Design for the



 Take Back

Preserving Resources,
 Preventing Waste
                    Jnited States
                    invironmental Prot&
              Solid Waste and
              Emergency Response
October 1998
asteWise Update
                                             Ion paper that contains at least 20 percent postconsumer fiber.

Waste Wise Update
 Extended   Product   Responsi

            Product stewardship. Lifecyde management. Design for the environment. Take
            back. These are but a few of the strategies that fall under the broad umbrella
            of extended product responsibility (EPR)—a new approach to pollution preven-
            tion embraced by WasteWisepartners in the 1990s. EPR is a product systems
            approach to resource conservation and waste reduction. No longer is the focus on
 what an individual manufacturer can do to reduce waste produced at its facilities. EPR expands
 the frame to encompass  entire product systems and asks how all the players in the product
 chain—-from those who extract and process  raw materials; through the product designers, manu-
facturers, distributors, and retailers; to the consumers, users, recyclers, and disposers of products-
 can collaborate to reduce environmental impacts and resource use associated with the product
 throughout its life cycle.
  In Europe and parts of Asia, governments are giving product
producers and importers primary responsibility for taking back
or paying for management of some products at end-of-life
(called "producer responsibility"). The focus in these countries
is on shifting some or all of the cost of waste management from
taxpayers to producers and creating a financial incentive for
producers to design their products to make less waste.
  EPR takes a broader view, recognizing that all actors in
the product chain must work together to ensure more effi-
cient use of resources and less waste. This means, for exam-
                  Coming Soon—
                  Cyber EPR
                  Watch out for
                  announcements of
                  EPA's new Web site
                  on EPR. This site,
  linked to the WasteWise home page,
  will describe EPR and its history, review
  EPR developments around the world,
  provide more examples of EPR in
  action in the United States, and include
  resources for more information.
pie, that consumers have a role to play in choosing to buy
less wasteful products, repairing and reusing products that
still have "life," and recycling products at the end of their
useful life. Moreover, EPR recognizes that product manufac-
turers are often in a unique position—through their capabil-
ity to affect product design, material choices, manufacturing
processes, and product delivery—to reduce the lifecycle
environmental impacts of their products. In many cases, this
means manufacturers can design products to use less materi-
al, more recyclable material, fewer toxic constituents, or
greater recycled content. They also can design products to be
more durable, energy efficient, readily repairable, upgrade-
able, or reusable. In addition, they can take back products
for repair, reuse, or recycling. There are many different ways
to extend product responsibility.
  Consistent with this outlook, many WasteWise partners are
embracing EPR in a variety of ways as a means to save money,
drive product innovation, better serve customers, and enhance
competitiveness. Not all of the examples below address all
phases of the product life cycle. Indeed, incorporating all ele-
ments of EPR might not be feasible for all product systems at
this time, but applying as many as possible will move partners
closer to realizing the complete vision of EPR.

                                                                                               WasteWise Update
         This issue of the WasteWise Update highlights strategies in
       use by our partners that address the following:
       • Design for the environment. Assessing environmental
         impacts over the product life cycle and designing products
         to use resources efficiently are two approaches used by
         WasteWise partners to lessen the environmental impact of
         their products. Allergan, for example,  reduced more than
         800,000 pounds of packaging by redesigning the manufac-
         turing process to reduce rejects. Dan River, Inc. researched
         new technologies to improve its manufacturing process
         and save an estimated 375,000 pounds of waste per year.
       • Supply chain and industry partnerships. Partnerships,
         whether they are between suppliers  and customers or
         between competitors can result in significant savings.
         Public Service Electric and Gas Company, for  example,
         established a partnership with its suppliers to minimize
         overstock of supplies. Partnerships,  even with competitors,
         are another way WasteWise partners can come together  to
         reduce waste. This Update looks at the example of the
         Vehicle Recycling Partnership in the auto industry.
       • Leasing. Leasing arrangements between suppliers and cus-
         tomers are an important means of reducing waste. Leases
         relieve customers of waste management responsibility at a
         product's end-of-life  and create an incentive for the sup-
                                                               Extended  Product

