United States
Environmental Protection
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
December 1997
WasteWi$e  Update

WasteWi$e Update
             Anyone involved with recycling programs,  purchasing, or manufacturing these days
             has probably noticed an increase in attention paid to the issue of "Buying Recycled"
             as a companion activity to recycling collection. "Why is this important?" you ask.
             It's a simple lesson in economics: in order for the recovered material to have value
             and get used, there needs to be a demand. You create that demand by purchasing or
manufacturing recycled-content products.
Beyond economics are the environmental benefits associated
with buying recycled. Purchasing products made from or
packaged in recycled materials saves resources for future gen-
erations. Manufacturers then have an incentive to use recy-
cled feedstock, which keeps a large quantity of materials out
of landfills. This benefit goes right to the heart of eco-
efficiency—extracting the maximum productive goods from
resources with minimal waste or pollution—and helps create
a sustainable resource-use system that benefits everyone.
 While WasteWi$e still encourages partners to prevent
waste before recycling, this issue of the WasteWi$e Update
examines the topic of  "closing the recycling loop" by buy-
ing and manufacturing recycled products. This is a key com-
ponent of the WasteWi$e program.
 After dispelling some common myths about buying recy-
cled, this Update provides tips on getting started, from one
of our leading partners, the Dow Corning Corporation.
 Some of our WasteWi$e partners, such as Aetna, Inc., go a
step further by purchasing products made from their own
collected recyclables.
 In May 1997, WasteWi$e welcomed government partners.
A special feature in this Update covers government purchas-
ing issues. We examine the Comprehensive Procurement
Guidelines (CPG) used by federal and state governments in
purchasing quality recycled-content products and why
including recycled content in government specifications is
important. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts and
King County, Washington, charter WasteWi$e government
partners, have successfully developed recycled-content pur-
chasing programs with assistance from the CPG.
 Once your organization decides to purchase recycled-
content products, many WasteWi$e partners recommend
tracking and monitoring the purchases. Northeast Utilities,
who tracks recycled-content office supply purchases through
its vendor, provides tracking tips.
  The mention of any company, product, or process in this
  publication does not constitute or imply endorsement by the
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
 And finally, information needed to locate recycled products
is included in the "Buy-Recycled Resources" insert. These
resources are compiled for your reference and we recommend
that you remove the section and keep it in a special binder.
Buy-Recycled Resources is the second in a series of inserts that
began arriving in the previous Update (Donation Programs:
Turning Trash Into Treasure), and more are on the way.
 We hope that the information provided in this issue helps
your organization choose to buy-recycled and close that loop!
   Getting Started	3
   Just the Facts	4
   Moving Beyond Paper Products	6
   State and Local Governments	8
   Bringing Waste Full Circle	10
   Buy-Recycled Tracking	12

                                                                                       WasteWi$e Update
            Have you considered starting a buy-recycled program, but found the challenge a little overwhelming?
            Have you established your program, but wonder how to make it even more successful? Perhaps
            WasteWi$e can help. We recently talked with Mr. Kim Hohisel, Senior Recycling Coordinator at
            Dow Corning Corporation in Midland, Michigan. Hohisel spearheads Dow Coming's successful Green
            Procurement Initiative.
Dow Corning, a chemical manufacturer and Charter WasteWi$e Partner, launched its buy-recycled program in
1993 by becoming the first company in mid-Michigan to sign an agreement with the Michigan Recycling Coalition to
voluntarily commit to purchasing recycled-content products. By employing some key development strategies, the com-
pany increased its recycled-content purchases $7 million in 1995 and 1996.
Here are some  valuable insights from Hohisel on planning and implementing a successful buy-recycled program.
WasteWi$e: What motivated Dow Corning to start a
buy-recycled program?
Hohisel: Buying recycled products is a natural extension
of recycling collection. A truly successful recycling program
involves three steps—separation, collection, or recovery;
reprocessing; and purchasing. If you're not buying recycled,
you're not really recycling.

WdSteWi$e: How did your organization initially find
recycled-content products?
Hohisel: We looked at our purchasing records and found
that we already purchased a number of recycled-content
products. To increase purchases, we involved our suppliers.

WdSteWi$e: How did Dow Corning work with its sup-
pliers in implementing its buy-recycled program?
Hohisel: First, we developed a supplier environmental
policy. Our suppliers must meet certain environmental crite-
ria, one of which includes providing recycled-content
options for products. In  September 1995, we conducted a
buy-recycled training session for key employees such as our
purchasing personnel, engineering team, space planners,
                     custodial staff, and a core group of
                     our suppliers. We then kicked off a
                     pilot project and each supplier sub-
                     mitted a list of our products that
                     they offer with recycled content.
                     With our suppliers' help, we were
                     able to identify and add more than
                     200 recycled-content products to
                     our purchasing initiative. Some of
                     these products include packaging
                     materials, steel drums, shipping con-
                     tainers, janitorial supplies, and
                     numerous paper products.
"You must realize that
 this is not an
 overnight process—I
 learn something new
 every day."

 —Kim Hohisel, Senior
   Recycling Coordinator,
   Dow Corning Corporation
                                                         WasteWi$e: How did your suppliers react to the new policy?
                                                         Hohisel: As a large customer, Dow Corning has a lot of
                                                         leverage. Our suppliers share our belief in the value of buying
                                                         recycled. They
                                                         were very will-
                                                         ing either to
                                                         provide prod-
                                                         ucts already
                                                         available or to
                                                         research other
                                                         alternatives. A
                                                         program must
                                                         be treated  as a
                                                         between the
                                                         customer and
                                                         the supplier in
                                                         order to be successful.
               Kim Hohisel, second from left, discusses buy-recycled options
               at a national WasteWi$e forum.
WdSteWi$e: How did you justify a buy-recycled program
to upper management?
Hohisel: Obtaining upper management support was very
easy for us. Our management firmly believes that buying
recycled products is a key component in an overall waste
reduction program.

WasteWi$e: What about purchasers? How did you
obtain their support?
Hohisel: We had a few difficulties in the beginning. To win
their support, we explained the importance of buying recycled
and demonstrated the performance of some recycled-content
products. After they received this type of training at special
seminars, the purchasers were quite enthusiastic.

