United States
                            Environmental Protection
                     Solid Waste and
                     Emergency Response
            Winter 1996
 First EPA
 Satellite Forum a
  In September, EPA brought
  solid waste management infor-
  mation down to earth through
 a satellite broadcast that reached
 over 1,000 people at more than
 100 sites across the nation. Local
 elected officials, solid waste
 planners, public works and recy-
 cling managers, finance officers,
 and citizens gathered at down-
 link sites in 23 states to learn
 from five national experts about
 pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) and full
 cost accounting (FCA). (See
 related articles on pages 8 and 9.)
  One of the thorniest issues
 facing communities today is how
 to provide municipal solid waste
 (MSW) services in the face of
 increasing costs. Two tools that
 communities can use are PAYT
 and FCA. At the satellite forum,
 panelists provided an overview
 of how communities are using
          (Continued on page 8)
 Re-refined Oil •  NRC Congress •
 Recycling Communities • Focus on
 Recyclable Clothes • Full  Cost
 Accounting • Pay-As-You-Throw •
 Resources •  Landfill Extension •
 Using Less Stuff
Reducing  Waste Has
Global  Benefits
    As part of a comprehen-
    sive strategy to reduce
    greenhouse gas emis-
sions, EPA is working to
promote source reduction
and to boost the recycling of
paper and other wastes.
  EPA's efforts are part of
President Clinton's 1993 Cli-
mate Change Action Plan.
Overall, the plan seeks to
decrease annual emissions of
greenhouse gases (see sidebar on
page 2) by 106 million metric tons.
Waste reduction is an important
component of the plan. The plan
strives to reduce municipal solid
waste generation by five percent
while at the same time increasing
recycling rates by five percent over
expected levels for the year 2000.
EPA estimates that these actions
alone could prevent more than 5
million metric tons of greenhouse
gases from entering the atmosphere
every year.
  Waste reduction efforts can help:
• Save energy/decrease emissions.
  Source reduction reduces the
  overall need for virgin and recy-
  cled feedstocks, thereby lower-
  ing the energy needed to
  acquire and process raw and
            (Continued on page 2)
WasteWi$e Celebrates a
Successful  First Year
   The results are in! In the first
   year after the program was
   launched, WasteWi$e partners
have achieved impressive waste
reduction results. Collectively,
these companies conserved nearly
a quarter of a million tons of mate-
rial through waste prevention and
collected almost 1 million tons of
material for recycling in 1994. In
addition, WasteWi$e partners
helped create stronger markets for
collected recyclables by purchas-
ing 23 different kinds of recycled
  The goal of the WasteWi$e pro-
gram is to assist companies in
            (Continued on page 3)
                                        Recycled/Recyclable Printed on paper that contains at least 50% postconsumer fiber.

Reducing Waste Has  Global  Benefits
(Continued from page 1)
  recyclable materials. When
  energy demand is decreased,
  fewer fossil fuels are burned
  and less carbon dioxide is
  emitted to the atmosphere.
  Making goods from recycled
  feedstocks often requires less
  processing and energy than
  using virgin materials.

• Reduce methane emissions
  from landfills. Source reduc-
  tion and recycling (including
  composting) divert organic
  wastes from landfills, reducing
  the methane they would other-
  wise generate during decompo-
  sition. Methane is a potent
  greenhouse gas that contributes
  to global climate change.

• Increase storage of carbon in
  frees. Paper waste reduction and
  recycling reduce the harvest of
  trees. Forests store large
  amounts of carbon that
  would otherwise enter the
  atmosphere and contribute
  to the greenhouse effect.
  EPA is calculating the
greenhouse gas emissions
associated with source
reduction, recycling (includ-
ing composting), incinera-
tion, and landfilling. When
this research is complete,
EPA will be able to estimate
the reductions in green-
house gas emissions
achieved through source
reduction and recycling of
specific materials, including
certain papers and plastics,
metals, yard trimmings, and
food scraps. EPA plans to
use this information to tar-
get existing voluntary waste
reduction programs and
design future initiatives.

  EPA has already
launched several programs
to encourage waste reduc-
tion and reduce greenhouse
gas emissions, including:
       I WasteWi$e, a voluntary pro-
        gram to encourage business and
        industry to reduce, recycle, and
        buy recycled.

       I The Chicago Board of Trade
        program to develop a national
        on-line commodity exchange
        for recycled materials.
       l Outreach and education pro-
        grams to encourage communi-
        ties to adopt unit-based
        pricing ("pay-as-you-throw")
        for municipal solid waste.

       I Outreach and technical assis-
        tance to encourage solid waste
        planners to use full cost
        accounting systems to facilitate
        the use of good waste manage-
        ment practices, including source
        reduction and recycling.
What  Are
      reenhouse gases absorb and trap heat
      that is given off by the earth's surface
      after being warmed by the sun. This
"greenhouse effect" occurs naturally and keeps
the earth warm enough to support life. Without
greenhouse gases, the average temperature on
earth would be 5° F instead of the current 60°
F. Many scientists believe, however, that excess
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere could
lead to global warming and climate change.
  The potential climatic changes resulting from
greenhouse gas emissions include flooding of
cities and land near coasts due to the melting
of polar icecaps, inland drought, geographic
shifts in agricultural zones, and reduction in the
size of some ecosystems, which could result in
the extinction of species.
  Some greenhouse gases occur naturally,
while others are the result of human activities.
Greenhouse gases have varying abilities to trap
the earth's heat. The major greenhouse gases
include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous
oxide, and chloro- and hydro-fluorocarbons.
National  Park

