United States
                                   Environmental Protection
                         Solid Waste and
                         Emergency Response
                                                Winter/Spring 1993




    Pizza lovers might be surprised to
    learn their favorite take-out meal
    could arrive in a box made of
pulped and processed government re-
ports from  the National Security
Agency. This initiative is the result of
creative ventures made possible by
federal agency efforts  to launch or
expand recycling  programs in re
sponse to a 1991 Executive Order.

  To oversee these programs, each
federal agency appointed its own recy-
cling coordinator. At the helm is Gail
Miller Wray—EPA's federal recycling
coordinator and the author of the first
of five annual reports  detailing  the
actions taken by federal agencies to
set up or strengthen their waste reduc-
tion, recycling, and buy-recycled

  The Order's mandate to procure
items made of recycled materials
spurred federal agencies into action.
In the first year alone, the number of
agencies with programs to buy prod-
ucts with recycled content jumped
from 2 to 50. Examples of affirmative
procurement range from the Depart-
ment of Agriculture's testing of 40
              (Continued on page 2)
 Federal Agency Recycling e Business
 Buy Recycled Campaign  9 Luxury
 Hotel's Environmental Program o
 Packaging Waste o  Interstate Trade
 of Solid Waste  « Focus On Materials
 Exchange  •  Nebraska  Woman
 Finds Markets for Recyclables  e
 Separating  Plastics eGeorgia
 Compost Program » Forum On
 Heavy Metals  e Unit Pricing
Businesses Unite to Boost

Demand  for Recycled Products
     There's a new type of merger in the business world. Nearly three dozen
     American corporations have joined forces to put their buying power to
     work for the environment. These companies are part of the Buy Recycled
Campaign, launched last year by the National Recycling Coalition (NRC) with
seed money from EPA. Companies that join the Buy Recycled Campaign make a
commitment to purchase goods made with recycled materials.
               The Campaign sprang to life last year after NRC hired Phil
             Bailey, who had worked on related projects in Colorado. As
             NRC's  market development director, Bailey contacted several
             major corporations that he knew were buying recycled products
             and urged them to work together to lead others along the same
             path. The project soon snowballed to include 3 5 companies and
                                               (Continued on page 12)
  "—'-^ejcQitte to a new year of Reus-
       able News.Thisyear promises
       to be full of change for all of
  EA fs we welcome Carol Brownej; as
  3£pew administrator. BFowner comes
                                    To  usher  in the new year of ]
                                  ffy^ge. Reusable News is adding a j
                                  hiwfeature,"Perspectives," which of |
                                  fers a forum for interested parties to j
                                  present their viewpoints on a current j
                                  event  or topic in the solid  waste j
                                  arena.  The debut of the feature ap-
   ring her two years
 leading up the DER,
  rowner made pollu-
  [gA from the Florida^Department of    pears on page 4 and focuses on in- j
           „„„_ .__„„,-.,._,..     _,  „_   tefstateWanspoWof municipal solid j

|da's principal environmental agency.    waste (MSW).                    j
                                              Since Reusable News 1
                                           began four years ago, the j
                                           newsletter has chronicled :
                                           many milestones in MSW \
                                           management. Recycling \
                                           programs have increased \
                                           in scope, size, and num- \
                                           her; source reduction has •
                                           taken hold; and new land- •
                                           filling and  combustion:;
                                           regulations have been is-l
                                           sued that will enhance the j
                                           safety and  efficiency of i
                                           these practices. To share j
    , prevention a major
   iprity^JShe supported
 ~ng state waste re-
 Action and recycling
 egislation, while endeav-
 a^ng to pass legislation
 "Jat woyld go even fur-
     to raeet FFlbrida's
twaste  management
 goals. Florida DER Waste
 Deduction Section^ Ad-
pninistratot__Ron Hen- EPA Administrator Carol Browner all the latest information "]
|ricks is sorry to see her                        with you, we have made j
 Jeave: "CafoLBrowner's new ap-    this issue of the newsletter 12 pages \
 "5intment is a loss for Florida and a    long. We look forward to keeping you i
     fit for EPA."                    up-to-dateonMSWissues inthefuture.
                 > Reusable News is printed with soy/canola ink on paper that contains at least 50 percent recycled fiber.

Federal  Recycling Programs  Mushroom
(Continued from page 1)

recyded-content plastic picnic tables
in an Oklahoma national forest to
EPA's procurement of 6 million
pounds of recycled paper from titie
Government Printing Office.
  Agencies also made significant
strides in source reduction. For exam-
ple, ttxe Central Intelligence Agency's
in-house cafeteria now serves meals
on china \vith metal utensils instead
of disposable paper plates and plastic
utensils. In addition, most federal
agencies, including the Department
of the Interior, the Defense Logistics
Agency, and EPA, have  switched to
reusable laser printer cartridges.
  to one of the major federal recy-
cling efforts,  the General Services
Administration set up programs in
345 government-owned buildings
to recycle white paper  and bever-
age containers. The 22,000 tons of
materials collected for recycling
during the first year  generated
$500,000 in sales and saved the
government $1 million in landfill
tipping fees.
  To encourage agency recycling
coordinators to share  ideas  and
success stories, a monthly seminar
series in Washington, DC, is organ-
ized by Wray. When the Executive
Order first was signed, Wray's of-
fice provided a packet  explaining
various aspects of the Order to
each agency head and recycling co-
  The Order also called for the for-|
mation of the Council on Feders
Recycling and Procurement  Policy,]
whichis chaired by Wray andincludes
representatives from several agen-l
cies. As its first project, the Council
organized last June's Government)
Buy Recycled Products Trade Fair anc
Showcase in Washington, DC, to edu-l
cate  government  officials  aboutf
available products made from recy-l
cled materials, to convince vendors|
that the government is committed tc
buying such products, and to helpl
vendors better understand the pro-|
curement process.
  For more information, call EPA'sl
Office of Federal Recycling at!
 Luxury Hotel's
 New Business
 Tedd Saunders of The Boston Park Plaza Hotel & Towers
 replaced tiny plastic bottles with bulk dispensers for health
 and beauty products.
     Tedd Saunders has proved that
     even a luxury hotel can "reduce,
     reuse, and recycle" without sac-
 rificing quality—or customer satisfac-
 tion. Two years ago, Saunders, title
 environmental program  director of
 the 977-roomBostonParkPlazaHotd
 &Towers, launched an ambitious pro-
 gram thathas slashed waste generation,
 saved money, and even attracted new
 business. In fact, hotel executives es-
 timate having generated more than
 $750,000 in new business due to cli-
 ents' desires to support this environ-
 mentally conscious establishment.
   To date, the hotel has completed
 over 90 initiatives in the  areas  of
 source reduction, recycling, reuse,
 water and energy conservation, and
 outreach. For these efforts, the hotel
          received a 1992 Presi-
           dent's Environment and
           Conservation Challenge
             In the area of source
          reduction,  one impor-
           tant change the hotel
          made was  to  install a
           shampoo  and liquid
           soap pump dispenser
           system  in  each of the
           guest rooms. This might
           seem like a small step;
          however,  the estab-
           lishment  no  longer
           throws  out two million
           tiny plastic bottles per
           year. With the money
           saved,  the hotel now
          buys higher  quality
 health and beauty products for  its
 guests. In another major source re-
 duction initiative, Saunders banned
 the use of disposable napkins, uten-
 sils, and cups throughout the hotel.
 Recycled products,  from hotel sta-
 tionery to  carpeting made  of
 recycled plastic soda bottles, also
 are purchased whenever available.
  An exciting aspect of the progra
is that all levels of personnel in t
hotel have become involved, wit
many of the hotel staff coming up wit
their own waste prevention ideas. FoJ
example, housekeeping staff arcj
,;        •••••••• making kitche
                aprons out oJ|
                stained linei
                tablecloths  thai|
                otherwise would
                be discarded. In-l
                volving everyone]
                is extremely valu-l
                able since it no fl
                only encourages|
                individuals tc
   Jhe hotel...,
   received a
   Presidents  _
                                                                    | Conservation
                                                                                   » take an active
                                                                                    role, but also fur-]
 thers the goals of the program.
   In addition to internal improve-l
 ments in the hotel, Saunders is
 hoping that he can effect change
 beyond the establishment by insist-]
 ing,  whenever  feasible,  that
 suppliers deliver goods with mini-]
 mal packaging. For example,  one
 distributor now delivers meat in re
 usable  containers  as  opposed tc
 disposable ones, and cleaning fluids
 are supplied in 15-gallon drums of
 concentrate instead of individua
 bottles. With these actions, the hotel]
 is reducing its own waste generatior
 while serving as a role model for
 other businesses.
   For more  information, contact
 Tedd Saunders  of The Boston Part
 Plaza Hotel at 617-457-2413. J

   packaging  Waste
   low the  United  States  Compares to
   »ther  Countries
oy James E. McCarthy
>enior Analyst, Congressional
Research Service

     Americans who visit Paris are
     likely to notice the little cafes
     that seem to grace every corner,
:he  open-air  markets where fresh
bod is sold, and the relative scarcity
>f fast food restaurants. But a tourist
ooking for a cup of carry-
nit  coffee or  a soda ma-
iiine might die of thirst
Defore finding one. When
:he  French are thirsty,
they instead stop at cafes,
where coffee is served in
:hina cups, and  soft
 rinks  are poured into
glasses from refillable
  To the solid waste pro-
cessional, these differences are more
 ian just cultural or lifestyle choices.
  iey influence waste generation and
disposal practices, particularly in the
area of packaging.
  In general, France and other indus-
trial countries use less packaging than
the United States. In 1988, Americans
generated 463 pounds of packaging
per  capita, about one-third of munici-
pal solid waste (MSW) by weight. Both
Japan and the European Community
appear to generate at least one-fourth
less. Japanese and European packag-
ing is also more likely to be
recycled. Of 18 countries
for  which glass recycling
data are available, the
United States  ranked last
in 1988, at a 13 percent
rate. Five European coun-
tries, including Germany,
exceeded 50 percent. The
U.S. rate of paper recycling
also lags behind most of
Europe and Japan: of the 18 countries,
the  United States ranked 15th.
  The United States does rank high
in aluminum can and polyethylene
 terephthalate (PET) plastic recycling.
 The U.S. aluminum can recycling rate
 (64 percent in 1990) was
 third among 19 countries.
 Its PET bottle recycling
 rate (28 percent in 1990)
 was far higher than the
 European average (less
 than 2 percent). But alumi-
 num cans and PET bottles
 together compose only
          1.1 percent (by
          weight) of to-
          tal MSW in the
          United States, compared
          to nearly 25 percent for
          paper and glass packag-
          ing. Also, Europeans are
          making rapid strides in
          the case of PET. Over the
          last three years, at least
          seven European nations
          have seen the introduc-
 tion of refillable PET
 bottles, with return rates
 estimated at more than 90
   Other countries  have
 proposed new legislation
 and regulations applicable
 to packaging materials. In
 the European Community
 and the Nordic countries,
 new regulations aim to re
 move  most  packaging
 waste from the MSW stream, making
 industry largely responsible for fi-
	__   nancing and, in several
          cases, operating collection
          and recycling programs.
          Canada, too, has set ambi-
          tious targets for reducing
          packaging  waste,  al-
          though  the  specific
          measures to be  used to
          reach the targets are still
          being debated.
            In all countries, con-
 cerns about financing and organizing
 recycling programs  are raised fre-
 quently.  Recycling  collection
 programs in the United States have
been financed and run largely by local
governments (with some exceptions
          such as deposit-refund
          systems). Because indi-
          vidual cities, towns,  and
          counties generally do
          not exert a significant in-
          fluence on commodity
          markets, local govern-
          ments  can be  left
          holding the bag, or  bot-
          tle, when demand for
          collected materials  de-
          clines. Local government
also has little control over the types of
packaging used by manufacturers,
and, in many instances, there is uncer-
tainty as to whether sufficient funds
are available to sustain collection
and sorting programs.
  Europeans have addressed these
concerns by turning increasingly to in-
dustry as a partner or responsible party
          for collecting and recy-
          cling waste. In Germany,
          for example, industry is
          financing and operating
          what's called the "Dual
          System," a recycling  pro-
          gram   that  provides
          separate collection of re
          cyclable paper,  glass,
          metal,  and plastic pack-
          aging.   While  local
          governments continue
to collect solid waste, the Dual  System
aims to collect 90 percent of mostpack-
aging materials and to recycle 80
percent of what is collected. France has
a similar, but less ambitious, scheme.
  Whether this approach is transfer-
able to our side of the Atlantic is not
clear. But as U.S. policymakers search
for solutions to the problems of fi-
nancing  and marketing recyclables,
we're likely to hear more about how it
is done in Europe. 1
The views expressed in this article are
those of the author and not necessarily
those of the Congressional Research

                                                                           Two Vie
   Free Trade Ensures
   by Eugene J. Wingerter Executive
   DirectQr/CEO of the National Solid Wastes
       About 15 years ago, New Jersey
       got upset over solid waste that
       Pennsylvania was exporting to
   the Garden State and sued to block
   this transport of waste. The lawsuit
   went all the way to the U.S. Supreme
   Court, which ruled that states may
   not unilaterally interfere with inter-
   state commerce,  including com-
   merce in waste.
     How lucky for New Jersey that it
   lost. New Jersey now exports waste
   to many states, including Pennsylva-
   nia. Lucky,  too, for Pennsylvania,
   which, continues to export waste to
   a number of states, although not to-
   New Jersey.
     Almost all states export waste.
   Market  realities make  interstate
   movement of waste  feasible and
   even  desirable. For some towns, a
   landfill  in the next state could be
   closer than an in-state facility.
     There are still more reasons for
   allowing states and communities to
   transfer waste and share disposal
   capacity.  As old landfills close,
   either because they are full or be-
   cause they  cannot comply  with
   stringent new federal requirements,
   the most cost-effective  newer
 landfills are those that serve a large
 territory. The costs of the state-of-
 the-art facilities mandated by
 Subtitle D of the Resource Conserva-
 tion and Recovery Act and the Clean
 Air Act might be sustainable only by
 revenues derived from regional
 landfills, some of which serve "waste
 sheds" that cross state lines. If
 states—or worse, individual dis-
 tricts or communities within a
 state—were forced to build their
 own  disposal  facilities  inde-
 pendently, costs could become
 burdensome and private investment
 would be discouraged. Such district-
 ing couldrequire the construction of
 more landfills than would be neces-
 sary if communities share capacity.
   Importing waste can be beneficial
 to the  community  that ^^^^
 "hosts" a new landfill Not :
 only will the community's 5
 own waste be managed ,
 safely while its old facility ij
 is being dosed, but also the ;
 community likely will re- ?
 ceive benefits as a result of ]
 the  revenues from im- i
 ported waste—from free  """""""""""
 local disposal to capital improve-
 ments  to  "host fees."   Many
 communities already have enjoyed
 these benefits, as well as new jobs
 and expanded tax revenues, by host-
 ing a new landfill.
   Exporting  waste aids communi-
 ties  in fragile  ecosystems and
 communities with environmentally
 unsafe facilities that cannot be  re
 placed immediately. An entire region
 could benefit environmentally from
 being able to export its waste.
 waste aids
  in fragile
  Interstate movement of wasta
does not preclude state governmenta
from ensuring a certain amount 01
disposal capacity within their bor
ders. States can require  thei
communities to plan for a certs
disposal capacity and then let eac
individual  community  decide
whether to add capacity and
the benefits from imports. Commu-j
nities might wish  to contract foif
capacity or build their own.
  Interstate movement of waste had
declined for a  variety of reasons!
including the rise of recycling, thq
economic downturn, and  adverse
publicity surrounding the issue. Evi-j
dence suggests that the "problem1]
was always greatly overstated.
  Unfortunately, the issue gainec
•        steam in the 102nd Con-l
          ress,  and the 103rd Con-|
             Bkely will see ne
          __> to restrict interstate]
          b^ernent of waste.t
               ver the legislatiyel
          _ fess plays out, we cahl
          redict that local commu-I
        nities  likely will have
        more direct say in Wastel
import matters. Understanding the!
importance of this voice, the wastel
services industry is trying hard to!
work  with communities to  meet I
their needs. That means  protecting!
communities' freedom to decide for I
themselves.  Rigid legislation re-1
stricting movement of waste will not I
help. As the case of New Jersey and I
Pennsylvania indicates, market re-J
alities rule. Today's imports  could I
be tomorrow's exports. I
''Recycling  Realities" Broadcast  Live
     Keep America Beautiful, Inc.
     (KAB) broadcast a live 2-hour
     panel discussion and call-in
talk show about recycling's role in
integrated municipal solid waste
(MSW) management to approxi-
mately 250 viewing locations across
the United States. The program, enti-
tled "Recycling Realities: A National
Town Meeting," was broadcast via
satellite from the U.S. Chamber of
Commerce in Washington, DC, on
April 5, 1993, to more than 20,000
individuals  in businesses, govern-
ment offices,  universities, and
schools across the country.