WasteWi$e Update
 WasteWi$e: Have you found recycled-content products
 to be competitively priced with respect to virgin products?
 Hohisel: Yes and no. The bottom line is this: if you are
 working with a supplier who cannot meet your pricing crite-
 ria, then you begin exploring other options. The price usually
 drops rather quickly.

 WdSteWi$e: What employee education ideas work best
 for communicating the buy-recycled message?
 Hohisel: Dow Corning has several communication vehi-
 cles that work well for us. We have:
  • A quarterly employee newsletter, which discusses the
   recycled-content products purchased at Dow Corning,
   provides suggestions on how to find and purchase such
   products, and highlights recycling collections amounts,
   revenues, and expenditures.

  • Awareness seminars for employees.
  • Monthly communication meetings, where there are
   opportunities to present program information.
  • Green Procurement Guidelines, which provide  a series
   of questions to consider when evaluating products
   to purchase. Guidelines are an essential tool to provide
   to employees.

  If you would like more information on Dow Coming's
 Green Procurement Initiative, please contact Kim  Hohisel
 via phone at 517 496-5008  or fax at
         Advice from  Dow Corning:
            Keys to Starting Your Own
              Buy-Recycled Program

  Find Your Champion. You need someone in your organization
  who will be enthusiastic and push your objectives through.
  This is true for any type of waste reduction program.

  Obtain Support. You must obtain support from and involve
  management, employees, and purchasers.

  Establish Guidelines and Policies. It also  is important to estab-
  lish internal procurement guidelines and a supplier environ-
  mental policy.

  Set up a Green Procurement Team. Gather team members
  from your purchasing department, and possibly other areas,
  to generate ideas as well as develop and implement your
  game plan.

  Network and Educate Yourself. Hohisel and  a purchaser par-
  ticipated in buy-recycled seminars sponsored by the National
  Recycling Coalition (NRC) and the U.S. Conference of Mayors
  when they first began developing Dow Coming's buy-recycled
  program. Opportunities to learn about other programs and
  network are invaluable.

  Offer Internal Training. Take what you've learned from outside
  sources and offer internal training seminars  for key personnel
  such as engineers, space planners, custodial staff, purchasers,
  and safety staff.

  Work With Your Suppliers. Buying recycled is a partnership
  between you and your supplier.  They should be able to support
  your efforts in locating high quality products at competitive prices.
               ave you heard that recycled products are difficult to find, inferior in quality or too high
               in cost? These myths are dispelled by the fact that during  1996, WasteWi$e partners
               purchased more than $3 billion dollars worth of products with recycled content. Don't
               let misconceptions about recycled-content products prevent your organization from
               investigating new opportunities—learn the facts that counter these myths.
               Buying recycled-content
               products will cost me
               too much.
               The truth is that many products with and
               without recovered feedstock will often have
               competitive prices; many variables—
               including feedstock availability,  quantity
produced, energy costs, distributor mark-up, transportation
charges, quantity ordered, and geographic location—ulti-
mately influence the price of both virgin and recycled-
content products. In some cases, the recycled-content prod-
ucts will cost more; however, recycled-content products are
not inherently more expensive. Take time to investigate
prices and make a decision based on facts, not perceptions.
NRC's Buy Recycled Business Alliance (BRBA), compared
prices between recycled-content general use copier paper
and virgin paper of the same grade.1 BRBA asked several
mills and retailers nationwide about the perception that
recycled-content paper costs more—as much as 20 percent
'National Recycling Coalition's Buy Recycled Business Alliance. Spring 1 996. Are You Paying Too Much for Recycled Copier Paper? Buy Recycled Newsline.

                                                                                                 WasteWi$e Update
more—than virgin paper. Of the eight people interviewed,
only one agreed that recycled-content paper can cost up to
20 percent more. Other respondents offered estimates closer
to 5  percent. In fact, some of the retail representatives noted
that  recycled paper often costs  the same or less than virgin
paper. Furthermore, BRBA expects price differential to be
less of a factor as manufacturers continue adding to their
infrastructure and as paper recycling continues to grow
throughout the country.
 Myth #2:
                To purchase recycled-
                content  products, I will
                need to sacrifice quality.
                Again, recycled content is not the only factor
                in product quality. Often the engineering of
                the product and quality control are the crucial
                factors. In many cases, people have been using
recycled products for years, even before recycling became popu-
lar, without any stigma. Most cereal boxes, for example, are
manufactured from paper scraps. Current users of recycled-con-
tent products express satisfaction with product performance as
well. In the BRBA 1996 Annual Buy Recycled Survey, nearly
97 percent of respondents reported being pleased with the over-
all performance of recycled products. According to William
Meng of The Southern Company, a WasteWi$e charter part-
ner, the company "purchases products on a competitive basis
and still finds some recycled-content products of equal or  better
quality at equal or better prices."

 To help move beyond the misconception that recycled-
content products offer inferior quality, investigate  the results
for yourself. Obtain samples of a desired product with recy-
cled content and conduct a pilot test to see how the product
meets your needs. Author of the Buy-Recycled Training
Manual Richard Keller of the Maryland  Environmental
Services suggests, "Use blind tests for recycled products.
Some users, jaded by a poor experience with recycled prod-
ucts in the past, may automatically think that recycled prod-
ucts are inferior. Give the products a fair test." Moreover, he
continues, "Don't expect superior performance; only require
that the products perform as well  as nonrecycled products."

                My organization would
                never  specify recycled-
                content products.
                It is a fact that some current procurement
                specifications preclude recycled-content  prod-
                ucts or supplies. Now may be the perfect
                time to review the product specifications,
however, to find out why and how they can be modified to fos-
ter recycled-content products. Unless your process requires vir-
gin materials, keep specifications language neutral. Be on the
lookout for wording in your specifications that unintentionally
precludes buying recycled products. Do your purchasing speci-
fications require "virgin only" material or do they specifically
prevent the use of recycled products? Do you allow substitu-
tions that meet your needs without specifying the type of mate-
rials used? If you prefer to explicitly require recycled-content
products, consider using contract language that "encourages the
use of recycled or environmentally sound materials wherever
practical" or "includes consideration of the use of recovered
materials as a practical alternative to virgin materials." As alter-
native sample language, create a policy that any reason for not
procuring recycled products be submitted in writing to the pur-
chasing manager.

