Educational  and  Vocational  Shops
Industry Overview
   Many educational and vocational institutions do not produce
hazardous waste. If, however, you use ignitable solvents, strong
acid alkaline solutions, heavy metals, or toxic organic chemicals,
the waste you generate might be hazardous. If you generate haz-
ardous waste, you might be subject to Resource Conservation
Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements covering the generation,
transportation, and management of hazardous waste.

Educational and vocational institutions include shops conducting:

     Automotive and small engine repair
     Automobile body repair
     Metalworking
     Graphic arts production (e.g., printing and
     photography)
     Woodworking.

   Waste generated by laboratories is not addressed in this
pamphlet; a separate pamphlet on laboratory waste is available.


Hazardous Wastes from
Educational and Vocational Shops
   The majority of hazardous waste from educational and voca-
tional shops are:

     Solvents  (e.g., paint removers, thinners, and
     cleaning solvents)
     Paint waste
     Strong acid  or  alkaline solutions (e.g.,
     cleaning solutions).


   Automobile body repair and woodworking operations generate
waste solvents and paints. The solvents might be flammable or
toxic,  and paints might contain heavy metal pigments or haz-
ardous solvents. Metalworking and automotive repair generate
waste  solvents and acid or alkaline solutions used to clean metal
and remove rust.

   Graphic arts production can generate several types of waste,
depending on the activities. Printing wastes include strong acid
solutions used to clean, etch, and coat plates, and solvents used to
clean plates, to apply light-sensitive coatings, and to develop
plates. The use of inks generates waste containing solvents and/or
heavy metals. Photographic wastes include processing solutions,
developers, hardeners, and fixing baths. Photographic processing
waste  might be toxic, ignitable, or corrosive.
   RCRA regulations contain special provisions for spent lead-
acid batteries and used oil, which might be generated in automo-
tive shops and other shops with heavy machinery. You do not
have to use a Manifest when you ship used lead batteries that are
destined for recycling or used motor oil that is destined for re-
cycling. If, however, you are disposing of used oil yourself or are
sending it offsite for disposal, you generally should handle it as
hazardous waste because it is likely to be ignitable or toxic.
Special requirements apply if you are burning used oil as fuel.
Your state might have its own requirements for lead-acid batteries
or used oil; check with your state hazardous waste management
agency.

   Table 1 lists general operations/processes that use hazardous
materials and that might result in the generation of hazardous
waste. If you generate  100 kilograms (220 pounds or about half
of a 55-gallon drum) or more of hazardous waste per month, you
must fill out a Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest when you
ship the hazardous waste off your property. The Manifest requires
the proper Department of Transportation (DOT) description for
each waste. Table 2 lists proper DOT shipping descriptions for a
number of wastes that might be generated by educational and
vocational shops. Table 1 and Table 2 are not comprehensive
lists. If you do not find your waste here but suspect it is
hazardous, contact your EPA Regional office or state hazardous
waste management agency for additional information.


Waste Minimization
   An effective waste minimization program can reduce the costs,
liabilities, and regulatory burdens of hazardous  waste manage-
ment, while potentially enhancing efficiency, product quality, and
community relations. Waste minimization techniques that can
help you reduce the amount of hazardous waste that you  generate
include:

     Production planning and sequencing
     Process/equipment adjustment or modification
     Raw material substitution
     Loss prevention and housekeeping
     Waste segregation and separation
     Recycling.