  Issues on the agenda included the
capabilities  and limitations of recy-
cling; trends  for  the  future of
recycling; and the importance of com-
posting, waste-to-energy facilities,
         and sanitary landfills in integratec
         MSW management. Panelists include
         a cross-section of experts  on solic
         waste issues.  A toll-free telephond
         number allowed viewers to call in ques-j
         tions and participate in the dialogue.

           For more information or to obta
         a videotape of "Recycling Realities,"!
         contact  Sharon Oxley of KAB at"

      Interstate  Trad©
i              •  i      !
Local Control;
Necessary to

Manage Solid Waste
by Seth Phillips Chief, Solid Waste
Management Unit, Waste Management
Division, Michigan Department of Natural
Resources         I      I
     On June 1,1992, the US. Supreme
     Court struck down Michigan's
     provisions regulating
the interstate  transport of
solid waste in the case of
Fort Gratiot Sanitary Landfil i
Sfatural Resources, et ol The]
Supreme Court has made. itl
clear that without  federal J
authority states may not regu-1
ate movement of solid waste i
among states more than it is'
regulated within states. Since
that time, Michigan,  along with more;
than 40 other states, has worked with
"ongress to develop a federally legis-
ated remedy to the problem created by
these decisions.
  Michigan has had a comprehensive
solid waste  management planning
program in place for  over 10 years.
The program calls for each of Michi-
gan's 83 counties to create its own
ntegrated solid waste management
plan. Taken together, these plans
"orm the State  Solid Waste Manage-
ment Plan. Although the plans
address many solid waste issues, their
driving force is the definition of ade-
quate long-term disposal capacity for
each county/thereby ensuring  the
 availability of environmentally sound,
 cost-effective disposal capacity for
 the entire state. Contrary to the expe-
 rience  of  many  other  states,
 Michigan's program has been highly
 successful in establishing capacity,
 and additional disposal facilities are
 being sited;
   The reason .that Michigan's pro-
 gram has been .effective at creating
 disposal capacity is that the program
 provides counties with an appealing
 trade-off. Counties are required to
 designate, or provide for, guaranteed
 siting of necessary disposal capacity.
         Jp. jeturn for providing this
           '.. acity, counties are given
          Authority to control the
             ;-range use of that ca-
           Idry so thai: they can meet
           eir planning  obligations.
            sent the ability to conttol
            use of disposal capacity,
           •unties have no assurance
           .at .they can  meet their
	arming obligations. In
         fact, absent this control,
 long-term capacity cannot even be de-
 fined since out-of-state waste streams
 can use that capacity without control.
   Disposal facilities  frequently as-
 sure communities long-term capacity
 even when their use clearly dictates
 that they will be full in shorter time
 frames. Given the dictate for ensuring
 adequate capacity siting under Michi-
 gan law, this would force the creation
 of new facilities that would not be
 needed if communities had relied in-
 stead on regulatory planning power. If
 communities cannot exercise some
 control over the proliferation and loca-
 tion of new disposal facilities, it is likely
 mat the political consequences will be
 what other states, absent the power to
We should be
 problems of
   our own
control waste importation, have suf-
fered—a paralyzing inability to create
needed capacity for the future.
  Michigan andmany other states have
recognized, as do the proposed  Re-
source Conservation and Recovery Act
reauthorization bills, that solid waste is
an issue that needs to be addressed
locally, state by state. States .that have
actedresponsibly to provide for sound,
long-range solid waste management
for its citizens have demonstrated the
ability and courage to face this difficult
issue. They can only be successful in
meeting these long-range objectives if
ihey have the power to protect such
capacity from being swallowed up by
other states that lack the political will
to take the steps necessary to solve the
solid waste  management needs of
their own communities.

  As Chief Justice William Rehnquist
noted in his dissenting opinion in the
Fort Gratiot case, "The Court today pe-
nalizes the State of Michigan for what
to all appearances are its good-faith
efforts, in turn encouraging each state
to ignore the waste problem in the hope
that, another will pick up  the slack."
Indeed, if Congress does not act to rem-
edy this situation, states will react just
as Chief Justice Rehnquist suggests.
Mthin days of the Fort Gratipt decision,
measures were introduced in Michi-
gan's Legislature to restrict imports and
to impose amoratorium on issuance of
all disposal facility licenses and permits.

  Like many states, Michiganhas long
practiced its belief that we should be
responsible for addressing problems
of our own creation. The cpntinued
lack of ability for states  to  control
waste imports will lead us in the op-
posite direction, ft
 HHW Collection Programs Are  on the Rise
      At the Seventh Annual Household
      Hazardous Waste Management
      Conference, it was reported that
the number of permanent household
hazardous waste (HHW) collectionpro-
grams increased 33  percent between
1991 and 1992.
   The conference,  held in Minnea-
polis, Minnesota, on December 9 to
12, 1992, was designed to foster
communication on complex HHW
  issues, including source reduction,
  education, collection, and manage-
  ment.  The  conference  also
  addressed conditionally exempt
  small quantity generator (CESQG)
  management of  hazardous waste
  and reducing the toxicity of HHW
  by reformulating household prod-
  ucts.  The conference drew 400
  attendees representing the United
  States, Switzerland, England, and
                                             Canada and featuredmore than 100
                                               The next conference is scheduled to
                                             be held in Burlington, Vermont, on No-
                                             vember 9 to 13,1993. For proceedings
                                             or tapes of the 1992 conference, con-
                                             tact the Waste Watch  Center  at
                                             508-470-3044. For more information,
                                             contact Tracy Bone of EPA's Office of
                                             Solid Waste at 202-260-5649.1

   The  articles on  these two
   pages focus on the activities
   of organizations engaged In
   materials exchange. Materi-
   als exchange is based on the
   principle that one person's
   trash can be another person's
   treasure. Unwanted  items
   such as used clothing, furni-
   ture, appliances, and building
   materials are collected and
   redistributed to  individuals
   and  organizations that can
   reuse them. As these articles
   illustrate, materials exchange
   not only reduces waste,  but
   also  can be profitable, serve
   social purposes, and enhance
   cultural activities.
                                    Berkeley Business
t*  I

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 ET '.-
         I    "ill  ," " T . i   " PUN
  	1111   ill   u I   *  i,   ik     "
  •"'"or more than a decade,  Urban
  I— Ore, Inc., has turned a profit by
  I   salvaging everything including
  thekitcjien sink from in.and around
  lelr^eley,  California. Urban Ore col-
  lects, sorts, and then sells still-useful

  ing materials. The company's  cus-
  tomers—home remodelers,. landlords,
  artists, collectors, inventprsj and
  flea market vendors—repair the
   	;,_,_„.__„„	_as_is."	What:	
Artist Sculpts


     New York City has long been a
     mecca for the aits. In. recent
     years, the city also has become
somewhat celebrated for its towering
landfill fa Staten Island. M a" unique
collaboration, New York City cultural
leaders and sanitation officials have
joined forces to enhance the local arts
scene while reducing waste generation
  Visual artist Angela Fremont
founded aprogram called Materials for
the Arts in 1979 to collect unwanted
goods and materials from both busi-
nesses and individuals. Materials for
the Arts then redistributes these
materials to nonprofit cultural or-
ganizations; social, community, and
health service organizations with
art programs; and individual artists
working on public projects in New
York City.
  Fremont, who was working at New
York City's Department of Cultural
Affairs at that Jme, got the idea for
the program gfegJfae. Metropolitan
Museum of ArraRacpSOier seeking
to off-loadsomenq|Qrjgerdieededped-
estals. As an artist7"she understood
.-' cled,

-   About 10 percent of Urban Ore's
i inventory is retrieved directly from
  the tipping floor at Berkeley's transfer
  station, where municipal discards are
  collected for transport to nearby land-
  fills.  Most  of the  company's
  merchandise, however, is dropped off
  nearby at Urban Ore's two retail sites
  by local residents and businesses. Ur-
  ban Ore also  frequently picks up
  goods from homes, businesses, and
  construction sites.
   The salvaged materials are pric|
and displayed for sale four blc
away at Urban Ore's 2-acre reuse ce
ter—one of the nation's largest
most  diverse, according to Da\
Stern, Urban Ore's information se
ices manager.  Urban Ore's Gene
Store  carries furniture, rugs, hot
wares, books, tools, records, andjof
equipment in a large warehouse.
large lot next door, the Building Ma^
rials  Exchange  handles lumbe
bricks, tile, glass, pipe, sinks, bat|
tubs, doors, and windows.

  Unlike traditional thrift  store
which carry small, highly marketat
inventories, Urban Ore  handles |
large  volume of goods  of va
quality—about 5,000 tons of mat]
rial per year, according to Ste
While preserving valuable lane
space by selling reusable discarc
Urban Ore also has proved that pr
venting waste can be profitable.
1992,'Stern predicts, the compe
will gross more than $1.1 mUlic
from turning trash into treasures. I

  For more  information^jcpntal
David Stein of Urban Ore'sVlnfqrml
tion Services at 510-559-4454.f
     the need in the arts community for
     such materials and realized that if it
     could happen once, it probably could
     happen again.
       Materials for the Arts accepts  all
     types of items for artistic endeavors,
     including stereo equipment, musical
     instruments, theatrical lighting, pho-
     tography  supplies, fabric, and
     notions. Staff members pick up every
     item at no charge, so the donor avoids
     costly remojcal fees. To ensure that
     donations actually gq to support the
     arts, every pfQsJ^ctiyerecipient must
     submit proof~o|Jnphprofit  status,
     documentation"~QF cultural activities,
     and a  "wish list" of desired items or
     materials. Today, Materials for the
     Arts receives donations from approxi-
     mately 1,000 donors and distributes
     the materials to more than 800
     groups, from the Boys Choir of Har-
     lem to the Pan Asian Repertory
     Theatre to senior citizen centers.
       The founders of Materials for the
     Arts originally cast its image as a
     means of enhancing the city's arts
     scene, not  as a reuse program with
                                                   ; benefits. But in 198
                                       as t^ejpirogram's director, Susl
                                       Glass, was speaking atji solid was
                                       conference, she reafizj^yhaj: the pi|
                                       gram also coulxOessen New Yc
                                       City's enormous landfill burden
                                         ConsecpeStiy, Glass sought, and]
                                       ceived, funding from the New York C
                                       Department of Sanitation's Bureau I
                                       Waste Prevention, Reuse,  and Red
                                       cling. The increased funding, toget
                                       with additional warehouse space
                                       was  provided by the city in 19£
                                       Helped expand the program to
                                       point^where it is today. Prior to
                                       time/s^ace ^g a serious problem \
                                       Materials for the Arts. "We had b<
                                       turningi flown, donations because
                                       had no spacejtp put things," says Gla
                                       Thanks toTEatextra space and func'
                                       Materials  for the Arts redistributi
                                       each year nearly 400 tons of hand-r
                                       downs otherwise destined for disposd
                                       which have an estimated value of a]
                                       proximately $1.5 million.
                                         For moreinformatign,contact Suss
                                       Glass, director of thfrMaterials for 1
                                       Arts program, at 2-S255-5


  'ftovers Spark



     Qio would have imagined that
     discarded lids from cans of
     shaving cream could be trans-
 rmed into wheels on a toy race car
 that plastic cores for solid deodor-
 t could become the car's axles? A
 ild would.
 Across the country,  a nonprofit
 ucational organization is funneling
 anufacturirig leftovers into class-
 oms  to jump-start students'
 laginations. What started 17 years
 o in Worcester, Massachusetts, as
 ic teacher's impulse to scour the
 immunity for extra teaching mate-
 is  has blossomed into  a  unique
 ultistate partnership  between
 isinesses and  schools. Word is
 reading that such cooperation can
 eserve valuable landfill space
 hile enriching children's class-
 iom learning.
 Walter F. Drew, co-founder and
 'esident of the nonprofit Institute
 >r Self-Active Education  (ISAE),
 unched the National Schools Recy-
 e Network in  1981.  Along  with
 inning rnaterials exchange centers
 school gymnasiums and old ware-
 >uses in nearly a dozen states, ISAE
 •ganizes workshops  throughput
 ie country encouraging teachers to
Children in classrooms across the country are creating new uses for manufacturers' discards
through the National Schools Recycle Network.
develop creative classroom uses for
industrial waste products.
  To date, more than 500 companies
across the country have donated
their unwanted punch-outs and sur-
plus stock to the centers. A typical
center overflows with reams of col-
ored paper  and  cellophane, wood
scraps of all shapes and sizes, clear
plastic bottles, skeins of yarn, pieces
of brightly colored foam and felt,
bolts of doth, and rolls of wire. Stu-
dents use the materials in science,
math, language skills, and art classes,
as well as for free-time play. Whatever
the subject, children are experiencing
ways to reuse valuable resources, in-
stead of throwing tihem away.

  Public schools are issued free
membership cards that allow teach-
ers to stuff bags and boxes full of the
center's creative teaching tools. Paid
memberships also are available for
families, individuals, and private or-
ganizations such as daycare centers.
The bulk of the  centers' funding
comes from private, state, and fed-
eral grants, including some from EPA
   The centers typically are staffed by
one or more paid employees who not
only locatemanufacturers willing to
make donations, but also pick up,
transport, unload, sort,  and display
the". materials. "It's  labor-intensive
work," says Drew. "When you start
serving thousands of teachers, you're
hauling around tons of materials."
But the hard work is worthwhile. As
Drew points out, "We've seen fabu-
lous materials thrown away every day
'that are  unbelievably exciting and
challenging for children and teachers."

   Formoreinformation, contact Walter
F. Drew of ISAE at 407-984-1018.1
kiilding a  Better

 . Second Life for
 onstruction Supplies

  1 or eight years, the Loading Dock
   has recovered surplus construc-
   tion supplies to help individuals
nd organizations build a better fu-
    r-rft      1   I~gMSpj,   -, ^&$*&&Lf.    -a
ore. The Loading gogfe.jrnonprofit:
rganization, redis^^p:es3tnesem,S-
alals for a handlinfffee, about,jbne-
lird of their retail price, to clients in
iced. The organization's client^ are
aw-income  individuals, nonprofit
roups, religious organizations, and
usinesses that maintain properties

occupied by nonprofit organizations
or low-income tenants.
  The Loading Dock started in a
small, unheated, rat-infested office in
Baltimore, Maryland, that had as its
best asset a very nice loading dock-
hence  the  company  name. Today,
with 13  employees  and  a 21,000
square foot warehouse, the Loading
Dock redistributes over $1 million
worth of building supplies a^year.
  In 1992, the company  diverted
from the municipal solid waste stream
over 7,000 tons of surplus material,
such as lumber, paint, and floor cov-
erings. According  to Executive
Director Hope Cucina, about 20 per-
cent of the supplieVTedistributed at
the Loading DocKl||!taken directly
 from drop-off areas at county landfills;
 the restis donatedby a well-established
 network of building supply distribu-
 tors, manufacturers, retailers, and
 other organizations. By donating mate-
 rials to the Loading Dock, businesses
 avoid disposal costs and qualify for a tax
 deduction Cucina estimates that about
 400  Baltimore-area businesses regu-
 larly contribute surplus or hard-to-seU
 materials to the company.
   The company's operatiojiv%hich
 have been described by Maryland
 Governor Donald Schaefeipas "out-
 standing  and original," fre being
 modeled in other parts oj||he state
 as well. For more informajibn, con-
 tact Hope Cucina of ther Loading
 Dock at 410-728-3625.1

                       uestion: What can! do to reduce the amount
                       of trash generated from packaging?

                      nswer: Containers and packaging make
                      Lup a significant portion of municipal solid
waste:—nearly one-third of the trash generated in 1990 (by weight).
Man>' products come in packages that protect or contain them or
keep| them fresh. Packages sometimes offer instructions as well.
But yjou might find that not all packaging is necessary or desirable.
As consumers, each of us can make thoughtful shopping decisions to
minimize the amount of trash we generate. We can, for example,:look
for items that can be purchased loose or in bulk, such as nails at
hardvvare stores  or produce at grocery  stores. For nonperishable,
frequently used items such as laundry soap, baking soda, or cat litter,
consi'der economy-sized packages. Remember that as the amount of
product in a container increases, the packaging waste per serving or
use tfends to decrease. Concentrated products, such as frozen juices,
typicidly require less packaging and energy to ship to the store, saving
jsothjnoney and natural resources. In addition, don't forget that we can
tell store managers  when we  are pleased to  see certain products
displayed in bulk bins or with minimal packaging. Also, we can let
manufacturers know that we appreciate their efforts to reduce packaging.
For more tips, see EPA's The Consumer's Handbook for Reducing Solid
M'asfc? (EPA530-K-92-003), available by calling  the RCRA/Superfund
Hotlihe (see below for calling information).
Did You Knowll

 In addition to reducing the amount of
 materials in the solid waste stream,!
 reducing waste toxicity is an impor-|
tant component of source reductior
Toxicity reduction can be achieved by
following some simple guidelines:
• Use materials  or products wit
  nonhazardous or less hazardousl
  components to accomplish the!
  task at hand,  such as choosing|
  batteries  with  reduced mere
• When you do use products withl
  hazardous  components,  avoidl
  wasting  extra  materials by|
  purchasing only what you need.
• Share any leftover amounts you do I
  have  with neighbors,  local!
  businesses, or charities.
                   The following publications are available at no charge from the EPA RCRA/Superfund
                   Hotline. Call 800-424-9346, or TDD 800-553-7672 for the hearing impaired, Monday
                   through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time. In Washington, DC, the
                   number is 703-412-9810 or TDD 703-412-3323.         !
                   Household Hazardous Waste: Steps  to Safe Management (EPA530-F-92-031). This
     i              pamphlet discusses what household hazardous waste, (H^W) is, dangers of improper
disposal, ways to reduce and recycle HHW, arid safe storage and disposal practices.   •                  ;
Household Hazardous Waste Management: A Manual for 1-Day Community Collection Programs (EPA530-
R-92-D26). This manual describes how community leaders and collection organizers can plan and operate ;a
successful household hazardous waste drop-off program.                                     '•    ;
"Green" Advertising Claims (EPA530-F-92-024). Developed in conjunction with the  Federal Trade Com-
mission and the U.S. Office of Consumer Affairs, this pamphlet lists key pointslfor consumers to consider
\vher| selecting products labeled with environmental claims.                                       i
Municipal Solid Waste Prevention in Federal Agencies (EPA530-F-92-016). This fact sheet describes the
activities undertaken by some federal agencies to prevent solid waste generation.                    !
Used] Dry Cell Batteries: Is a Collection Program Right for Your Community? (EPA530-K-92-006). This
guide examines the economic  and planning issues to be considered before^  establishing  a collectiojn
program for used dry cell batteries.                                                            |
Safer Disposal for Solid Waste: The Federal Regulations for Municipal Landfills (EPA53p-SW-91-092i).
This Educational booklet assists the general public in understanding the rolei of landfills in solid wastje
management and how they function when properly designed and operated.
Criteria for Solid Waste Disposal Facilities: A Guide for Owners/Operators (EPA530-SW-91-089). This
nontechnical guide for landfill owners/operators and communities discusses implementation of the neiv
municipal solid waste landfill criteria of RCRA Subtitle D.     ',         .-..>.