Service  Closes

the  Loop  on

Used  Oil

  In a ceremony celebrating the
  use of re-refined oil in federal
  government vehicles, the
National Park Service became the
first major federal agency to use re-
refined oil in its fleet. The cere-
mony, held on the grounds of the
Washington Monument on Septem-
ber 26, 1995, consisted of a sym-
bolic "changing of the oil." The
Director of the National Park Ser-
vice, Roger Kennedy, and the Chief
Executive Officer of Safety-Kleen
Corp., which is collecting and re-
refining the Park Service's oil,
changed the oil in a Park Service
vehicle to re-refined oil.  Federal
Environmental Executive Fran
McPoland presided over the event.
  As part of President Clinton's
Executive Order 12873 on Federal
Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste
Prevention, all federal agencies are
now required to use re-refined
engine oil in passenger vehicles
and light-duty trucks (see Reusable
News, Spring 1995, for more infor-
mation on this Executive Order).
  For more information about the
Park Service's use of re-refined oil,
contact Don Filsoof of the National
Park Service at 202 619-7060.1

(Continued from page 1)

WASTE   implementing cost-effec-
....   _   tive actions to reduce
 W IQC   municipal solid waste,
            with a special emphasis
            on reducing waste at the
            source (waste preven-
            tion). Partners set goals
            to prevent waste, recy-
cle, and buy or manufacture recy-
cled products and then report their
progress each year. These actions
conserve materials and energy and
reduce global warming gases and
other emissions.
   About one-third of the partners
are Fortune 500 service or manufac-
turing firms. Spanning 35 different
industry sectors, ranging from aero-
space companies to grocery stores,
WasteWi$e partners are located
nationwide and employ over 4.6
million people.
   In addition to the partners, 30
WasteWi$e endorsers—trade asso-
                                    ciations and other membership-
                                    based organizations—joined the
                                    program. Endorsers champion the
                                    WasteWi$e program to their mem-
                                    ber companies and share waste
                                    reduction information.
                                       After one eventful year,
                                    WasteWi$e salutes the achieve-
                                    ments of its partners. While each
                                    partner made significant contribu-
                                    tions to waste reduction, here are a
                                    few notable achievements:
                                    • Through waste prevention
                                      actions, the Pepsi-Cola Company,
                                      Chrysler, Stone Container, and
                                      Xerox Corporation each elimi-
                                      nated 45 million to 100 million
                                      pounds of waste in 1994.
                                    • The Procter & Gamble Company
                                      designed new packaging for
                                      cooking oil that will eliminate
                                      2.5 million pounds of plastic
                                      and 1.3 million pounds of cor-
                                      rugated per year.
                                    • NYNEX cut paper and postage
                                      costs by $2.5 million in 1994 by
                                      printing customer telephone bills
                        on both sides of the page.
                      • Crown Cork & Seal Company, a
                        packaging manufacturer, elimi-
                        nated 48 million pounds of steel
                        and aluminum by lightweighting
                        its cans.
                      • Several partners used their sub-
                        stantial purchasing power to buy
                        a variety of recycled products:
                        American Airlines—$79 million;
                        Bell Atlantic Corporation—$41
                        million; DuPont—$80 million;
                        McDonald's Corporation—$309
                        million; and the Walt Disney
                        Company—$30 million.
                        EPA congratulates its WasteWi$e
                      partners on their outstanding
                      achievements and hard work. EPA
                      looks forward to working with
                      existing and new partners to build
                      on this success for even greater
                      waste reduction results.
                        For more information on
                      WasteWi$e, call 1-800-EPA-WISE.
                      To receive the First Year Progress
                      Report, call the RCRA Hotline at 800
                      424-9346 or TDD 800 553-7672.1
 EPA Joins  2,100  Recyclers  at  NRC  Congress
     EPA sponsored 12 sessions at the 14th annual National Recy-
     cling Coalition (NRC) Congress on September 10-13,1995.
     Held in Kansas City, Missouri, this year's Congress drew approx-
imately 2,100 representatives from federal, state, and local govern-
ments and private sector organizations. EPA's sessions addressed a
variety of hot topics in solid waste management,
including measuring recycling rates, source
reduction, and full cost accounting.
   Pre-Congress sessions provided an opportu-
nity to discuss issues in more depth than regu-
lar sessions. Enrollment was limited to 40-60
attendees per session in order to enhance participants' interaction
with panel members and each other. The sessions were as follows:
•  In Full Cost Accounting (FCA) for Solid Waste Management a
   panel of state and local government representatives presented
   an overview of  current FCA practices. Speakers explained the
   status of their programs and the success and obstacles they
   have experienced to date.
•  Measuring Recycling Rates presented a panel of representatives
   from state governments and associations to discuss recycling
   rate measurement practices. Panelists described their views of a
   uniform methodology, including the advantages of keeping
   states from reinventing the wheel and providing opportunities
   for comparisons among states.
•  Reducing the Office Paper Pileup provided an overview of prac-
                                                          tical implementation issues and priorities of paper reduction
                                                          programs. Speakers also discussed behavioral approaches that
                                                          companies can use to encourage employees to prevent paper
                                                          waste and presented case studies of EPA's Paper-Less Office
                                                          Campaign and AT&T's paper reduction program.
                                                                         EPA also sponsored three sessions on source
                                                                      reduction that focused on ways manufacturers
                                                                      are reducing the packaging and toxicity of their
                                                                      products as well as reusing products in manu-
                                                                      facturing designs. In addition, EPA conducted a
                                                                      session that highlighted local government reuse
                                                       programs, which are helping reduce the amount of waste commu-
                                                       nities send to disposal. In another source reduction session, repre-
                                                       sentatives from private and public sector groups discussed the
                                                       latest steps businesses and local governments are taking to reduce
                                                       the amount of direct mail they receive.
                                                          Additional EPA sessions provided opportunities to address other
                                                       issues of concern on both national and  local levels. In one forum,
                                                       nationally recognized speakers discussed the most critical issues
                                                       facing recycling today. Topics included environmental labeling, flow
                                                       control, market development policies, and economics of recycling
                                                       programs. National attempts to characterize the MSW stream, as
                                                       well as approaches and obstacles to developing a national
                                                       MSW/recycling database, were the focus of another session.
                                                       Finally, an overview of regional, state, and tribal efforts to imple-
                                                       ment EPA's Jobs Through Recycling program was presented.

