United States	Solid Waste and
Environmental Protection	Emergency Response (OS-305) EPA/530-SW-89-063
Agency	Washington, DC 20460	August 1989
Office of Solid Waste
Fact Sheet
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing supplemental
regulations to reduce and control toxic pollutants from industrial furnaces and
boilers burning 1.8 million tons of hazardous waste a year. The proposal requires
applicable facilities to obtain operating permits under the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act (RCRA) or to stop burning hazardous waste. EPA has
determined that improper burning of hazardous waste in these devices can have
serious, adverse impacts on public health and the environment. These regulatbns
apply identical emissions standards to boilers and industrial furnaces as those
being applied on a site-specific basis to hazardous waste incinerators. They apply
to all facilities burning hazardous waste for any reason, thus minimizing the
importance of determining whether a boiler or industrial furnace is engaged in
bonafide recycling or incineration.
Hazardous waste can be burned in boilers, industrial furnaces, and
incinerators for specific, but different purposes. Incinerators use
controlled combustion to treat or destroy hazardous waste, and are
regulated by RCRA, Subpart O. Boilers and industrial furnaces
typically use controlled combustion to burn waste for energy or
materials recovery {recycling activities), and are minimally regulated by
On May 6, 1987, EPA published a proposal to regulate boilers and
industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste under standards similar
to existing requirements for hazardous waste incinerators. The
regulations are designed to protect public health and the environment
from emissions from these facilities whether hazardous waste is burned
for the purpose of recycling—energy or materials recovery—or
destruction. Therefore, the proposal applies to all boilers and
industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste for any reason.
EPA estimates that industrial furnaces burn 100-150 million gallons of
hazardous waste annually, with cement and light-weight aggregate
kilns burning the bulk of the waste. In addition to these burners, the
regulations cover metal smelters, lime kilns, sulfur recovery furnaces,
and nonindustrial. industrial, and utility boilers.

These rules required:
•	A 99.99 percent destruction and removal efficiency for toxic
organic constituents in the waste.
•	A limit of carbon monoxide in stack gas to control emissions of
products of incomplete combustion.
•	A health-based limit to control emissions of toxic metals (arsenic,
cadmium, lead, and hexavalent chromium) and hydrogen chloride.
In response to a substantial number of comments received on the 1987
proposed rules, EPA is requesting comments on alternative approaches
to several provisions that tighten environmental controls on boilers and
industrial furnaces. While the action contains significant changes to the
1987 proposal, it still applies to all industrial furnaces and boilers burn-
ing hazardous waste for any reason. It also maintains site-specific stan-
dards equivalent to those being applied to hazardous waste incinerator
The primary changes from the 1987 proposal affect emissions of carbon
monoxide, toxic metals, and hydrogen chloride. The new proposal also
contains more stringent interpretations of certain hazardous waste
processes to bring more waste and more burners within RCRA control.
The action proposes to:
•	Redefine when a hazardous waste used in processes for materials
recovery is considered inherent (or indigenous) to a specific process,
and therefore not discarded or regulated.
•	Require operators of boilers and furnaces to test residues for concen-
trations of hazardous constituents on a case-by-case basis to deter-
mine when the "Bevill exclusion" for residues from fossil fuel burning,
cement kiln dust, and certain mining waste activities no longer ap-
•	Add standards that currently are being applied to incinerators for
controlling particulate emissions, toxic metals, and hydrogen
chloride. The list of toxic metals is expanded to include antimony,
barium, beryllium, mercury, silver, and thallium.
•	Waive carbon monoxide limits in stack gas when emissions of total
hydrocarbons are within the levels of good operating practice.

Approximately 1,000 boilers and industrial furnaces are affected by
these regulations, including several controversial companies. Of 900
boilers, the majority will likely be exempt from regulation because they
bum relatively small amounts of waste; around 100 will apply for per-
mits; and about 200 will stop burning hazardous waste. EPA expects all
industrial furnaces (approximately 75) to apply for permits.
For additional information or to order a copy of the Federal Register
notice, contact the RCRA Hotline Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to
7:30 p.m. EST. The national toll-free number is (800) 424-9346; TDD
(800) 553-7672 (hearing impaired); in Washington, D.C. the number is
(202) 382-3000. TDD (202) 475-9652.