United States
                             Environmental Protection
                     Solid Waste and
                     Emergency Response
            Winter 1995
               MSW  Recovery  Rate
               Surpasses  20  Percent
 In 1993, the United States recov-
 ered more than one-fifth (21.7
 percent) of the nation's munici-
pal solid waste (MSW) through
recycling (including composting).
At the same time, the percentage
of waste landfilled, 62.3 percent,
was the  lowest since 1960. Waste
destined for combustion remained
constant at around 16 percent.
These figures reflect  a  growing
shift toward integrated waste
management with more emphasis
on waste reduction and  less
reliance  on disposal as communi-
ties plan for the 21st century.
 These statistics are  reported in
Characterization of Municipal
Solid Waste in the United States:
1994 Update—the latest in a series
of EPA  reports on the  state of
MSW in the  United  States. The
1994 Update includes 1993 fig ures
on MSW generation, disposal, and
 Interview  With  the Federal
 Environmental Executive-Washington
 State  Buys Recycled  •  Waste
 Prevention PSA • New Guide on
 Regionalization • HHW Conference •
 C&D Waste Reduction •  Mega
 Matches Conference
 Municipal Solid Waste Management 1960-2000
                                          • Landfill,
                                           other disposal:
                                           129 million tons
                                           in 1993
                                           38.5 million tons
                                           in 1993
                                           33 million tons
                                           in 1993
                                          • Composting:
                                           6.5 million tons
                                           in 1993
recovery rates, and makes projec-
tions through the year 2000.
  The  report also indicates that
Americans are generating more
waste these days, even though
they are throwing away less. In
1993, nearly 207  million  tons of
MSW were generated, up from 196
million tons in 1990. This trans-
lates into 4.4 pounds per person
per day, an increase from the 1990
figure of 4.3 pounds. After recov-
ery, national discards  totaled
161.9 million tons in 1993, which
is a slight decrease from 1990.
  As for individual components
of MSW, paper and paperboard
products continue to be  the largest
MSW component by weight, mak-
ing up more than one-third of total
MSW generation  (see chart on
page 2). By landfill volume, paper
is again at the top of the heap, with
plastics next in line. Paper prod-
ucts are also the most recycled
material—more than one-third  of
all paper products generated were
recycled in 1993. Metals are the
second most recycled material.
  MSW generation is projected to
reach 218 million tons by 2000, or
4.3 pounds per person per day.
While this figure is  an overall
increase in total  MSW  generation
from current figres, per capita waste
generation  is expected to  decline,
principally due to waste prevention
efforts. Such efforts are  expected to
lead to significant reductions  in
            (Continued on page 2)

    Printed on paper that contains at least 20%
    postconsumer fiber.

MSW  Recovery Rate Surpasses 20 Percent
(Continued from page 1)
    Yard trimmings
    32.8 million tons

    18.7 million tons
    13.8 million tons'
    13.7 million tons
    19.3 million tons
 Generated in
 MSW by
 Weight, 1993
              Paper and paperboard
              77.8 million tons
              13.7 million tons
              17.1 million tons
waste. For example, implementation of
current and planned local backyard
composting programs could reduce the
generation  of yard trimmings by at
least 30 percent by 2000. Recycling
efforts will also continue  to have an
impact on the MSW stream. By 2000,
recovery rates are projected to climb to
between 25 and 35 percent of the MSW
stream, with the potential of reducing
total national discards to 152 million
tons annually, or just over 3  pounds
per person per day.
  For  a  free copy of the report's
executive summary, call  the RCRA
Hotline at 800 424-9346.  A copy of
the complete 1994 Update is avail-
able  for  $27.00  by  calling  the
National Technical  Information
Service (NTIS) at 800 553-6847.1