 ^^"here's no doubt about it: peo-
  m  pie like recycling. A recent
 i  public opinion poll shows
that both consumers and business
executives want to expand recy-
cling. According to the same poll,
19 out of 20 Americans already
recycle at least one item, and
nearly three-quarters of those sur-
veyed are in favor of local manda-
tory recycling ordinances.
   Community officials want to
encourage and accommodate the
increased demand for recycling,
but they also have to find ways to
pay for it. The long-term sustain-
ability of recycling in a community
depends upon an efficient and
cost-effective program. Different
communities have found different
ways to make their programs work.
The communities highlighted here
are just two of many that are suc-
cessfully providing cost-effective
recycling services to citizens and
small businesses.
       Hauls  in the
     Allentown, Pennsylvania, is
     proving that a cost-effective
     recycling program is possi-
ble. What's the secret? Volume.
  From 1988, when
recycling drop-off
facilities were first
offered, until 1994,
when drop-off and
curbside programs
collected a full range
of recyclables, the
city's municipal solid
waste decreased by
40 percent (63,200
tons to 38,500 tons).
That's even with a
10-percent increase
(3,700) in the num-    ^^=^^=
ber of households
and small businesses in the city's
collection system during the same
period. The high participation
rate (94 percent)  accounts for the
large amount of recyclables col-
lected, according to Betsy Levin,
manager of the Bureau of Recy-
cling and  Solid Waste.
     The high
participation rate
   (94 percent)
 accounts for the
  large amount
  of recyclables
   To encourage participation, the
 city takes the recycling message to
 school classrooms and teacher
 training sessions. It also encourages
 recycling through contests, parades,
 street banners, and newspaper
 advertisements, as well as through
 educational brochures that are sent
 to all residents. The city also
 makes special efforts to communi-
 cate with its substantial Spanish-
 speaking population (13 percent).
 ^^^^^^~    Banning yard trim-
             mings from trash
             pickup  in 1991 and
             offering a composting
             program also diverts a
             substantial amount of
             tonnage from the
             landfill. Residents can
             choose between leav-
             ing trimmings on
             their lawns or paying
             $1.00 per bag to have
             trimmings collected
^^^^^^^  for composting.
                The city's hauler
 offered free collection service for
 yard trimmings if the city banned
 these materials from the landfill.
 Because the city contracts for three
 years at a fixed price  for the collec-
 tion of trash and recyclables, the
 hauler has an inherent interest in
 shifting the bulk of the materials

collected from trash to recyclables
(one hauler collects both). Although
the hauler doesn't earn revenues on
recyclables (the city does), it saves
money by avoiding tipping fees at
the landfill if trash tonnage dimin-
ishes. The less trash the hauler
takes to the landfill, therefore, the
more money the hauler can make
during the life of the contract. With
decreased trash tonnage, the hauler
also started using smaller trucks,
which are less expensive to operate
and maintain.
   While the city can make money
from the sale of recyclables (over
$200,000 in 1994) during the life
of the contract, it also realizes
savings in the cost of the collec-
tion every three years, with the
start of a new contract. At that
time, the city bids on a lower
trash tonnage and will pay less
money than the previous con-
tract. The city's cost savings are
then passed along to residents.
"Our contractor has an incentive
to be our partner, and the out-
come is that we all save money,"
explains Levin.
   For more information, contact
Betsy Levin of Allentown's Bureau
of Recycling and Solid Waste at
610 437-7582.