                                                               Responsibility  and

                                                               Climate  Change

                                                                   In addition to increasing competitiveness for our part-
                                                                   ners, the product innovations and resource conserva-
                                                                   tion benefits associated with product responsibility
                                                               can frequently lead to reductions in greenhouse gas
                                                               emissions by:
                                                                 Reducing emissions from energy consump-
                                                                 tion. Products reconfigured or redesigned to reduce
                                                                 materials require less energy to produce.  Similarly,
                                                                 products made from recycled materials, and more
                                                                 durable products, are also more energy efficient. When
                                                                 less energy is used, fewer fossil fuels are burned and
                                                                 less carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere.
                                                                 Reducing emissions from incinerators.
                                                                 Diverting  certain materials from incinerators through
                                                                 waste prevention or recycling reduces greenhouse gas
  Reducing methane emissions from landfills.
  Waste prevention and recycling divert wastes from
  landfills, reducing methane emissions that contribute to
  global warming.
  Increasing absorption of carbon dioxide by
  trees. More efficient use of paper and wood
  resources, through source reduction and recycling,
  leaves more trees standing in the forest, to absorb car-
  bon dioxide from the atmosphere.
plier to design the product for easy reuse, upgradeability,
and recycling. Both Monsanto and the city of San Diego
eliminated the outright purchase—and disposal—of prod-
ucts through leasing.
Take back. By establishing take-back programs with cus-
tomers or vendors, partners have reaped impressive sav-
ings. The Xerox Corp., for example, saved millions of
dollars with its product take-back program and helped
reduce disposal burdens for its customers. In this  Update
we also look at the example of the Rechargeable Battery
Recycling Corporation, which organized take back for an
entire  product sector.
                          The mention of any company, product, or process in this publication does not constitute
                                 or imply endorsement by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Waste Wise Update
                  Design for the environment
                  (DfE) programs incorporate
                  environmental considerations
                  into the design of manufactur-
                  ing processes and finished
products.  WasteWisepartners prevent millions
of pounds of waste each year by redesigning
manufacturing processes and products  to be
more energy and material efficient. Lifecycle
analysis is one tool partners use to assess the
environmental impact of their products, from
choice of materials through  manufacturing,
distribution, use, and final disposal.
Allergan's Strategy for Success
       Seven years ago, pharmaceutical manufacturer
       Allergan realized that its production processes were
       creating a lot of waste and were environmentally
       and economically unsound. Allergan developed a
three-part waste reduction strategy to combat this issue.
  First, Allergan looked for ways to reduce or eliminate the
amount of materials flowing out of the manufacturing facili-
ties as waste instead of product. Allergan identified wastes
generated at each facility and then identified options for
either reducing, eliminating, or reusing them. In some cases,
Allergan found a way to reuse materials in the production
process, for instance, regrinding plastic resins for reuse in
the manufacture of new bottles. The company located mar-
kets for other materials, either for sale as commodities or for
offsite recycling.
  Next, Allergan looked at production processes to deter-
mine what caused process rejects. Previously, Allergan
assumed rejects were inherent in the process and, therefore,
could not be eliminated. According to Michael Whaley,
director of environmental health, "Our understanding of the
cause of rejects was based on anecdotal information rather
than actual measurements." The company, for example,
thought the cause for line rejects at one facility was labeling.
After close examination of the process, however, Allergan
found line rejects were primarily caused by filling level
defects and cap defects in addition to labeling. Facility per-
sonnel used this information to eliminate these production
problems, thus reducing waste generation.
  Through its  manufacturing process changes, Allergan
significantly reduced product rejects during the packaging
portion of the process. In 1997, the company eliminated
  805,000 pounds of primary and secondary packaging, a 12
   percent increase over 1996 reductions!
     The third step in Allergan's strategy was to incorporate
     waste prevention into the design phase of products.
      The Allergan Environmental Product Design
      Criteria, created by an interdisciplinary team, help
      prevent the creation of waste and lessen Allergan
      /product impacts on the environment. The criteria
      include methods for environmentally evaluating
     product  materials, such as using nonhazardous mate-
    rials instead of hazardous ones, and improving packag-
  ing attributes such as ensuring materials are recyclable
 and using recycled materials in packaging.

                                                                                                 WasteWise Update
   Allergan solidified the benefits of the Design Criteria by
developing a quantitative scoring system to measure results.
Comparisons of three newly designed products with products
designed prior to the establishment of the criteria revealed a
marked decrease in the newer products' environmental
impact. While the existing product scores ranged from 20 to
60 out of a possible 100, all of the newly designed products
rated between 67 and 70 out of 100! In addition, all three of
the new products evaluated scored 10 out of a possible  10 for
packaging material recyclability.  Results like these demon-
strate that Allergan product designers have become increas-
ingly aware of the benefit of taking 'extended responsibility'
for their products.
   The key to Allergan's success? Whaley emphasizes, "The
company was successful in its endeavors due to the integrated
approach and the support from the manufacturing, marketing,
R&D, and regulatory affairs employees. Both elements were
absolutely essential." Contact Michael Whaley at 714 246-5942
for more information.
Dan River Weaves Improvement
Into Manufacturing  Process
              WasteWise partner Dan River, Inc., a leading
              textile manufacturer, went 'the whole 9 yards'
              while researching innovative process  improve-
              ment opportunities. In  1997, Dan River con-
ducted an extensive trial study of byproducts generated by
cotton and polyester fiber production. Dan River, in con-
junction with the Institute of Textile Technology (ITT),
located in Charlottesville, Virginia, studied the feasibility of
reusing portions of yarn production byproducts.
   During a 2-week period, Dan  River extracted the waste
fiber byproduct that would normally be disposed and sent it
 to a yarn production facility for blending with its regular
 fiber. ITT tested samples of the blended product against
 control samples of virgin yarn and discovered no significant
 difference in quality or efficiency. The trial study diverted
 15,000 pounds of byproduct waste and saved $7,000. Dan
 River projects the process will prevent 375,000 pounds of
 byproduct waste and save $175,000 each year!
    The driving force behind the study, Greg Boozer, vice
 president of Manufacturing Services at Dan River, initiated
 meetings with plant supervisors and managers and solicited
 help from ITT. Initially, some employees expressed concern
 about the possible impact on  yarn quality and weaving effi-
 ciency. The addition of ITT's expertise and lab facilities
 proved to be the critical element to increasing the study's
 credibility and validity and  in winning over skeptics.
   New yarn manufacturing machinery, purchased in 1994,
 enabled  Dan River to explore these fiber waste reclamation
 opportunities. These new machines also opened doors to
 new waste reduction and cost cutting methods through
 more efficient use of virgin material. With the success of the
 trial study, Dan River now can install additional equipment
 to extract the good fiber from the waste byproduct.
   Dan River documented and publicized the trial study's mea-
 surements, analysis,  and results in informal internal reports,
 newsletters, and memos. John Thompson, the liaison between
 Dan River and ITT, asserts "the combined effort of Dan River
 and ITT was key to the success of this project" and that "part-
 nering with a scientific research organization ensured a com-
 pletely unbiased approach with thorough, accurate testing of
 product quality and efficiency" Thompson encourages other
 textile manufacturers to investigate opportunities for reusing
 their fiber waste byproduct and recommends a scientific
 approach for trial studies. For additional information on Dan
 River's study, please  contact John Thompson, Senior Industrial
 Engineer at 804 799-8898.
  Product Stewardship at Hewlett-Packard

     Hewlett-Packard (HP) initiated a product stewardship pro-
  gram in 1 992 that strives to prevent or minimize negative
  environmental impacts that might occur at any point in the
  life of an HP product—from design and manufacture to end-
  of-life.  HP's design for the environment guidelines created
  under this program seek to achieve the following:

  •  Design products and packaging to minimize energy con-
    sumption, use fewer raw materials, and increase use of
     recycled and recyclable materials.
  •  Develop products that are easier to  disassemble for reuse
    or recycling.
• Reduce waste and emissions from manufacturing processes.
   HP facilities are taking advantage of design improve-
ments that facilitate disassembly. The Product Recycling
Solutions (PRS) Group disassembles and refurbishes HP and
non-HP equipment and parts for HP's repair service organi-
zation. PRS processes 1 2,000 tons of equipment annually,
less than 1  percent of which enters the waste stream. HP's
own divisions contribute 60 percent of this equipment, while
customer deinstallation and HP's service organization con-
tribute 25 and 15 percent respectively. Contact Paul Quickert
at 650 857-7939 for more information.