 You also can help suppliers and purchasing agents if you define
your terms (e.g., recovered material and postconsumer content)
or offer minimum content standards whenever feasible. EPA's
Recovered Materials Advisory Notice (RMAN) contains widely
accepted definitions and recommends levels of recycled content.
See the insert page for information on how to obtain it.
                                                            Myth #4:
                I  will have difficulty
                locating  recycled-content
                It's time to start looking for the recycled-
                content products  from your current suppliers.
                More recycled-content products enter the
                market every day, and a little encouragement
to suppliers could help solve the problem of finding sources.
Ask your suppliers to offer more recycled-content products or
to clearly indicate in their catalogues which products contain
recovered materials. Emphasize your commitment to purchas-
ing recycled products, ask for their  support, and explain your
willingness to investigate other vendors if they are unable to
cooperate. Then follow up with them to make sure you receive
the most competitive price and  the best quality product for
your needs. Encourage service contractors, such as janitorial
services, print shops, and maintenance contractors, to use
recycled-content products as well.

 Additionally, you will find a variety of recycled product
directories available to help you locate specific recycled prod-
ucts. Consult the resources  insert  in this  Update to learn
more about opportunities for buying recycled, such as the
Official Recycled Products  Guide, which includes more than
4,500 recycled product listings for a wide range of products,
and  The Harris Directory, which includes more than 4,000
recycled products for construction, gardening, home furnish-
ing, and decorating.

                                                             Preeonsumer material refers to material such as trimmings,
                                                             damaged or obsolete products, and overruns, generated by man-
                                                             ufacturers and product converters.
                                                             Postconsumer material refers to a material or finished prod-
                                                             uct that has served its intended use and has been discarded for
                                                             disposal or recovery, having completed its life as a consumer item.
                                                             Recovered material refers to waste material and byproducts
                                                             that have been recovered or diverted from solid waste, but the
                                                             term does not include those materials and byproducts generated
                                                             from and commonly used within an original manufacturing
                                                             process. It includes both postconsumer and preconsumer waste.

 WasteWi$e Update
                 WasteWi$e Update
                                      More than 4,500 products are available with recycled content.     Here is a sampling of what some of our partners purchase.
     In a typical office setting, people
     often think of and notice recycled-
     content paper products, especially copi-
     er paper. What more offices are finding
     out every day is that there are many
     kinds of recycled-content products avail-
     able. Some recycled-content items avail-
     able include pencils, rulers, diskette
     mailers, padded mailer bags, Post-it
     notes, Post-it note trays, note organizers,
     legal pads, folders, hanging folders,
     tape dispensers, binders, and message
     books. This desktop features a range of
     recycled-content office supplies pur-
     chased by WasteWi$e partners.
     Slige Adventist School, in Takoma
     Park, Maryland, constructed a new school
     playground using 100 percent recycled-
     content plastic playground equipment
     and rubber surfacing. The school uses
     recycled plastic lumber for structures as
     well as border materials. Recycled rubber
     matting and particles, made from shred-
     ded automobile tires, are used to inhibit
     soil erosion and as protective surfacing in
     the "fall zone" beneath the equipment.
     This project diverted approximately
     86,000 gallon-size milk jugs and 4,250
     automobile tires from the waste stream.
     The school has found the recycled play-
     ground equipment to be "far superior to
     other products."
     WMX Technologies, Inc., a leading
     environmental services company, spent
     $1 13,498,000 on recycled-content pur-
     chases for its corporate office and
     $100,000 on recycled-content materials
     for its Washington, DC, office build-out.
     In the Los Angeles, California, and
     Washington, DC, locations, 85 percent of
     the materials used for construction and
     furnishings are made from recycled and
     reused goods including carpet,
     Syndercrete™ flooring, and table and
     counter tops.
The Chrysler Corporation purchases
recycled plastic supply bins for use on
their production floors. Additional infor-
mation is forthcoming on the plastic bins
and the savings found through reuse of
these durable recycled-content containers.
New York Life Insurance Company
purchased outdoor furniture made from
1 00 percent recycled-content PET. The
company purchased eight benches and
three waste receptacles for use in three
locations outside the company offices.
Employees have commented favorably
both on the quality of the furniture and
on the company's commitment to buying
recycled-content products.
Johnston Industries, a textile manu-
facturer, composts waste fiber generated
at its utilization plant in Valley, Alabama.
The utilization plant recycles and reclaims
textile wastes and byproducts, saving the
company several hundred thousand dol-
lars in avoided hauling and tipping fees
annually. Johnston's Fiber Products
Division is marketing the composted
material locally as a soil amendment and
conducting tests for other uses.

WasteWi$e Update
^P ^P ^Phat's a better way to "practice what you
     n  m  Preach" than by creating a proactive buy-
  • • • m  recycled purchasing program? With a little
  ^a  ^a   help from the Resource Conservation and
   W  W    Recovery Act (RCRA), government agencies
who spend federal dollars are required to buy recycled prod-
ucts. Also, in October 1993, President Clinton signed
Executive Order 12873, which calls for an increase in the
federal government's use of recycled-content products. In
response  to these directives, and to assist governments and
other interested parties in the procurement process, EPA
developed the Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines
(CPG) and Recovered Materials Advisory Notices
(RMANs). Even if you are not required to purchase these
products, the RMAN can help you identify sources for pur-
chasing designated items. Through the use of CPG and
RMAN,  the federal government hopes to expand its use of
products with recycled content and to help develop mar-
         CPG Designated Products
  The CPG has designated some 24 products in 7
  product categories:
  Construction products: structural fiberboard, laminat-
  ed paperboard, carpet, floor tiles, patio blocks, build-
  ing insulation products, cement and concrete
  containing coal fly ash or granulated blast furnace
  slag, latex paint, and shower and restroom dividers.
  Landscaping products: hydraulic mulch, yard trim-
  mings compost, garden and soaker hoses, and lawn
  and garden edging.
  Miscellaneous products: pallets.
  Nonpaper office products: office recycling containers,
  office waste receptacles, plastic desktop accessories,
  toner cartridges, binders,  plastic trash bags, printer
  ribbons, and plastic envelopes.
  Park and recreation products: playground surfaces,
  running tracks, and  plastic fencing.
  Transportation products: traffic control  cones, traffic
  barricades, parking  stops, and traffic control devices.
  Vehicular products: re-refined motor oil, retread tires,
  and engine coolants.
                                                           kets for the products in other sectors of the economy. For
                                                           more information on CPG and who is  required to purchase
                                                           designated items, contact the RCRA Hotline at
                                                           800 424-9346 or TDD 800 553-7672.
                                                            As a result of the CPG, many state and local governments
                                                           began to examine their purchasing practices.  King County,
                                                           Washington, and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts,
                                                           WasteWi$e charter government partners, are part of a large
                                                           number of governments who are on the cutting edge of buy-
                                                           ing recycled. Each partner has an innovative program that
                                                           focuses on the employee or "the user" of the  products, not
                                                           just on the products themselves.
                                                                               King  County
                    In 1989, King County's local solid
                       waste officials and its citizen's solid
                          waste advisory committee estab-
                       lished a policy requiring all agen-
                    cies to use recycled-content products
                whenever practical. But instead of carrying
         a big stick and mandating that employees pur-
chase unfamiliar recycled-content products, King County
procurement officials decided to work closely with employ-
ees through creative education and incentive programs,
resulting in successful institutional purchasing practices.
  "The first links in the chain are the users," says Eric
Nelson, the county's Recycled Product Procurement
Coordinator. "We realized early on that the employees need-
ed to make these purchasing decisions, not the administra-
tion. If you take away purchasing decisions, you generate
resistance to change." So, in order to fulfill their quest for
employee input into purchasing decisions, the procurement
office went to 23 of the county's agency managers and asked
that they identify a recycled product procurement liaison.
"The liaisons are our eyes and ears in each department.
They know what types of materials their divisions need.
And the employees are very proactive — they want to do
the right thing. If we provide them the opportunities, our
employees are delighted to participate.  Most of the  time,
employees will come to us asking if we can find a product
made with recycled-content material." In 1997, the county
spent more than $1 million on recycled paper purchases
alone. Of the paper purchased, 93 percent was recycled-
content paper.