f*3Jl  It  Only Takes
Iv*^Pkvl   _        '*   	
IfiSl One  to Tango

        in Loveland

   In many communities across the
   country, solid waste managers
   are turning to "co-collection"
as a way to streamline their ser-
vices. Co-collection means using
one set of trucks to collect both
trash and recyclables, instead of
having two separate fleets. One
community that is using co-col-
lection with success is Loveland,
Colorado. This city of 45,000 peo-
ple is saving $100,000 a year on
its recycling program by using
this system.
   In 1992, Loveland was at a turn-
ing point. The city wanted to find
an economically feasible way to
start a curbside recycling program.
At the same time, Loveland's trash
collection trucks were worn out.
This scenario provided an oppor-
tunity to completely revise the
city's solid waste collection sys-
tem. Mick Mercer, streets and solid
waste manager for Loveland,
weighed the city's options.
  Mercer estimated the size of the
crew and the number of trucks and
stops needed to serve the city's
15,000 households for both a sepa-
rate and a co-collection system.
  For a separate collection system,
he determined:
• It would take five trucks to col-
  lect trash.
• It would take three additional
  trucks to  collect recyclables.
• Each truck would have a one-
  person crew.
• Trash and recycling trucks
  would run identical routes.
ference in cost. In fact, the total
cost for co-collection trucks came
out $350,000 less than the total
cost for separate trucks. Mercer
spread those savings over the life
of the trucks and added savings
in operating and maintenance
costs (such as insurance, fuel,
and depreciation) and found that
the co-collection system would
cost $100,000 less per year to
operate than the separate system.
Actual operation of the system
bears out Mercer's original esti-
mates from 1992.
   A key factor in the success  of
Loveland's co-collection system is
the location of the materials
recovery facility (where the recy-
clables are dropped off)—right
next to the landfill.  Since the  co-
collection trucks are emptied
about twice  a day, the co-location
of the facility and landfill saves a
considerable amount of time and
transportation costs.
  For a co-collection system,
Mercer determined:
• The city would need only four
  collection trucks.
• Each truck would have a two-
  person crew.
  Trucks equipped to collect both
trash and recyclables were more
expensive than traditional trash
collection trucks, but the need for
fewer trucks (four as opposed to
eight) more than made up the dif-
  Not only does this program save
real dollars and cents, but it has
environmental benefits as well.
"Having trucks pass through
neighborhoods once per day
instead of twice cuts down on air
pollution and wear and tear on the
streets," Mercer points out.
  For more information, contact
Mick Mercer of Loveland's Streets
and Solid Waste Department at
970 962-2529.1


                                    FOCUS  ON  RECYCLED  <
                                         From the trendy streets of New York to the rugged backcountry of the
                                         Rockies, everyone who's anyone is wearing the latest in "green" gar-
                                         ments. This year's fall fashions are classy and trashy at the same time.
                                     Why? They're made out of waste.
                                       In recent years, designers have ventured into new territory—recycling col-
                                     lection and processing facilities, to be specific—to find the creme de la
                                     creme in reusable materials. One of the most sought after recyclables, and
                                     the most recycled plastic nationwide, is polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
                                     which is looking more smashing than ever. It is being fashioned into evening
                                     gowns, sweaters, shoes, and even long Johns.
                                       Traces of the couture of the '50s, the hippie look of the '60s, the sequined
                                     disco-wear of the '70s, and punk from the '80s are returning in current fash-
                                     ions, but the '90s are sure to stand out in fashion history as the decade that
                                     gave solid  waste a second life.      \, ,,

                                     Posh Plastic
                                       Before a plastic soda bottle or other PET container can find a new life
                                     as an article of clothing, several steps must occur. The following describes
                                     this journey.
                                        So did kw drets.
                                 Recycle #J plastic bottles and they can be made into things like
                                 backpacks, tennis shoes, and yes, even high fashion.
Photos 1,7, and 8: Wellman Environmental
  Award Winners.
Photos 2,4,5, and 6: Recycled long underwear,
  children's wear, sportswear, and shoes from
  the Cola to Couture show.
Photo 3: From NAPCOR educational campaign.
    Mastic recovery companies contract
    with materials recovery facilities or
 municipalities to collect plastic bottles
 for processing.
    Companies round up bottles from
 all 50 states and Canada by contracting
 with municipalities and setting up
 some of their own recycling collection
 facilities. Most of the bottles collected
 are from California and nine states
 with mandatory bottle deposit systems.
                         Consumption and Collection

                            The story begins on an ordinary market
                         shelf where PET bottles of soda, juice, water,
                         salad dressing, cough syrup, and other edible
                         and inedible products stand and await their
                         ultimate purchase. Once the contents are
                         imbibed, ingested, or otherwise used by con-
                         sumers, the plastic bottles are dropped into
                         recycling bins or at collection sites.


                            Plastics processors buy PET containers
from collection and processing facilities. They are sorted by color and
type and then are cleaned, purified, and chopped into flakes by a machine
that automatically de-caps and de-labels the bottles. The flakes are melted
and then solidified into superfine fiber that can be spun into thread. (At
this point the fiber is virtually the same as virgin polyester fiber.) The
thread is compressed, spun onto large spools, and shipped to a fabric
manufacturer where the adventure continues.

Fabric Manufacturing

  Once the recycled plastic fiber arrives at a fabric mill, it is knitted, dyed,
and finished just like virgin plastic fiber. The amount of recycled fiber used in
the fabrics ranges from 50 to 100 percent.

Clothing Manufacturing

  Clothing manufacturers are the last link in  providing a second life to PET
containers. In collaboration with various fabric mills, these companies have
developed trademark fabrics from which they create sweaters, jackets, hats,
gloves, socks, t-shirt knits, thermal underwear, and other garments. Some of
the garments are warm, fuzzy, and insulating—perfect for outfitting skiers,
kayakers, mountaineers, or just the average Joe. Others are soft and smooth
and elegant enough for evening wear.