   Training and supervision of employees implementing waste
minimization techniques is an important part of your successful
program. Call the RCRA/Superfund Hotline toll-free at 800-424-
9346 (or TDD 800-553-7672 for the hearing-impaired) for waste
minimization information and publications.
 EPA/530-SW-90-0271
                                                                                                Printed on recycled paper

-------
                                                                 Table 1
                                          Typical Educational and Vocational Shops Operations:
                                     Materials Used and Hazardous Wastes that Might be Generated
Process/Operation
                            Materials Used
Typical Material Ingredient
General Types
of Waste Generated
AUTOMOBILE ENGINE AND BODY  REPAIR, METALWORKING
Oil and grease removal;        Solvents, carburetor cleaners,
racial/tool cleaning;  engine,   degreasers, cleaning fluids,
puns, and equipment           acids/alkalies, engine cleaners
cleaning
Rust removal
Painting
                            Naval jelly, strong acid/alkaline
                            solutions

                            Enamels, lacquers, epoxies,
                            alkyds, acrylics, primers
Spray Booth, Spray Guns,
Brush Cleaning; Paint
Removal/Paint  Preparation

Changing Lead-Acid
Batteries

Changing Oil, Lubricating
Machinery

GRAPHIC ARTS  - Plate Preparation
                            Solvents, paint thinners, enamel
                            reducers, white spirits
                            Car, truck, boat, motorcycle, and
                            other vehicle batteries

                            Petroleum products
                             Phosphoric acid


Deep-etch Coating of Plates    Deep etch bath
Counter-etching to Remove
Oxide
Applying Light Sensitive
Coating
Developing Plates

Washing/Cleaning Plates


Applying Lacquer

Ink Use
Making Gravurc Cylinders

Painting


WOODWORKING

Wood Cleaning and Wax
Removal
Refinishing/Stripping;
Brush Cleaning and Spray
Gun Cleaning

Staining

Painting
Finishing
                            Resins, binders, emulsion,
                            photo-sensitizers,  gelatin,
                            photo-initiators

                            Developer

                            Alcohols, solvents
                                                            Petroleum distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral
                                                            spirits, benzene, toluene, petroleum naphtha
Phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid,
sodium hydroxide

Acetone, toluene, petroleum distillates, epoxy ester
resins, methylene chloride, xylene, VM&P naphtha,
aromatic hydrocarbons, methyl isobutyl ketones


Acetone, toluene, petroleum distillates, methanol,
methylene chloride, isopropanol, mineral spirits,
alcohols, ketones, other oxygenated solvents

Lead dross, less than 3% free acids
Motor oil, gasoline, lubricants




Phosphoric acid


Ammonium dichromate, ammonium hydroxide


PVA/ammonium dichromate, polyvinyl cinnamate,
fish glue/albumin, silver halide/gelatin emulsion, gum
arabic/ammonium dichromate

Lactic acid, zinc chloride, magnesium chloride

Ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, methyl ethyl
ketone, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene
                            Resins, solvents, vinyl lacquer    PVC, PVA, maleic acid, methyl ethyl ketone
                            Pigments, dyes, varnish, drier,
                            extender, modifier
                            Acid plating bath

                            Solvents, paint with solvents,
                            heavy metals
                            Petroleum distillates, white
                            spirits

                            Paint removers, varnish
                            removers, enamel removers,
                            shellac removers, paint
                            solvents, turpentine

                            Stains
                            Enamels, lacquers, epoxies,
                            alkyds, acrylics, primers,
                            solvents
                            Varnish, shellac,  polyurethane,
                            lacquers
Titanium oxide, iron blues, molybdated chrome
orange, phthalocyanide pigments, oils,  hydrocarbon
solvents, waxes, cobalt/zinc manganese oleates,
plasticizers

Copper, hydrochloric acid

Ethylene dichloride, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene,
chlorobenzene,  methyl ethyl ketone
Petroleum distillates, mineral spirits


Acetone, toluene, petroleum distillates, mineral
spirits, methanol, methylene chloride, alcohols,
ketone,  oxygenated solvents


Mineral spirits, alcohols, pigments


Toluene, pigments, titaniumN dioxide, epoxy-ester
resins, aromatic hydrocarbons, glycol ether,
halogenated hydrocarbons, vinyl acetate acrylic


Denatured alcohols, resins, shellac, petroleum
distillates, toluene diisocyanate
Ignitable waste
Solvent waste
Combustible solids
Waste  acid/alkaline solutions

Waste  acid/alkaline solutions
Ignitable paint waste
Solvent waste
Paint waste with heavy metals
Ignitable waste