    Waste  Prevention
    Comes of  Age
        For the first  time ever,  EPA's
        Characterization of  Municipal
        Solid Waste in the United States
   attempts  to address the  impact of
   waste prevention efforts on the MSW
   stream.  Waste prevention is the
   design, manufacture, purchase, or
   use of materials or products (includ-
   ing packages) to reduce their amount
   or toxicity before they enter the MSW
      For example, the report's research
   indicates that the weight  of individ-
   ual glass,  aluminum,  and plastic soft
   drink containers has been reduced
   significantly over the past 20 years.
   An empty 16 oz. (vol) glass soda bot-
   tle weighed approximately 12 oz.
   (wt)  in 1972.  Today, the rounded,
   shorter 16 oz. (vol)  bottles tip the
   scales at  under 8 oz. (wt) each—a
   reduction  of about 36 percent! When
   thousands of these bottles are piled
   together in a landfill or crushed for
recycling, the weight difference is
substantial.  In addition,  a  trend is
emerging toward the substitution of
lighter packaging materials, such as
plastics and  aluminum, in  place of
heavier materials such as glass  and
steel. Other  factors contributing to
the growing impact of waste preven-
tion are:
• Backyard composting  and
  "grasscycling" (leaving grass
  clippings on lawns).
• Behavior changes in the
  workplace (e.g., double-sided
  copying) and at home (e.g.,
  purchasing concentrated
• Reuse of products and
• Lengthened product life  through
  enhanced durability and
        There's a new trend, in
         communities today.
        Citizens are paying ror
      trasn services based on the
         amount or waste they
        generate. Tne less tney
        toss, tne less tney pay.

         To rind out
        if pay-as-you-throw could
          make sense in your
       community, call tne RCRA
       Hotline at 800-424-9346
      and ask for EPA's free guide
       entitled Pay-As-You-Throw:
      Lessons Learned About Unit
      Pricing (EPA530-R-94-004).

      It's Making


Interview  With the  Federal  Environmental
        n June 1994,  President
        Clinton appointed Fran
        McPoland as  Federal
        Environmental  Executive.
        She is responsible for
        overseeing implementa-
        tion of Executive Order
        12873 on Federal Acquisi-
 tion, Recycling, and Waste
 Prevention by federal  executive
 agencies.  She also coordinates
 the work of Agency Environmental
 Executives appointed by key  fed-
 eral agencies. These individuals
 are responsible for implementing
 the  Executive Order  in their
 respective agencies. In addition,
 she  is responsible for  ensuring
 compliance with other Presidential
 mandates  to  conserve energy
 and water, to prevent pollution,
 and to  practice environmen-
 tally beneficial  landscaping
 on federal lawns.
   Reusable News recently inter-
 viewed Fran  McPoland to learn
 about her agenda for overseeing
 implementation of federal agency
 waste prevention, recycling, and
 procurement mandates.
What are your principal
responsibilities as Federal
Environmental Executive,
relating to Executive Order
A         I  have  several distinct
         responsibilities  under
         the  Executive  Order.
         One overarching respon-
sibility  is  to work with  all  22
Agency Environmental Executives,
to lead  and  coordinate their
efforts,  and to  facilitate  the
exchange of  information  about
recycling, waste  prevention,  and
procurement  of  environmentally
preferable products.  The  Agency
Environmental Executives  are  all
at the level of Deputy  Assistant
Secretary or  higher and come
from  many  different  parts of
government. Some  are from
administrative areas; others are
from environmental or  technical
program  areas.
  Another responsibility is to
review  and  comment  on each
agency's Affirmative Procurement
Plan. These plans spell out each
agency's  goals and strategies  for
increasing their  purchase  of
recycled-content  and other envi-
ronmentally preferable  products,
particularly those  designated by
EPA  in  procurement guidelines.
Thus far,  20  out of  22  agencies
have drafted plans. I am also
responsible for reviewing compli-
ance  with the  five  existing
procurement guidelines  on paper,
re-refined lubricating oil, retread
tires, cement  and  concrete with
coal fly  ash, and building  insula-
tion. I am pleased  to say that
response by agencies  to  the
Executive Order has been generally
very enthusiastic and supportive.
  In addition, I am responsible for
developing and  implementing
reporting requirements, and we are
in the process of  developing those
Q        Environmental procure-
        ment  requires a unique
        collaboration between
        administrative and envi-
ronmental personnel. What is your
perspective on how to facilitate the
dialogue between procurement
people and solid waste people?