     On the Runway
          Plastic bottles are going on tour! To remind people
          to recycle their PET bottles, the National Associa-
          tion for Plastic Container Recovery (NAPCOR), a
     nonprofit trade association, has embarked on an aware-
     ness campaign in the form of a fashion show.
        The "Cola to Couture" fashion show kicked off at the
     National Recycling Coalition's (NRC's) annual meeting in
     Portland, Oregon, in 1994. Recycling personalities mod-
     eled dresses, sweaters, long Johns, and shoes made from
     recycled plastic. After the NRC event, NAPCOR took the
     show on the road, bringing it to communities nationwide.
     To date, it has worked with more than 10 cities, helping
     them establish and promote PET plastic recycling.
        Once a community decides to implement PET recy-
     cling, NAPCOR provides educational tools, such as brochures, television and radio public
     service announcements, newspaper print ads, and billboard signage. Before the footlights
     dim this year, NAPCOR will target at least seven more communities.
        For  more information, contact Quinn Davidson at NAPCOR at 704 358-8882.
     Retailers to Remember      Fashion Students Design for the Environment
         Patagonia, Eastern Mountain Sports,
         L.L Bean, Timberland, Bass, and
         Reebok are just some of the manu-
     facturers that are making clothes out of
     recycled plastic.
       The amount of fabric needed to produce a
     fleece sweater requires the use of about 25
     one-liter soda bottles. For thermal underwear,
     about 10 recycled bottles are needed. Patago-
     nia alone utilized 8 million  soda  bottles to
     produce their Fall 1994 recycled  clothing col-
     lection. Eastern Mountain Sports offers about a
     dozen recycled-content products.
     Fabric Flash
          Companies and consumers alike agree
          that there are no differences between
          recycled-content and virgin fiber PET
     clothing. Both are found to be just as soft, can
     be washed and dried in the same manner, have
     the same expected lifespan, and cost the same.
     Regardless of their origin, both types of fabrics
     have been designed to be lightweight, warm,
     water repellent, breathable, and durable.
    To inspire fashion students to focus on the future and to evaluate the role
    fashion can play in protecting the environment, Wellman, Inc., sponsored
    an awards competition for students at the Philadelphia College of Textiles
and Science and the Fashion Institute of Technology.

  Students at both schools were invited to submit clothing designs using Well-
man's recycled plastic fabric. Though students had free rein to design any type
of garment, the one criterion was that each garment had to be created with at
least 70 percent recycled fabric.

  Forty-seven students
entered, and 56 gar-
ments (from evening
wear to children's
clothes) were paraded
down the fashion run-
way. International
media coverage of the
display helped send
the message that
"apparel can be both
beautiful and environ-
mentally responsible."

  For more informa-
tion, contact the Eco-
Spun Hotline at 212

Full  Cost  Accounting
=  Full  Information
     Recycling, composting, household
     hazardous waste, residential and
     commercial trash collection, leaf
collection, landfill operation....the list of
municipal solid waste services provided
by communities can seem endless.
Because there are so many program
options and the cost of providing ser-
vices is continually on the rise, commu-
nities must constantly reevaluate their
costs. To maximize efficiency and
remain sustainable, communities need
to know the nitty-gritty cost details of
how much each service costs.

   To help foster a better understanding
of the actual costs of municipal solid
waste (MSW) management, EPA and a
workgroup of representatives from
national and state organizations in the
solid waste arena are promoting full
cost accounting (FCA). Though the term
may sound technical, the concept is
simple. FCA involves identifying all of
the components of running a solid
waste program in a local community
and determining the costs associated
with each component. Once all of the
costs are laid out on the table, man-
agers can make more informed day-to-
day decisions, better assess the
appropriate mix of solid waste services
for a community, decide between  pro-
viding the services in-house or contract-
ing with a private firm, and better
prepare for the future.

   FCA is different from other local
government accounting systems. Many
communities use "cash flow account-
ing," a system that is based on current
outlays of cash. FCA, on
the other hand, takes into
account all resources used or commit-
ted to the solid waste program. For
example, FCA includes the costs of sit-
ing and constructing solid waste facili-
ties, operation and maintenance,
including salaries, benefits, and over-
head (indirect) costs, as well as land-
fill closure and postclosure.

   As of 1994, four states (Indiana,
Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina)
passed laws that require all local govern-
ments to use FCA for MSW programs. A
number of communities in other states
use it voluntarily. Other communities are
expressing a growing interest in learning
how it is accomplished.

   In July, 150 solid waste managers
attended an FCA workshop at the Asso-
ciation of State and Territorial Solid
Waste Management Officials' annual
conference. At the September American
Public Works Association Exposition,
local public works officials from across
the United States and Canada gathered
to discuss the benefits of FCA. Also in
September, EPA sponsored an FCA
workshop at the National Recycling
Coalition's 1995 Congress, attended by
over 90 people. Finally, the FCA mes-
sage was broadcast nationwide at an
EPA satellite videoconference (see arti-
cle on page 1). EPA will use the infor-
mation gleaned from these events to
develop technical assistance and guid-
ance materials.
 Full  Cost Accounting Workgroup
      EPA has been working with the Solid Waste Association of North America,
      the U.S. Conference of Mayors, the Maryland Department of the Environ-
      ment, the American Public Works Association, the National  Recycling Asso-
 ciation, and the International City/County Management Association to develop
 several outreach materials, including a primer, resource guide, slide show, and a
 handbook.  A handbook is currently available (see box on page 9 to order).
 First EPA Satellite
 Forum a Success
 (Continued from page 1)
these tools and answered questions
from call-in viewers.
  Panelists agreed that while recy-
cling is beneficial, it is not the
panacea to waste management prob-
lems. Waste prevention, on the
other hand, gets to the root of the
issue. PAYT is a great way to help
residents understand the link
between the amount of trash they
generate and the costs of disposal.
"People learn that there is no trash
fairy taking garbage away for free,"
explained panelist Bob Lilienfeld,
an independent consultant and edi-
tor of the ULS Report.
  PAYT programs also  are appeal-
ing because they give people con-
trol over their bills and their waste
reduction activities. "The govern-
ment does  not have to make rules
like  'thou shalt use a  mulch mower'
or 'thou shalt buy concentrated
orange juice,'" remarked panelist
Lynn Scarlett, vice president of the
Reason Foundation, a public policy
research organization. "Individuals
can reduce waste in ways that fit
their lifestyles."
  But not everyone wants PAYT to
be part  of their lifestyle, panelists
cautioned.  People are creatures of
habit, and  "if you mess with peo-
ple's garbage or change the way you
bill them, people take it personally.
People like their garbage system  the
way it is,"  warned panelist Jim
Morris, the associate director of
Continuing Education at Rutgers
University. Communities have
found, however, that  planning, edu-
cation, and community involve-
ment have turned skeptical citizens
into  ardent supporters.
  Take Seekonk, Massachusetts, for
example. Panelist Pat Vieira is cur-
rently chairperson of the Seekonk
Board of Selectmen. Vieira
explained how Seekonk gradually
phased in PAYT. First, the board
pulled funding for the MSW pro-
gram out of the tax base and