Waste Wise Update

             ooling resources and creating partnerships
          m to explore new approaches is another
      ^J EPR strategy WasteWisepartners are
             using to reduce waste. Partnerships
  ^         between competitors and between
suppliers and customers often result in a
win-win situation for both the participants
and the environment.
PSE&G Takes Products
Back to Their Source
    Is old inventory taking up space and
    gathering dust in your warehouse?
    By overpurchasing products, you
    might actually be 'buying' waste
that eventually needs to be discarded.
WasteWise partner Public Service
Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G)
battled this issue when it discovered sev-
eral of its facilities were overpurchasing
numerous products from as many as
270 suppliers. PSE&G solved the prob-
lem by designing a streamlined purchasing process that pre-
vents inventory waste. By cutting down its contracts to only
nine suppliers and implementing a product take-back policy
in 1997, the company saved more than $2 million!
   Christy Barone, a hazardous materials analyst on
PSE&G's Materials Management Team, explained how the
company analyzed its inventory's "life cycle," particularly that
of chemical commodities and paints. The life cycle inventory
analysis revealed each facility purchased supplies separately.
Since most suppliers encouraged purchasing in bulk, many
facilities ended up with excess product. Leftover inventory
was sent to PSE&G's central resource recovery facility, where
materials were sorted, sent to disposal facilities, or if possible,
sold. PSE&G decided it could avoid having to find markets
" Your company, no mai-
  ler how big or small.
  can negotiate to pay
  only for products that
  it will use."

          —Christy Barone, hazardous
             materials analyst, PSE&G
                or disposal capacity for the extra invento-
                ry by simply improving its purchasing
                The Materials Management Team nar-
                rowed PSE&G's list of suppliers by
                maintaining only a few long-term con-
                tracts. The selected suppliers agreed to
                keep track of the inventory each PSE&G
                facility purchased. Now, when PSE&G
                facilities call to order products, the ven-
                dor checks to see if other PSE&G facili-
                ties already have the product in stock. If
                additional supplies are available at other
                PSE&G facilities, the vendor informs
the facility it can acquire them without purchase. The sup-
pliers also take back any extra or discontinued products and
sell them to other customers.  By placing responsibility on its
suppliers,  PSE&G no longer disposes of its unused, excess
  For those organizations interested in partnering with their
suppliers to ensure better purchasing management, Barone
suggests setting up a consignment policy. "Ask your suppliers
to be responsible for products they sell to you and have them
help you maintain your inventory. Your company, no matter
how big or small, can negotiate to pay only for products that
it will use." For more information on PSE&G's program,
contact Christy Barone at 973 430-3670.

                                                                                              WasteWise Update
Vehicle  Manufacturers Disassemble

Cars  to  Keep the Environment

         Of all vehicles removed from service today, 95 per-
         cent are processed for recycling and, on average,
         75 percent (by weight) of an end-of-life vehicle is
         reused or recycled. How is the automobile indus-
try striving to increase this recycling rate? One way is
through the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) established
in 1991 by WasteWise partners Ford Motor Company
(Ford), General Motors (GM),  and Chrysler. The VRP pro-
motes the development of economical recycling technologies
to increase the reusability and recyclability of vehicle parts
and materials. The aim is to promote a sustainable, market-
driven vehicle-recycling infrastructure, while reducing the
environmental impact of end-of-life vehicles.
   The partnership enables each of the companies to achieve
more through cooperative research in the precompetitive
stage than they might individually. While each of the mem-
ber companies set its own guidelines and strategies, their
ultimate goal is the same—to conserve resources, increase
recycled content materials included in the production of the
vehicle,  and increase recyclability of the vehicle at the end of
its life cycle.
   One of the key components of the partnership is the
Vehicle Recycling  Development Center. Through this center,
engineers from Chrysler,  Ford, and GM demolish old and
new cars to learn how to  improve car design for easier dis-
mantling and better  access to key parts for future removal.
Auto makers are investigating the following options to
improve recyclability:
• Selecting materials for  which  proven recycling technolo-
  gies exist.
• Reducing the number  of materials and parts used in
• Facilitating disassembly by selecting fastener systems that
  ease disassembly after the vehicle reaches the end of its
  useful life.
• Reducing the number  and types of fasteners used.
• Marking plastic parts to facilitate recycling and repair.1
   The result? Auto manufacturers hope to increase the recy-
clability of new vehicles from 75 to 85 percent by 2000.  For
more information see .
   'American Automobile Manufacturers Association, What
Manufacturers Are Doing to Improve Recycling, 1996.
Recycled  Materials
Bump Virgin
Plastic  at
Ford Motor
Company began
its bumper take-back and
recycling program in 1993, as a
pilot program to recycle plastic bumper material into tail
light housings. Today, the program is annually recycling
1.5 million pounds of post-consumer bumper plastic
back into new bumpers.
   Since 1986, Ford had made most of its bumpers with
Xenoy resin, a blend of polyester and polycarbonate
resins, which is well suited for use in bumpers because of
its strength and flexibility throughout the range of condi-
tions faced by automobiles.
   The bumper take-back and recycling program began
with an arrangement between GE Plastics and Ford to test
bumper recycling. The company found the tail light hous-
ings made from recycled bumper material met stringent
quality and safety standards and cost less to produce.
   In order to collect bumpers for recycling,  Ford part-
nered with American Commodities, a plastics recycler.
American Commodities developed a  network of 400 dis-
mantlers across the country for the take-back program
and provided them with a written specification on
methodologies for dismantling and product  identification.
   Ford found greater cost savings in recycling bumper
material back into bumpers rather than into tail light  hous-
ings because the virgin Xenoy material for bumpers is
more expensive than the virgin ABS material Ford tradition-
ally uses for tail light housings. Ford plans to  use recycled
Xenoy at a rate of approximately 0.5 million pounds per
year in service parts for  bumpers on all Ford models.
   American  Commodities recycles between  6 and 8 mil-
lion pounds of Ford bumper material per year, and sells
the used recycled material to other manufacturers. The
material is sold at a 25 to 30 percent cost savings as
compared to virgin Xenoy. According to Tony Brooks,
"American commodities has done an excellent job updat-
ing its processes to keep up with the latest technology
used at Ford." For more information, contact Tony Brooks
at 313 390-4798.