                                                                                            WasteWi$e Update
 But the edu-
cation process
does not stop
there. The
county's staff
has several other
tools at their fin-
gertips. For exam-
ple, departments,
can budget to
"experiment" with
products. Last year, a
landscape architect worked very closely with a
nearby wood processing plant to perfect a wood mulch to be
used in a county park project. "We encourage employees
and the  manufacturers to work on a product until it's right
for them and us," Nelson added. "This way, not only are we
motivating people to be more environmentally aware, we are
also creating an economic foundation for companies to
manufacture a product that other organizations may want to
purchase as well." Other educational tactics include site vis-
its to facilities that manufacture recycled-content products,
and a bimonthly bulletin that highlights new recycled-
content  products. "Overall, this is a very exciting program,"
Nelson added, "we are succeeding because  our employees
make it work." For more information on King County's
recycled product procurement program or  for a copy of the
King County Recycled Product Procurement 1997 Annual
Report, contact Eric Nelson at 206 296-4324 or e-mail
eric.nelson@metokc.gov, or visit the website at
                   Commonwealth  of
                     On the other side of the country,
                    the Commonwealth of
                    Massachusetts is also leading the
                    way through the Commonwealth's
        Solid Waste Master Plan. The plan outlines three
       programs: state agency governmental purchasing,
      local municipality purchasing, and the state's buy-
recycled business alliance. "As a government, we have
incredible purchasing power and can leverage that power
toward purchasing recycled-content products," says Scott
Cassel, Director of Waste Policy for the Executive Officer
of Environmental Affairs. "We want to make the best use
of this influence and develop successful programs through-
out all levels of government."
Internally, the Commonwealth has a 3-year old grants pro-
gram that funds departments to purchase, test, and evalu-
ate products for a year. Recently, the Commonwealth
purchased plastic lumber picnic tables for park areas. "By
using the product, the managers can see first hand how a
plastic picnic table performs under the same circumstances
as a wooden picnic table," stated Cassel. The
Commonwealth also purchases more common products,
such as re-refined motor oil and copier paper, and per-
forms the same kind of testing.
 At the local level, recycled product procurement is linked
to the Municipal Recycling Incentive Program, in which the
Commonwealth provides local municipalities with annual
performance-based grants. The municipalities must meet a
set of eligibility criteria designed to increase access and par-
ticipation in recycling programs and  to stimulate the
demand for recycled products. After  a buy-recycled policy is
implemented, a municipality must add another component
every 6 months to continue to receive funding. These  next
steps could include establishing a procurement tracking sys-
tem, testing and evaluating two recycled-content
products, or adopting the federal 20  percent
minimum recycled-content paper standard.
"With this type of incentive program, we
hope that we are helping municipalities stay
on track," Cassel says. For more  informa-
tion on the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts procurement program,
contact Scott Cassel at 617 727-9800,
Extension 291.
   Buying Recycled  Pays  Off!

   Since the inception of the buy-recycled program in
   1994, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has
   boosted its purchase of recycled products from
   $8.2 million to $34 million in fiscal year 1997. In
   addition, Massachusetts estimates that secondary
   materials manufacturers directly employ nearly
   12,000  people, ranging from small companies to
   large-scale manufacturers, which  use at least 20
   different recycled feedstocks to create a multitude
   of products. These manufacturers  create an addi-
   tional 50,000 associated jobs and contribute $600
   million to the Massachusetts economy.

WasteWi$e Update

                 All WasteWi$e partners commit to "closing the loop" by purchasing
                 or manufacturing products with recycled content. Some partners,
                 however, go the extra mile by initiating programs that make them
                 directly accountable for the waste they generate—the company agrees
                 to purchase products manufactured with the company's own materials collected
for recycling. Through these cooperative agreements, partners guarantee the creation of end
markets for the recyclables they generate.
Deja Vu at Aetna