Ignitable paint waste
Heavy metal paint waste
Solvent waste

Lead-acid batteries
Strong acid/alkaline solutions

Used oil
Acid/alkaline waste


Acid/alkaline waste
Heavy metal waste

Photographic processing waste
Photographic processing waste

Solvent waste


Solvent waste

Waste ink and ink sludges with
chromium or lead
Plating waste

Ignitable waste
Toxic waste
Paint waste
Ignitable waste
Solvent waste

Ignitable waste
Toxic waste
Paint waste
Solvent waste

Ignitable waste
Solvent waste

Ignitable waste
Toxic waste
Paint waste
Solvent waste

Ignitable waste
Toxic waste
Solvent waste

-------
                                                            Table 2
                           Educational  and Vocational  Shops  Waste Descriptions1
Waste Type
Designations/Trade Names
DOT Shipping Name
 Hazard Class
 UN/NA
 ID  Number
PHOTOGRAPHIC WASTES
Carbon Tetrachloride*
Heavy Metal Solutions
Carbon Tetrachloride,
Perchloromethane, Necatorina,
Benzinoform, CC14

Photographic processing waste
containing heavy metals
Waste Carbon Tetrachloride
Hazardous Waste Solution containing Cadmium,
Chromium, Lead, and/or Cyanide
                                           ORM-A
ORM-E
SPENT SOLVENTS AND OTHER TOXIC OR IGNITABLE  WASTES CONTAINING:
Acetone                 Acetone                            Waste Acetone
White Spirits




Petroleum Distillate


Kerosene

Methylene Chloride




Toluene



Benzene*

Ethanol

Xylene

Tetrahydrofuran

Isopropanol

Ethyl Benzene

1,1,1 -Trichloroethane





Trichloroethylene*



Ethylene Dichloride*


Chlorobenzene*


Methyl Ethyl Ketone*
White Spirits, Mineral Spirits,
Naphtha
Petroleum Distillates


Kerosene, Fuel Oil #1

Dichloromethane, Methane Dichloride,
Methylene Bichloride, NCI-C50102,
Solaesthin, Aerothene, Narkotil,
Solmethine

Toluene, Methacide, Methylbenzene,
Methylbenzol, Phenylmethane,
Toluol, Antisal 1A

Benzene, Benzol

Ethanol, Ethyl Alcohol

Xylene, Xylol

Tetrahydrofuran, THF

Isopropanol, Isopropyl Alcohol

Ethyl Benzene

1,1,1-Trichloroethane, Aerothene  TT,
Chlorten,  Inhibisol, Trichloroethane,
Chloroethene NU, NCI-C04626,
Methylchloroform,  Chlorothene VG,
Chlorothane NU, Chlorotene

Perm-A-Chlor, Trielin, Triline, Triool,
Vestrol, Chlorylene, Dow-Tri, Vitran,
TCE, Nialk, Philex

Ethylene Dichloride, 1,2-
Dichloroethane

Chlorobenzene, Monochlorobenzene,
Phenyl Chloride

Methyl Ethyl Ketone, Methyl Acetone,
Meetco, Butanone,  Ethyl Methyl
Ketone, MEK, 2-Butanone
Waste Naphtha
Waste Naphtha, Solvent
Waste Naphtha, Solvent


Waste Petroleum Distillate
Waste Kerosene

Waste Dichloromethane or Methylene Chloride   ORM-A
WASTE INK WITH SOLVENTS OR HEAVY METALS

Waste Ink                Various ingredients: Carbon
                        Tetrachloride, Chloroform, Methylene
                        Chloride, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 1,2-
                        Dichloroethane, Benzene,  Toluene,
                        Ethyl Benzene, Tetrachloroethylene,
                        Trichloroethylene,  Chromium,
                        Copper, Lead, Zinc, Cyanide,
                        Aluminum, Cadmium, Nickel, Cobalt