A         That's one of the most
         interesting challenges
         we face. My office  is
         currently confronting an
issue  about the  use of ground-
wood copier paper that serves as a
good  example. Executive  Order
12873  requires agencies  to use
paper with 20 percent postcon-
sumer content by the end of 1994.
A new paper was recently intro-
duced that is 100 percent recycled
and  50  percent postconsumer
content. While historically post-
consumer-content paper has been
more expensive than virgin print-
ing paper, this  paper is incredibly
attractive because  it's  cheaper
than virgin paper. It is also "sec-
ondarily chlorine free." Chlorine
is not used in the manufacture of
this  recycled paper (although it
might have been used in the origi-
nal paper recovered for recycling).
By using this  new copier  paper,
federal agencies can not only save
purchasing costs, but they can also
exceed Executive Order mandates.
And I can tell you that agencies
want  to  maximize  compliance.
The problem with this paper, how-
ever, is at  the solid waste end.
There are many questions about its
recyclability because of the high
groundwood content. Clearly, this
situation  shows what can happen
when procurement people make a
decision without input from those
dealing with the solid waste rami-
fications  of  that procurement
  One of the  first  things we've
done to address this issue is to get
              (Continued on page 5)

 Washington Buy-Recycled
 Campaign  Rings  Up  a Success
     The WasteWi$e program is expanding!
     After the initial success of recruiting
     over 370 of America's leading compa-
nies to join WasteWi$e, EPA is spreading the
waste prevention, recycling, and buying recy-
cled message to more organizations through
the WasteWi$e Endorser Program.
  Endorsers are trade associations and
other membership-based organizations
that champion the WasteWi$e program to
their members. In return, EPA recognizes
Endorsers'  efforts  in  publications and
press releases,  as well  as at  national
WasteWi$e events.
  WasteWi$e Endorsers  benefit from
demonstrating leadership in the environ-
mental  arena,  playing  a  key role  in
preventing pollution and  conserving nat-
ural  resources,  and  helping  members
achieve substantial cost savings. Endorser
organizations commit to:
  Initiate a campaign to  recruit member
  businesses to become  WasteWi$e
  Provide their members with ongoing
  promotional or technical information.
  Endorsers have  complete  discretion
over what type of activities are conducted.
Recruiting might entail sending  a  mailing
to member companies, publishing articles
in the organization's newsletter, or having
WasteWi$e presentations  at conferences.
Ongoing  promotional or  technical assis-
tance might include conducting  waste
reduction workshops or sponsoring awards
  Endorsers are not required to set and
achieve specific waste reduction goals, as
WasteWi$e partners do. Rather,  they help
promote  WasteWi$e  and  share  waste
reduction  information.  EPA  does,  of
course,  encourage all organizations  to
reduce, reuse, recycle, and buy  recycled!
  For more information on WasteWi$e or
the  WasteWi$e  Endorser Program, call
800 EPA-WISE.l
    Surveys  consistently show
    that, quality and price being
    equal, consumers prefer  to
buy recycled. The trick is to turn
this  preference into action.  In
the Seattle, Washington, area, the
King County Commission for
Marketing Recyclable Materials,
in partnership with
hundreds  of area
retailers, has  devel-
oped a buy-recycled
advertising campaign
to help  consumers
make the jump.
   "Get in the Loop—
Buy Recycled" shows
consumers that recy-
cled products are
available here and
now, in the  stores
they frequent. And  it  hits them
with the  message  when  it
counts—when they're  in the
stores, reaching for products.
   The  campaign, launched  in
1993, is  now  entering its third
year. It runs for four weeks, typ-
ically in October and November.
Supermarkets, nurseries, office
supply  centers,  drug  stores,
hardware and appliance outlets,
bookstores, and automobile
repair and lube shops all have
participated in the campaign.
   "Get in the Loop—Buy Recycled"
grew out of a desire to move
beyond traditional buy-recycled
advertising  projects.  "As  con-
sumers,  everything from sex
appeal to Mom's advice influ-
ences purchases," said Candy S.
Cox, the  Commission's execu-
tive  director. When  it comes
time to  picking  a  product,  "a
buy-recycled  suggestion heard
two weeks ago often just doesn't
compete with all these messages."
  To really  grab  the consumer,
something more  was needed.
The  answer proved to be team-
ing up with  retailers for in-store
advertising.  After  using stan-
dard media  advertising (for
example,  radio broadcasts)  to
generate  awareness  of the
campaign,  the King  County
Commission provides  promo-
tional  materials  to  member
stores, including aisle  displays,
          door stickers, and
   ml IIII P  buttons worn by store
   L U U r  employees.
          Additionally,  through-
          out  the  stores, the
          campaign uses unique
          "shelf-talkers" to clue
          consumers in to the
          products that contain
          recycled  content.
          These simple  cards,
          placed on the edge of
          store shelves below
the  products,  help customers
notice the items, compare them
with traditional virgin-based
products,  and choose for them-
   These shelf-talkers have been
the  key to  the success of the
campaign.  Sales  of  recycled
products increased by  11 per-
cent over the previous month in
620  stores in  1993. The 1994
campaign results were even big-
ger.  Sales of recycled  products
jumped by nearly  30  percent
over the previous month in over
860 stores.
   Planning  for the  1995 cam-
paign is  already  under way.
Depending on its analysis of the
1994 effort, the Commission
is considering expanding the
campaign  regionally  or even
nationally this time around. So
watch for "Get in the Loop—Buy
Recycled" shelf-talkers in your
favorite stores this fall!