Employees at WasteWi$e charter partner
Aetna, Inc., who thought they had
washed their hands of scrapped docu-
ments months ago, are getting a sense of
deja vu as they dry their hands now.
They may indeed be holding the remnants
of old briefs and memos in the paper towels they are using.
In late 1996, the company demonstrated its support for the
wise use of resources when it entered into an agreement ini-
tiating closed-loop paper product purchases. Ever since,
recyclable mixed paper generated at Aetna's offices has
found a second life at the company in the form of bathroom
paper products.
 The establishment of Aetna's closed-loop purchasing pro-
gram involved multiple steps and required coordination
with many vendors. The company began with the collection
of office paper for recycling. According to Aetna's Contract
Manager Fran Hubeney, the key was to successfully track
the paper's trail from the collection point all the way to its
final destination. This entailed pick-up and transport by a
waste hauler via a paper broker to a paper mill, which treat-
ed and reprocessed the paper scraps into hygienic paper
products. Ultimately, a distributor sold the bathroom prod-
ucts containing the postconsumer recycled content back to
companies like Aetna. Having ensured the availability of a
recycled-paper end product, Hubeney worked with Aetna's
purchasing department to arrange for the procurement of
these products made from its own recycled materials.
 Because 1997 will be Aetna's first full year of implementa-
    tion of this closed-loop program, the company does not
           yet have any figures for the annual amount of
               closed-loop recycled-content product pur-
   chases. The company estimates, however, that it supplied
   approximately 7 million pounds of mixed office paper for
   recycling in 1996 and expects a similar contribution this
   year. Taking environmental responsibility for the high rate
   of paper generation inherent to the insurance industry,
   Aetna is doing its part to ensure that there is a
   market  for its office paper waste.
    While certainly prompted by the environ-
   mental  benefits of its actions, Aetna's primary
   motive  for initiating a closed-loop purchase
   program was financially based. Vendor
   discussions conducted as Aetna consid-
   ered implementing the program
   revealed that Aetna could reap
   impressive cost savings. "By preplan-
   ning and making all employees aware
   of Aetna's environmental initiatives,
   the  purchasing department was able
   to put this knowledge to use to
   attain a reduced-rate contract for these
   items,"  says Safety and Environmental
   Consultant Jim Woods. In fact, the company esti
   mates that it is realizing some $15,000 to 20,000 sav-
   ings per year in paper products as a result of its closed-loop
   purchases! As is often the case, open  communication, both
   internally and exernally, proved to be the way to success.
     For more information on Aetna's program,
     contact Jim Woods at 860 273-7357.

                                      WasteWi$e Update
JTR  Program Aids Wisconsin
Tissue  and  Nature's  Fire
            Manufacturers of recycled-content products are
            receiving a big helping hand from EPA's Jobs
            Through Recycling (JTR) program. Through
            its state partners, JTR connects these business-
            es with agencies that provide technical assis-
tance, financing, and marketing support. In the process, the
JTR program stimulates local economic growth and overall
recycling market development. The success of manufactur-
ers of recycled-content products guarantees demand for
recycled materials and  makes it easier for consumers to find
recycled-content products on store shelves. As consumers
become more aware of the importance of buying recycled,
they will increasingly demand such products. We note here
two recycled-content products manufacturers assisted by
JTR grantees: WasteWi$e partner Wisconsin Tissue, a
paper and paper products maker, and Nature's Fire, a man-
ufacturer of organic fire starting products.
 Wisconsin Tissue was looking to expand its operations
into  the Southwest  when the Arizona Recycling Economic
Development Advocate (REDA), a JTR grantee, first
offered the company its assistance. The REDA lined up site
visits and tours of Arizona localities, helped  the company
apply for an environmental technology tax credit, and
assisted the company in preparing its bid for site locations.
By 1996, the REDA had helped Wisconsin Tissue  open a
pair of facilities in Flagstaff, Arizona, that turn recycled
material into quality recycled products. The first, a
paper mill, processes polycoated paper, window
envelopes, and higher grade mixed waste
paper into white feedstock. A second facili-
ty uses this feedstock, along with recov-
ered  corrugated cardboard, to create
finished products ranging
from restaurant and food
service napkins to bathroom
tissue. The Flagstaff operation
converts 40,000 tons of waste
paper into 30,000 tons of tissue
products each year.  Mike
Graverson, the converting facility
general manager, and Mike
Bogenschutz,  the tissue mill plant
manager, noted that "the REDA was
very  helpful to Wisconsin Tissue in
locating our Southwest operation."
 Nature's Fire,
based in
produces fire
starters for
camp fires,
grills, and fire-
places. The company began production in 1988 and steadi-
ly increased its output until sales opportunities forced the
company to expand its original facility. The increased
product demand strained the company's resources and
technical knowledge.  In fact,  Nature's Fire was close to
shutting down when it first met with the staff of the
Minnesota Recycling and Reuse Business Assistance Center
(RBAC), also a JTR grantee. The RBAC assisted Nature's
Fire with a variety of technical and financial issues. When
Nature's Fire's only vendor of 100 percent recyclable and
biodegradable packaging trays discontinued their product,
for example, RBAC staff conducted Internet and telephone
research to locate alternative packaging vendors. According
to Leonard  "Lindy" Stoltz, president and CEO of Nature's
Fire, "We never would have been able to afford the services
provided by RBAC staff if they had been private consul-
tants. Without their assistance, we would have had to close
our doors." With the RBAC's help,  however, Nature's Fire
has  added 14 new employees  to the original 6 employees
               on its payroll. In 1996,  Nature's Fire
                     diverted more than 400,000
                     pounds of material from the land-
                     fill to make its products. The com-
                    pany expects to more than triple that
                     amount for a 1997 total of 1.5 mil-
                      lion pounds: a 300 percent
                        growth in production.
                           While help is not available in
                           every state, some states have
                           resources to help businesses
                           involved in collecting, pro-
                         cessing,  and remanufacturing
                       recovered materials. For more
                      information, please call
                    800 EPA-WISE (372-9473) or visit
                   the Jobs Through Recycling web site
                 at  .