Waste Wise Update
            easing arrangements between cus-
            tomers and suppliers are another
            way our partners are keeping
            waste out of their dumpsters and
 -M—J getting more value at the same
time.  WasteWise partners are investigating
leasing options for every thing from computers
to manufacturing equipment to carpeting.
Monsanto and Dell  Save Megabytes
of Waste
       Escaping the trap of computer obsolescence preoccu-
       pies many Information and Technology (IT) profes-
       sionals. Together, WasteWise partners Monsanto
       and Dell Computer Corporation found a way to do
just that. Since March 1997, Monsanto's production facility
in Luling, Louisiana, has been leasing computer equipment
from Dell in an arrangement that not only reduces waste for
Monsanto but also consistently provides them with high-
quality computer workstations.
  According to Monsanto IT team leader, Scott Conlin,
"An examination of Monsanto's total cost of personal com-
puter (PC) ownership showed that there were some com-
pelling business reasons to move to computer leasing."
When asked about some of the practical benefits of a leasing
program, Conlin noted it "eliminated a number of ongoing
problems including PC disposal, routine PC upgrades, and
IT resource demands."

Identifying the Waste Problem
  Problems began to mount as Monsanto's PC network
grew older and seemingly slower in a world where micro-
processor speeds continually increase. Monsanto's PC net-
work was becoming obsolete far ahead of the depreciation
schedule. Additionally, the age-old practice of PC hand-me-
downs was causing a torrent of IT service demands. As
Monsanto purchased new systems and handed down old
machines, IT team members continually scurried to update
and reconfigure systems for their new owners. "With more
than 600 PCs  at Luling alone, we had a major problem on
our hands," Conlin admitted.
  That's when Monsanto got creative and worked  out the
finances  for a leasing program. In late  1994 and early 1995,
Monsanto identified leasing as a cost-effective solution to its
growing  problem. By 1997, the Luling facility became a
leasing test site. Currently, the company is approximately 80
percent committed to leasing—with a system that could
have as many as 15,000 PCs in service at one time.

The Dell Option
  Conlin explains "it is a great partnership for Monsanto as
well as Dell." Monsanto leases high-end computer worksta-
tions for plant employees on a 24- or 36-month program
that ultimately returns the used systems to Dell. John
McDonald of Dell Financial Services  (DPS), the company's
leasing program, says returned PCs often continue  to have
valuable  life after the lease ends. Dell's leased systems pro-
vide the  company with a number of remarketing avenues
including spare parts reclamation, sales to  secondary mar-
kets, and re-leasing to organizations who don't need the lat-
est technology.
  Does  Dell build leased systems differently than other
units? "No," replies McDonald. "All Dell systems are built
for serviceability, disassembly, and reuse. Component consis-
tency and a modular chassis are features of Dell leased sys-
tems that make refurbishing and reclaiming parts easy."

                                                                                                 WasteWise Update
Disposal Issues
   In addition to reducing disposal due to PC obsolescence,
Conlin noted an additional benefit of leasing that helps
reduce electronics waste for Monsanto. The leased PCs are
covered by a 3-year warranty, freeing Monsanto from having
to purchase replacement electronics and finding disposal
solutions for the bad parts. WasteWise estimates the waste
prevented with this program could be more than  210,000
pounds annually, with PCs averaging 56 pounds of materials
per unit.