   For more information,  contact
Candy S. Cox of the King County
Commission   for   Marketing
Recyclable  Materials  at 206

Help  Promote Waste

Prevention Through Your

Local Airwaves!
    EPA needs your help to spread the waste prevention message! The
    National Audubon Society, with funding and assistance from EPA, has
    produced a series of public service announcements (PSAs) on waste
prevention. "Reuse stuff today....Reduce garbage tomorrow" is the central
message of these appealing radio, TV, and print ads.  Although recycling
media campaigns are fairly common, this effort is one of the first national
outreach campaigns  directed at preventing waste (often called  "source
  National TV and radio broadcast of the PSAs began  in January, and you
can help to make sure they air in your community. If you would like to
encourage your local TV or radio station to run the PSAs, please contact
Adaora Lathan of the National Audubon Society at 202 547-9009.1
            5 7 4
   Artie Olson used the same
   cloth shopping bag 524
   consecutive times. Until a
   stampede for half-price
   papayas ended his streak.
    By not using paper bags, Mr.
    Olson eliminated more than
    100 pounds of garbage.
 Selected frames from a joint Audubon/EPA public service announcement on
 waste prevention airing nationwide.
New Guide  Helps Communities  Get It
   From maintaining roads to picking
   up municipal solid waste, small
   and rural communities have a lot
of responsibilities—and, often, pretty
limited budgets. This can make it
tough to implement recycling pro-
grams, construct state-of-the-art
landfills, or tackle other solid waste
management  issues. For many of
these communities, however, there
is  an answer:  regionalization.
Regionalization entails  combining
resources and expertise with neigh-
boring communities to address local
challenges.  By  offering greater
              (Continued on page 8)
With the

(Continued from page 3)

all of the key people together at a
"summit meeting" held in October
1994. It involved recycled paper
manufacturers, the collectors, the
agency recycling coordinators, and
procurement people from the U.S.
Government Printing Office and the
General Services  Administration.
We  are working together to make
the  smartest environmental pro-
curement  decisions. I also think
that the  fact that the Agency
Environmental Executives are such
a diverse  group will serve  to
enhance this dialogue.
Q       Recent  legislation  is
       reforming  the federal
       procurement system and
       encourages more  off-the-
shelf purchases.  How do you see
these reforms affecting the fed-
eral government's buy-recycled
A        Procurement reform has
        pluses and minuses. As
        we get  into electronic
        acquisitions,  we'll be
better able to track and monitor
purchases. But off-the-shelf pur-
chases made by government credit
card are difficult to track, and the
more items we add, the more diffi-
cult it will be. (Currently five items
have been designated and 21 addi-
tional items have been proposed
in the Comprehensive Procurement
Guideline.) My office  is working
closely with the Office of  Federal
Procurement Policy to devise ways
to streamline  and minimize the
reporting burden.
  To  sum  it up, in  order  to
fully implement our mandates
to buy recycled and environmen-
tally preferable  products, we're
going to have to work together
with all parties, and we'll need to
be creative.fi