I      "Taking Action" is a Reusable News feature that spotlights the everyday efforts of individuals to reduce, reuse, and recycle
I   in the home, office, and community. If you know of anyone who has made an innovative contribution to meeting the municipal
I    solid waste challenge, but not as part of an environmental profession, please write to John Leigh, Reusable News, Office of
I                       Solid Waste, U.S. EPA (OS-305), 401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460.

lebraska Woman Finds Markets for Recyclables
     LeMara Eicke is tightening the load
     for the landfill in Washington
     County, Nebraska. Over the past
 hree years, Eicke has jump-started
 recycling in her hometown, expanded
 •ecyding to a county level, and found
 :onsistent and creative markets  for
 )ver 650 tons of recyclables otherwise
 iestined for a landfill. Her success in
 eading these efforts earned her  the
 title "Recycler  of the Year"  from  the
 sfebraska State Recycling Association
 in 1991.
   As chairperson of the Washington
 lounty  Recycling  Association
 WCRA), Eicke is responsible for find-
 .ng reliable  markets for  all of
 Washington County's recyclables—
 newspaper, glass, steel cans, and high
 density polyethylene (HOPE) andpoly-
 ethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics.
 Partially due to good publicity,  the
 amount of recyclables collected in
 Washington County has increased by
 25 percent in the past year.

   To date, Eicke has had tremendous
 success in locating markets and has
 been able to keep pace with the in-
 crease in supply. Eicke states that
 WCRA is fortunate to have found very
 stable markets for  newspaper and
                                 glass, which consistently compose the
                                 majority of  Washington County's
                                 recyclables. Each month WCRA deliv-
                                 ers  a full trailer of newspapers (24
                                 tons) to a company that uses recycled
                                 newspaper in its insulation products.
                                 The glass (7 tons per month) is sold to
                                 a nearby beverage distributer. The dis-
                                 tributer sells the glass to the company
                                 that manufactures the bottles used
                                 for its beverages,  effectively dosing
                                 the loop.
                                   While the amount of steel cans and
                                 plastics collected is not as great, Eicke
                                 also has  found stable markets for
                                 these recyclables. WCRA sells its plas-
                                 tic to a holding company that, in turn,
                                 resells the material to larger compa-
                                 nies with the technology to recycle
                                 plastic  into building  materials for
                                 sheds and animal hutches, park
                                 benches, and carpets. Steel cans are
                                 typically sold to scrap metal dealers
                                 that smelt the cans for reuse as steel
                                 construction materials  and other

                                   Eicke's public commitment to re-
                                 cycling dates back to 1989 when
                                 she and  her husband became the
                                 self-appointed curbside recyclers
                                 for their hometown of Washington,
Nebraska. Using their pickup truck
and  a  trailer, the couple devoted
many of their Saturdays to collect-
ing old newspapers from the 130
residents of their hometown. In an
effort to  expand the scope of her
recycling initiative to the county
level, Eicke and a corps of volunteers
from local civic and church groups
formed WCRA. In 1991, with the help
of the City of Blair, WCRA was able
to set up a permanent recycling cen-
ter, which is open every  Saturday
and staffed by WCRA volunteers.
   WCRA is able to maintain the per-
manent center due to Eicke's success
in finding markets. Eicke recognizes
that  finding reliable markets is not
always  easy. Her advice is simple:
"Don't collect anything that you can't
get rid of."  A successful  recycling
program will assess the availability of
markets before deciding what mate-
rials  it  can feasibly collect. She also
cautions against commingling. Ac-
cording to Eicke, few companies will
sort recyclables, and it is often easier
to locate separate markets for differ-
ent recyclables.

   For more information, call LeMara
Eicke at 402-238-2341.1
 Minnesota Publishes Solid Waste Education Guide

      Anew educational guide on solid waste issues that teaches children how to build a
      replica of a landfill, among other activities, is now available from the Minnesota
      Extension Service. The Extension Service, part of the U.S. Department of Agricul-
 ture, developed the 64-page guide along with the Minnesota 4-H Youth Development
 education team. The publication, entitled  Working  on Waste, contains background
 material on the municipal solid waste stream and waste management concepts and
 provides awareness-building activities for children from 9 to 12 years old. The guide
 also discusses actions that youth can take to help meet solid waste challenges in their
 homes, neighborhoods, and schools.
   Working on Waste was funded by a grant from the Minnesota Office of Waste Manage
 ment. The guide is available for $6.00 from the Minnesota Extension Service Distribution
 Center, 3 Coff ey Hall, 1420 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 5 5108-6064. For more information,
 contact the Distribution Center at 612-625-8173. I

A System to

Separate PVC

for Recycling
     One of the thorniest issues fac-
     ing plastics recycling today is
     that the products collected
for recycling are made of different
types of plastic. Unless these recov-
ered plastics are separated before
processing,  the types of products
that can be produced from the recy-
cled material are limited. Given that
separated plastic can be used  in
nearly as great a variety of products
as virgin plastic, it is important for
technologies to be developed to sort
plastic materials efficiently.
  Traditional manual separation
methods, inwhichpeople sort plastic
items by hand, are labor intensive and
can, therefore, affect the economic
feasibility of recycling. Recognizing
this, National Recovery Technologies,
Inc. (NRT) of Nashville, Tennessee,
with funding from EPA's Small Busi-
ness Innovation Research (SBIR)
Program, the Vinyl Institute, and
other industry sources, has devel-
oped a new system for automatically
sorting plastic bottles called
VinylCycle™.  NRT received EPA's
"Outstanding Small Business Enter-
prise Award" for this system in 1991.
  The  system separates polyvinyl
chloride (PVC) bottles, such as cook-
ing oil and mineral water bottles,
from bottles made from high-density
polyethylene (HOPE),  such as milk
jugs, and polyethylene terephmalate
(PET), such as  soda bottles. It is par-
ticularly important to separate PVC
from PET because even a very small
amount of PVC can contaminate PET,
and vice-versa.
  In the system, whole or crushed
bottles traveling on a conveyor belt
are fed onto an acceleration slide and
pass over a computerized detector.
The detector recognizes the presence
of chlorine atoms in the PVC bottles,
and the system computer triggers the
release of a burst of air that blows the
PVC bottles off the conveyor belt and
into a separate holding container.
  Automated sorting systems of-
fer certain  advantages to plastics
recyders. In addition to being more
cost-effective than manual sortii
due to reduced labor costs, autc
mated systems indirectly impro\
cost-effectiveness by accuratel|
separating the different types
plastic. Since many plastic bottle
look and feel similar, manual sept
ration can result in a high level
error, which can be reduced signiff
cantly by automation.
  Although automated sorting  i|
not a new process, the system doe
offer improvements over morl
primitive machines,  according tl
NRT.  For example, whereas soml
older systems process only  on|
bottle at a time,  requiring adc
tional machinery or labor to line uj
bottles before sorting, this syste
allows multiple  bottles to pasl
through its sensors simultaneously
in any orientation or  position. Thil
allows sorting to be accomplisheq
at higher speeds, thereby lowe
operating costs.

  To  obtain further  informatior
contact J. Bruce Goodman of NRT;
615-734-6400 or Donald Carey o|
EPA's Office of Exploratory Re
search at 202-260-7899.1
 Georgia Launches

 Statewide  Compost

    Last April, the
    Georgia Depart-
    ment of Com-
 munity Affairs (DCA)
 launched  the na-
 tion's first statewide
 home  composting
 program for leaves
 and yard trimmings.
 With seed money
 from  an EPA re-
 gional  office, Geor-
 gia DCA  offered
 grants  to local gov-
 ernments for estab-
 lishing local home
 composting  pro-
 grams.   Thirteen
 counties submitted
 proposals,  and
 10 were awarded Georgia Governor ZellMiller, pitchfork in
 grants.           hand, composts at the Governor's mansion.
   Aided by onsite and telephone guidance from Georgia
 DCA, each local government is setting up a compost dem-
 onstration site to teach its residents the art of composting.
 Demonstration sites display commercially available

                  compost bins and offer instructions on how to build homl
                  made bins. Standard bins are fashioned from fence wire a
                  a cost of about $3.00 each. Larger bins, suitable for school!
                  churches, and homes with big yards, are constructed froJ
                  used wooden shipping pallets. Local businesses dona^
                  pallets for the bins, thereby eliminating the cost to
                  citizen and the need for new materials, and preventing 1
                  pallets from being disposed of in landfills.
                    To optimize the value of the demonstration sites, Geo:|
                  gia DCA also sponsored 10 regional orientation workshop
                  for volunteers from each participating county. At
                  workshops, volunteers toured a compost demonstratioj
                  site and learned how to introduce home composting
                  their own neighborhoods. In return for the free trs
                  Georgia DCA asked each volunteer to spend 40 hoi
                  helping their friends and neighbors overcome what prcj
                  ject consultant Clark Gregory calls the "invisible barrie
                  to home composting—thinking that composting requ'
                  special training or effort.  As Gregory puts it, "We
                  recruiting a composting army in Georgia to spread the wor|
                  that home composting is okay."
                    It is too early to tell how extensive the local compostrnj
                  programs will be, reports Leamon Scott of Georgia DC
                  but DCA hopes to see a compost bin behind nearly eve
                  Georgia home before long. Georgia DCA also hopes th|
                  home composting project will serve as a model for simile
                  programs in other states. Says Gregory, "Why make you
                  leaves leave home? Compost makes them work for you.'|
                    For more information on Georgia's home compostir
                  program, contact Leamon Scott of the Georgia DCA
                  404-656-3851 or Clark Gregory of the Fulton County Soij
                  and Water Conservation District at 404-876-2943. ~

Forum Focuses on
Reducing  Heavy Metals
    Voluntary efforts to reduce the
    amount of heavy metals found
    in the municipal solid waste
(MSW) stream was the focus  of a
Heavy Metals Source Reduction Fo-
rum held on December 2 to 3,1992,
in Providence, Rhode Island. Repre-
sentatives from industry, govern-
ment, academia, and public interest
groups met at the forum, which was
a pilot program sponsored jointly by
EPARegion 1 andEPA's Office of Solid
Waste, to discuss six products con-
taining heavy metals:
  Fluorescent lamps (mercury).
  Thermometers (mercury).
  Rechargeable nickel-cadmium
  batteries (cadmium).
  Cathode ray tubes or CRTs (lead
  oxide), which are found, for
  example, in computers  and
  Lead solder (lead), which is used
  in the manufacture of printed
  circuit boards, a component of
  products such as video games and
  Plastic  thermal   stabilizers
  (cadmium),  which are used in
  flexible polyvinyl chloride plastic
  found in shoes, shower curtains,
  and coatings on artifical leather.
  EPA selected these products us-
ing a framework for source
reduction developed by the World
Wildlif e Fund, as well as EPA char-
acterization reports on  products
containing lead, cadmium,  and
mercury.  The forum organizers
chose only products  that as yet
have not been analyzed thor-
  Forum  participants discussed
voluntary source reduction oppor-
tunities  for each  of  the six
products. For example,  an active
program by the fluorescent light-
ing industry to reduce the amount
of mercury in fluorescent lamps
was examined. Participants  also
discussed efforts to increase the
lifespan of thermometers by en-
casing them in metal.  Similarly,
forum attendees examined the de-
velopment of "smart chargers,"
which could prolong the life of
rechargeable nickel-cadmium bat-
teries by preventing customers
from overcharging their batteries.
A report on the forum will be avail-
able in the spring.

  For more information, contact
Cynthia Greene of EPA Region 1 at
"Green" Advertising Claims

Pamphlet Available
     Now available from the RCRA/Superfund Hotline is
     a pamphlet that addresses advertising claims
     about the environmental attributes of products.
"Green" Advertising Claims lists five key points for con-
sumers to consider when selecting products:
  Look for environmental claims that are very specific. For
  example, if a label says "recycled," check how much of
  the product or packaging is recycled.
  Be wary of overly broad or vague environmental claims
  such as "environmentally friendly."
  Look thoroughly into claims of "degradability."
  Check "ozone friendly" and "CFC free" claims carefully.
  Consider the contribution of products to ground-level
  EPA, the Federal Trade Commission, and the U.S.
Office of Consumer Affairs joined together to produce
the pamphlet to help consumers make more informed
purchasing decisions. See Hot Off the Hotline on page
8 for information on how to order the pamphlet. H
Unit Pricing


Brings Cities

    recent roundtable on unit pricing
    might provide the template for a
    knew means  of communication
among EPA headquarters, EPA regional
offices, states, and local government
leaders. The roundtable, which was held
on December 4,1992, brought together
people who already have implemented
unitpricing programs with those who are
_^^____, in the development
^   _    _ _   i stages of their own
tUnit pricing  programs.
| refers to any    Unit pricing re-
-   waste     fers to any waste
 management  management sys-
rr-  :-    -•  -  tern  that fharo-pc
 svstem that :
-  rhar        customers based
'L  Cnaiges    upon the amount
I; customers   Of waste they gen-
Is based upon  erate.  Although
t the amount  there  are eco-
E-  of waste    nomic  incentives
               there also are cer-
|-  generate.   tain barriers to
^___^^^^^ implementation.
  The roundtable offered a forum for
waste management officials to meet
and discuss these barriers. It also pro-
vided EPA with a working laboratory,
where personnel from EPA headquar-
ters and regional offices learned first
hand of unit pricing experiences and
the needs of local officials who are
implementing a unit pricing waste
management system.

  The roundtable was a collabora-
tive effort between EPA's Office of
Solid Waste (OSW) and Office of Pol-
icy, Planning, and Evaluation (OPPE).
OSW also is creating a guidance docu-
ment  on unit  pricing  for local
officials. In addition, OPPE is leading
a residential solid waste demonstra-
tion project to study the effects of
changing from a conventional solid
waste pricing system to unit pricing.