 WasteWi$e Update
   IS AS SIMPLE  AS  1-2-3

   "Setting up a buy-recycled tracking program took just 15
    minutes—the length of time it took for me to make a phone
    call to our supplier," said Richard Larsen, Pollution
    Prevention Coordinator at WasteWi$e partner Northeast
    Utilities Service Company. By tracking recycled-content
    purchases, Northeast Utilities demonstrates its commitment
    to protecting the environment and closing the recycling loop
    to customers, stockholders, EPA, and other interested par-
    ties. Given that setting up the system takes so little time,
    Larsen wonders why more companies aren't tracking.
                         Since the company has one major vendor that pro-
                      vides all of its office supply products, Larsen deter-
                      mined that the easiest way to create a buy-recycled
                      tracking program would be to work with this vendor.
                      Checking with Larsen on what data points he asked
                      the vendor to track and system requirements. To set up
                      the system, the vendor added the word "recycled" as a
                      search criterion for the computer program already used
                      to track products purchased and dollars spent. Now
                      when the vendor conducts computer searches to locate
                      products that Northeast  Utilities is interested in pur-
                      chasing, the computer flags the word "recycled" in
                      product descriptions.
                     Since 1995, when Northeast Utilities began tracking, it
                  annually receives  from the vendor a detailed report of prod-
                  ucts purchased with recycled content, percentage recycled
                  content, and the  dollars spent. The reports show that in
                  1996 alone, the company bought more than 70,000 pounds
                  of recycled-content products,  spending $300,000. Products
                  purchased range from envelopes,  brochures, and catalogs
                  made with 50 to  100 percent recycled content to 100-per-
                  cent recycled-content paper towels.
                     For more information on Northeast Utilities' buy-
                  recycled tracking program, please e-mail Richard Larsen at:
                  larsera@nu.com or call him at 860 665-5326.
   We'd  Like  to
If you are not yet a WasfeW/$e partner and would like to join, please let us
know. All partners are eligible to subscribe to the WasfeW/$e list server.
Contact us at 800 EPA-WISE (372-9473), or by email at ww@cais.net, for more
information.  Or visit our web site at .
    United States
    Environmental Protection Agency
    401 M Street, SW.
    Washington, DC 20460

    Official Business
    Penalty for Private Use


     The following publications
     are sources of buy-recycled
information. U.S.
Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) documents are
available through the RCRA
Hotline. To order call 800 424-
9346 (or 800 553-7672 TDD for
the  hearing impaired). In
Washington, DC, the number is
703  412-9810 or TDD 703 412-
3323. The RCRA Hotline is open
Monday through Friday, from
9 a.m. to 6 p.m.  e.s.t. Obtain
other documents by contacting
the  organizations listed.

Guide to Buy ing Recycled Products for
Consumers and Small Business, 1996.
This  guide lists nearly 400 products
made from recycled materials, shows
their  post-consumer and total recycled
content, and tells where to buy them:
44 pages, $3 postage paid for
Pennsylvania residents, $4 postage paid
for out-of-state residents. For more infor-
mation, contact the Pennsylvania
Resources Council, 3606 Providence
Road, Newtown Square, PA 19073.
Phone: 610 353-1555. Internet:
 "Close the Loop. Buy Recycled. "
Community Education Kit. Created by
Keep America Beautiful and EPA, this
kit allows your organization to educate
others about the importance of "buying
recycled." Useful for businesses, schools,
and government agencies to educate
employees. Includes a manual, video,
and camera-ready brochure: $40. For
more information, contact Keep
America Beautiful, Inc., 1010
Washington Boulevard, Stamford, CT
06901. Phone: 203 323-8987
Fax: 203 325-9199. Internet:
10 Easy Ways to Buy Recycled. This
guidebook, published by the California
Department of Conservation and
California Integrated Waste Management
Board, includes useful tips, resources,
and product information for consumers
and businesses alike. To order a copy,
contact the California Department of
Conservation, Division of Recycling, 801
K Street, Sacramento, CA  95814.
The Official Recycled Products Guide.
This directory lists manufacturers and
distributors for more than 5,000 recy-
cled products. For more information,
contact the Recycling Data Management
Corporation, P.O. Box 577,
Ogdensburg, NY 13669.
Phone: 800 267-0707.
Buy-Recycled Training Manual. Provides
general information on developing a
buy-recycled program. For more infor-
mation, contact the Northeast Maryland
Waste Disposal Authority, 25 South
Charles Street, Suite 2105, Baltimore,
MD 21201. Phone: 410 333-2730.
1996 Buy-Recycled Series: Paper Products
(EPA530-F-96-014). This fact sheet
provides details on EPA's efforts to pro-
mote buying recycled paper products
through the Comprehensive
Procurement Guideline (CPG).
Products designated through this pro-
gram include printing and writing
papers, newsprint, tissue products, and
paperboard and packing products.
Mills That Manufacture Printing and
Writing Paper, Computer Paper, Office
Paper, Envelopes, Bristoh, and Coated
Printing and Writing Papers Using
Recovered Paper (EPA530-B-97-008).
This list identifies manufacturers and
suppliers of paper products containing
recovered materials.
Mills Which Manufacture Newsprint
Containing at Least 40 Percent
Postconsumer Recovered Paper
Tissue Mills Which Use Postconsumer
Recovered Paper (EPA530-B-95-008).
Paper Matcher, 4th Edition, 1996.
Contains hundreds of recovered paper
dealers throughout the United States sort-
ed by state. It also contains listings for
paper and paperboard mills using recov-
ered paper. For  more information, contact
the American Forest & Paper Association,
1111 19th Street, NW, Suite 800,
Washington, DC 20036. Phone: 800
878-8878. Internet: .
National Office Paper Recycling Project.
The National Office Paper Recycling
Project maintains a list of recycled-
content paper producers and has pub-
lished several guidebooks on setting up
and promoting office buy-recycled and
recycling programs. For more informa-
tion, contact the National Office Paper

Buy-Recycled  Resource  Listing
Recycling Project, 1620 Eye Street, NW.,
Suite 600, Washington, DC 20006.
Phone: 202 223-3088.
Fax: 202 429-0422.
Jaakko Poyry Recycled Gmdefinder. This
quarterly publication provides a compre-
hensive, up-to-date directory of almost
1,000 brands of recycled-content paper.
Entries include brand name, manufac-
turer, grade, postconsumer content,
brightness, and basis weight. The entries
are organized alphabetically by brand
name, manufacturer or distributor, and
grade. A 1-year subscription costs $90.
To  order, contact Ronni Schram, Jaakko
Poyry Consulting,  Inc., 580 White
Plains Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591-
5183. Phone: 800  872-5792.
Guide to Purchasing and Using
Recycled Content Paper. This guide
includes grades, brand names, and
specifications as well as contact infor-
mation  for the paper merchants and
vendors. To order, contact Recycled
Pulp and Paper Coalition, 241 Dechert
Drive, King of Prussia, PA 19406.
Phone:  800 845-3207.