Lessons Learned
   Monsanto learned some valuable lessons in the switch to
leasing.  Conlin emphasizes what organizations should con-
sider before making a decision to lease.  "First, fully under-
stand the financial implications of the decision." Conlin
knows it might not always seem financially preferable at first
look, "but considering the PC life cycle, your company is
always going to be on the top of the technical curve."
Secondly, PCs should be considered a tool for office use that
must be replaced periodically; in Monsanto's case, every 3
years. Monsanto believes its leasing program is working and
is phasing it into the rest of its U.S. facilities.
    For more information on Monsanto's experiences, con-
tact Scott Conlin at 504 785-3409- Additional information
on the Dell leasing program can be obtained from its Web
site at .
Waste  Prevention Is Under  Foot in
San  Diego
  No Lease?
  Choose REUSE!
  Before working with Dell on a lease, Monsanto needed new
  homes for existing PCs at the end of their useful lives. The
  company had such a high volume of materials needing spe-
  cial disposal that Monsanto resorted to stockpiling for a
  time, wasting storage space and personnel time.
  Ultimately, partnership with a local school result-
  ed in a reuse option for Monsanto's old PCs.
  A local  high school designed a vocational
  training course in PC repair that used
  Monsanto's systems as incoming stock and
  ultimately provided a source of income as
  they sold the repaired equipment to the
  public. These and other reuse ideas pro-
  vide quality options for waste and
  benefit the community. For more
  ideas see the
  WasteWise Update
  Donation  Programs:
  Turning Trash into
       -i hey're standing on their waste-prevention princi-
         ples in the City of San Diego's Environmental
         Services Department. The carpeting that fills this
         WasteWise partner's halls and offices is designed to
provide years of long life and to reduce waste.
   In 1996, San Diego entered a carpeting lease agreement
with Interface, an Atlanta-based carpet manufacturer. In this
unique arrangement, San Diego never actually purchases the
carpet from Interface, so it will never have to dispose of mas-
sive amounts of worn or damaged carpet. At 10 pounds per
yard, San Diego will avoid disposing of 250,000 pounds of
carpet waste over the life of this arrangement.
   And the quality? According to San Diego's Sustainable
Building Coordinator, Adam Saling, "The quality  and dura-
bility, as well as the 12  percent recycled content, of the car-
pet were the main reasons for going with Interface."
Interface uses post-industrial carpet waste in the production
of the carpet squares. Durability is  enhanced by using 18-
inch carpet squares that can be rotated from high-to low-
traffic areas.
   But why the lease? Saling noted  two reasons any business
can understand. "We had a limited amount of capital outlay
for the materials, and at the end  of the carpet life,  the man-
ufacturer will remove the carpet and recycle the fibers and
backing into new product." This waste reduction opportuni-
ty is  enhanced by the ability to selectively replace damaged
or over-worn squares.
   When asked about the system performance 2 years after
installation,  Saling noted it is holding up well. The system  is
under a 5-year lease contract, but is backed by a 15-year
   Saling noted several  lessons San  Diego has learned from
the leasing approach. First,  he encourages anyone interested
in a lease to analyze costs of leasing versus purchasing.
Comparative cost analysis of carpet squares and typical area
carpeting indicates squares cost about 30 percent more. The
longer life and lower replacement and maintenance costs,
however, provide an economic advantage  over the  system
life. Second, negotiate the best possible lease terms, such as
high-quantity discounts and government rates. Finally,
Saling notes that upon  installation  of the  system your orga-
nization must commit to regular maintenance through rota-
tion  in high traffic areas and to diligently follow Interface's
cleaning regimen.
   For more information on San Diego's carpet square leas-
ing experience, contact Adam Saling at 619 492-5018.

Waste Wise Update

                  ost manufacturers work hard to convince customers to buy their products. But
    m     i\    ^ow many manufacturers worry about what happens to those products after
     ^    /      their customers use them? Too often, products end up in landfills or incinerators,
     ^L I       squandering a potentially reusable resource and adding to the environmental
JL.   w   -JL. threats posed by disposal.  Some companies are working to keep their products
out of the waste stream  by taking back products from
customers for reuse or recycling. Similarly,
some companies are establishing partner-
ships with  vendors to facilitate
recovery and reuse of what
would otherwise be waste.
Charge Up to Recycle! Ni-Cd
Batteries:  Panasonic and RBRC
    If watching Al on television's Home Improvement has you
    charged up about your power tools, imagine how he
    could energize your thinking about power
    sources...rechargeable Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) batter-
ies, perhaps? Imagine no more. Richard Karn, a.k.a., Al, is
the national spokesperson for the Rechargeable Battery
Recycling Corporation (RBRC), a nonprofit public service
organization created by the industry in 1994, which collects
                                                 and recycles used household and commercial Ni-Cd batteries
                                                 from retailers, communities, businesses, and public agencies.
     Best known by its Panasonic brand, WasteWise partner
   Matsushita Electric Corporation of America (MECA) is
   one of five founding companies behind RBRC and its
   Charge Up to Recycle! program. David Thompson, director
   of MECA's Corporate Environmental Department, and the
   first president of RBRC, commented on MECA's support of
   the program: "Panasonic (MECA) is pleased to have played
   a leadership role in promoting and achieving sustainable
   development in the battery industry. Today, our involve-
   ment remains strong. In fact, RBRC's current board chair,
   Charlie Monahan, is a colleague here at Panasonic." Other
   founding companies include Sanyo Energy (U.S.A.)
   Corporation; Eveready; SAFT America, Inc.; and Varta
   Batteries, Inc.

   Why Ni-Cds?
     Of the more than 2.5 billion small sealed consumer bat-
   teries sold in the United States each year, 350 million are

                                                    WasteWise Update
rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries. Used to power
a wide range of consumer goods, Ni-Cd bat-
teries are found in items such as power tools,
laptop computers, cellular phones,  two-way
radios, and video cameras, as well as toys
and toothbrushes. Ni-Cd batteries, by
design, illustrate the concept of reuse. These
batteries can be recharged up to 1,000 times.
   When spent (i.e., used), consumer (or
dry-cell) batteries form a small but  potent
part of the municipal solid waste (MSW)
stream. While intact batteries are harmless, Ni-Cds test haz-
ardous under an EPA procedure that shreds the battery.
Cadmium is associated with health risks including lung and
kidney damage. The heavy metal also is toxic to fish and

A Waste Management Dilemma
   By 2000, spent consumer Ni-Cd batteries are expected to
contribute 75 percent of the cadmium in MSW This repre-
sents approximately 4.6 million pounds of material available for
recycling. Recycling used Ni-Cds appears to be the best envi-
ronmental management option, once the batteries' reuse poten-
tial has been exhausted. But who can make sure this happens?
   The Ni-Cd industry debated internally about whether
responsibility for recycling Ni-Cds at the end of their useful
life should reside with the battery marketer, the buyer  (i.e.,
the consumer), or the producer. In addition, the industry
battled over who was the battery producer. While only a few
companies actually make battery cells, many buy and assem-
ble the battery packs, ultimately marketing them under their
own brand name. It was clear that to ensure spent Ni-Cd
batteries were collected  and  recycled, many players  in the
product chain would need to join together in partnership.
This is an example of where the makers and marketers of a
product took it upon themselves to ensure the right  thing
this case recycling—happened.
Recycle Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd)
    Rechargeable Batteries
Look for the  Seal
     For more intormation, call
  or visit our website,
RBRC's Legislative Link
   What today is a cooperative partnership between indus-
try, government, and the consumer has its roots in legisla-
tion.  RBRC, joined by Portable Rechargeable Battery
Association (PRBA)—a nonprofit trade association of the
portable power industry—helped champion state-based leg-
islation and regulatory reform that made the brand owner
responsible for separating Ni-Cd batteries from the MSW
stream for collection and recycling or separate disposal. This
early approach, however, proved less than workable, with
varying state laws imposing varying battery management
              Nonstandardized requirements imposed a
              huge burden on the battery industry.
              Customizing collection was not cost effec-
              tive for an industry sector operating in a
              global  economy.  As a result,  RBRC and
              PRBA pushed for national battery manage-
              ment standards. The Mercury-Containing
              and Rechargeable Battery Management Act
              of 1996, according to Thompson, helped
              "...change the face of battery collection
              from a state-by-state approach to a nation-
wide [voluntary] collection and recycling effort." The  act
also established national, uniform labeling requirements
for Ni-Cd batteries and helped standardize regulatory
requirements nationally for management and labeling of
these batteries.