charged residents a flat fee to cover
the cost of service. After receiving
complaints that the flat fee was not
equitable, the town adopted a two-
tiered system: a flat fee to cover
fixed costs of providing service and
a variable fee to cover disposal
costs. The town has raised sufficient
funding for the services provided,
trash tonnage has decreased signifi-
cantly, and recycling tonnage has
increased. Because changes were
made slowly and citizens were edu-
cated along the way, residents
understood and appreciated the pro-
gram changes.
   Seekonk's  success with PAYT
depended in large part on having an
FCA system in place. "We knew our
full costs and were able to build our
PAYT program based on that knowl-
edge," Vieira explained. FCA can
provide a sound foundation for any
PAYT or solid waste program.
   "Full cost  accounting is not an
end in and of itself," explained pan-
elist Norm Crampton,  executive
director of the Indiana Institute on
Recycling. "It is a means to an end."
It can be used to improve the effi-
ciency of programs, to keep them
sustainable in the long run, and to
determine exactly how much
money to charge residents to cover
the costs of the services the commu-
nity provides.
   Stay tuned for information
about future satellite forums on
these topics.fi
    ™o order EPA's guides, Pay-as-
      you-throw: Lessons Learned
      About Unit Pricing (EPA530-R-
  94-004) or Full Cost Accounting for
  Municipal Solid Waste Manage-
  ment: A Handbook (EPA530-R-95-
  041), call the RCRA Hotline at 800
  424-9346 or TDD 800 553-7672. In
  the Washington, DC, area, call 703
  412-9810 or TDD 703 412-3323.
    For more information on  PAYT, call
  Jan Canterbury at EPA at 703 308-
  7264. For information on FCA, call
  Angie Leith at EPA at 703 308-7253.
Waste  Not  Pay  Not
       ore and more communities—over
       3,000 nationwide—have begun
       charging residents for trash col-
lection based  on the amount of waste
they put out at the curb. Called pay-as-
you-throw (PAYT) or unit-based
pricing, these  programs offer
residents a financial incentive
to reduce the  amount of waste
they generate: the less they
throw out, the less they pay. As
a result, residents start pur-
chasing products with less
packaging or in bulk, recycle
and compost  more, and seek out other
ways to generate  less waste and save
  To inspire communities around the
country to take a  new look at managing
waste, EPA is taking the pay-as-you-throw
message on the road. EPA is sponsoring a
series of workshops and satellite forums
(see article on page 1) to introduce com-
munities to the pay-as-you-throw concept
and how it can be designed and imple-
PAYT  Partners
   ICMA, NCSL, and CONEG also have
   organized  several events to promote
   pay-as-you-throw. ICMA and CONEG
each have held a series of workshops
over the past year and plan to host
more in 1996. CONEG also has pro-
duced a pay-as-you-throw package that
includes a workbook (hard copy or on
disk), worksheets, a slide show with
talking points, and  an informational
brochure. NCSL has been providing
pay-as-you-throw information to state
legislators by organizing special pre-
sentations at regularly scheduled meet-
ings. NCSL also has made pay-as-you-
throw available on  LEGISNET, an online
database accessible by most legisla-
tures and legislative staff.
   For more information, contact James
Connell at ICMA at 202 289-4262;
Deb Starkey at NCSL at 303 830-2200;
and Anne Matheis at CONEG at
202 962-3539.
   In September, EPA held two workshops
in Washington, DC, and in Boston, Massa-
chusetts. Both events were well
attended—approximately  110 local govern-
ment representatives participated. They
         discussed the  real-life "ins and
         outs" of conducting pay-as-
         you-throw, including describing
         the various obstacles faced in
         developing programs and the
      fj many solutions found.
      '     Together with the Interna-
         tional City/County Manage-
         ment Association (ICMA), the
National Conference of State Legislatures
(NCSL), and the Conference of Northeast
Governors (CONEG) (see sidebar), EPA
also is implementing a full-fledged pub-
licity campaign to spread the word about
pay-as-you-throw to municipal solid
waste planners and the public. EPA will
publish articles and public service
announcements in trade  publications,
develop a series of pay-as-you-throw fact
sheets, and exhibit at industry and envi-
ronmental conferences. EPA also pre-
pared a tool kit for interested  solid waste
planners that includes manuals, videos,
slides, worksheets, and sample workshop
agendas for communities to use to run
pay-as-you-throw workshops.
   Why the emphasis on  pay-as-you-
throw? Such programs directly support
the highest priority components of EPA's
solid waste hierarchy: reducing, reusing,
and recycling, "the three  Rs." Studies indi-
cate that some communities have
achieved waste reductions of  25-45 per-
cent after adopting pay-as-you-throw. The
source reduction, recycling, and compost-
ing that result from pay-as-you-throw, in
turn, produce several specific  benefits,
often called "the three Es": 1)  environ-
mental benefits since less waste means
less natural resources and landfill space
are used, and less greenhouse gases are
emitted (see related article on page 1);
2)  economic benefits since less money is
spent by citizens and communities on
waste collection and disposal; and 3)
equity benefits since citizens who gener-
ate less waste no longer  subsidize their
more wasteful neighbors.

