            Virco Mfg.

   WasteWise partners commit to  reducing waste while
profiting from the publicity as environmental stewards.
WARM quantifies GHG emission reductions resulting from
waste prevention and recycling.  It  also makes it easy to edu-
cate stockholders, employees, consumers, and communities
about the environmental benefits of waste reduction.
Climate change  is a hot topic and  consumers respond to
companies that prove they are reducing GHG emissions.

   In 2001, WasteWise partner Virco Mfg. prevented 48
tons of Low Density Polyethylene  (LDPE) plastic waste and
recycled 1,022 tons of corrugated  cardboard. In combina-
tion, these activities reduced GHG emissions by 755
MTCE. The company is preparing signs and newspaper arti-
cles to publicize its achievement. Like Virco Mfg.,
WasteWise partner Allergan received a WARM report  quan-
tifying GHG  emission reductions  from companywide waste
prevention and recycling activities. Allergan circulated  the
report, sending it to  corporate and environmental health
and safety managers. In addition,  the company promoted
the connection between solid waste and climate change at
an Earth Day event.

   WasteWise partner Public Service Enterprise Group
   (PSEG) took an innovative approach to promoting WARM
   results. Customer bills include an environmental label,
   which benchmarks PSEG's GHG emissions against other
   energy providers. The company Web site lists GHG emis-
   sion reductions achieved through waste prevention and recy-
   cling. PSEG also shares WARM calculations through press
   releases and by working with the regulatory community.
      In 2001, the City of Clifton, New Jersey, recycled nearly
   245,000 tons of materials. Corrugated cardboard alone
   accounted for 8.3 percent of the total with 20,350 tons
   recycled, reducing GHG emissions by 14,449 MTCE. This
   reduction is equivalent to removing more than 10,000 cars
   from the road for a year. Al Du Bois, recycling coordinator
   for the City of Clifton, used the connection between climate
   change and waste to reinvigorate a  community recycling
   program, taking the message to local school children and
   developing a special presentation on the topic for the public.
   During the presentation, community members viewed EPA's
   satellite forum  video titled Why Waste a Cool Planet: MSW
   Solutions to Global Climate.
      WARM empowers solid waste managers and organiza-
   tions to make educated decisions. It allows them to predict
   the climatic impacts of different waste management strate-
   gies and quantify GHG emission reductions associated with
   waste reduction. WARM reports communicate waste pre-
   vention and recycling achievements to stockholders, employ-
   ees, consumers, and the community. For more information,
   contact your WasteWise representative or the WasteWise
   Helpline at 800 EPA-WISE (372-9473).

                         WasteWise Update
The  WasteWise  Climate
Change  Initiative:  A  New
Campaign   to  Help   Partners
                  Many partners have expressed their apprecia-
                  tion for the WasteWise WARM reports—
                  an important resource that helps them
                  communicate the importance of
                  their waste reduction activities
and demonstrate their commitment to tackling the cli-
mate change challenge. Many partners have also voiced
interest in increasing WasteWise's emphasis on climate
change impacts. As the program moves forward and
keeps partners on the cutting edge of waste reduction
issues, WasteWise is committed to continuing to help
partners understand how they can help reduce the risk of
climate change and obtain recognition for their activities.
This commitment is embodied in the new WasteWise
Climate Change Initiative, a concerted effort to promote
waste-related climate change reductions. Through the initiative,
EPA will go beyond providing WARM numbers to:
           "The Seydel Companies and its
           affiliates are dedicated to mak-
            ing products that favorably
           impact our environment through
           the reduction of GHGs and the
            redeployment of municipal
           waste materials. We are appre-
            ciative of the very favorable
           impact that the WasteWise pro-
           gram has in incentivizing these
           goals and ambitions for us and
               for our neighbors."
                 —Scott Seydel
              The Seydel Companies
• Highlight the relationship between waste and climate
change as a key element of the WasteWise message.
• Deliver new climate change tools for planning and imple-
menting effective "win-win" solutions.
• Provide additional recognition and publicity to partners
for their waste-related GHG reductions.
  EPA believes this forward-looking approach will help
partners that are already emphasizing the connection
between waste and climate change by providing opportuni-
ties for greater recognition and publicity and innovative new
ideas for achieving and measuring GHG reductions.
Partners that have not yet focused on this connection will
receive focused technical assistance to help them understand
and implement cost-effective methods for reducing waste
and GHG emissions.
  As the WasteWise Climate Change Initiative proceeds,
WasteWise's publications, events, and outreach efforts will
focus on helping partners understand how their activities
impact global climate and how they can take action to miti-
gate that impact. In addition, WasteWise is developing a
series of special outreach and educational materials, which
EPA hopes will lead to even more impressive waste and
GHG reductions.