   Today, RBRC provides for collection,  transportation,
storage, and recycling  of used Ni-Cd batteries. The program
accepts these batteries from retailers, local community recy-
cling coordinators and other consolidation points, business-
es, and government agencies. Retailers  participating in the
program promote the  Charge Up to Recycle!  Seal and let
their customers know  they will accept used Ni-Cd batteries.
Then retailers  send these batteries to RBRC's recycling facil-
ity in Pennsylvania in  preaddressed, freight-paid  collection
containers provided by RBRC.

   Currently, the Charge Up to Recycle! program operates in
the United States and  Canada. Thompson is encouraged
about the program's growth and positive  environmental
impact. "I hope other  WasteWise partners will avail them-
selves of this program, recycle their Ni-Cd batteries, and
shop for the Seal," says Thompson. For more information
about the RBRC, call  352 376-5135 or check out its Web
site at .
                 About  RBRG
                    RBRC, and its Charge Up to Recycle! program is fund-
                 ed through  licensing of its Battery Recycling Seal for use
                 on Ni-Cd batteries. With more than 270 active licensees,
                 the program covers more than 80 percent of the Ni-Cd
                 batteries sold in North America. The program's goal is to
                 collect and  recycle 70 percent of the used Ni-Cd batteries
                 disposed of in municipal waste by 2003. RBRC funds the
                 development of Ni-Cd recycling plans for communities,
                 retailers, businesses, and public agencies. A toll-free
                 number 800 8-BATTERY provides consumers  information
                 on more than 20,000 battery collection sites  across the
                 United States and Canada.

Waste Wise Update
  Electronics Take-Back


        All participants in a product's life cycle, including con-
        sumers, need to assure the most "environmentally
        friendly" disposal of products at the end of their
  usable 'lives.' In the case of electronics and computers, con-
  sumers too often stockpile or throw away equipment for lack
  of better alternatives. The resources listed below can help your
  organization locate outlets that reuse and recycle these items.
  • EPA's Electronics Reuse and Recycling Directory. This directory
    is available from the RCRA Hotline at 800 424-9346, 703
    412-9810 (greater Washington, DC metropolitan area),
    or 800 553-7672 (TDD for hearing-impaired) or online at
    . It lists contact information for original equip-
    ment manufacturers that take back electronic products for
    reuse or recycling; scrap dealers that utilize certain materials
    or components within these products; businesses that dis-
    mantle, repair, or refurbish electronic items; community and
    charitable organizations that donate used goods to those in
    need; and materials exchanges that link buyers and sellers of
    electronic products.
  • The Institute for Local Self-Reliance's Plug Into Electronics
    Reuse Booklet. This booklet presents information on 22
    electronics reuse organizations. The booklet is available
    by mailing a publications order form available through
    the Institute for Local Self-Reliance's Web site at
     or by calling 202 232-4108.
    The cost of the booklet is $ 1 5 plus shipping and handling.
  • The National Safety Council's Environmental Health
    Center. The center periodically publishes the EPR2
    (Electronic Product Recovery and Recycling) Update, free
    of charge. To receive the update, fax a request to 202
    293-0032, Attn: EPR2 Update or e-mail Dawn Amore at
    . EPR2 Update also is available
    through the center's EPR2 Web site at
    . This Web site includes
    conference information, related Web links, and  ideas on
    what to do with used computer equipment.
  • The PEr"s (Parents, Educators, and Publishers) Used
    Computer Donations Directory. This online state, national,
    and international directory lists agencies that facilitate
    donations of used computer hardware for schools and
    community groups. The site is located at
  • The EPA Region 10 Web Site.  This home page includes a
    site discussing how to recycle computers and electronic
    equipment. Although some data is only applicable to
    Washington State, the site also contains national informa-
    tion. The home page is located at  .
   Xerox7 Take-Back Program
   Promotes "Waste  Free Products"
             Xrox conserved more than 1.1 million pounds of
             dastic and 88 million pounds of metal in 1997 by
             etting up systems to facilitate the reuse and recy-
             ling of parts. The programs also have saved Xerox
   a substantial amount of money. Xerox estimates annual sav-
   ings in raw material, labor, and disposal, as a result of asset
   reuse and recycling, exceed $200 million. According to
   Xerox, "The company's asset recycling and Design for the
   Environment program merge environmentalism with good
   business sense."
      Xerox initiated its asset recycling program by encouraging
   customers to return used copiers. Employees log, disassem-
   ble, and sort parts from returned copiers that meet internal
   criteria for remanufacturing. Today, Xerox takes back a
   range of other products, including  printers and toner bot-
                                   tles. Xerox incorporates
                                   remanufactured parts into
                                   new products. Parts that
                                   do not meet remanufac-
                                   turing  criteria and cannot
                                   be repaired are often
                                   ground, melted, or other-
                                   wise converted into basic
                                   raw materials. The com-
According to Xerox, "The
company's asset recycling
and Design for the
Environment program
merge environmentalism
with good business sense/
                                   pany integrates remanu-
                                   facturing into the same
                                   assembly lines  that pro-
                                   duce new products. The
    aim of the asset recycling program is to prevent Xerox prod-
    uct assembly and disassembly from producing landfill waste.