 Waste  Reduction Makes Cents
        Spotlight on Waste
                         Two new EPA booklets are hot off the
                         presses! Free copies of either booklet
                         can be obtained by calling the RCRA
                     Hotline at 800 424-9346 or TDD 800 553-
                     7672. In the Washington, DC, area, call 703
                     412-9810 or TDD 703 412-3323.
                       Spotlight on Waste Prevention (EPA530-
                     K-95-002) explains the concept of waste pre-
                     vention and its environmental benefits.
                     Although most Americans are familiar with
                     recycling, fewer people understand what
                     waste prevention, or source reduction,
                     really means. This 16-page brochure
                     explains how waste is produced during
each step in the life cycle of a product, from raw materials acquisition
to disposal, and how consumers can take steps to help prevent that
waste. Preventing waste helps conserve natural resources, lessen the
burden on landfills and combustors, and reduce the environmental
impact from raw material extraction,  energy usage, and pollution
from manufacturing. Waste prevention also can help save money. The
booklet provides over 20 real-life examples that illustrate how waste
prevention activities have helped businesses, industry, the govern-
ment, and consumers save money and help the environment. In addi-
tion, it describes EPA's waste prevention activities, which include
WasteWi$e, a program that helps companies
prevent waste and cut costs, as well as its          ...    _„,.
efforts to promote pay-as-you-throw in com-
                                             Recycling Means
   Recycling Means Business (EPA530-K-95-
 004) introduces EPA's strategy for expanding
 markets for recycled materials. In addition
 to its environmental benefits, boosting recy-
 cling markets has many economic advan-
 tages. These include business expansion,
 jobs, and other economic growth. For exam-
 ple, strong recycling markets can increase
 the revenues paid to communities for their
 recyclable materials, create jobs in commu-
 nities across the country, and could enable the recycling industry to
 become a major sector of the national economy. The booklet discusses
 how EPA's strategy will foster the market development of recycling by
 encouraging partnerships among economic development profession-
 als,  financial institutions, and recycling businesses; using the federal
 government's purchasing power to create a demand for recycled mate-
 rials; and creating networks of information supporting markets for
 recyclable materials and recycled products.
Kits for


    Every year, Americans discard
    more than 8 million old or
    broken "white goods"—dryers
that don't dry, washers
that don't wash, freez-
ers that can't freeze,
and ovens that won't
heat. People also
replace older appli-
ances because they
want the conve-
nience of newer fea-
tures or to reduce
energy consumption.
To encourage local
officials, recycling
coordinators, and
community educa-
tors to implement
white goods recycling, Keep
America Beautiful, Inc. (KAB)
compiled a Kit for Household
Appliances and the Environment
($22). Included in the kit is a short
guide that describes the process of
appliance recovery and three
options for community programs for
managing appliances: 1) run pro-
grams themselves, 2) work with
private companies in partnerships,
and 3) cooperate with local electric
utilities. KAB produced this docu-
ment with the help of EPA, the
American Iron and Steel Institute,
the Association of Home Appliance
Manufacturers, the Institute of
Scrap Recycling Industries, and the
Steel Recycling Institute.

  In addition to the guide, the kit
also includes a camera-ready
brochure about white goods recy-
cling, which communities can use
in conjunction with their recycling
program. A short slide show with a
script that communities can use to
make presentations to government

officials, civic clubs, schools, and
the public is also included. It illus-
trates how white goods can be re-
covered and the benefits of doing so.
  KAB also prepared a Close the
Loop, Buy Recycled Community
Education Kit ($48) to help com-
munities start buy-recycled pro-
grams. The  kit includes a manual
for businesses, institutions, govern-
ments, and  consumers to help
them get a campaign started. The
manual presents case studies of
lessons communities have learned
about starting a program and exam-
ples  of activities that different
groups have conducted. The kit
also  includes two versions of a
radio public service announcement
(PSA), camera-ready art for print
ads about buying recycled, a cam-
era-ready logo sheet and brochure,
and a video on the importance of
buying recycled featuring Carol
  Some communities are already
using parts of this kit. One commu-
nity worked with grocery stores to
have the radio PSA played over the
store's public announcement sys-
tem. Other communities have
worked with utility companies to
get the ads printed on the back of
utility bills and on paper bags at
grocery stores. The kit encourages
communities to think creatively
about buying recycled.
  Both kits can be ordered from
KAB at 9 West Broad Street, Stam-
ford, CT 06902, 203 323-8987. Pay-
ment must be received in advance.
  For more information, contact
Susanne Woods at KAB at 203 323-
  The ReTAP Tool Kit was
released recently by the Recycling
Technology Assistance Partnership
(ReTAP). A joint project of the
Clean Washington Center in Wash-
ington and the National Recycling
Coalition in Alexandria, Virginia,
and supported in part by EPA,
ReTAP provides information on
how to design and implement
recycling technology assistance
services to organizations that  help
companies process or use recycled
materials. The tool kit is tailored to
organizations that assist small- and
medium-size manufacturers by
providing technical tips on how to
use recycled materials in manufac-
turing operations.
  The tools include checklists,
guidelines, models, procedures,
and protocols, as well as design
and implementation guides for
each of the six aspects of technol-
ogy assistance: strategic planning,
developing resources, program
development, service delivery,
marketing, and program evalua-
tion. Protocols, for example, pro-
vide questions for service
providers to answer as they evalu-
ate a facility or plant to help deter-
mine  areas of improvement for the
manufacturer. The tool kit will be
expanding continually, incorporat-
ing new tools tested by experts in
the field.
  Tool kit training workshops are
being conducted throughout the
United States. Workshops are
geared towards market develop-
ment  organizations, technology
extension centers, economic devel-
opment departments, the research
community, trade associations,
business  assistance services, and
  For more information, contact
Alison Watkins of the National
Recycling Coalition at 703 683-
Small  Landfills