Nonpaper Office Products
1997 Buy-Recycled Series: Non-Paper
Office Products  (EPA530-F-97-003).
This fact sheet provides details on
EPA's efforts to promote buying  recy-
cled nonpaper office products through
the CPG. Products designated through
this program include recycling contain-
ers  and  waste receptacles, plastic desk-
top accessories, binders, trash bags,
toner cartridges, plastic envelopes, and
printer ribbons.
Non-Paper Office Products Containing
Recovered Materials (EPA530-B-97-
011). This list identifies manufacturers
and suppliers of nonpaper office prod-
ucts containing recovered materials.
Resource Guide to Business Products
Manufacturers' Recycling Products and
Programs. Provides information on how
to purchase recycled-content office prod-
ucts. The guide costs $20 for members
and $40 for nonmembers. To obtain a
copy, contact the Business Products
Industry Association, 301 North Fairfax
Street, Alexandria VA 22314. Phone:
800 542-6672 or 703 549-9040.
The Essential Guide to Recycled Office
Products, King County Commission for
Marketing Recyclable Materials. This
catalog includes a range of paper and
nonpaper products made from recycled
materials. Copies of the catalog are avail-
able from the King County Commission
for Recyclable Materials, 400 Yester Way,
Room 200, Seattle, WA 98104. Phone:
206 296-4439. Fax: 206 296-4366.
King County Recycled Procurement 1997
Annual Report. This report summarizes
King County's recycled product procure-
ment policies and 1997 purchases. It is
available from the King County
Procurement Services Division, Room 620,
Seattle, WA 98104. Phone: 206 296-4210.

Recycled Plastic Products Source Book.
Provides information on various
recycled-content plastic products. To
order, contact the American Plastics
Council, 1275 K Street, NW, Suite
400, Washington, DC 20005.
Phone: 800 2-HELP-90 (243-5790).
Directory of Companies Manufacturing
Products From Recycled Vinyl. Contains
listings for companies manufacturing
products from recycled vinyl. To order,
contact the Vinyl Environmental
Resource Center, One Cascade Plaza,
19th floor, Akron, OH  44308-1121.
Phone: 800 969-8469.
Fax: 330 376-9379.

Rubber and Tires
Recycled Rubber Products Catalog. This
catalog contains  listings of companies
making products from scrap tires (about
100 listings). To order, contact the
Scrap Tire Management Council, 1400
K Street, NW, Suite 900,
Washington, DC 20005.
Phone: 202 682-4880.
Construction, Demolition,
and Landscaping
1997 Buy-Recycled Series: Construction
Products (EPA530-F-97-035). This fact
sheet provides details on EPA's efforts
to promote buying recycled con-
struction products through the
CPG. Products designated
through this program
include construction
board, thermal insulation,
floor tiles, carpeting, shower
and restroom dividers, and
reprocessed and consolidated latex
paint in specific applications.
Construction Products Containing
Recovered Materials (EPA530-B-97-
014). This list identifies manufac-
turers and suppliers of
construction products contain-
ing recovered materials.
1997 Buy-Recycled Series: Landscaping
Products (EPA530-F-97-034). This fact
sheet provides details on EPA's efforts to
promote buying recycled landscaping
products through the CPG. Products
designated through this program include
hydraulic mulch, yard trimmings
compost, garden and soaker hoses,
and lawn and garden edging.
Landscaping Products Containing
Recovered Materials (EPA530-B-97-
012). This list identifies manufacturers
and suppliers of landscaping products
containing recovered materials.
The Harris Directory. This computer data-
base for Windows lists construction products
made with recovered materials in a
Construction Specifications Institute format.
Contact B.J. Harris, 508 Jose Street, Suite
913, Santa Fe, NM 87501-1855. Phone:
505 995-0337. Fax: 505 820-1911.

                                                                                         Buy-Recycled Resource Listing
 The Green Pages: The Contract Interior
Designer's Guide to Environmentally
Responsible Products and Materials. To
order, contact: Andrew Fusion, 45 East
25th Street, Eighth  Floor, New York,
NY 10006-2003. Phone: 212 779-3365.
A Guide to Resource Efficient Building
Elements. In addition to tips on efficient
design and job-site recycling, this guide
lists several manufacturers that make
 products using recovered materials. To
  order, contact the Center for
    Resourceful Building Technology,
     P.O. Box 100,  Missoula, MT
     59806.  Phone:  406 549-7678.

 The Sourcebook for Sustainable Design,
1992. This directory of environmentally
responsible materials and processes con-
tains listings of over 100 recycled prod-
ucts used in construction applications.
Sorted by CSI division. To order, con-
tact the Boston Society of Architects, 52
Broad Street, Boston, MA 02109-4301.
Phone: 617 951-1433. Internet:
National Park Service's Sustainable
Design and Construction Database. The
product listing portion of this database has
approximately 1,300 entries from over 550
manufacturers; listings of over 7,000 recy-
clers of construction  debris nationwide;
and expanded listings of books, periodi-
cals, organizations, and online (Internet)
sources of sustainable information. The
database can be searched by manufactur-
ing plant location, CSI division, or prod-
uct type. For more information, contact
Roberta Bear, National Park Service, PO.
Box 25287, Denver,  CO 80225. Phone:
303 969-2959. Internet:
Building for Tomorrow: Buy Recycled
Guidebook for the Commercial
Construction Industry. This booklet
describes construction materials available
 with recycled content and includes a
         resource list. In addition,
        National Recycling Coalition
       developed a series of case studies
     on buildings that have used recy-
cled content products in construction.
To order, contact the Buy Recycled
Business Alliance, 1727 King Street,
Suite 105, Alexandria, VA 22314.
Phone: 703 683-9025.
Environmental Building News. This
bimonthly newsletter on environmental-
ly sustainable design and construction
includes articles on new products and
materials,  technologies, and construction
methods. Contact: R.R. 1 Box 161,
Brattleboro, VT  05301. Phone: 802
257-7300. E-mail: .
Directory  of Recycled-Content Building
and Construction Products. This region-
al directory includes 500 construction
and building products manufactured
with recycled content. To order a copy,
contact the Clean Washington Center,
First Interstate Center, 999 Third
Avenue, Suite 1060, Seattle, WA 98104.
Free to Washington residents, $20 for
others. Phone: 206 464-7040. Fax: 206
464-6902. Internet: .