      For more information, contact Patty Calkins, manager,
    Environmental (Leadership) Marketing, for Xerox at
      We'd  Like  to
      Questions? Comments?
      Contact us at 800 EPA-WISE (372-9473), or by e-mail at
      . Or visit our Web site at

                                     WasteWise Update
       R       e       s       o
          r       c       e       s
                                                              Extended  Product Responsibility: A New
                                                           Principle for Product-Oriented Pollution
                                                           Prevention (EPA530-R-97-009).
   Eco-Efficiency: The Business Link to Sustainable
   Authors Livio DeSimone and Frank Popoff, chairmen of 3M
and Dow Chemical, respectively, discuss how corporations are
"publicly accountable" in this third book from the World
Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). The
book includes many examples of how WBCSD members are
applying the precepts of ecoefficiency and also how manufac-
turers are rethinking their businesses to focus on providing
services rather than products. For more information, contact
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 5  Cambridge
Center, Cambridge, AAA 02142-1493.
Phone: 800 356-0343
Web site: = 0262041 626
   Environmental Life-Cycle Management: A Guide
to Better Business Decisions.
   The National Office of Pollution Prevention and the
Hazardous Waste Branch of Environment Canada recently
published this guidebook for small- and medium-sized busi-
nesses. The guidebook helps companies take a lifecycle
approach in  business decision-making. The guidebook gives
an overview  of the concept of lifecycle management and
offers a framework for applying it to five different job func-
tions. To purchase a  copy, contact Environmental Protection
Phone: 819953-5750
Fax:  819953-7253
   Environmental Resource Guide. The American
Institute of Architects (AIA).
   This manual assesses the environmental lifecycle perfor-
mance of building materials and provides case study profiles.
To order, contact John Wiley & Sons at 800 879-4539 or AIA
at 800 365-2724.
   This report reviews the evolution
of extended product responsibility,
tracing its origins in Europe to its
formulation in the United States by
the President's Council on
Sustainable Development. The
report also presents indepth case
studies of U.S. companies in the
appliance, automotive, electronic,
battery, and cleaning services
industries that practice extended
product responsibility. These case studies illustrate some of the
important business advantages of embracing extended prod-
uct responsibility. The report can be viewed online at
. To obtain a
printed copy, call the RCRA Hotline at 800 424-9346, 703
412-9810 (greater Washington, DC  metropolitan area), or
800 553-7672 (TDD for hearing-impaired).
   Extended Product Responsibility: A Strategic
Framework For Sustainable Products

                   Written for company senior managers,
                   this brochure provides a concise defini-
                   tion of extended product responsibility
                   and describes how implementing it has
                   a positive effect on a company's bottom
                   line. To order a copy, please call the
                   RCRA Hotline at 800 424-9346, 703
                   412-9810 (greater Washington, DC
                   metropolitan area), or 800 553-7672
                   (TDD for hearing-impaired).
  Managing Eco Design: A Training Solution.

  The U.K.-based Centre for Sustainable Design published
this training manual for environmental product design that
offers practical examples from a variety of business sectors.
The six-module course covers how to manage the ecodesign
process and the key issues involved in developing an  eco-
design program. The  manual is accompanied by a  CD-ROM
(in two versions, for Windows- and Macintosh-based comput-
ers) containing additional resources. The manual also

Waste Wise Update
describes tools available to implement ecodesign, including
lifecycle analysis checklists, and ideas for developing an inter-
nal training and communications program. One module con-
tains 11 case histories of such companies as The Body Shop,
Electrolux, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Kodak, and other North
American and European companies. This publication is avail-
able for £250 (about $409) from the Centre for Sustainable
Design, Faculty of Design, Falkner Road, Farnham, Surrey
GU9 70S, U.K.
   Phone:  +44-1-252-73-2229
   Fax: +44-1-252-73-2274
   Web site:
   Pathway to Product Stewardship: Life-Cycle
Design as a Business Decision-Support Tool.

   This report explores the notion that, in order to be competi-
tive, companies must consider the impacts  of product design
beyond just production stages. Product design needs to
encompass environmental impacts as well, giving more
responsibility and accountability to companies in the use, post-
use, and disposal stages of their products.  The report provides
three case studies that illustrate the specific methodologies,
strengths, and accomplishments of life-cycle design (LCD)
programs started at IBM, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Armstrong
World Industries. A copy can be ordered through EPA's
Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse's Web site  at
 or by
phone 202-260-1023.
   Proceedings of the Workshop on Extended
Product Responsibility: October 21-22,  1996.

   The proceedings from this workshop, sponsored by the
President's Council on Sustainable Development and EPA,
explain the basic principles of EPR and its application. The
document includes case studies featuring  EPR activities of vari-
ous WasteWise partners including Xerox Corp., S.C. Johnson
Wax Company, Safety-Kleen Corp., Ford Motor Company,
and Monsanto Company. To obtain the document online see
   Product Stewardship and the Coming Age of
   This report illustrates how some manufacturers made take-
back programs a cost-effective, even profitable, part of their
operations. The document describes Xerox, for example, which
saved almost $200 million in its first 4 years by making take
    back and remanufacturing an integral part of its operations.
    Other case studies detail the experiences of Apple, Digital,
    Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Siemens Nixdorf,  and  Sony. This report
    walks companies through the decision-making process needed
    to set up take-back and recycling programs.  The  report can be
    viewed online at . To obtain a printed copy, contact Cutter
    Information Corporation, 37 Broadway,  Suite 1, Arlington,
    MA 021 74.
      Phone: 800 964-5125
      Sustainable America: A New Consensus for
    Prosperity, Opportunity, and a Healthy
    Environment for the Future.
      Published by the President's Council on Sustainable
    Development, the second chapter of this document includes
    endorsement of extended product responsibility. You can view
    this chapter online at  or con-
    tact President's Council on  Sustainable Development, 730
    Jackson Place, NW, Washington,  DC 20503.
      Phone: 202 408-5296
      EPA's Design for the Environment Program

      EPA's  Design for the Environment (DfE) Program, in  the
    Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, encourages busi-
    nesses to incorporate environmental information into their
    business decisions, and promotes the  implementation of
    cleaner technologies, materials, and processes. The program
    is currently working with  several sectors, including  the printed
    wiring board, computer display, printing, garment and textile
    care, automobile refinishing, industrial laundry, and the foam
    furniture adhesives industries. For more information, contact
    Bill Hanson, DfE Program, U.S. EPA (7406), 401 M St.  SW,
    Washington, DC, 20460.

