United States
                   Environmental Protection
Hazardous Waste Engineering
Research Laboratory
Cincinnati OH 45268
                   Research and Development
EPA/530-(S)SW-86-031 Feb. 1987

    final storage of all  records also
    should be presented in the CQA
The TGD describes these elements in
detail and presents guidance on those
activities pertaining to each of the ele-
ments that are necessary to ensure that
a completed facility has been con-
structed to meet or exceed all design
criteria, plans, and  specifications. It is
intended for the use  of  organizations
involved in permitting, designing, and
constructing hazardous waste land dis-
posal facilities,  including treatment,
storage, and disposal facilities.
  This Project Summary was devel-
oped by EPA's Hazardous Waste Engi-
neering Research Laboratory, Cincin-
natif OH, to announce key findings of
the research project that is fully docu-
mented in a separate report of the same
title (see Project Report and ordering
information at back).

Responsibility and Authority
  Identifying and describing the re-
sponsibility and  authority of organiza-
tions concerned with CQA should be the
first element of a CQA plan. The princi-
pal organizations involved in permit-
ting, designing, and constructing a haz-
ardous waste land disposal facility
include the  permitting agency, facility
owner/operator, design engineer(s),
CQA personnel,  and construction con-
tractor(s). Except for the permitting
agency, the principal organizations will
not necessarily be completely inde-
pendent of each  other: the facility
owner/operator also may be the con-
struction contractor; the CQA personnel
may be employees of the facility owner/
operator, of the design engineer, or of
an independent firm. Regardless of the
relationships among the organizations,
it is essential that the areas of responsi-
bility and lines of authority for each or-
ganization be clearly delineated as the
first element of the  CQA plan. This will
help establish the  necessary  lines of
communication that will facilitate an ef-
fective decision making process during
implementation of the site-specific CQA
plan. It fs also essential that the organi-
zation  performing CQA operates inde-
pendently of and is not responsible to
the organizations involved in construct-
ing the facility.

Personnel Qualifications
  The second element of the CQA plan
should identify the required qualifica-
tions of the CQA officer  and the CQA
inspection personnel and describe their
expected duties.

CQA Officer
  The CQA officer is that individual as-
signed singular responsibility for all as-
pects of the CQA plan implementation.
The  CQA officer is responsible to  the
facility owner/operator but should func-
tion  independently of the owner/opera-
tor, design engineer, and construction
contractor. The location of the CQA offi-
cer within the  overall organizational
structure of the project, including the fa-
cility owner/operator, design engineer,
construction contractor, and permitting
agencies, should be  clearly described
within the CQA plan.
 -The CQA officer should possess "ade-
quate formal academic training in engi-
neering, engineering geology, or
closely associated disciplines and suffi-
cient practical, technical, and  manage-
rial experience to successfully oversee
and implement construction quality as-
surance activities for hazardous waste
land disposal facilities. Many of the re-
sponsibilities of a CQA officer may also
require that he  or she be a registered
Professional Engineer or the equivalent.
Because  the CQA officer  may have to
interrelate with all levels of personnel
involved  in the project, good communi-
cation skills are essential. The CQA offi-
cer should be expected to ensure that
communication of all CQA-related mat-
ters  is  conveyed to and acted upon by
the affected organizations.

CQA Inspection Personnel
  The CQA inspection personnel should
possess adequate formal training and
sufficient practical technical and admin-
istrative experience  to execute and
record inspection activities  success-
fully. This should include demonstrated
knowledge of specific field practices re-
lating to  construction  techniques used
for hazardous waste land disposal facili-
ties, all codes and regulations concern-
ing material and equipment installation,
observation and testing procedures,
equipment documentation procedures,
and site safety.

  Authorities in engineering  geology,
geotechnical engineering,  civil engi-
neering, and other technical disciplines
may be called in from external organiza-
tions in the event of unusual site condi-
tions or  inspection results. The CQA
plan should present detailed documen-
tation of consultant qualifications when
expert technical judgments are ob-
tained and used as a basis for decision
in some aspect of construction quality
assurance. Expert opinions should not
be used as  a substitute for objective
data collection and interpretation when
suitable observations and test proce-
dures are available.