1997 Buy-Recycled Series:
Transportation Products (EPA530-F-97-
036). This fact sheet provides details on
EPA's efforts to promote buying recy-
cled transportation products through
the CPG.  Products designated through
this program include traffic cones and
barricades, parking stops, and traffic
control devices.
Transportation Products Containing
Recovered Materials (EPA530-B-97-
013). This list identifies manufacturers
and suppliers of transportation prod-
ucts containing recovered materials.
1997 Buy-Recycled Series: Pallets
(Miscellaneous Products) (EPA530-F-
97-031). This fact sheet provides details
on EPA's efforts to promote buying recy-
cled pallets through the CPG.
Miscellaneous Products (Pallets)
Containing Recovered Materials
(EPA530-B-97-007). This list identifies
manufacturers and suppliers of pallets
containing recovered materials.

Parks and Recreation
1997 Buy-Recycled Series: Park and
Recreation Products (EPA530-F-97-
032). This fact sheet provides details on
EPA's efforts to promote buying recy-
cled park and recreation products
through the CPG. Products designated
through this program include play-
ground surfaces, running tracks, and
plastic fencing.
Parks and Recreation Products
Containing Recovered Materials
(EPA530-B-97-006). This list identifies
manufacturers and suppliers of park
and recreation products containing
recovered materials.

1997 Buy-Recycled Series: Vehicular
Products (EPA530-F-97-037). This fact
sheet provides details on EPA's efforts
to promote buying recycled vehicular
products through the CPG. Products
designated through this program
include re-refined  oil, retread tires, and
engine coolants.
Vehicular Products Containing
Recovered Materials (EPA530-B-97-
005). This list identifies manufacturers
and suppliers of vehicular products con-
taining recovered materials.
Environmental Fact Sheet—Purchasing
and Maintaining Retread Passenger
Tires (EPA530-F-95-019). This fact
sheet provides information on waste pre-
vention, proper tire maintenance, and
tire retreading for fleet managers  and
vehicle operators.
Contact the Buy Recycled Campaign for
automobile manufacturers' warranty
statements on the use of re-refined  oil.
Also available are fact sheets on purchas-
ing re-refined oil and retreaded tires.
Call the Buy Recycled Training Institute,
1620 Eye Street, NW, Suite 600,

Buy-Recycled Resource Listing
Washington, DC 20006.
Phone: 202 293-7330. Fax: 202 429-0422.

1995 Council for Textile Recycling
Buyers Guide and Directory. Lists con-
tact information for companies that
make products from recycled textiles. To
order, contact the Council for Textile
Recycling, 7910 Woodmont Avenue,
Suite 1212, Bethesda, MD 20814.
Phone: 301 718-0671.

Current Web Sites    /£!-!:

King County, Washington, has placed a
variety of information about its recycled
product procurement program online
including manufacturers and specifica-
tions for office, construction and land-
scaping, and automotive products,
among others. The site also lists other
major Internet sources of information
about recycled products including pub-
lications, associations, and other
Internet sites,
  The Official
 Recycled Products Guide is available on
 the Internet and updated on a regular
 basis. In order to access the guide, users
 will need to order a subscription that
 ranges from $69 to $295 depending on
 the type of subscription. For more infor-
 mation, call the Recycling Data
 Management Corporation at 800 267-
maintains a list of its certified products: :.'H?
including cleaning products, 'paint,
paper, and re-refined oil. The products
featured are those GreenSeal has found"1  •.
to be environmentally preferable.

T                   ^W^Kasp!;:

The Waste Less Trade Show maintains a
list of recycled-content and environmen-
tally friendly products including recycled
plastic lumber, office furniture, paper
products, plastic bags, hardwood floor-
ing, and recycling receptacles.
American Plastics Council makes it easy
to shop for recycled-content plastic
products ranging from pencil cups to
foam packaging. Just take a stroll
through its "Shop Recycled Mall." The
mall lists manufacturers of recycled plas-
tic products in five main categories:
office and warehouse, auto and home,
fashion, toys and sports, and general.
  The Global Recycling
 Network web site is dedicated to provid-
 ing recycled-gontent product informa-
 tion and recycling related information.
 The United States Environmental
 Hotline has put geographically specific  ;,
 information .at your'fingertips nation-  -
 wide. The site can help you locate
 important environmental information
:..^jnd;: recycling centers for-all types of
 recyclables by typing in your zip code.
 In a special buy-recycled section of the
 web site^; the Hotline discusses buy-recy-
 cled issues arid gives examples of prod-
. uct&;available for each of four groups:
 home (interior-and exterior), auto,
:j.office, and industrial.--
 Pennsylvania Resource Council, has
 placed a listing of links to Recycled
 Products Directories including: national,
 association, building and construction,
 green products, and state and regional
 directories. :•• .

  This is your link to the
 California Integrated Waste
 Management Board's Recycled-Content
 Product (RCP) Database. The RCP
 Database has information on RCPs as
 well as manufacturers, distributors,
 reprocessors, mills, and converters who
 procure or produce these products or
 the recycled materials needed to make
 them. The result is a growing list of over
 10,000 materials, products, and busi-
  This is the web site of the Buy Recycled
  Business Alliance. By joining, your orga-
  nization can gain valuable knowledge on
  buying recycled products and materials.
  The Alliance provides a forum for mem-
  ber companies to share success stories and
  other information. As an Alliance mem-
  ber, you will receive a 30-page guidebook
  binder on how to implement a recycled
  product purchasing program in your
  company; a quarterly newsletter, the Buy
  Recycled NewsLine, with information on
  recycled products and tips on buying
  recycled; important discounts on recycled
  product guides and publications; and
  •industry-specific guides and briefs that
  will save you time and resources. There is
  no cost to join the Alliance. All that's
  required is a commitment to increase
,  your, purchases of recycled products.
  The Environmental News Network is
  busy creating its Marketplace. To be com-
  pleted by spring 1998, the center will offer
  databases of recycled products. Currently,
 • you can look at product floors, how to
  build your store, and the advertiser index.
  tiwfiivWf'. ,
         *asteWi$e  Helpline—800
  -  •:,:,'•:•   :    •.-:.•  .     ...
   dditiipnal rSspurces available.
   hesafreso^iTOS  include:
  Buy Recycled Guidebook. This guide-
  book, developed by the Buy Recycled
  Business Alliance, is designed to help
  companies begin or expand a recycled
  products purchasing program. It
  includes sample policy statements, a
  notice for vendors, and other resources.
  State Buy-Recycled Contacts. The
  Helpline can refer you to a contact in
  your state. We also have information on
  a number of state directories.
  Corporate Policy Statements. The
  Helpline has sample policy statements
  from other WasteWi$e partners.