  For more information on the dem-
onstration project, contact Deborah
Nestor  of OPPE at 202-260-5500.
For more information on the round-
table or the  guidance document,
contact Jan Canterbury  of OSW at
202-260-2349. I


 Businesses  Unite to Boost Demand for Recycled Products
 (Continued from page 1)
trade associations that together func-
tion as the  Campaign's steering
committee, called the Buy Recycled
Business Alliance.
  In addition to signing a charter
committing them to use more prod-
ucts made of recycled materials, each
of the Alliance's founding corpora-
tions surveyed their current level of
recycled-product purchasing—a
benchmark from which to measure
their future progress. Survey results
showed that  these  companies had
spent a total of almost $3 billion on a
myriad of recycled products—from
company letterhead to carpeting.
"American businesses are committed
to buying recycled," said Alliance
member Larry Long of Anheuser-
Busch, Inc. "We are not starting, from
ground zero here. We have discovered
a substantial base from which to
  NRC's goal for the Buy Recycled
Campaign over the next two years is to
recruit 5,000 companies to sign the
charter. To meet this goal, NRC plans
to distribute educational videos and
handbooks, provide on-line access
recycled-product market informatioi|
and hold a series of workshops
seminars on buying recycled produc
NRC has been flooded with inquirie
from additional companies intereste|
in joining the Campaign. Having se
charters and surveys to roughly 6(
companies at their request, Bailey i|
optimistic that enthusiasm  for
Campaign will continue to grow.
  For more information, contact Ph
Bailey of the NRC at 202-625-6406. i
Members of the
Buy Recycled Business Alliance
American Airlines
American Plastics
Anheuser-Busch, Inc.
Bank of America
Bell Atlantic Co.
Browning Ferris
The Coca-Cola Co.
Cracker Barrel Old
Country Store, Inc.
EL DuPont Co.
Food Management
Fort Howard Corp.
Garden State
Paper Co.
James River Corp.
Johnson Controls
Johnson & Johnson
Laidlaw, Inc.
Lever Brothers, Inc.
McDonald's Corp.
Menasha Corp.
Moore Business
Forms, Inc.
Quaker Oats
Quill Corp.
Rock-Term Co.
Rubbermaid Com-
mercial Products, Inc.
Safeway, Inc.
Scrap Tire Manage
ment Council
Sears Roebuck and
Steel Can Recycling
Wal-Mart, Inc.
Waste Management,
Wellman, Inc.
Wisconsin Tissue
                                                                           Reusable News is the quarterly
                                                                           newsletter of the EPA Office
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                                                                         Industrial Solid  Waste Division.
                                                                         Reusable News  reports  on the
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                                                                         and  effectively manage  the  na-
                                                                         tion's garbage and provides useful
                                                                         information about key issues and
                                                                         concerns in municipal solid waste
                                                                        Address comments or suggestions to:
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                       United States
                       Environmental Protection
                  Solid Waste And
                  Emergency Response
        Winter/Spring 1996
     vvEPA     Native American  Network
                        Special  OS
>olid  Waste Perspective:
 EPA continues to focus on issues
iportant to Indian Tribes, we've
rected our attention to the unique
oblems facing Alaska Natives,
irticularly in the area of rural sanita-
 n. Assistant Administrator Elliott
iws, along with Region 10 and Alaska
'A staff, had an opportunity to visit
iree remote villages in Alaska this
ast August.
 eir travels took them to Togiak in the
 stol Bay region (southwest Alaska),  a
  National Tribal Conference '96
  The Thircl National Tribal Conference on Envi-
  ronmental Management will be moving west
  this year. This year's conference will be
  hosted by the Flathead Nation of Montana.
  The conference will be at the K5/va 13q Nuk
  Resort located on the beautiful Flathead Lake
  in northern Montana. The conference will
  address multimedia issues throughout Indian
  country and an environmental vendor exhibit
  is also planned. All tribes are eagerly encour-
  aged to attend to Jielp this year's conference
  be bigger and better than the previous two.
  if you would like more information regarding
  the conference, please call Bill Swaney, Divi-
  sion of Environmental Protection, Flathead
  Nation at (406) 675-2700. (See page 7).
fishing village ofappf
people, to Kongiganal==a=w.»^s=r    e_
Kuskokwim Delta (a village oF'appfbxi-
mately 300 people) and finally to
Northway in interior Alaska. While
each village faces situations unique to
the location and geography of their
respective regions, there were many
similarities in how the communities
addressed their problems.  5
The village of Togiak has been working
under the leadership of EPA Ameri-
Corps member Brian Abraham to
address solid waste  problems. The
garbage dump, located just off the
shore of Togiak Bay was not contained
within an enclosed area and there
were automobile batteries and appli-
ances in evidence throughout, along
with discarded vehicles. A fire was
burning unattended. Driving through
town, Brian pointed out the trash
barrels he had made out of'oil drums,
areas where he and students con-
ducted clean-up activities on Earth Day
and the storage shed he was planning
to convert to a battery storage facility.
His biggest activity he advised his
visitors, was in community education
on solid waste issues.  Though
progress had been slow, solutions were
coming from within  and under local
            =ra-erery-rrn?lasRa the
group flew to Bethel, then hopped a
small plane for a one-hour flight to the
village of Kongiganak at the mouth of,
the Kuskokwim River. They visited the
solid waste dump site located three
miles away from the community by
skiff. During the winter, residents have
to haul their garbage over land by   ,
snow mobile to the dump site making
transport difficult and dangerous.
The third day the group traveled to Tok
where they were met by staff of the
Tanana Chiefs Conference who took
them by car on the last leg of their trip
to Northway.  Northway is a small   ^.
Elliott Laws, Assistant Administrator for EPA's Office
    of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
   Recycled/Recyclable • Printed with Vegetable Oil Based Inks on 100% Recycled Paper (50% Postconsumer) • Please Recycle as Newsprint

                               NATIVE  AMERICANNETWORK
 Rural Alaska (cont'd)

 village located 11/2 miles off the
 Alaskan Highway with a population of
 just over 100. The residents of Northway
 (a town which was once part of the
 Lend/Lease operation), were trying to
 focus attention on removing debris left
 behind by the federal government.
 While the Army Corps of Engineers is
 conducting a cleanup of just the con-
 taminated containers, old rusted cans
 and oil drums that were empty littered
 the top of the ground. Region 10 and
 Headquarters are currently evaluating
 the FY 96 budget for possible assistance
 to the village in its cleanup efforts.
 In summary the unique characteristics
 of Alaska require that state and federal
 agencies consider the logistics of doing
 business there - the geographic
 characteristics and climate that some-
. times require more costly approaches,
 the cost to operate facilities, the
 expense and time involved in traveling
 from point to point, and the high cost of
 living. While funding is a big part of I
 solution to rural sanitation problems, |
 must go hand in hand with local
 initiatives and a partnership between!
 local governments and state and fed(
 agencies, as well as a recognition of
 local preferences by state and federal
 officials. For more information, contac
 Charlene Dunn in EPA's Office of Solid
 Waste and  Emergency Response at (2
 260-9466, or Kathy Veit, EPA Region 101
 (206) 553-1983.   •
 EPA Rule  Delays Compliance
 Date  for Small  Landfills
 EPA published a final rule (60 FR 52337;
 October 6,1995) extending the general
 compliance date for small municipal
 solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) located
 in either dry or remote locations. EPA
 extended the compliance date for
 qualifying MSWLFs by two years, from
 October 9,1995, to October 9,1997.
 These small MSWLF units do not
 become subject to the federal landfill
 criteria (found in 40 CFR Part 258) until
 October 9,1997, unless a state or tribal
 program requires an earlier compliance

 The final rule applies only to small
 MSWLFs that have no evidence of
 existing ground-water contamination,
 and are located in a remote or arid area
 (receiving less than 25 inches of
 precipitation annually).
 In a related action, EPA plans to publis
 a final rule by October 1996 thatallov
 small MSWLFs in dry or remote loca-
 tions to conduct alternative ground-
 water monitoring on a case-by-case
 basis.   •
  On March 26, 1996, President Clintorl
  signed the Land Disposal Flexibility Ac]
  (PL-104-119) which provides needed re|
  forms to certain municipal landfill
  ground-water monitoring  require!
  ments. See next issue for complete
 First  Tribal  Pollution  Prevention
 Conference  a Success
Over 230 individuals from across the
country came to Billings, Montana, for
the first National Tribal Pollution Pre-
vention Conference on August 15-17,
1995, at the Radisson Northern Hotel.
Native Americans were well repre-
sented at the conference.  More than
60 tribes from 30 states and Canada
were in attendance, and 26 of the 38
speakers were Native American. Con-
ference participants were exposed to a
wide variety of issues and participated
in workshops and sessions which pro-
vided insight into pollution prevention
(P2) principles and methods.
The conference featured several note-
worthy keynote speakers: Billy Frank Jr.,
Director of the Northwest Indian Fisher-
ies Commission; Tom Maulson, Chair-
man of the Lac du Flambeau Reserva-
tion in Wisconsin; Gail Small, Executive
Director of Native Action; and Bill Yel-
lowtail, Regional Administrator for EPA,
Region 8.

A three-hour workshop by motiva-
tional speaker and community
wellness expert Don Coyhis - Presi-
dent, White Bison, Inc. -- kicked off the
conference and set the stage for P2
concepts and learning. Coyhis de-
scribed the significance of the Medi-
cine Wheel and the Healing Forest in
preventing pollution and protecting the
environment. One important theme
throughout the workshop was that
preventing pollution involves a change
in behavior, and that any change must
be preceded by a vision, the "seed" '
from which action
germinates. Coyhis led
participants through innovative and
stimulating exercises designed to raise
awareness about environmental issue!
and change behavior.

There were 18 concurrent sessions
throughout the conference, and particj
pants had to choose from among threl
at a given time. Conference evaluation!
have been extremely positive and
indicate that both the scope and con-
tent of the conference were both right|
on target. There is clearly widespread
interest in holding" a second annual
conference. For additional information
about the conference, contact Todd
MacFadden at the Montana State Ex-
tension Office (406) 994-3451.  H

                              NATIVE  AMERICAN  NETWORK
Where  to  Look for EPA's  Regulations?
The Federal Register, Regulatory Plan, and
tie Regulatory Agenda, are all sources
where tribal governments can identify
•egulations issued by EPA. These
publications can help tribal officials
determine their priorities for getting
involved in specific rules that are
important to their local communities.
Distributed every weekday except
holidays, the Federal Register lists
regulations issued by all federal
agencies (such as EPA).  The Regulatory
Plan and Regulatory Agenda are
summaries of EPA's regulations.  The
Plan, issued each November, outlines
EPA's annual regulatory strategy listing
key policy initiatives and regulations.
The Agenda, issued every November
and April, contains a cumulative
summary of the status of EPA regula-
tions under development.
At the back of the Agenda are several
indices.  One is arranged by subject
area and the other lists regulations
expected to affect state and tribal
governments. Once an individual has
identified a regulation of interest to
their community it is recommended
that they call or write the EPA contact
listed at the end of the particular
Agenda entry to find out the current
status of a specific regulation.
if you would like to get on the mailing
list to receive a free copy of the
Agenda, call or write Bridgette Dent at
the Regulation Development Branch,
EPA, Mailcode 2136, Washington, D.C.
20460.  Phone number (202) 260-5475.
Copies of the Federal Register are
available to use at many local public
libraries, federal depository libraries,
and local colleges and universities. A
list of depository libraries is available
free, upon request, by writing to:
Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washing-
ton, DC 20402, (202) 512-1800.
EPA also has a public access server on
the Internet (free of charge) where you
can obtain Federal Register information,
as well as other environmental infor-
mation. Listed below are several
addresses for logging on to the EPA
server, depending upon what type of
Internet access you might have.
O  Gopher: gopher.epa.gov
O  World Wide  Web:
O  Wide Area Information Server:
    wais.epa.gov  •
O  File Transfer Protocol:  ftp.epa.gov
For assistance with EPA's Public Access
Server, contact EPA via e-mail at:

 For users of the IndianNet system,
 indianNet is now piloting access to the
 Internet. Native American Network will
 update readers on this initiative.
Workshops on the Federal Register,
"What It Is and How to Use It," are
offered free of charge in selected cities
across the country including Washing-
ton, DC.  The workshops focus on the
regulatory process and your role in the
development of regulations.  For
further information, contact Fran
McDonnell at (202) 523-4534.
For those unable to attend a workshop,
a handbook entitled The Federal
Register.- What It Is and How to Use ft
provides guidelines for using the
Federal Register and participating in the
regulatory process. To order a copy
contact the Superintendent of Docu-
ments, U.S.  Government Printing Office,
Washington, DC 20402, (202) 512-1800.
The cost is $7.00 per copy
If you have  any questions or would like
more .information about the Federal
Register, contact the Finding Aides Unit
at (202) 523-5227 between 8:45 a.m. and
5:15 p.m. EST.
[Information in this article was re-
printed from SCAN, Small Communities
Advisory Network, Summer 1995, Vol. 1,
Issue 1, with permission from the
international City/County Management
Association, 777 North  Capitol Street,
N.E., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20002,
(202) 289-4262. People  interested in
suscribing to  this quarterly newsletter
should contact Shannon Flanagan at
 (202) 962-3540.]   •
 Eastern Tribes  Try Their  Hand  at Composting
 On October 25 - 27, tribal representa-
 tives from seven eastern tribes at-
 tended a composting school sponsored
 by the Cooperative Extension Service,
 Departments of Agricultural Engineer-
 ing and Horticulture, at the University
 of Maryland.  The  quality of training at
 the school is  among the best in the
 nation. Tribes represented were:
 Eastern Band of Cherokee (North
 Carolina), Catawba (South Carolina),
 Poarch Creek Indians (Alabama),
 Miccosukee (Florida), Seminole (Florida),
 Clifton Choctaw (Louisiana) and the
 Mississippi Band of Choctaws.  Funding
 for the project resulted through the
 combined efforts of EPA's Office of Solid
 Waste and the U.S. Forest Service. The
 three-day course provided hands-on
 instruction about a variety of compost
 techniques directed toward different
 mixtures of compost materials.  At-
 tendees learned how to construct and
 maintain a compost facility, providing a
 foundation for the implementation of
 tribal composting programs.
 Dr. Frank Gouin, professor emeritus in
 the Department of Horticulture at
 Maryland, will be providing technical
 assistance this winter to the Cherokees
 and the Catawba Nation to help them
 begin composting programs. The
 Catawbas are interested in yard
 materials composting, and the
 Cherokees are looking into establishing
 a wastewater sludge compost pro-
 gram.  For more information, contact
 Dr. Rosalie Green of EPA at (703) 308-
 7268.  •

                               NATIVE  AMERICAN  NETWORK
 EPA  and  Morgan State  University  Host
 Environmental Ambassadors
 EPA and Morgan State University (MSU)
 in Baltimore, MD, are partners in an
 innovative project to enhance environ-
 mental awareness in the education
 arena. In the summer of 1995, the
 Third EPA/MSU Summer Environmental
 Teachers Institute was held on the MSU
 The intensive two-week Institute was
 attended by 41 school teachers,
 representing 25 states, who will
 become "environmental ambassadors"
 in their communities. All of the
 participants teach in minority and/or
 economically disadvantaged  communi-
 ties with waste sites near their schools.
 Seven teachers work in Native Ameri-
 can schools and many of the schools
 have a student body population with a
 high percentage of African-American,
 Asian and Hispanic students.
 The institute offers teachers a unique
 hands-on opportunity to learn about
 environmental issues affecting their
 neighborhoods plus
 a wide range of
 classroom activities.
 The teachers are a
 critical link in
 sharing their
 enhanced environ-
 mental awareness
 with their students,
 peers and commu-
 The institute
 featured a number
 of field trips to
 ecological areas
 around the Baltimore area. Institute
 topics  included: recycling and waste
 cleanup, environmental justice, pollu-
 tion prevention, technology innovation,
 lead issues, environmental careers, and
 school-community involvement.
 In conjunction with the Morgan State
 University Institute, an additional four
 teacher institutes were held this
 summer in Regions 4, 5, 6, and 8. The
 institutes provide an effective mecha-
 nism to empower local communities
 through education.  At the completion
 of the program, teachers received a
 stipend, graduate credits and environ-
 mental classroom materials.   •
 EPA  Brownfields  Program
   "Cities Redevelop Old Industrial Sites
  With EPA's Aid," "New Life for Birming-
   ham, AL," "St Louis To Get Cleanup
  Money,' "New EPA Program May Help
 Cities," "US EPA Gives Waste Site Cleanup
         Funds to 29 Cities."
These headlines represent just a handful
of the national news articles describing
EPA's Brownfields Program since the
Administrator announced the effort in
January 1995.  Since then, interest in
OSWER's effort to assess, clean up and
redevelop abandoned properties -
known as Brownfields - has been
tremendous.  Hundreds of conferences,
devoted solely to the issue of
Brownfields cleanup and redevelopment,
have been hosted by the American Bar
Association, numerous cities and local
governments, a variety of associations
and countless others. The high participa-
tion rate at Brownfields conferences has
far exceeded expectations.
So what are Brownfields and what is EPAs
program to address them? Brownfields
are abandoned, idled, or under-used
industrial and commercial facilities where
expansion or redevelopment is compli-
cated by real or perceived environmental
contamination. The present Superfund
law (CERCLA) creates severe impediments
to cleanup and redevelopment of
contaminated property due to fear of
liability on the part of lenders, real estate
developers and investors. The results
have been blighted urban centers, which
are rife with abandoned factory shells,
creating safety and health risks for
residents, joblessness and a sense of
hopelessness in our nation's inner cities.
EPA's  Brownfields program is designed to
turn that phenomenon around.   '   '
In January 1995, EPA Administrator
Browner unveiled the Brownfields Action
Agenda, a comprehensive approach to
empower states, communities and other
stakeholders interested in economic
redevelopment to work together in a
timely manner to prevent, assess, safely
clean up and sustainably reuse
 Brownfields. The Action.Agenda identifies!
 and addresses barriers created by
 regulations, guidance, and administrative |
 practices, and recommends swift,
^aggressive measures for change within
 the context of the existing Superfund
 law.  Our efforts fall into four main
 categories: 1) Brownfields pilots; 2}
 clarifying liability and cleanup issues; 3)
 partnerships arid outreach; and 4) job
 development and training.'