Inspection Activities
  The third  element of the CQA plan
should describe the inspection activities
(observations and tests) that will be per-
formed by the CQA personnel during
hazardous waste  land disposal facility
construction. The scope of this discus-
sion should  address only the construc-
tion  and  installation  oj aji.fecijjty
components and'the manUfaStlire/fabr'i-
cation of various components and sub-
components when pertinent. It  is
assumed that the  site has been charac-
terized adequately, including evaluation
of the hydrogeologic environment. It is
also assumed that a site-specific facility
design has  been  prepared that meets
regulatory requirements and is accept-
able to the facility owner/operator and
that  this design has been evaluated  to
ensure its technical correctness and fea-
  This element should  address the in-
spection activities that are necessary to
ensure that  the facility  has been con-
structed to meet  or exceed all design
criteria, plans, and  specifications. The
first  part of this section of the TGD ad-
dresses general preconstruction activi-
ties  applicable to all facility compo-
nents. Subsequent subsections address
each facility  component separately and
are further subdivided into sections on
preconstruction, construction, and post-
construction inspection activities
unique to each-component.-SpecifLalest
methods  that  may be used to inspect
the components  of  a hazardous waste
land disposal facility are listed and ref-
erenced in Appendix A.

Sampling  Strategies
  Sampling  strategies  should be ad-
dressed as the fourth  element of the
CQA plan. For many materials and con-
struction  processes, it  is necessary  to
estimate the  quality of the overall mate-
rial or process from the observed  or
measure  quality  of the representative
sample that  is a  small fraction of the
total material or process. Examples  of
these situations include assessment  of
characteristics of a soil liner (e.g., per-
meability, moisture content, density,
particle size  distribution) and destruc-

tive testing of FML seams. This section
presents information that may be useful
in the selection and implementation of
an appropriate sampling strategy for
evaluating construction quality- It is in-
tended to provide an introduction to the
concepts and assumptions behind dif-
ferent sampling strategies. It is not in-
tended to be a complete or comprehen-
sive treatment of the subject.
  The current state  of knowledge on
sampling  strategies for hazardous
waste land disposal facility CQA is not
developed enough to enable EPA to rec-
ommend a specific  approach for de-
signing a sampling strategy. For in-
stance, the measurement error inherent
in test methods is an important piece of
information when devising a statistical
sampling strategy. However, the meas-
urement error associated with certain
important test methods (e.g., laboratory
and field permeability) is not known.
Until more information is  available, the
selection  of appropriate sampling
strategies should be conducted with the
guidance of knowledgeable  engineers
and statisticians.

  The ultimate value of a CQA plan de-
pends to a large extent on recognition
of all of the construction activities that
should  be inspected and the  assign-
ment of responsibilities to CQA inspec-
tion personnel for the inspection of each
activity. This is accomplished most ef-
fectively by documenting CQA activities
and should be addressed as the fifth el-
ement of the CQA plan. The CQA per-
sonnel will be reminded of the items to
be inspected, and will note, through de-
scriptive  remarks, data sheets, and
checklists  signed by  them, that the in-
spection .activities; have = been  accom-
  During the  construction of a hazard-
ous waste land disposal facility, the
CQA officer should be responsible for
all facility CQA documents. This in-
cludes the CQA officer's copy of the de-
sign criteria, plans, and specifications,
the CQA plan, and the original of all the
data sheets  and  reports. Duplicate
records may be kept at another location
to avoid loss of this  information if the
originals are destroyed.
   Once facility construction is com-
plete, the document originals should be
stored by the owner/operator in a man-
ner that will allow for easy access while
still protecting them from any damage.
An additional copy should also be kept
at the facility if this is in a different loca-
tion from the owner/operator's files. A
final copy should be kept by the permit-
ting agency in a publicly acknowledged
repository. All documentation should
be maintained through the operating
and postclosure monitoring periods of
the facility.

Concluding Remarks
  Construction quality assurance for
hazardous waste land disposal facilities
is one tool that can be very valuable in
improving the overall performance of
landfills, surface  impoundments, and
waste piles. Proper site selection, credi-
ble designs,  knowledgeable  contrac-
tors, and competent operation of the
completed facility, along with adequate
CQA, all contribute to a facility with a
reduced potential for  failure.  Through
the thorough application of a site-
specific CQA  plan, the owner/operator
can ensure that the completed facility
meets  or  exceeds all design  criteria,
plans, and specifications.

       Coleen M. North/em and Robert S. Truesdale are with Research Triangle Institute,
         Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.
       Jonathan G. Herrmann is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
       The complete  report,  entitled "Technical Guidance Document: Construction
         Quality Assurance for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Facilities," (Order No.
         PB 87-132 825/AS; Cost: $18.95,  subject to  change) will be available only
               National Technical Information Service
               5285 Port Royal Road
               Springfield, VA 22161
               Telephone: 703-487-4650
       The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
               Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory
               U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
               Cincinnati, OH 45268
United States
Environmental Protection
Center for Environmental Research
Cincinnati OH 45268
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