1994 HHW
Conference  a
    The ninth annual Household
    Hazardous Waste Manage-
    ment Conference, held in
mid-November  1994,  drew the
largest  contingent of industry
representatives and household
product manufacturers ever. In
addition,  about  330  state  and
local government officials from
43  states, the District of
Columbia, and Canada partici-
pated in this  conference, held
in Austin, Texas.
  This year's conference focused
on  "toxicity reduction" and pro-
gram cost-effectiveness.  While
some programs  emphasize the
collection and reuse  of HHW,
toxicity reduction programs  con-
centrate on reducing the amount
of toxics generated by manufac-
turers and consumers in the first
place. To  this  end, they  utilize
outreach avenues to educate people
about alternative  products  and
methods.  On  cost-effectiveness,
participants  discussed ways to
streamline programs and  obtain
financial support.

  The conference was run by
the  International City/County
Managers Association with tech-
nical assistance from the North
America  Hazardous  Material
Management Association, a new
trade association formed to pro-
mote toxicity reduction  and
pollution prevention for munici-
pal  solid  waste.  EPA provided
financial support.B
C&D  Waste  Reduction
Begins  at  Home
  If you've ever built a home, you
  know that the project can gener-
  ate  a  lot of excitement and
satisfaction, but do you know how
much waste it can generate? The
construction of  an average-size
single-family home  can  produce
as much as seven tons of debris!
And this is just a small portion of
an approximate 45 million tons of
construction and demolition
(C&D) debris generated annually
in the United States from building
  Not only do C&D activities cre-
ate  a lot  of waste, but it  is
becoming both more difficult and
more  costly to  dispose  of the
debris. To  help  address these
issues, EPA and the National
Association  of Home Builders
(NAHB) Research Center are
working together to evaluate tech-
niques and technologies for:
  • Reducing the amount of C&D
    debris generated.
  • Recovering and recycling
    C&D materials.
  • Encouraging the development
    of markets for products
    made from reclaimed C&D
  The NAHB is a trade association
of the nation's home building and
light construction industry. The
Research Center hopes to  demon-
strate that it is financially attractive
to reduce and recycle up to 50 per-
cent of C&D waste generated.
  One of  the most  interesting
aspects of  this multifaceted pro-
ject is a waste  prevention and
recycling assessment that NAHB
will conduct during the construc-
tion of three homes in the East,
Midwest, and West. Based on its
field observations of how typi-
cal  houses are built, NAHB will
produce a list of recommended
actions to:
  • Reduce construction waste.
  • Increase onsite waste reuse.
  • Increase construction waste
  • Increase  use of building
    materials with recycled  con-
    tent. (Many materials used in
    C&D  projects  can be  re-
    claimed,  including  wood,
    steel,  copper, aluminum,
    gypsum, cardboard,  paper,
    plastic,  asphalt,  concrete,
    and glass.)
  The NAHB Research Center will
test these recommendations  dur-
ing the construction  of about a
dozen or more homes in metropol-
itan areas on the East Coast and in
the Midwest. Throughout the con-
struction  process,  NAHB  will
monitor the quantity of waste
reduced, reused, and recycled,
and will compile its findings into
a report to be  used by other
builders in the future.
  The NAHB Research Center will
also produce  an educational
brochure about C&D waste reduc-
tion for homeowners, remodelers,
and builders, as  well as a docu-
mentary video on the project. Both
of these tools will be available in
  For more information, call Peter
Yost at the NAHB Research Center
at 301 249-4000  or EPA's Daria
Willis at 703 308-8754J
    * Green*