      Phone: 202 260-1678
      Fax: 202 260-0981
      Web site:

                                                                                                WasteWise Update
   The Center for Clean Products and Clean
Technologies at the University of Tennessee,

   The center's goals are to assist federal, state, and  private
institutions in their efforts to prevent and reduce pollution; to
assess the performance, economic feasibility, and environ-
mental benefits of cleaner products and technologies; and to
provide students with opportunities to gain experience in the
emerging field of pollution prevention.  For information,
please contact Gary Davis, The Center for Clean Products and
Clean Technologies at the University of Tennessee, 600
Henley Street, Suite 311, Knoxville, TN  37996-4134.
   Phone: 423 974-4251
   Web site:
   President's Council on Sustainable Development

   Founded in 1993 by President Clinton, PCSD endorses
extended product responsibility as one of several principles of
sustainable development. For more information, please con-
tact David Monsma, President's Council on Sustainable
Development, 730  Jackson Place, NW., Washington, DC
   Phone: 202 408-5296
   Web site: www/
                           WEB RESOURCES
                                                          and architecture. Through the initiative, the university forms
                                                          partnerships with industrial corporations, foundations, and
                                                          government agencies to develop joint research and education
                                                          programs that improve environmental  quality while encourag-
                                                          ing sustainable economic development. This Web site contains
                                                          information on this initiative, published papers on extended
                                                          product responsibility, current information on research and
                                                          education, and links to related topics.

                                                            This site contains a definition of extended producer respon-
                                                          sibility, explanations for product responsibility, and a list of
                                                          national and international publications discussing the topic.
                                                          The site is maintained by The International Institute for
                                                          Industrial Environmental Economics.
                                                                                             Environment Canada
                                                                                             sponsors this Web site,
                                                                                             which features an
                                                                                             online newsletter, ECO-
                                                                                             CYCLE. This newsletter
                                                                                             shares information on
                                                                                             policy and technical
                                                                                             issues related to prod-
                                                          uct environmental life-cycle management (LCM). Sample top-
                                                          ics covered in the newsletter include integrated waste
                                                          management, life cycle assessment tools, and measuring eco-
                                                          efficiency in business operations. The site includes links to
                                                          other related sites.

                                                               This Web site, "World Wide Resource for LCA" includes
                                                             case studies, information on LCA standards, reviews of LCA
                                                             software, and articles related to LCA.
        i rfit ii I' Design/

                               Carnegie Mellon
                               University began a cam-
                               puswide Green  Design
                               Initiative in  1992 to pro-
                               mote environmentally
                               conscious engineering,
                               product and process
                               design, manufacturing,

  This Web site features the Product Stewardship Advisor: an
online advisory service that provides news and strategies for
lifecycle management of electronics and durable goods. To
find out more information,  please contact Cutter Information
Corporation, 37 Broadway, Suite 1, Arlington, MA 02174.
  Phone: 800 964-5125
  Fax: 800888-1816

Waste Wise Update
   Printpack Flags  Film and
   Reduces  Rubbish

     EPR opened  the door to a  creative waste reduction pol-
   icy at Printpack, Inc., a WasteWise partner that manufac-
   tures soft drink  bottle labels and other flexible packaging.
   Prior to its EPR policy, the company disposed of usable
   soda bottle labels along with defective labels during its
   quality control process. In an  effort to reduce the number
   of usable labels being disposed, Printpack implemented a
   policy that calls  for more accurate flagging and rolling off
   of defects in 'slitting' rather than  'slabbing'. As  a result,
   the company conserved  300,000  pounds of polypropylene
   label film and saved nearly $500,000 in  1997-
   Implementation of the policy, which addresses polypropy-
   lene film defects, has reduced raw material waste from
   between 13 and 15 percent to between 10 and 13 percent.
      Printpack prints soft drink labels on continuous rolls of
   polypropylene film that stretch thousands of feet. During
   printing, problems can occur that cause defects on the
   labels: colors can run light or be slightly off standard,
   print quality can be poor, printing plates can get dirty, or
   copy can be smudged on the labels. Labels with any of
   those defects are cut out of the film. Before Printpack
   implemented its new policy,  slitter operators estimated the
   location of the defects, then cut the film in the general
   area of the defective labels—often cutting usable labels in
   the process. Under the new policy, upon finding a defect,
   the film is flagged at the beginning of the defective label
   string, then again at the end  of the defective string.
   Pressmen then send the film  to be  cut. In addition, press-
   men send defect logs along with the film that specifically
   describe the location of the flags (e.g., at 4,860 and 4,862
   feet of film) and which stretch of film needs to be
   removed. This new careful cutting  effort eliminates only
   defective labels and avoids  unnecessarily cutting labels in
   good condition.
      According to Wayne Taft,  Environmental Coordinator
   at Printpack, Inc., "The $500,000  saved by the company
   combined with the avoided film waste is well worth the
   extra effort." For more information about Printpack's EPR
   policy, please contact Wayne  Taft at 540 373-7251-
    United States
    Environmental Protection Agency
    401 M Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20460

    Official Business
    Penalty for Private Use