Waste Wise Update
These materials include the following:
•  Climate Change and Waste Toolkit. This toolkit will con-
tain several useful materials for understanding and achieving
waste-related GHG reductions. It will include detailed but
easy-to-follow guidance on how to plan and measure effec-
tive waste reduction projects that reduce GHGs. Each kit
will also include tools for publicizing your efforts (e.g., a
sample press release and a conversion guide for presenting
your achievements in relevant terms), employee education
materials, and a list of resources you can access for addition-
al information.
•  Climate Change and Waste Slide Show Presentation. This
fact-filled PowerPoint© slide show presentation will explain
the link between solid waste and GHG and show how waste
reduction can lead to benefits such as lower material and
energy costs and improved corporate image. It will describe
the opportunities available to businesses and will be an
excellent tool for communicating your efforts to manage-
ment, customers, employees, and other stakeholders.
WasteWise partners will be able to download the presenta-
tion, which will include talking points, from the Web site or
obtain it on CD. You will also be able to  customize it and
add additional information about your particular efforts.
•  GHG Reduction Success Stories. This series of success sto-
ries will highlight partner achievements showing significant
GHG emissions reductions through innovative solid waste
management practices. Each success story will focus on the
accomplishments of a single partner, emphasizing the appli-
cation of cutting-edge technologies relevant to corporate
materials management.
•  Climate Change Pilot Projects/Technical Assistance.
WasteWise is embarking on a pilot program to provide lim-
ited technical assistance to help companies understand the
linkage  between solid waste management and climate
change, calculate the GHG impacts associated with their
activities, anticipate future GHG reductions, and communi-
cate the climate-waste message to their employees and stake-
•  Climate Change Partner of the Year Award. A new award
category recognizes outstanding efforts by partners who have
reduced GHG emissions through waste reduction activities
and conducted outreach activities that educate employees,
suppliers, customers, or other stakeholders about the con-
nection between their WasteWise activities and climate
change. In evaluating applicants, WasteWise will use the
WAPvM model to estimate the level of GHG reductions
resulting from reported waste prevention  and recycling activ-
ities. Partners can apply for the award as part of the normal
WasteWise reporting and awards application process.
WasteWise will present the award at the program's annual
recognition ceremony in Washington, DC.
      You can expect to hear more about these resources in the
    WasteWise Bulletin and on the WasteWise list server. If you
    would like more information now or are interested  in being
    involved in the development of these items, please contact
    your WasteWise  representative or call the Helpline at 800
    EPA-WISE (372-9473). Likewise, WasteWise understands
    that partners are the optimal source of innovative ideas and
    best management practices and invites  any suggestions for
    new activities,  expert insight, or general feedback that can
    advance the goals of the initiative.
     Becoming Climate Neutral—
     The Ultimate Achievement

     In an era of creative collaboration and innovative solutii
     forward-thinking organizations are challenging the  belief that
     pollution  is an inevitable part of conducting business.
     Organizations across the country are rising to the challenge
     of mitigating their climate footprint by taking strides to
     become "climate neutral." Defined as having a net  zero
     impact on the Earth's climate, the concept involves first reduc-
     ing and then offsetting an organization's GHG emission
     through internal changes and external investments.
     The Climate Neutral Network, a non-profit network of corpo-
     rate pioneers, environmental leaders, and other diverse
     stakeholders based in Underwood, Washington, develof
     the climate neutral concept. The organization's primary activi-
     ties include certifying products or enterprises as "climate neu-
     tral" based on design principles established by respected
     stakeholders; providing technical assistance to organizations
     that strive toward this goal; and facilitating networking
     among various stakeholders around collaborative clima
     neutral initiatives. Organizations can engage in the netv
     programs by purchasing other organizations' climate ne
     products, obtaining certification for climate neutral prod
     of their own, or  by becoming a completely climate neuti
     enterprise—offsetting the emissions of their entire operation.
     To become a climate neutral enterprise, an organization must
     first take steps to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in
     each stage of its production life cycle, from gathering raw
     materials to product manufacture, distribution, use, and final
     end-of-life management. Upgrading equipment,  improving
     process efficiency, and  using renewable energy are  all exam-
     ples of internal reduction activities. Second, organizations
     must offset remaining GHG emissions by investing in tei
     nologies or developing projects that reduce atmospheric
     GHGs in  settings outside of their own operations. An  organi-
     zation might invest in renewable energy projects, high-effi-
     ciency vehicles, or energy-efficient lighting in public schools,
     for example. Or, it might develop  a GHG sequestration pro-
     ject such  as conserving or managing a threatened forest or
     planting trees in a public park or urban setting.
     What began as a simple dialog  among  diverse stakehol	
     three years ago  has now engaged leading environmental
     organizations and corporations to develop profitable, climate
     neutral innovations and partnerships. The concept is spread-
     ing quickly as organizations realize the benefits of voluntarily
     taking steps to improve the environment for future gene"~
     tions. For more information about the Climate Neutral
     Network, visit the Web  site at 
                                     WasteWise Update
EPA Publications:
The following publications on climate change and solid waste are available online and through EPA's RCRA Call
Center, unless otherwise noted. To order, call 800 424-9346 (or 800 553-7672 TDD for the hearing impaired). In
Washington, DC, the number is 703 412-9810 or TDD 703 41 2-3323. The RCRA Call Center is  open Monday
through  Friday, from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.  EST.
Climate Change and Waste: Reducing Waste Can
Make a Difference
EPA530-E-99-002, 1999