 Brownfields  Pilots
 As part of the Brownfields Action
 Agenda, the Agency plans to fund up to
 50 Brown-fields pilots during 1996 for up;
 to $200,000 each. These pilots are
 intended to provide EPA, states, and'
 localities with useful information and
 new strategies for promoting environ-
 mental cleanup through redevelopment.
 The Agency is currently funding 28
 national pilots --sponsored  by EPA
 Headquarters and an additional 12
 pilots chosen and supported by EPA
 Regional Offices.,'          '

                                 NATIVE  AMERICAN  NETWORK
                            BULLETIN     BOARD
Check Out These New Regulations

OSWER has published several new regulations affecting
 tribes in the area of waste management. For informa-
 tion on the following regulations, please contact the
 EPA Hotline at 1 -800-424-9346 or (703) 412-9810.
  The proposed Indian Authorization rule for RCRA
  Subtitle C has been given final approval and will be .
   published in the Federal Register soon. Technical
   questions can be directed to Felicia Wright at
   (703) 308-8634.
    Military Munitions Rule:  Hazardous Waste Identifi-
    cation and Management, Explosives Emergencies,
    Redefinition of On-Site. Proposed Rule, 60 FR 56468,
    November 8,1995; technical questions may be
    directed to Ken Shuster at (703) 308-8759.
    Revised Standards for Hazardous Wastes: Agency
    proposed standards for hazardous waste incinera-
   tors, cement kilns, .and hazardous waste burning
   light weight aggregate kilns (61 FR 17358, April 19,
    1996); technical questions may be directed to Larry
   Denyer at (703) 308-8770.
                                                                 Native  American
                                                                 Network Expands Its Coverage!         "^
                                                                 Beginning with our next issue, the Native American
                                                                 Network will expand its news coverage to represent
                                                                 a wider array of environmental activities within
                                                                  EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency
                                                                  Response (OSWER). In addition to its RCRA solid
                                                                  and hazardous waste focus, the Networ/twill
                                                                  feature in-depth articles and Tribal Program
                                                                  Advisory sheets covering activities related to the
                                                                   Superfund program, chemical emergency
                                                                   preparedness, and underground storage tanks.
                                                                   In addition, the Network will continue to cover
                                                                   cross-media items of major significance to these
                                                                   programs.. This expansion is part of a major
                                                                   effort by EPA to improve its communication on
                                                                  environmental issues within Indian Country.
                                                                  Please contact Felicia Wright in  the Office of Solid
                                                                  Waste at (703) 308-8634, or Charlene Dunn, OSWER,
                                                                 at  (202) 260-9466 for more
 OSW Welcomes
 New Native American Intern
 On September 19, 1995, the USEPA welcomed a new intern to
  its Office of Solid Waste. Mr. Rides at the door, an environ-
  mental studies major, will be working with the Indian
   Programs Manager on current Indian environmental issues
   for the next six months. Mr. Door is a Blackfoot from the
   Blackfeet Nation in Northern Montana and is also minoring
    in Native American Studies at Montana State University.
    Mr. Rides at the door is participating in a program that EPA
    and the Environmental Careers Organizations (ECO) has
    put together for  undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral,
    students with diverse backgrounds from across the
    nation, seeking a career in the environmental fields.  The
    relationship between EPA and ECO dates back to 1985
    when the Office  of Exploratory Research introduced the .
    Minority Institutions Summer Internship Program. The
     implementation of these programs is aimed at offering
    training opportunities to college students who are
    ' interested in environmental careers.  EPA and ECO share
    many common goals and currently work together on
    several joint programming activities. For more informa-
    tion, please call Mr. Door, at (703) 308-7287.
                                                                         Final RCRA Public            3?
                                                                         Participation  Rule Promulgated
                                                                         In an effort to empower all communi-
                                                                         ties to become more actively involved
                                                                         in local hazardous waste management,
                                                                          EPA is expanding the public participa-
                                                                          tion aspects of RCRA Subtitle C
                                                                           permitting. EPA promulgated the RCRA.
                                                                           Expanded Public Participation final
                                                                           rule (Monday December 11, 1995, 60 FR
                                                                           63417-63434) which calls  for earlier
                                                                           public involvement and  expands
                                                                           public access to information through-
                                                                           out the permitting process and the
                                                                           operational life  of hazardous waste
                                                                           management facilities.  The rule
                                                                          becomes effective, on June  11,1996.    -

                                NATIVE  AMERICAN NETWORK
EPA Brownfields Program (cont'd)
To date, the results of these pilots have
been quite promising. For example, EPA
is already seeing results at the
Brownfields pilot in Cleveland, Ohio,
awarded in 1992. In Cleveland, $3.2
million has been leveraged in environ-
mental cleanup and property improve-.
ments to the bankrupt and abandoned
Sunar-Hauserman site, which now is
home to several businesses and 171
new workers. Increased payroll tax
payments alone have netted over $1
million for the local economy. Several
national pilots, just announced in July
are already coming to fruition. For
example, in Knoxville, Tennessee, a
buyer has been found for the first
Brownfields site; and a solar technol-
ogy business has finalized an agree-
ment to locate in the new eco-indus-
trial park, in Cape Charles, Virginia, the
Commonwealth's poorest community.
There has been an overwhelming
response to the Brownfields Pilot
competition. The Agency has already
reviewed over 140 applications and we
expect to receive more by March 1996,
the final application deadline.

Clarification of Liability
and Cleanup  Issues
Other initiatives that are critical to the
success of the program include an
effort by the Office of Emergency and
Remedial Response (OERR) to archive
24,000 sites from the Federal Superfund
Inventory (CERCLIS). Among these sites,
which are no longer of further federal
interest, are thousands of sites having
little or no contamination, and sites
now addressed by state cleanup
programs. We hope that archiving
these sites -- removing them from
CERCLIS -- will encourage the cleanup
and redevelopment of these proper-
ties. In addition, OERR has issued Land
Use Guidance ensuring that EPA will
consider both future land use during
Superfund cleanups and the communi-
ties' interests when choosing remedies.
This guidance should facilitate expe-
dited and more cost effective-cleanups
at Brownfields sites.
Further, guidance clarifying liability for
prospective purchasers, municipalities
and lenders, issued by the Office of
Enforcement and Compliance Assur-
ance (OECA) and the Office of Under-
ground Storage Tanks (OUST), will help
to remove some of the uncertainties
often associated with these properties.

Partnerships and

OSWER's Brownfields initiative is clearly
about partnerships, including partner-
ships with other EPA offices (e.g., OERR,
OUST and OECA), other federal agencies
and a variety of stakeholders. The
Outreach and Special Projects Staff
(OSPS) in OSWER, which oversees the
Brownfields initiative, is also working
with the Agency's Common Sense
Initiative (CSl)  and has identified the
Brownfields pilot in Birmingham,
Alabama, as an opportunity to link
issues being addressed in the iron and
steel sector. In addition, EPA's ten
Regions have designated Brownfields
Coordinators who oversee the
Brownfields pilots and other
Brownfields initiatives.
External partnerships with the Associa-
tion of State and Territorial Solid Waste
Management  Officials (ASTSWMO) will
ensure that state voluntary cleanup
programs play an important role in this
initiative. Our efforts with the Depart-
ment of Housing and  Urban Develop-
ment to collaborate in cities desig-
nated as Empowerment Zones/
Enterprise Communities (EZ/EC) will
leverage scarce federal resources.  A
partnership with the National Environ-
mental Justice Advisory Council (NEJAC)
continues to.  provide us with the
opportunity to reach communities
across the country and receive direct
input from citizens about the Agency's
Brownfields initiative. And our joining
forces with the Department of Labor
will provide the important link to our
job training.
Job  Development

and  Training
We recognize the need to promote
environmental workforce training
programs in Brownfields communities
throughout the country. The gap
between the demand for environmen-
tal workforce training and the ability of
educational institutions to respond to
that demand is growing. EPA, local
organizations and community colleges
have established partnerships to
develop long-term plans for fostering
workforce  development in Brownfields
communities. For example, EPA is
working with the Hazardous Materials
Training and Research Institute (HMTRl)
to expand  environmental training and
curriculum development at community
colleges located near Brownfields pilot
communities. In November, HMTRl,
with EPA support, hosted a workshop
at the Catonsville Community College
in Maryland to assist community
colleges from Brownfields cities in
developing environmental job training
programs.  Seventeen of our pilot cities
were represented. Initiatives such as
this will help to ensure that
Brownfields cleanup and redevelop-
ment efforts have the trained '
workforce  needed to revitalize con-
taminated  properties and that local
community members are involved in
these efforts.

So  What Is Next?
As we approach the one year anniver-
sary of the Brownfields Action Agenda,
many of the goals we set for ourselves
have been accomplished.  However,
Brownfields redevelopment involves
some of the critical issues of our time -
-urban sustainability protection of
human health and the environment,
environmental justice, and its close ally
public participation. This presents a
unique challenge for everyone — a
challenge we hope to address with the
help of others during the year. The
first milestone in '96 was a National
Brownfields Meeting in Washington, DC,
on February 13th-14th, which began
identifying opportunities for augment-
ing the environmental cleanup and
redevelopment efforts in Brownfields
pilot cities.

                   Registration  Form
             Third  National Tribal Conference on
                   Environmental  Management

                    KwaTaqNuk Resort, Poison, Montana
                             May 21-23, 1996
NAME of Participant
                              (please print clearly)
                                                        Office: (
Are you the designated representative to receive reimbursement?
             Third National Tribal Conference on Environmental Management

                             Registration Receipt
(  )  Pre-Registration Fee (includes banquet)	,	$75.00
       Before May 5,1996

(  )  On-Site Registration (includes banquet)	$100.00
       After May 5, 1996
(  ) Extra Banquet Ticket	$20.00

Method of Payment: 	Cash  	Check (No.	)

Received From:
Dollars $
                 (  ) Pre-Registration ($75.00)
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Implementation Rule
Onjanuary 26,1996, the State/Tribal
Implementation Rule (STIR) was pub-
lished in the Federal Register, and has a
90-day public comment period begin-
ning on this date. The proposed STIR
gives Indian tribes the opportunity to
apply for EPA-approved municipal solid
waste landfill  (MSWLF) permit programs,
and details the procedures and criteria
EPA will use to make permit approval
Tlribal or state permitting programs that
are approved by EPA have the option of
allowing owners or operators of
municipal solid waste landfills some
flexibility in me'etingthe federal
requirements found in 40 CFR Part 258.
Tribes or states with unapproved
programs are not allowed this flexibility,
arid 'must follow the explicit federal,   '
MSWLF design requirements. Approved
tribes or states can allow alternative
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operators demonstrate that the designs
meet federal performance standards.
For example, an approved tribe or state
could use this flexibility in designing a
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EPA is seeking comment in the pro-
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incorporated suitable criteria and
procedures for determining if a tribe's
permit program is adequate. EPA also
seeks comment on whether thq.rdle_'..
gives appropriate terms for tribal-' "  ;
governmental positions, such as
Governor, Attorney General, Agency ;'
and Director. EPA encourages trlbes'to.
submit comments to Docket Clerk,
Docket NO. F-96-STIP-FFFFF, USEPA ......
Headquarters at Mail Code 5305 W, 40)
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number for the RCRA Docket is ,(703) '"'•'
603-9230. Instructions for filing'
comments are included in the pro-;
posed rule. For additional inforrriatiorr
about the proposed STIR, call Mia
Zmud in the Office of Solid Waste,at.
(703)308-7263.  •           . vy; • ;
         Native American Network is published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste. -•*

                                        Editor-. Felicia Wright (703) 308-8634.           '    '                    K
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United States
Environmental Protection Agency
Washington,  DC 20460
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300

     Pollution Prevention
   in Metal  Manufacturing

         Saving Money
Through  Pollution Prevention
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           Office of Solid Waste

             October 1989
                           Printed on Recycled Paper


        Pollution Prevention in Metal Manufacturing is intended to  provide you with a brief introduction
to pollution prevention, including what it is, how it can put money back into your company's pocket, what
its basic elements are, and where you can get additional assistance.  This booklet also provides a sample
of the  various technical  options available  to  a wide range of metal  manufacturing  facilities.   Typical
economics (for example, capital investment, annual .savings^ and payback periods) are also provided for many
of the options.                                                .

        The technical and economic information in Pollution Prevention-in Metal Manufacturing is intended
to be representative more than comprehensive.  The collection  and organization of this information is an
ongoing and evolutionary process.   The first version of this booklet reflects  a sampling of information
readily available at the time of preparation. As more pollution prevention activity takes place and technical
approaches to pollution prevention change, EPA hopes to update and  publish follow-up versions of this

        Pollution  Prevention in Metal Manufacturing is  only one of  many sources of pollution  prevention
information available to you from  EPA! For additional information about pollution prevention, or to
comment on  this  booklet,.call:  -.••,.,-.  :/•  ••-vv'-1 i^ ^C'.w   Hf '!l  i^'Vf HV

               •       The  RCRA/Superfund  Hotline, at  (800)  424-9346,  or
                       (202) 382-3000;

               •       Myles Morse, of EPA's Pollution Prevention Information
                       Clearinghouse, at (202)  475-7161; or

               *       James Launsbury, Director of EPA's Waste Minimization
                       Staff, at (202) 382-4807.

                                     The Purpose of this Booklet

        If your metal manufacturing operations generate any wastes, the information in this booklet can
 help your firm.
                   POLLUTION PREVENTKWf CAN:
                               Significantly reduce your firm's costs, liabilities, and
                               regulatory burdens associated with waste management; and

                               Enhance your firm's efficiency,  product quality, and public
                ited States  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed this booklet to help your
                a  pollution prevention program.  It highlights the various components of a  pollution
                 m.  It also provides two tables to help you identify specific pollution prevention options,
                es  of processes or operations at your facility. The tables contain technical, cost, and waste
                ation on a variety of options that have actually been used at metal manufacturing facilities.
              in contained in  the  tables will help you evaluate potential  annual savings from numerous
              ntion techniques.
              formation in this Booklet
               Helpful to Yottr Company

              it is designed to be. most useful to
              engage   in  metal  manufacturing
             |ou should read  this booklet if your
              res metal products, or is involved in
             lufacturing-type  processes.
               FACTURING INCLUDES:
                Cutting or machining
                Heat treating
                Finishing or painting
                Equipment  and facility
   TTH3=DOoklet will also be useful if your facility
uses any combustible or flammable solvents* strong
acid or alkaline solutions, plating solutions, paints,
cyanide solutions, or any solutions containing heavy
metals.  Table I identifies how these materials are
typically  used  and Table  II  shows  what many
facilities have done to save money.
      Your Company Can Save Money by
      Minimizing the Waste it Generates

    In  addition to 'relying on  traditional  waste
management approaches (such as treating or dis-
posing of waste after it has been generated), many
facility managers are finding that  by minimizing the
amount of waste their operations generate they can
actually improve their firm's "bottom line."
     •  Aggregate costs for raw materials
     •  Treatment/disposal costs  .
     •  Environmental liability and fines
    In addition  to these economic incentives for
pollution prevention, EPA is taking several steps to
create  additional incentives for firms to reduce
their waste  generation.  Some of EPA's actions

•   Making technical information available to
    help firms identify  ways of reducing waste

•   Supporting  the  development  of  State
    programs  to assist firms  in  their waste
    reduction efforts.

                      o   '  I   o
     Requiring hazardous waste generators, under
     the Resource Conservation and Recovery
     Act (RCRA), to certify on their hazardous
     waste manifests and annuai permit reports
     that  they  have  a  "program-in-place"  to
     reduce the volume or quantity and toxicity
     of their  hazardous wastes  as   much  as
     economically practical.

     Requiring generators to  describe on their
     RCRA biennial reports the efforts they have
     undertaken during the year to reduce the
     volume and toxicity of their hazardous waste,
     and to compare these efforts to previous
         What is "Pollution Prevention?*

    Pollution  prevention  emphasizes  reducing  or
 eliminating any  releases of hazardous materials
 (including hazardous wastes) into the environment
 through   the  use  of  source  reduction  and
 environmentally-sound  recycling.    A  pollution
 prevention program can be  developed  by any
 business that generates wastes.  The program might
 include several elements intended to reduce, to the
 extent feasible, any air or water discharges, or any
 solid or hazardous waste that  is generated at the

   Source reduction  is intended  to  minimize or
 eliminate  the  waste at its  source,  before it  is
 generated  or released.  Recycling,  on the other
 hand, focuses on the use, reuse, or reclamation of
 the  waste as  an  effective  substitute   for  a
 commercial  product  or  as  an  ingredient  or
 feedstock in a process.  Recycling by use or reuse
 involves  returning a waste material to either the
 originating  process  or  another process  as  a
substitute for  an  input  material  Reclamation  is
the recovery of a valuable material, or removal of
impurities, from a waste.

   Because it  is  significantly more efficient  and
less expensive to  prevent  the generation of waste
   m  the  first  place,  you  should  consider  source
  •reduction  to  be  the  most  preferable   waste
   management option. Source reduction is followed,
   in order  of  decreasing preference,  by recycling,
   treatment    (for   example,   incineration    or
   stabilization), and land disposal

      Pollution   Prevention   -   Reducing  or
      eliminating discharges and/or emissions to
      the environment through the use of source
      reduction   and   environmentally-sound

      Source  Reduction  -      Reducing  or
      eliminating waste at its point of generation.