       While  the idea of "envi-
       ronmentally conscious
       construction" might con-
jure images  of  patchwork
dwellings built  of old tires and
empty soda bottles, the reality
is  much  different.  Today's
construction  industry  often
incorporates  reused and recy-
cled materials  into houses and
buildings.  To  demonstrate the
viability of these  materials  to
homebuilders,  Pierce County,
Washington,  has  developed  a
mobile "Greenhouse" con-
structed  entirely of recycled,
reused, nontoxic,  and  energy-
efficient building materials.
  The garage-sized  teaching
facility,  built with  the support
and cooperation of a number  of
private sector partners, displays
more than 80 products, including:
• Nontoxic and recycled brands
  of house paint.
• A deck constructed of plastic
  lumber,  made from recycled
  plastic milk jugs.
• Roofing materials made from
  recycled  rubber tires, computer
  cases, and aluminum cans.
  The County takes the exhibit
to fairs, trade shows, and exhibi-
tions throughout the  Pacific
Northwest. Since Pierce County
first  displayed the house  in
September 1993, more than
400,000 people have visited the
  For more information, or for a
guide  to  the  companies who
supplied the products used  in
the  Greenhouse, contact Nancy
Morrison of Pierce County at 206
Mega  Matches
Coming  Soon  to  a
Region  Near  You
       When it comes to reducing
       municipal  solid  waste,
       experience  and informa-
tion  are  valuable  commodities.
Whether it's designing a unit pric-
ing program or starting  a local
materials exchange, community
decisionmakers need hard data to
get a source reduction task off the
ground. EPA's Source  Reduction
Mega Match program is designed
to provide this information.
  Organized  as  roundtables  and
information-sharing  forums, Mega
Matches are an outgrowth of the
Solid  Waste  Peer Exchange
Program. Under this  program,
municipal officials  with experi-
ence in  tackling  solid  waste
challenges visited other communi-
ties in need  of expert  advice.
Managed by  the International
City/County Management
Association (ICMA) and funded by
EPA, the Peer  Exchanges had just
one drawback: only  a single com-
munity benefited from each visit.

  Mega Matches bring together
groups  of experienced community
officials with local decisionmak-
ers, involving more communities
in the process while retaining the
smaller-scale,  one-on-one quality
of the Peer Exchanges. And partic-
ipants come away with more than
innovative  and cost-effective
ideas: the sessions  help  build a
network of solid waste  partner-
ships—contacts that local officials
can draw on  when dealing  with
future source reduction  chal-
  Hundreds of communities partic-
ipated in the 1994 source reduction
Mega Matches, which took place in
Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois;
Kansas City,  Missouri;  and San
Francisco,  California. The confer-
ences  focused on variable rate (or
unit) pricing, materials exchanges,
backyard  composting, and  waste
prevention in businesses. EPA is
lining up an  additional series of
Source Reduction Mega Matches for
1995  that will focus  on similar
waste  prevention topics. The loca-
tions of these Mega Matches will be
announced in the near future.fl
                               Pierce County's mobile "GreenHouse"

 A  Trashy  Contest!
          Have you noticed  anything  different  about recent  issues of
          Reusable News? If not, here's a hint. Take a look at  the mast-
          head on this issue. Look familiar? It  should. It's the original
    Reusable News identifier that's been with us since the newsletter was
      But, as you might  have  noticed, our most recent issues (Fall,
    Summer, and  Spring of 1994) featured three different variations on
    this "trashy" theme. We  just can't make up our minds which trash
    can to use on the masthead. We need your help!

  Vote for one of the trash cans pictured below by clipping and
mailing your ballot to John Leigh at the address below or by faxing
to EPA at 202 260-6252. To cast a paperless ballot, call in your vote
to  202 260-6548,  or  send  your  vote via  electronic  mail  to
  We'll announce the winner in our next issue and feature it on our
    __ Ol' Standby