Rising levels of GHGs in the Earth's atmosphere are causing
noticeable climate changes, and some of these gases can be
traced to solid waste. This publication describes the link between
climate change and MSW management and contains the two fact
sheets listed below.

  •  Pay-As-You-Throw: A Cooling Effect on Climate
     EPA530-E-99-002a, 1999


     This fact sheet describes EPA's Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT)
     Program and how it helps reduce GHG emissions by creat-
     ing incentives for residents to reuse and recycle more of
     their solid waste.

  •  WasteWise: Climate Benefits from Reducing
     Solid Waste
     EPA530-E-99-002b, 1999


     This fact sheet describes EPA's WasteWise Program and how
     it helps reduce GHG emissions by motivating organizations
     to prevent and recycle solid waste.

Estimating Greenhouse Gas Reduction from State

This reference document is for states planning to incorporate
MSW management actions into statewide GHG mitigation action
plans. It includes a sample plan for waste management mitiga-
tion actions.

Note: This document is only available online.

Evaluating the Greenhouse Gas Impacts of
National Waste Prevention Activities: The U.S.

This document outlines EPA's Climate Change and Waste
Program by describing the program's research and technical
assistance, program implementation, and outreach and educa-
tion activities.

Note: This document is only available online.
Global Warming and Our Changing Climate

www.epa.gov/globa lwarming/publications/outreach/gw_faq.pdf

This document gives answers to frequently asked questions about
global climate change.

Note: This document is available through EPA's National Service
Center for Environmental Publications and Information (NSCEPI) at

Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Management of
Selected Materials in Municipal Solid Waste
EPA530-R-98-013, 1998


This publication integrates a wealth of information on GHG
implications of various MSW management options, such as
source reduction, recycling, composting, combustion, and  landfill-
ing. It also provides GHG emission factors for specific materials
and mixed materials.

Inventory of U.S.  Greenhouse Gas Emissions and
Sinks: 7990-2000
EPA236-R-02-003, 2001

This publication provides an overview and detailed description of
all greenhouse gas sources and sinks in the United States. It  also
includes background data on several key concepts and discusses
the primary drivers of the growth  in emissions.

Note: This document is available through NSCEPI at

Other EPA Resources:

Several online interactive calculators are available online to assist
you with estimating greenhouse gas emissions of specific activities
and evaluating emission reduction opportunities. The calculators
are arranged by sector, and a brief description of each is provid-
ed to help users determine which one best suits their needs.

EPA's Global Warming Site

Climate change programs and activities are an integral part  of
EPA's mission and purpose. With the Global Warming Site, EPA
strives to present accurate information on the very broad issue of
climate change and global warming in  a way that is accessible
and meaningful to all parts of society—communities, individuals,
businesses, public officials, and governments.

Waste Wise Update
Other EPA Resources (confd):
EPA's Landfill Methane Outreach Program
This site contains information on EPA's Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP), a voluntary assistance and partnership program
that helps facilitate and promote the use of landfill gas as a renewable energy source.
EPA's Pay-As-You-Throw Web Site
This site contains information on EPA's Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Program, which promotes residential collection programs that charge
residents based on the amount they throw away.
EPA's State and Local Outreach Kit
This kit provides information for the general public about global warming. It focuses on voluntary strategies, solutions, policies, and
technologies that can  help states, communities, and individuals save money, improve air quality, and lower risks to human health.
Other Web Resources:
Center for /nternationa/ Climate and Environmental Research - Oslo (CICERO): www.cicero.uio. no/index_e.asp
Climate Change and Waste  Satellite Forum Video: www.epa.gov/globalwarming/actions/waste/index.html
Global Warming Information Page: www.globalwarming.org
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate  Change (IPCC): www.ipcc.ch
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: www.unfccc.int
U.S. Global  Change Resource Information Office: www.gcrio.org
World Bank Global Climate Change:  www-esd.worldbank.org/cc
800 EPA-WISE (372-9473) or send a copy of this page, with the mailing label, back to WasteWise at the address below. Many WasteWise publications,
including the WasteWise Update, are available electronically on the WasteWise Web site at .
   United States
   Environmental Protection Agency
   Washington, DC 20460
   September 2002
   Official Business
   Penalty for Private Use $300
                                                                      1 Printed on paper that contains at least 50 percent postconsumer fiber.