     About 800 small municipal solid
     waste landfills located in arid
     or remote regions have been
granted a two-year extension for
complying with RCRA Subtitle D
regulations by an October 2 rulemak-
ing. Most of these facilities are
located in western states and Alaska.
  Affected landfills are those that
dispose of 20 tons or  less of waste
per day, receive less than 25 inches
of rainfall, have no other practica-
ble  waste disposal alternative, or
are  not able to transport waste dur-
ing all times of the year due to
remote and climatic conditions.
  In a future related rulemaking,
states and tribes that operate
these landfills might be allowed
additional flexibility in comply-
ing with Subtitle D regulations,
specifically in regard to ground-
water monitoring. These jurisdic-
tions may consider alternatives
that are lower in cost than tradi-
tional monitoring but that are still
able to detect contamination on a
site-specific basis.
  This extension will allow states
and tribes extra time to evaluate
landfill closure or continued
operation after EPA issues the
ground-water monitoring rule.
States and tribes can explore the
feasibility of using alternative
technologies  or waste manage-
ment options and try to overcome
some of the challenges posed by
the unique geological and cli-
matic conditions in which these
facilities are located.
  For more information, call Allen
Geswein or Andy Teplitzky at EPA
at 703 308-7261 and 703 308-7275,

Using  Less

                  o put it simply,
                  waste reduction
                  means Using
              Less Stuff. That's the
              theme of the ULS
              Report, a free
bimonthly waste reduction newslet-
ter published by  Partners for Envi-
ronmental Progress.
  The newsletter is written in an
easy-to-read style that mixes enter-
tainment with information. Recent
articles include "How To Be an
Eco-Friendly Couch Potato,"
"Putting Packaging on a Diet," and
"A Toast to Compost." Regular fea-
tures include shopping tips, a
reader question-and-answer section,
and a column by a "garbologist."
  Partners for Environmental
Progress, based in Ann Arbor,
Michigan, is a "nonorganization,"
according to its founder, president,
owner, sole employee, and editor,
Bob Lilienfeld. By that, he means
that it acts as a catalyst to join
organizations together.
  As  an independent consultant,
Lilienfeld had connections in
many places. Over the years, he
has come in contact with many
companies seeking help in manag-
ing their waste. He's  also discov-
ered a number of companies or
local organizations with advice to
                                      Tis the  Season  to  Prevent Waste

                                           Each year, from Thanksgiving to New Year's Eve, Americans generate 25
                                           percent more trash than any other five-week period during the year. Holi-
                                           day parties generate tons of food scraps. Millions of trees and trimmings
                                      are left at the curb for disposal. Gift-giving produces mounds of boxes, paper,
                                      packing materials, and yes, even unwanted presents!
                                        To promote waste prevention during the holiday season. Partners for Environmental
                                      Progress and seven other national and local environmental organizations sponsored a
                                      nationwide awareness campaign. The first annual ULS (Use Less Stuff) Day was held on
                                      November 16, 1995, a week before Thanksgiving. On that day, and in the weeks pre-
                                      ceding it, the sponsoring organizations publicized the idea of waste prevention and pro-
                                      vided how-to information to the public.
                                        The ULS Report issued a "38 Days, 38 Ways Proclamation" that provided con-
                                      sumers with  helpful tips for preventing waste. To prevent food waste, the report pro-
                                      vides guidelines on the realistic amounts of holiday items people consume. It also
                                      suggests wrapping gifts with old maps to save paper and ways to  curb unwanted cat-
                                      alogs and other mailings.
                                        The sponsoring organizations were the Office of Solid Waste at EPA, The National
                                      Audubon Society, Keep America  Beautiful, Inc., The California Integrated Waste Man-
                                      agement Board, Chicago Clean Streak,  the National Pollution Prevention Center for
                                      Higher Education at the University of Michigan, the University of Arizona/Bureau of
                                      Applied  Research in Anthropology Garbage Project, and Foodchain. For more informa-
                                      tion about this campaign, call Lisa Morgan, the public relations representative for
                                      Partners for Environmental Progress, at 212 727-1239.
                                     share. Through Lilienfeld, these
                                     companies are finding each other.
                                        As an example, a chemical com-
                                     pany approached Lilienfeld to ask
                                     how it could ensure that the prod-
                                     ucts made from its plastic resin are
                                     recycled. Around the same time, a
                                     plastic cup manufacturer that sells
                                     polystyrene cups at a ballpark
                                     wanted to set up a recycling pro-
                                     gram. Lilienfeld got the chemical
                                     company, the cup manufacturer,
the park people, the waste haulers,
and a plastics recycling company
together. Not only did they figure
out a way to "close the loop" on
recycling the cups, but they also
found a market for the recovered
polystyrene: as plastic pens that
are sold at the ballpark to fill out
score cards. Now, the program is
  For a free subscription to the
ULS Report, call 313 668-1690.1
   United States Environmental Protection Agency
   Washington, DC 20460

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