The mention of publications, products, and organizations in this newsletter
does not constitute endorsement or approval for use by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency.
                              New  Guide Helps
                              Communities  Get It
                              (Continued from page 5)
                              economies of scale, regionalization
                              enables  member communities to
                              undertake  projects that otherwise
                              would be too expensive.
                                EPA's new handbook, Joining
                              Forces: Regionalization Is Working
                              in Rural and Small Communities,
                              is helping  local governments
                              learn  about  working  together. It
                              discusses the  advantages  of
                              regionalization, shows how it can
                              be used, and highlights successful
                              efforts from across the country. To
                              obtain   a free copy, call  EPA's
                              RCRA Hotline at 800 424-9346.1
   REUSABLE NEWS is the quarterly
   newsletter  of the  EPA Office of
Solid Waste's  Municipal  and
Industrial  Solid Waste  Division.
Reusable  News reports  on  the
efforts of EPA  and others to safely
and effectively  manage the nation's
garbage and provides useful informa-
tion about key  issues  and concerns
in  municipal solid  waste manage-
Address comments or free subscription
requests to:
John Leigh, Editor (5305)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
401 M Street, SW.
   United States
   Environmental Protection Agency
   Washington, DC  20460

   Official Business
   Penalty for Private Use

The following publications are available at no charge from the
EPA RCRA/Superfund Hotline at 800 424-9346.










Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in
the United States: 1994 Update; Executive
Decision-Makers Guide to Solid Waste
Environmental Fact Sheet: EPA Sets
Degradability Standards for Plastic Ring
Environmental Fact Sheet: Update Released
on Solid Waste Management in the United
Green Advertising Claims
Joining Forces on Solid Waste Management:
Regionalization is Working in Rural and
Small Communities
MSW Factbook (Version 2.0) (3-1/2" diskette)
Report to Congress: Methods to Manage and
Control Plastic Wastes; Executive Summary
Reporting on Municipal Solid Waste: A Local
Sites for our Solid Waste: A Guidebook for
Public Involvement
Siting Our Solid Waste: Making Public
Involvement Work (Brochure)
Solid Waste Dilemma: An Agenda for Action
Solid Waste Resource Guide for Native
Americans: Where to Find Funding and
Technical Assistance
Waste Prevention, Recycling, and
Composting Options: Lessons from 30






The Consumer's Handbook for Reducing
Solid Waste
A Business Guide for Reducing Solid Waste
Characterization of Products Containing Lead
and Cadmium in Municipal Solid Waste in the
United States, 1970 to 2000; Executive
Characterization of Products Containing
Mercury in Municipal Solid Waste in the
United States, 1970 to 2000; Executive
Environmental Fact Sheet: Municipal Solid
Waste Prevention in Federal Agencies
Environmental Fact Sheet: Recycling Grass
Pay as You Throw: Lessons Learned About
Unit Pricing
Review of Industrial Waste Exchanges






















Unit Pricing: Providing an Incentive to
Reduce Waste
Variable Rates in Solid Waste: Handbook for
Solid Waste Officials; Executive Summary
Waste Prevention: It Makes Good Business
Waste Prevention Pays Off: Companies Cut
Waste in the Workplace
WasteWi$e: EPA's Voluntary Program for
Reducing Business Solid Waste
WasteWi$e Tip Sheet: Facility Waste
WasteWi$e Tip Sheet: Waste Prevention

WasteWISe Tip Sheet: WasteWi$e Program
Road Map
Environmental Fact Sheet: Yard Waste
Federal Recycling Program (Brochure)
How to Start or Expand a Recycling
Collection Program (Fact Sheet)
Jobs Through Recycling Initiative (Fact
Manufacturing from Recyclables: 24 Case
Studies of Successful Enterprises
Procurement Guidelines for Government
Recycle: You Can Make a Ton of Difference
Recycle: You Can Make a Ton of Difference
Recycling in Federal Agencies (Brochure)
Recycling Works! State and Local Success
Report to Congress: A Study of the Use of
Recycled Paving Materials
Summary of Markets for Compost
Summary of Markets for Recovered
Summary of Markets for Recovered Glass
Summary of Markets for Scrap Tires
Used Dry Cell Batteries: Is a Collection
Program Right for your Community?
WasteWi$e Tip Sheet: Buying or
Manufacturing Recycled Products
WasteWi$e Tip Sheet: Recycling Collection
530-R-92-026    Household Hazardous Waste Management:
                A Manual for One-Day Community Collection
530-F-92-031     Household Hazardous Waste: Steps to Safe