      Recycling - Reprocessing waste in a way
      that  makes it  useful again.  Recycling
      focuses on  the use, reuse, or reclamation
      of waste.

      Use  or  Reuse -    Returning a  waste
      material  to the  original  process  that
      generated  the  waste  or employing  it in
      another  process as a  substitute  for  an
      input material.

      Reclamation  -    Recovering  valuable
      materials or removing impurities from a~
Many Pollution Prevention Options Are Available

     A pollution prevention program might include
 any  number  of  specific  pollution  prevention
 techniques, each with a potentially unlimited range
 of pollution prevention options.  Tne options under
 each technique that may  be appropriate to your
 operation are limited only by your ingenuity. Table
 II provides suggested pollution prevention  options
 that have  actually been  used in industry.  The
 options are organized by technique.  You should
 use these suggested options only as a starting point
 for  your  own  creativity.    Pollution  prevention
 techniques are described below:

 •    Training  and  supervision  —  provide
     employees with the information  and the
     incentive  necessary to  minimize  waste
    generation in  their  daily duties.

        This technique may  include ensuring
        that employees  know and practice
                                                • 2

     proper and efficient use of tools and
     supplies, and that they  are aware of,
     understand,  and   support   your
     company's pollution prevention goals.

 Production planning and sequencing — plan
 and  sequence   production  so  that  only
 necessary operations are performed and that
 no operation is  needlessly "undone" by  a
 following operation.

     One example is to sort out  "reject"
     parts priorto painting or electroplating.
     A second example is to reduce the
     frequency of having to clean equipment
     (e.g., painting all products of the same
     color at once). A third  example is to
     schedule batch processing in a manner
     that allows the wastes or residues from
    'one batch to be used as an input for
     the subsequent batch (e.g., to schedule
     paint formulation from lighter shades
     to darker) so that equipment need not
     be cleaned between batches.

Process or equipment modification - change
the process, or the parameters or equipment
used in that process, to reduce the amount
of waste generated.

     You can change  to a paint application
     technique that is more efficient than
     spray painting, reduce overspray  by
     reducing the atomizing air pressure to
     paint spraying equipment, reduce drag-
     out by reducing the withdrawal speed
     of parts from plating tanks, or improve
     a plating line by incorporating dragout
     recovery tanks or reactive rinsing.
     material substitution — repl
   raw materials with raw materials that will
   result in the generation of less waste.

        Examples  include substituting alkali
        washes for solvent  degreasers» and
        replacing oil with lime or borax soap
        as the drawing agent in cold forming

•  Loss prevention and housekeeping — perform
   preventative   maintenance   and  manage
   equipment and materials so as. to minimize
   opportunities  for  teaks, spills,  and other
   releases of potentially hazardous wastes.

        For example,  clean  spray guns in  a
        manner that does not damage leather
    packings and subsequently causes
    the  guns to  leak; or  place  drip
    pans under leaking machinery to
    allow recovery of the leaking fluid.

Waste segregation and separation — avoid
mixing different types of wastes, and mixing
hazardous  wastes  with  non-hazardous
wastes. This technique makes the recovery
of hazardous wastes easier by minimizing
the number of different hazardous  con-
stituents in any given waste stream.  Also,
it  prevents  the  contamination  of non-
hazardous wastes.

    For example, segregate scrap metal by
    metal type, and  segregate different
    kinds of used oils.
Recycling —  use or reuse a  waste as an
effective  substitute  for  a  commercial
product or as an ingredient or feedstock.
Recycling can be on-site, or it can be off-
site  through  another  user  or a  waste

    Examples of recycling include using a
    small on-site still to recover degreas-
    ing solvents, and selling waste pickling
    acids  as  feedstocks  for  fertilizer
                                                               The Elements of a Successful
                                                               Pollution Prevention Program

                                                          Experience   demonstrates   that   successful
                                                     pollution   prevention   programs   have   certain
                                                     common elements. These elements are described

                                                     •    Support from top management -- Support
                                                          for a pollution prevention program  should
                                               - 3 -

    be dearly affirmed by your top management
    in a  written  statement.   This statement
    should be circulated among all employees.

 •  Explicit program  goals and  objectives  -
    Explicitly  identify the. goals and objectives
    for  the pollution  prevention program in a
    written statement. The goals should include
    reducing the volume or toxicity of the waste
    as much as is  technically and economically
    feasible.   The objectives should include a
    commitment   to   evaluate  technologies,
    procedures, and personnel training.

 •  Accurate, waste accounting - Carefully track
    changes over time in the types, amounts,
    and hazardous constituents  of your wastes.

 *  Accurate cost accounting — Ensure that your
    firm   uses  "fully-loaded"   costs   when
    accounting  for waste   management  and
   disposal (i.e., costs should  account for all
   liability,  regulatory compliance,  permitting,
   hauling, treatment, and  oversight costs).

*  Involvement of all emplane; ~ Involve all
   appropriate   employees   in    pollution
   prevention  planning  and implementation.
   You can use rewards and incentives to en-
   courage employee  involvement

•  &chanec of technology  and information  -
   Encourage  exchange of technology and
   information both  within your firm and
   between your firm  and others. Firms often
   contain  a   wealth   of  resources  and
   information that  results from  years  of
   operating experience. Such resources and
   information can play a  major  role in the
   efficient  development   of   a   pollution
   prevention  program.  Other organizations
   you should consult include EPA Region's
   and  Headquarter's  pollution  prevention
   information clearinghouses, state agencies,
     trade associations, universities and colleges,
     nonprofit business assistance organisations,'
     and professional consultants.

  V  Periodic pollution prevention assessment^ .
     - Periodically review individual processes
     (or facilities) to identify new or changing
     opportunities   to   undertake  pollution

     Basically,  you  should  develop  your  own
 program  for pollution prevention,  and  wherever
 possible, formally define the program in a written
 document.    You  should   also  develop   an
 implementation plan for each of your faculties or
 processes and  periodically review, revise, and
 update the program to reflect changing conditions.
 You will  need a method  of  tracking changes in
 waste generation rates and  accounting for sources
 of  waste.   Establishing  an  effective  pollution
 prevention program  is not difficult, but it  does
 require  commitment from  you  and all  of  your
 firm's employees, including corporate management.

     Where To Go For Information  and Help

     While it is  important  that  you be  actively
 involved in establishing and promoting your firm's
 pollution prevention program, you may wish to seek
 the  guidance or help of other  experts.   Some
 organizations that you may wish to contact  include:

 •    Trade  Associations   «   Often  trade
     associations can provide you with  pollution
     prevention assistance directly, or  they can
     refer  you to someone who can.

 •    State Waste Management Agencies - These
     agencies often have staff people  who are
     knowledgeable about pollution prevention
     and are willing to provide assistance.

 •   Regional Environmental Protection Agency
     Offices  - There are ten Regional Offices
     of the Environmental  Protection  Agency.
    The easiest way to find out which Regional
    Office is responsible for your area is to
    call the toll free RCRA/Superfund Hotline
    (see  below) and  ask  for  the telephone
    number or address of the Regional Office
    responsible for your area.

•  Environmental Protection Agency - Within
    EPA Headquarters you may conveniently
    contact any of the following information
                                                • 4 -

    Hazardous Waste  Minimization Staff, at  (202)
    382-4807, can provide technical waste minimiza-
    tion information;

    Waste Minimization Branch, at (513) 569-7529,
    can assist you with research and development
    activities   regarding   waste   minimization
    assessments, innovative technology and pollution
    prevention evaluations, and activities of the Waste
    Reduction Institute for Scientists and Engineers;

    Pollution  Prevention  Office, at (202) 382-4335,
    can  assist  you   in _ understanding   pollution
    prevention and provide you  with a great deal of
    pollution prevention information;  and the

    Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse.
    which includes a collection of reference literature
    pertaining  to pollution  prevention,  outreach
    efforts,  the Electronic  Information  Exchange
    System, and the RCRA/Superfund Hotline:

         Electronic  Information  Exchange
         System rEIESI.  at (301) 589-8366, is
         an easy-to-use,  interactive PC-based
         system.   Using a  personal computer
         and a modem, you can access  EIES
         to obtain a wide variety of  pollution
         prevention information, including case
         studies,   a  calendar  of events,  a
         directory of experts, a bibliography of
         publications!  and   descriptions,  of
         federal and state pollution prevention
         programs. You can use an interactive
         message  center  to pose   pollution
         prevention  questions   or  provide
         comments  to other  users.    The
         infonnation in Table II that is followed
         by an "EIES Number" has come from
         references that  are  available to you
         through  EIES.   You  may  examine
         these  references   for  additional
         pollution prevention infonnation or

         RCRA/Superfund Hotline,  at (800)
         424-9346 (or (202) 382-3000), can
         answer  your  pollution  prevention
         questions, help you access infonnation
         in  EIES, and  assist you in searching
         for and obtaining documents.
                                                                        HAVE YOU TRIED
                                                                   POLLUTION PREVENTION?

                                                                  If you have tried, or are planning on
                                                              trying any pollution prevention activity at
                                                              your facility and woold like to share your
                                                              ideas or  experience, .use your personal
                                                              computer  to   access   the   Electronic
                                                              Information Exchange System  (EIES) at
                                                              (301) 589-8366, and let others know!  We
                                                              can all learn from your  experience!
                                                           How To Use the Pollution Prevention Tables

                                                              Two tables are included in  this booklet as a
                                                          quick guide, to help you begin identifying specific
                                                          pollution   prevention   options.      The   ideas
                                                          represented in  these  tables have  been used at
                                                          actual facilities, resulting in cost  savings. Table  I
                                                          identifies typical processes and operations in the
                                                          metal manufacturing  industry.    This table  also
                                                          identifies typical materials used and types of waste
                                                          generated for  each process.

                                                              Table II is also broken  down by process  and
                                                          operation.  Table II, however, provides  pollution
                                                          prevention options for each {process and operation.
                                                          These pofintioff pi eveuuuu options are organized
                                                          by technique, as described in the previous section.
                                                          In addition, Table II provides examples of cost and
                                                          savings realized by other facilities, and additional
                                                          relevant  information.1   You   should  use  this
                                                          information to help decide  which options would
                                                          best  serve your needs.  When  properly installed
                                                          and maintained, none of the options described on
                                                          Table II should adversely affect the quality of your
                                                          products and   all should  reduce  your  potential
                                                          liability  from improper waare management.  The
                                                          entries in Table II  that are followed by an 'EIES
                                                          Number" have  come  from  references  that  are
                                                          available to you through EIES.  You may request
                                                          and  examine   these  references  for   additional
                                                          pollution prevention information  or ideas.
1The cost, savings, and waste reduction iafi
                                                    provided in Table II is based on actual case studies and
reflects the successes of actual metal manufacturing facilities. Because specific applications are highly variable,
however, you should use this infonnation only as an  indicator of how a particular pollution prevention option
may perform under your circumstances.
                                                     5 -

                                      TABLE I

                        WHICH MAY PRODUCE WASTES
                                       GENERAL TYPES
                                       WASTE GENERATED
 Metal Cutting or
•  Cutting oils
•  Degreasing and cleaning solvents
•  Acids
•  Heavy metals
                                       • Acid/alkaline wastes
                                       • Heavy metal wastes
                                       • Solvent wastes
                                       • Waste oils
• Acid/alkaline cleaners
• Organic solvents
• Acid/alkaline solutions
                                       • Acid/alkaline wastes
                                       • Igm'table wastes
                                       • Solvent wastes
                                       • Still bottoms
                                       • Acid/alkaline wastes
                                       • Heavy metal wastes
Heat Treating
• Acid/alkaline solutions
» Cyanide
• Oils
                                       • Acid/alkaline wastes
                                       » Cyanide wastes.
                                       • Heavy metal wastes
                                       • Waste oils
Metal Finishing and
Painting Cleanup
• Solvents
• Paint carrier fluids
                                       • Heavy metal paint wastes
                                       • Ignitable paint wastes
                                       • Solvent wastes
                                       • Still bottoms
Facility Cleanup
  Cteaning solvents
                                         Solvent wastes
                                         Still bottoms
• Acid/alkaline solutions •
• Heavy metal bearing solutions
• Cyanide bearing solutions
                                         Acid/alkaline wastes
                                         Cyanide wastes
                                         Heavy metal wastes
                                         Plating wastes
                                         Reactive wastes

                                                     TABLE n

                                              EXAMPLES OF
                                              COSTS AND SAVINGS,
                                              AND OTHER INFORMATION*
Planning and
Process or
Improve scheduling of processes that require
use of varying oil types in order to reduce
the number of cleanouts.
Standardize the oil types used for machining,
turning, lathing, etc.  This reduces the
number of equipment cleanouts, and the
amount of leftovers and mixed wastes.
                     Use specific pipes and lines for each set of
                     merals or processes that require a specific oil
                     in order to reduce the amount of cleanouts.
                     Save on coolant costs by extending machine
                     coolant life through the use of a centrifuge
                     and the addition of biocides.
                     Install a second high speed centrifuge on a
                     system already operating with a single
                     centrifuge to improve recovery efficiency
                     even more.

                     Install a chip wringer to recover excess
                     coolant on aluminum chips.
                     Install a coolact reaawery sysisst and.
                     collection vehicle for madanea not on the
                     central coolant sump.
                                              Waste Savings/Redactions: 25% reduction in plant-wide
                                              waste coolant generation.  Prodact/Wsste Throughput
                                              Information:  based on handling 20,600 gallons of coolant
                                              per year. [EIES Number  100-101, p. 440]

                                              Capital  Investment: $126,000.  Payback Period:  3.1 years.
                                              Protect/Waste Throughput Information:  based on handling
                                              20,600 gallons of coolant per year. [EIES Number 100-101,
                                              p. 441]

                                              Capital  Investment: 5233,500.  Payback Period:  0.9 years.
                                              Product/Waste Throughput Information:  based on handling
                                              20,600 gallons of coolant per year.  [EIES Number 100-101.
                                              p. 441]

                                              Capital  Investment: 511,000 to  323,000 (chip wringer and
                                             • centrifuge system).  [EIES  Number 101-004, p. 8.2-6]

                                              C«fsi&4  lBv«9iise8& £104,000. Payback Perteak  1.9 years.
                                              Predesi/Wesie Throughput Information:  based on handling
                                              20,600 gallons of coolant per year.  [EIES Number 100-101,
                                              p. 441]
                     ••   Use a coolant analyzer to allow better
                     control of coolant quality.
                    Use an ultrafiltration system to remove
                    soluble oils from wastewater streams.
                                             Capital Investment: $5,000. Payback Period:  0.7 years.
                                             Prcdaci/Waste Throughput Information: based on handling
                                             20,600 gallons of coolant per year.  [EIES Number 100-101,
                                             p. 441]
                                                    Savings: 5200,000 (in disposal costs).
                                             ProdBct/Waste ThroBgnpot Information: Based on a
                                             wastewater flow rate of 860 to 1,800 gallons per day. "[EIES
                                             Number 805-001]
   The cost, savings, and waste reduction information provided in- Tsbte- II is based on actual case studies and reflects the successes of
   actual metal manufacturing facilities.  Because specific applications are highly varabte, however, you should use this information only as
   an indicator of how a particular pollution prevention option may perform  under your circumstances.
   These options cost less, than S30.000 to  implement.

                                              TABLE n (continued)

 Raw Material
                      Use disk or belt skimmers to remove way oil
                      from machine coolants and prolong coolant
                      life.  Also, design sumps for ease of cleaning.
 In cold forming or other processes where oil
 is used only as a lubricant, substitute a hot
 lime bath or borax soap for oil.
                                               Waste Savings/Redaction:  Coolant is now disposed once
                                               per year rather than 3-6 times per year.  fEIES Number
                                               °°" "01. p. 78]
                      "   Use a stamping lubricant thai can
                      remain on the piece until the annealing
                      process, where it is burned off.  This
                      eliminates the need for hazardous degreasing
                      solvents and alkali cleaners.
                                               Annual Savings:  312.000 (results from reduced disposal.
                                               raw material, and labor costs).  Waste Throughput
                                               Information:  The amount of waste solvents and cleaners
                                               was reduced from 30,000 Ibs. in 1982 to 13,000 Ibs. in 1986.
                                               Employee working conditions were also improved by
                                               removing vapors associated with the old cleaners. [EIES
                                               Number 034-006, p. 5]
a ad
If filtration or reclamation of oil is required
before reuse, segregate the used oils in order
to prevent mixing wastes.
                     **  Segregation of metal dust or scrap by
                     type often increases the value of metal for
                     resale (e.g., sell previously disposed metallic
                     dust to a zinc smelter).
                                              Capital Investment: SO.  Annual Savings:  3130,000.
                                              Payback Period:  immediate. Waste Savings/Reduction:
                                              2,700 tons per year. [EIES Number 306-001, p. 109]
                     '"  Improve housekeeping techniques to
                     prevent cutting oils from becoming
                     contaminated with 1,1,1-trichloroethane (e.g.,
                     use care when cleaning cutting equipment to
                     prevent the mature of enttmg oil and Use
                     cleaning solvent).
                                              Capital Investment:  SO.  Annual Savings:  S3.000 in
                                              disposal costs.  Waste Savings/Reduction:  60% (30 tons
                                              reduced to 10 tons).  (EIES Number 005-043, p. 24]
Where possible, recycte oil from cutting/
machining operations. Often oils need no
treatment before recycling:
                                                                   Capital Investment:  SI,900,000. Annual Savings:
                                                                   5156,000. Waste Throughput Information: 2 million
                                                                   gallons per year.  Facility reclaims oil and metal from
                                                                   process water.  [EIES Number 306-001, p.  137]
                     Oil scrap mixtures can be centrifuged to
                     recover the bulk of the oil for reuse.
                     Follow-up magnetic and paper nitration of
                     cutting. Quids, with. "^raO** ration  By so
                     doing, a much larger percentage of cutting
                     fluids, can be reused.
                                              Capital Investment-  542,000 (1976).  Annual Savings:
                                              333,800 (1980).  [EIES Number 400-072]

                                              TABLE n (continued)

                      ' *   Perform on-site purification of hydraulic
                      oils using commercial "off-the-shelf" cartridge
                      filter systems.
                                               Capital Investment: $28,000.  Annual Savings:
                                               317,800/year based on operating costs, avoided new oil
                                               purchase, and lost resale revenues.  Payback Period:  less
                                               than 2 years. Product/Wast* Throughput Information:
                                               example facility handles 12300 gallonsfyear of waste
                                               hydraulic oil. [EIES Number 100-101, p. 144]
                      **   Use a continuous flow treatment system
                      to regenerate and reuse aluminum chemical
                      milling solutions.
                                              Capital Investment:  5465,000.  Annual Savings: $342,000.
                                              Payback Period:  less than 2 years. Waste Savings/
                                              Redaction:  90%. [EIES Number 806-001, p. 11]
                      **   Use a settling tank (to remove solids)
                      and a coalescing unit (to remove tramp oils
                      to recover metal-working fluids.
                                              Annual Savings:  $26,800 (resulting from reduced material,
                                              labor, and disposal costs).  [EIES Number 034-009, p. 679]
Training and          ••  Improve solvent management by
Supervision           requiring employees to obtain solvent
                     through their shop foreman. Also, reuse
                     "waste" solvents ft"ui deatiei up-stream
                     operations in down-stream, machine shop-
                     type processes.
                                              Capital Investment:  SO. Annual Savings:  57,200.  Waste
                                              Savings/Reduction:  49% (310 tons reduced to 152 tons).
                                              Product/Waste Throughput Information: original waste
                                              stream hiiMty: reactive anion* (6-.10& gatlotw/yr), waste oils
                                              (1,250 gallons/yr), hatogenated solvents (500 gallons/yr).
                                              [EIES Number 005-043, p. 74]
Production            Pre-cleaning will extend the life of the
Planning and          aqueous or vapor degreasing solvent (wipe,
Sequencing            squeeze, or blow part with air, shot, etc.).
                                              Annual Savings:  540,000.  Payback Period:  2 years.
                                              Waste Savings/Reduction: 48,000 gallons of aqueous waste.
                                              Aluminum shot was used to preclean pans.  [EIES Number
                                              306-001, p. 239]
                     Use countercurrem solvent cleaning (i.e.,
                     rinse initially in previously used sataent aast
                     progres* to new, clean solvent).
                     Cold clean with a recycled mineral spirits
                     stream to remove the bulk of oil before final
                     vapor degreasing.
                     Only degrease parts that must be cleaned.
                     Do not routinely degrease all parts.
Process or
The loss of solvent to the atmosphere from
vapor degreasing equipment can be reduced
                     •    increasing the free board height above
                         the vapor level to 75% of tank width;
                         covering the degreasing unit (automatic
                         covers are available):
                                                        - 9

                                                TABLE II  (continued)

                       •   installing refrigerator coils (or additional
                           coils) above the vapor zone;

                       •   routing parts before removal from the
                           vapor degreaser to allow all condensed
                           solvent to return to degreasing unit;

                       •   controlling the speed at which parts are
                           rcnrovsd (10 ft/mm or lest ii  desirable)
                           so as not to disturb the vapor line;
                                                                      EXAMPLES OF
                                                                      COSTS AND SAVINGS,
                                                                      AND OTHER INFORMATION*
                           installing thermostatic heating controls
                           on solvent tanks; and
                      •   adding in-line filters to prevent
                          paniculate buildup in the degreaser.
                      ••  Reduce grease accumulation by adding
                      automatic oilers, to avoid- «""••«« oil
                      applications. [EIES Number 6W-OOIJ
 Raw Material
 ••   Use less hazardous degreasing agents
 such as petroleum solvents or alkali washes.
 For example, replace halogenated solvents
 (e.g., trichloroethylene) with liquid alkali
 cleaning compounds.
Capital Investment:  SO.  Annual Savings:  SI2.000.
Payback Period:  immediate. Waste Savings/Reduction:
30% of 1,1,1-trichIoroethane replaced with an aqueous
cleaner.  [EIES Number 034-010. p. 25]
                                                                    Capital Investment: 5438,000. Payback Period: 5.1 years.
                                                                    Replaced trichloroethylene degreaser with aqueous cleaner
                                                                    system.  [EIES. Number 022412. p. 122}
                                                                    Annual Savings: $2,000. Payback Period: 1.6 years.
                                                                    Substituted chlorofluorocarbon solvents with proprietary
                                                                    cleaner.  [EIES Number 022-013]
                                                                    Annual Savings:  38% of cost savings and a 62% return on
                                                                    investment.  Payback Period:  L.6 years.  [EIES Number
                                                                    022-011, p.
"  Recycle spent degreasing solvents on
site using batch stills.
                                                                    Capital Investment:  57,500. Annual Savings: 590.000.
                                                                    Payback Period:  1 month.  Waste Savings/Reduction:.
                                                                    10,000 gallons annually of spent solvents by in-house
                                                                    distillation. [EIES Number 306-001, p. 79]
                                                                    Capital Investment:  $2,600-54.100 and 54,200-517,000.
                                                                    Product Throughput Information:  35-60 gallons per hour
                                                                    and 0.6-20 gallons per hour, respectively.  Two cost ,md
                                                                    throughput estimates for distillation units from two vendors
                                                                    [EIES Number 005-003. p. 70)
                                                        • 10 -

                                           TABLE II (continued)

                    ••  Use simple batch distillation to extend
                    the life of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1.1,1-TCA).
                                            Capital Investment: S3.500 (1978).  Annual Savings:
                                            S50.400. Product/Wist* Throughput Information: facility
                                            handles 40,450 gallons 1,1,1-TCA per year. [EIES Number
                                            100-101, p. 442]
                    **  When on-site recycling is not possible,
                    agreements can be made with supply
                    companies to remove old solvents.
                                            Capital Investment: 53,250 for a temporary storage
                                            building. Annual Savings: $8,260.  Payback Period:  less
                                            than 6 months. Waste Savings/Reduction:  38.000 pounds
                                            per year of solvent sent off site for recycling. [EIES
                                            Number 306-001, p. 149]
                    "  Arrange a cooperative agreement with
                    other small companies to centrally recycle
Process or
Increase the number of rinses after each
process bath and keep the rinsing counter-
current in order to reduce, dragq'
                    Acids in the wastewaters may be recoverable
                    by evaporation.
                    Reduce rinse contamination via dragout by:
                    •   slowing and smoothing removal of pans,
                        rotating them if necessary;
                    •   using surfactants and other wetting
                    •   maximizing drip time;
                    •   using drainage boards to direct dripping
                        solution* back to process tanks;
                    •   installing dragout recovery tanks to
                        capture dripping solutions:
                    •   using a fog spray rinsing technique
                        above process tanks;
                    •   using techniques such as air knives or
                        squeegees to wipe baih  solutions off of
                        the part; and

                                               TABLE n (continued)

                           changing bath temperature or
                           concentrations to reduce the solution
                           surface tension.
                      Instead of pickling brass parts in nitric acid,
                      place them in a vibrating apparatus with
                      abrasive glass marbles or steel balls.  A
                      slightly acid additive is used with the glass
                      marbles, and a slightly basic additive is used
                      with the steel bails.
                                              Capital Investment:  S62.300 (1979); 50% less than
                                              conventional nitric acid pickling.  [EIES Number 400-036]
                      "  Use mechanical scraping instead of acid
                      solution to remove oxides of titanium.
                                              Annual Savings:  SO; cost of mechanical stripping equals
                                              cost of chemical disposal.  Waste Savings/Reduction:  100%:
                                              Waste Throughput Information:  previously disposed IS
                                              tons/year of acid with metals.  [EIES Number 005-043
                                              P- 32]
                      "  For cleaning nickel and titanium alloy,
                      replace alkaline etching bath with a
                      mechanical abrasive system that uses a silk
                      and carbide pad and pressure to clean or
                      "brighten" the metal.
                                              Capital Investment: S3.250.  Annual Savings:  57,500.
                                              Waste Savings/Reduction: 100%.  Waste Throughput
                                              Information:  previous etching bath waste total  was 12.000
                                              jattom/yetr.  [E1F.S Number 063-043, p. 50]
                      Clean copper sheeting mechanically with a
                      rotating brush machine that scrubs with
                      pumice, instead of cleaning with ammonium
                      persulfate, phosphoric acid, or sulfuric acid
                      (may generate non-hazardous waste sludge).
                                            1 Capital Investment: S59.000. Annual Savings: more than
                                             $15,000.  Payback Period: 3 years.  Waste Savings/
                                             Reduction:  40,000 pounds of copper etching waste reduced
                                             to zero.  (EIES Number 101-028, p. H-3]
                                                                    Annual Savings:  515,000 in raw materials, disposal, and
                                                                    labor.  Payback Period:  3 years. Wast* Savings/Reduction:
                                                                    avoids generation of 40,000 pounds per year of hazardous
                                                                    waste liquid.  (EIES Number 803-061)
                      Reduce molybdenum concentration in
                      wastewaters by using a reverse
                      osmosis/precipitation system.
                                             Capital Investment:  5320,000.  Waste Throughput
                                             Information: permeate capacity of 18,000 gallons  per day.
                                             Saving! Relative to an Evaporative System:  installed capital
                                             cost savings:  5510.000; annual operating cost savings:
                                             590,000. (EIES Number 207-001, p. 5]
Raw Material          Change copper bright-dipping process from a
Substitution           cyanide and chromic acid dip to a sulfuric
                     acid/hydrogen peroxide dip.  The new bath is
                     less toxic and copper can be recovered.
                     (EIES Number 306-001. p. 130]
                     *•  Use alcohol instead of sulfuric acid to
                     pickle copper wire. One ion of wire requires
                     4 liters of alcohol solution, versus 2
                     kilograms ol" sulfuric acui.
                                             Capital Investment:  SO.  [EIES Number 400-069]
                                                          12  -

                                             TABLE II (continued)

                                 EXAMPLES OF
                                 COSTS AND SAVINGS,
                                 AND OTHER INFORMATION*
                     Replace caustic wire cleaner with a
                     biodegradable detergent. [EIES Number
                     Replace chromated desmutting solutions with
                     nonchromated solutions for alkaline etch
                     cleaning of wrought aluminum.
Sell waste pickling acids as feedstock, for
fertilizer manufacture or neutralization/
                                              Annual Savings:  $44,541.  Waste Savings/Reduction:
                                              sludge disposal costs reduced by 50%.  [EIES Number 806-
                                              001, p. 10]
                     Recover metals from solutions for resale.
                                              Annual Savings:  $22,000.  Payback Period:  14 months.
                                              Company sells copper recovered from a bright-dip bath
                                              regeneration process employing ion exchange and electrolytic
                                              recovery.  [EIES Number 306-001, p. 171]
                     ••  Send used copper pickling baths to a
                     continuous electrolysis process for
                     regeneration and copper recovery.
                                              Capital Investment:  $28,500 (1977).  Product Throughput
                                              Information:  pickling 12,000 tons of copper, copper
                                              recovery is ar the rate of 200 a/ion of processed copper.
                                              [EIES Number 400-097]
                     ••  Recover copper from brass bright
                     dipping solutions using a commercially
                     available ion exchange system.
                                              Annual Savings:  $17,047; based on labor savings, copper
                                              sulface elimination, sludge reduction, copper metal savings
                                              and bright dip chemicals savings. Product Throughput
                                              Information:  example facility processes approximately
                                              225,000 pounds of brass per month.  [EIES  Number 804-
                     * *  Treat industrial wntewater high in
                     soluble iron and heavy metals by chemicat
                                              Annual Savings:  $28,800: based on reduced water and
                                              sewer utes.  Waste Tftroughput Information: wasrewater
                                              flow from facility's "patening" line- is 100 gallons per minute.
                                              (EIES Number 034-013]
Process or
•*  When refining precious metals, reduce
the acid/metals waste stream by maximizing
reaction time in the gold and silver extraction
                                 Capital Investment:  $0.  Annual Savings:  $9,000.  Waste
                                 Savings/Reduction: 70% (waste total reduced from  50 tons
                                 to 15 tons). [EIES Number 005-043, p. 73]
Raw Material
: and cyanide saH heat
treating with a carbonate/chloride carbon.
mixture, or with furnace heat treating.
                      Replace thermal treatment of metals with
                      condensation of saturated chlorite vapor* on
                      the surface to be heated.
                                              Waste SavfaBS/RcdtKtfonr this process is fast, nonoxidizing.
                                              and uniform; pickling is no longer necessary. [EIES
                                              Number 400-108]

                                            TABLE  n (continued)
                     Replace cyanuratcd salt handling process
                     with one using fluidized baths of nitrogen
                     and corundum.
                                             Relative Savings:  nitrogen and corundum hardening costs
                                             60% of the conventional cyanurated salts process, and
                                             generates, no waste.  [EIES Number 400-071]
 Oil quench baths may be recycled on site by
 filtering out the metals.
                     Alkali wash life can be extended by skimming.
                     off the oil layer (this skimmed oil may be
 Training and
 Always use proper spraying techniques.
Planning and
                     Improved paint quality, work efficiency, and
                     lower vapor emissions can be attained by
                     formal training of operators.
                    Avoid buying too much finishing material at
                    one time, due to its short shelf life.
 Use the correct spray gun for particular
                        conventional air spray gun for thtn-lilm-
                        build requirements;
                        airless gun for heavy film application;
                    •   air assisted airless spray gun for a wide
                        range of fluid output.
                    Preinspect parts to prevent painting of
                    obvious rejects.
Process or
Ensure the spray gun air supply is free of
water, oil, and dirt.
                    Replace galvanizing processes requiring high
                    temperature and flux with one that is low
                    temperature and does not require flux.
                                           Capita* lB»«3lmtHL  S9e&.«». Annual Savin*?: 50% (as
                                           compared to conventional galvanizing). Product Throughput
                                           Information: 1.000 kg/h. (P.IES Number 400-008]
                                                    - 14 -

                                             TABLE II  (continued)

                     Investigate use of transfer methods that
                     reduce material loss such as:
                         dip and flow coating;
                     •   electrostatic spraying; and
                     **  Change from conventional air spray to
                     an electrostatic finishing system.
                                              Annual Savinjs:  £15,000.  Payback Period: less than 2
                                              years.  [EIES Number 310-001, p. 136]
                     Use plastic blast media for paint stripping
                     rather than conventional solvent stripping
                                              Waste Savings/Redaction: volume of waste sludge is
                                              reduced by as much as 99% over chemical solvents;
                                              wastewater fees are eliminated. [EIES Number 503-001]
                     Use solvent recovery or incineration to
                     reduce the-emissions of volatile orgaaics
                     from curing ovens.
                                              Annual Savings:  5400,000.  [EIES Number 806-001, p. 7]
                     Regenerate anodizing and alkaline silking
                     baths with contemporary recuperation of
                     aluminum salts.
                                              Annual Savings:  $0.02/m2 of aluminum treated.  Annual
                                              Savings: (including sale of the recovered dry aluminum
                                              sulfate) SO.OS/m2 Waste Throughput Information:  based
                                              on an example plant that previously disposed 180,000 liters
                                              of acid solution per year at S0.07/litre. [EIES Number
Raw Material
Use alternative coatings- for solvent based
paints to reduce volatile organic materials use
and emissions, such, an
                         high solids coatings (this may require
                         modifying the painjing process; including
                         high speed/high pressure equipment, a
                         paint distribution system, and paint
                                              Waste Savings/Reduction: 30% net savings in applied costs
                                              per square foot. [EIES Number 038-003]
                                                                   Waste Savings/Reduction:  41% reduction in VOC
                                                                   emissions. The VOC of the paint decreased from 5.5
                                                                   lb./gallon to 3 Ib./gallon. [EIES Number 739-001, p. 182]
                     •   water based coatings; and
                                              Waste Savings/Reduction: 87% drop in solvent emissions
                                              and decreased hazardous waste production.  [EIES Number
                                              739-001, p. 182]
                     »   powder coatings.
                                              Capital Investment: S1.5 million.  Payback Period: 2
                                              years.  Example is for a large, wrought iron patio furniture
                                              company.  [EIES Numtw 73»-«»J. p. 185]