530/SW-90-029b Characterization of Municipal Waste
                Combustion Ash, Ash Extracts, and
                Leachates; Executive Summary
Implementation Strategy of U.S. Supreme
Court Decision in City of Chicago v. EOF for
Municipal Waste Combustion Ash
Sampling and Analysis of Municipal Refuse
Incinerator Ash
                                              Native American Network
                                              Reusable News
                                              WasteWiSe Update
                                                              The following publications are available for a fee from the
                                                              National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Call 703 487-
                                                              4650 for price and ordering information.
530/SW-91-089   Criteria for Solid Waste Disposal Facilities; A
                Guide for Owners/Operators
530-F-93-024    Environmental Fact Sheet: Some Deadlines
                in Federal Landfill Regulations Extended;
                Extra Time Provided to Landfills in Midwest
                Flood Regions
530-K-94-001    Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit
                Programs: A Primer for Tribes
530/SW-91-092   Safer Disposal for Solid Waste; The Federal
                Regulation for Landfills
530-Z-93-012    Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria; Delay
                of Effective Date; Final Rule; October 1, 1993
                (includes correction published October 14,
OSWFR91004   Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria; Final
                Rule; October 9, 1991
530-F-94-008    Collecting Used Oil for Recycling/Reuse: Tips
                for Consumers Who Change Their Own
                Motor Oil and Oil Filters (Brochure)
530/SW-89-039a How to Set Up a Local Program to Recycle
                Used Oil
530/SW-89-039d Recycling Used Oil: For Service Stations and
                Other Vehicle-Service Facilities (Brochure)
530/SW-89-039b Recycling Used Oil: What Can You Do?
530/SW-90-024   Adventures of the Garbage Gremlin: Recycle
                and Combat a Life of Grime (Comic Book)
530/SW-90-005   Let's Reduce and Recycle: A Curriculum for
                Solid Waste Awareness
530/SW-90-025   Recycle Today: Educational Materials for
                Grades K-12
530/SW-90-010   Ride the Wave of the Future: Recycle Today!
530/SW-90-023   School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for
                                              PB89-220 578   Analysis of U.S. Municipal Waste Combustion
                                                              Operating Practices
                                              PB95-147 690   Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in
                                                              the United States: 1994 Update
                                              PB91-111 484   Charging Households for Waste Collection
                                                              and Disposal: The Effects of Weight- or
                                                              Volume-Based Pricing on Solid Waste
                                              PB94-163-250   Composting Yard Trimmings and Municipal
                                                              Solid Waste
                                              PB94-136 710   List of Municipal Solid Waste Landfills
                                              PB94-100 138   Markets for Compost
                                              PB93-170 132   Markets for Recovered Aluminum
                                              PB93-169 845   Markets for Recovered Glass
                                              PB92-115 252   Markets for Scrap Tires
                                              PB87-206 074   Municipal Waste Combustion Study: Report
                                                              to Congress
                                              PB90-199 431   Office Paper Recycling: An Implementation
                                              PB92-162 551   Preliminary Use and Substitutes Analysis of
                                                              Lead and Cadmium in Products in  Municipal
                                                              Solid Waste
                                              PB90-163 122   Promoting Source Reduction and
                                                              Recyclability in the Marketplace
                                              PB92-100 841   Regulatory Impact Analysis for the Final
                                                              Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills
                                              PB92-100 858   Addendum for the Regulatory Impact
                                                              Analysis for the Final Criteria for Municipal
                                                              Solid Waste Landfills
                                              PB88-251 137   Solid Waste Dilemma: An Agenda for Action;
                                                              Background Document
                                              PB88-251 145   Solid Waste Dilemma: An Agenda for Action;
                                                              Background Document; Appendices
                                              PB94-100 450   Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria; 40
                                                              CFR Part 258: Technical Manual
                                              PB92-119 965   States' Efforts to Promote Lead-Acid Battery
                                              PB90-272 063   Variable Rates in Solid Waste: Handbook for
                                                              Solid Waste Officials
                                              PB90-163 114   Yard Waste Composting: A Study of Eight