                                              TABLE n (continued)
                      ••   Substitute chromic acid cleaner with
                      non-fuming cleaners such as sulfuric acid and '
                      hydrogen peroxide.
                      Substitute non-polluting cleaners such as
                      tnsodium phosphate or ammonia for cyanide
                                              Annual Savings: $10,000 in treatment equipment costs and
                                              S2.50/lb. of chromium in treatment chemical costs. Product/
                                              Waste Throughput InfermBttoo: rinse water flowrate of 2
                                              gallons per minute. [EIES Number 101-027, p. 115]
                                              Annual Savings: $12,000 in equipment costs and S3.00/lb.
                                              of cyanide in treatment chemicals costs.  Product/Waste
                                              Throughput Information:  rinse water flowrate 2 gallon per
                                              minute.  [EIES  Number 101-027, p. 115]
 Segregate non-hazardous paint solids from
 hazardous paint solvents and thinner.  [EIES
 Number 604-001]
 Do not dispose of extended shelf life items
 (hat do not meet your facilities'
 specifications:  They may be returned to the
 manufacturer, or sold oc donated as a raw
 material.  [EIES Number QQ5.-043,. p. 2fiJ
                     Recycle metal sludges through metal recovery
                     vendors.  [EIES Number 005-043, p. 27]
                     Use activated carbon to recover solvent
                     vapors, then recover the solvent from the
                     carbon by steam stripping, and distill the
                     resulting water/solvent mixture.
                                             Capital Investment: $817,000 (1978).  Waste Savings/
                                             Reduction: releases of solvent to the atmosphere were
                                             reduced from 700 kg/ton of solvent used to 20 kg/ton.
                                             [EIES Number 400-032]
                     Regenerate cauttic soda act
                     aluminum by using hydrolysis of sodium
                     aluminate to  liberate free sodium hydroxide
                     and produce  a dry, crystalline hydrate
                     alumina byproduct.
                                             Capital Investment. S260.000.  Annual Savings: $169.282:
                                             from reduced caustic soda use, income from the sale of the
                                             byproduct, and a reduction in the- cost of solid waste
                                             disposal. Payback Period: 1.54 years. Product/Waste
                                             Throughput Information: anodizing operation for which the
                                             surface area is processed ai a rate of  200 m2/hour.  (EIES
                                             Number 505-001]
Planning and
Reduce equipment cleaning by painting with
lighter colors before darker ones.
                     Reuse cleaning solvent* for the same resin
                     system by tint allowing- solids to settle out of
                                                        16 -

                                             TABLE II (continued)

                     Flush equipment first with dirty solvent
                     before final cleaning with virgin solvent.
                     Use virgin solvents for final equipment
                     cleaning, then as paint thinner.
                     Use pressurized air mixed with a mist of
                     solvent to clean equipment.
                                              Waste Savings/Reduction:  98%; from 25.000 gallons of
                                              paint cleanup solvents to 400 gallons.  Company uses
                                              cleanup solvents in formulation of subsequent batches.
                                              [EIES Number 034-010. p. 14]
Raw Material
 "  Replace water-based paint booth filters
. with dry filters.  Dry filters will double paint
 booth life and allow more efficient treatment
 of wastewater.
Annual Savings:  31,500.  Waste Savings/Reduction:  3,000
gallons/year.  [EIES Number 806-001, p. 7]
 To prevent spray gun leakage, submerge only
 the front end (or fluid section) of the gun
 into the- cleaning solvent.
 Solvent waste streams should be kept
 segregated and  free from water
 ••  Solvent recovery units can be used to
 recycle spent solvents generated in flushing
                         Install a recovery system for solvents
                         contained in air emissions.
                                              Annual Savings:  Sl.OOO.  [EIES Number 034-010, p. 10]
                         Use batch distillation to recover
                         isopropyt acetate generated during
                         equipment cleanup.
                                              Payback Period:  2 years. [EIES Number 034-010. p. 17]
                         Use bstch distillation to recover xylene
                         from pgjqt ^nipmTrH cleanup.
                                              Payback Period:  13 months. Annual Savings:  55,000.
                                              [EIES Number 034-010, p. 18]
                         Use a small solvent recovery still to
                         recover spent paint thinner from spray
                         gun cleanups and excess paint batches.
                                              Capital Investment:  $6,000 for a 15 gallons capacity still.
                                              Anesal Savings:  53,600 in new thinner savings; 55,400 in
                                              disposal savings.  Payback Period:  less than 1 year. Waste
                                              Savings/Reduction:  75% (745 gallons of tlunner recovered
                                              from 1.003 gallons).  Product/Waste Throughput
                                              Information: 1.500 gallons of spent thinner processed per
                                              year. (EIES Number 034-006, p. 6|
                                                      . . 17 -

                                           TABLE n (continued)

                                           EXAMPLES OF
                                           COSTS AND SAVINGS,
                                           AND OTHER INFORMATION"
                        Instill a methyl ethyl ketone solvent
                        recovery system to recover and reuse
                        waste solvents.
                                           Annual Savings:  S43,000/Vear, MEK recovery rate: 20
                                           gallons/day, reflecting a 90% reduction in waste.  (EIES
                                           Number 806-001, p. 7]
                    Arrange an agreement with other small com-
                    panies to jointly recycle cleaning wastes.
 House keeping
 Improve housekeeping practices to reduce
 spillage of cleaning solvents.
                    Install collection/drip pans under machinery
                    and lubrication operations to recover oils.
                    Use rags to their full oil absorbing capacity,
                    and use a laundering system to clean oil-
                    laden rap.
Training and          Educate plating shop personnel in the
Supervision           conservation of water during processing and
                    in material segregation. [EIES Number 005-
                    043. p, 20]
PUnnlnj and
Prcinspect parts to prevent processing of
obvious rejects.
Process or
Employ countercurrent rftsmg to greatly
reduce rinse water usage. Increase drain
lime to allow parts to drain 10 seconds or
more after removal from bath. [EIES
Number 002-016, p. 12]
                   Add wetting agents to the plating baths to
                   reduce adhesion of solution to the parts.
                   [EIES Number Q&Z-016. p. 12}
                   Increase bath temperature to reduce viscosity
                   and improve drainage. [EIES Number 002-
                   016, p, 13]

                                             TABLE n  (continued)

                     Use spray rinsing to increase rinsing
                     efficiency for non-complex pan
                     Use air agitation in rinse tanks to improve
                     nnsing efficiency.
                     Change continuous treatment to a batch
                     system to account for upsets in effluent
                                              Capful Investment- 5210,000.  Payback Period:  3 years.
                                              Waste Springs/Reduction: reduced water usage from 12.000
                                              gallons per day to 500 gallons per day.  [EIES Number 306-
                                              001. p. 133J
                     Reduce bath evaporation by covering the
                     surface with a blanket of polypropylene balls.
                     Continuously filter process baths to extend
                     their life.  [EIES Number 005-043, p. 17]
                     If etching,'is done only to put a shine OB the
                     parts, some customers may agree to buy
                     them unetched, thus, greatly reducing etch
                     bath wastes. {EIES Number 005-043, p. 22]
                     "  Use low concentration plating solutions
                     rather than mid-point concentrations in order
                     to reduce the total mass of chemicals being
                     dragged out.
                                              Annual Savings: SI,300. Product/Waste Throughput
                                              Information: a nickel operation having 5 nickel tanks and
                                              an annual nickel dragout of about 2,500 gallons. [EIES
                                              Number 101-027, p. 121]
                     Use the Kushner and Providence methods of
                     double dragottl followed by treataent or
                     recycle of the concentrated dragout solution
                     to minimize rinse water use.
                                              Annual Savings: using the Providence method in lieu of
                                              conventional water treatment:
                                                          Shop size (gpd):  6,000  36,000 134.000
                                                          Annual Savings: SI 7,110  S60.080  $44,095
                                              [EIES Number 101-027]
                     Employ countercurrem and conductivity
                     controls to reduce rinse water flows.
                                              Annual Operating Costs: S 10.00/1,000 gallons. Annual '
                                              Savings:  $170,000.  Waste Savings/Reduction: nnse water
                                              was reduced from 43,000 gallons per day to 8,000 gallons
                                              per day.  [EIES Number 806-001, p. 8]
                     *•   Use electrolytic cells to recover metals
                     from waste plating solutions. Applicable to
                     recovery of gold, silver, cobalt,  nickel,
                     cadmium, copper, ami zinc from solutions.
                     with 100 mg/1 to 1,000 mg/1 of  metal.
                                              Capital Investment: 58,750 - Sf7,500. Metal Recovery:  1-
                                              2 tonnestyr. Waste Savings/Reduction:  metal losses
                                              reduced by a factor of 100. [EIES Number 400-101]
Raw Material
Use less toxic materials whenever possible.
                         Substitute zinc lor cadmium in
                         alkali/saline environments.
                                                       - 19 -

                                            TABLE II (continued)

                         Substitute nitric or hydrochloric acid for
                         cyanide in certain plating baths in order
                         to produce a less hazardous sludge.
                         [EIES Number 024-001, p. 26]
                         Substitute zinc chloride for zinc cyanide.
                         [EIES Number 024-001, p. 26]
                        Substitute a non-chlorinated stripper in
                        place of mwhylene chloride.  [EIES
                        Number 005-043. p. 16]
Wastewaters containing recoverable metals
should be segregated from other wastewater
Instead of disposing of plating bath when
strength has decreased, Qlter and reconstitute
                    *•  Instead of disposing of process baths,
                    attempt to make them marketable for resale.
                                            Annual Savings: $16,300.  [EIES Number 306-001)
                    Recycle used rinse waters into bath makeup
                    solutions for their respective process baths.
                    ••   Reduce the quantity and toxicity of
                    wasiewatea by employing, technologic* such
                                                                Annual Savings:  greater than $100,000. Payback Period:
                                                                less than 1 year.  Waste Savings/Reduction:  from aboui
                                                                8,000 pounds of chromium consumed per month to less ihan
                                                                200 pounds per month.  Company used a closed-loop
                                                                evaporator on the chromium bearing nnse waters. (EIES
                                                                Number 450-001,  p. 7-6]
                                                               Capital Investment: 512,200.  Annual Operating Costs:
                                                               524,741. Annual Savings: $60,964.  Payback Period:  7
                                                               months.  Evaporative recovery employed on the company's
                                                               nickel plating rim* waters. [EIES Number 034-011]
                                                               Payback Period: 2-2.5 years. Waste Sarfngs/Rednctioar
                                                               84% reduction of chromium usage, 15-20% sludge reduction
                                                               Company insulled an evaporative recovery unit for a
                                                               chromium'plating process.  [EIES Number 450-001. p, 7-6]

                                          TABLE n (continued)

                                                               Capital Investment:  525,000, estimated for evaporative
                                                               recovery equipment.  [EIES Number 005-033. p. 29]

                                                               Installed Cost  335,680. Annual Operating Cost:  59,160.
                                                               Annual Savings 521,000. System operates for 5,000
                                                               hours/year, recovering 9,375 Ibs/year chromic acid.  [EIES
                                                               Number 400-047]
                  •  ion exchange
                                            Capital Investment- 5375,000.  Payback Period:  2 years.
                                            Wasn Saving Rwttt-uk>ffii  92% recovery of ion exchange-
                                            treated wastewater for reuse. [EIES Number'310-001
                                            pp. 57-58]
                                                               Payback Period:  5 years. Nickel sulfate solution is treated
                                                               by ion exchange and returned to nickel plating process.
                                                               [EIES Number 306-001, p. 21]
                                                               Capital Investment: 515,000 (1981). Ion exchange unit
                                                               installed to recover chromium.  [EIES Number 450-001,
                                                               p. 7-5]
                                                              Capital Investment: 51.3 million.  Annual Savings:  SI.2
                                                              million.  Product/Waste Throughput Information: 350,000
                                                              m3tyear of wastewater. [EIES Number 400-067]
                  • reverse osmosis:
                                                              Capital Investment: 516,000. Payback Period: 20 months.
                                                              Waste Savings/Reduction:  almost 100% of lost chemical
                                                              and 90% of wastewater recovered.  Waste Throughput
                                                              Information:  260 liters per hour of wastewater.  [EIES
                                                              Number 310-001, pp. 54-55]
                                                              Capital Investment: 562,000 (539,000 for the reverse
                                                              osmosis unit). Payback Period:  less than 2 years.
                                                              Company installed reverse osmosis unit and evaporative
                                                              heaters to recover nickel and rinse waters.  [EIES Number
                                                              034-010, p. 27]
                                                              Capital Investment: 58,500. Waste Savings/Reduction:
                                                              about 85% of the nickel dragout.  Company installed reverse
                                                              osmosis to recover nickel and rinse water.  [EIES Number
                                                              450-001, p. 7-2]
                                                              Capital Investment: 5200,000 (330 ft2 membrane). Annual
                                                              Operating Cost: large, due to high pressures in system.
                                                              Publication discusses reverse osmosis in general and states
                                                              thai it is applicable to many electroplating baths.  [EIES
                                                              Number 005-033, pp. 29-30]

                                           TABLE n  (continued)

                                                                Capital Investment  $21,500.  Operation Cost  $9.113.
                                                                Gross Annual Savings:  $17,464.  Annual Savings; $8.351
                                                                Payback Period:  2.4 years.  Product/Waste Throughput
                                                                Information:  economic information for a watts nickel
                                                                plating line with dragout rates greater than one gallon per
                                                                hour. [EIES Number 504-001 j
                                                                Capital Investment: $8,500. Annual Savings:  $26.060 in
                                                                chemical usage and process water.  Product Throughput
                                                                Infnrmillnn-  60,000 ft2 cadmium electroplating, plant.
                                                                Company implemented a high surface area (HSA)
                                                                electrolytic reactor for cadmium recovery.  [EIES. Number
                                                                310-001, p. 48]
                                                                Capital Investment- $43,000 (1979).  Annual Savings:
                                                                treatment cost* eliminated, between 5 and 14 kilograms each
                                                                of silver, nickel, and copper are recovered weekly. Company
                                                                used fluidaed bed electrolysis to recover metals from
                                                                electroplating rinse waters.  [EIES Number 450-001, p. 7-6]
                      electrodialysis with ion exchange; and
                                                  ! Investment  $21,050 (15-cell-pair unit).  Payback
                                                    9- months. Company recount gold front plating
                                             rinse water using electrodialysis and ion exchange. [EIES
                                             Number 450-001, p. 7-4]
                                            Capital Investment:
                                            $26.000/year (reduct
                                            Number 400-100]
                                                                                  109.600 (1980). Annual Savings:
                                                                                   n detoxification costs).  [EIES
                                                               Capital Investment:  $220.000. Annual Savings: $45,000.
                                                               A medium sized jewelry plating and manufacturing company;
                                                               updating the existing water treatment facility would have"cost
                                                               5560,08* [EIES Number 622-011, p-. A-l]
                      cvanide destruction.
                                                               Capital Investment: S20,000-$50,000 for hydrolysis process.
                                                               Waste Savings/Reduction: Can reduce cyanide from 50.000
                                                               mg/1 to less than 30 rag/1.  Waste Throughput Information:
                                                               300 gallons per day. [EIES Number 005-033, pp. 44-45]
                                                               Capital Investment: $10,000-$50,000 for chlorine and
                                                               hypochlorite processes.  Waste Throughput Information:
                                                               200 gallons per day - 20 gallons per minute.  [EIES Number
                                                               005-033, pp. 41-42]
                                                               Capital InveMownt: $300,000 for ozone oxidation.
                                                               Product/Waste Throughput Information: Rinse tanks
                                                               operated at a rate of 4 gallons, per minute (reactive nnsmg
                                                               can eliminate 2 out of 3 plating line rinse tanks).  [EIES
                                                               Number 034-012. p. 239)

                                         TABLE H  (continued)

                   "  Use reactive rinsing in nickel plating
                   operations to reduce rinse water use, improve
                   plating efficiency, and conserve process
                                          Capital Investment:  S250 for plumbing and installation.
                                          Product/Waste Throughput Information: rinse tanks
                                          operated at rate of 4 gallons per minute (reactive rinsing
                                          can eliminate 2 out of 3 plating line rinse tanks). [EIES
                                          Number 034-012, p. 239]
                   Recover phosphate from aluminum bright
                   dipping operations by reacting rinse acid with
                   soda alkalies to yield a trisodium phosphate
                   solution.  Filter the solution, cool it (so
                   trisodium phosphate crystallizes out), and
                   recycle the remaining mother liquor with
                   further batches of rinse acid.  [EIES Number
Reduce the number of hazardous materials
purchased for similar purposes, (e.g., from
275 different types of adhesive to 2 or 3).
(EIES Number 005-043, p. 27]
                   Employ a strict preventative maintenance
                   system to prevent spills and leaks. [EIES
                   Number 005-043, p. 27]
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