INK SLUDGE WITH CHROMIUM OR LEAD

Ink sludge with Chromium  Ink sludge containing heavy metals
or Lead
Waste Toluene (Toluol)



Waste Benzene (Benzol)

Waste Ethyl Alcohol

Waste Xylene

Waste Tetrahydrofuran

Waste Isopropanol

Waste Ethyl Benzene

Waste 1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Waste Trichloroethylene



Waste Ethylene Dichloride


Waste Chlorobenzene


Waste Methyl Ethyl Ketone





Waste Ink
Flammable Liquid

Flammable Liquid

Flammable Liquid

Flammable Liquid

Flammable Liquid

Flammable Liquid

ORM-A
ORM-A



Flammable Liquid


Flammable Liquid


Flammable Liquid
                                                                            Combustible Liquid
                                                                            Flammable Liquid
                                                                                                                         UNI 846
                    NA9189
Flammable Liquid2    UN1090

Combustible Liquid3   UN2553
Flammable Liquid     UN2553
Combustible Liquid    UN1256
Flammable Liquid     UN1256

Combustible Liquid    UN1268
Flammable Liquid     UN1268

Combustible Liquid    UN1223
                    UN1593
Flammable Liquid     UN1294
UNI 114

UN1770

UNI 307

UN2056

UN1219

UNI 175

UN2831
UN1710



UNI 184


UNI 134


UN1193
                                                              UN2867
                                                              UN1210
                                  Hazardous Waste, Liquid, NOS4
                                  Hazardous Waste, Solid, NOS
                                          ORM-E
                                          ORM-E
                    NA91&9
                    NA9189

-------
                                                            2  (continued)
                       Educational and Vocational  Shops  Waste  Descriptions1
Waste Type
Designations/Trade Names
DOT Shipping Name
Hazard Class
UN/NA
ID Number
STRONG ACID/ALKALINE WASTES
Ammonium Hydroxide
Hydrobromie Acid
Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrofluoric Acid
Nitric Acid

Phosphoric Acid
Potassium Hydroxide
Sodium Hydroxide
Sulfuric Acid
Chromic Acid
Lacquer, Paint, or Varnish
Removing Liquid
Ammonium Hydroxide, NHtOH, Spirit
of Hartshorn, Aqua Ammonia
Hydrobroinic Acid, HBr
Hydrochloric Acid, HCI, Muriatic Acid
Hydrofluoric Acid, HF, Fluorohydric
Acid
Nitric Acid, HN02, Auafortis

Phosphoric Acid, H3P04,
Orthophosphoric Acid
Potassium Hydroxide, KOH, Potassium
Hydrate, Caustic Potash, Potassa
Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH, Caustic
Soda, Soda Lye, Sodium Hydrate
Sulfuric Acid, H2SO4, Oil of Vitriol
Chromic Acid
Lacquer, Paint, or Varnish Removing
Liquid
Waste Ammonium Hydroxide (containing not
less than 12% but not more than 44% ammonia)
Waste Ammonium Hydroxide (containing less
than 12% ammonia)
Waste Hydrobromic Acid
Waste Hydrochloric Acid
Waste Hydrofluoric Acid
Waste Nitric Acid (over 40%)
Waste Nitric Acid (40% or less)
Waste Phosphoric Acid
Waste Potassium Hydroxide Solution
Dry Solid, Flake, Bead, or Granular
Waste Sodium Hydroxide Solution
Dry Solid, Flake, Bead, or Granular
Waste Sulfuric Acid
Waste Chromic Acid Solution
Waste Compound, Lacquer, Paint, or Varnish
Removing Liquid
Corrosive Material
ORM-A
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Oxidizer
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
NA2672
NA2672
 UN1788
NA1789
UN1790
UN2031
NA1760
UN1805
UN1814
UN1813
UN1824
UN1823
; UN1832
UN1755
NA1760
SPENT PLATING WASTES
Spent Plating Wastes
Spent etch baths, spent plating
solutions and sludges, stripping and
cleaning baths
Hazardous Waste, Liquid, NOS
Hazardous Waste, Solid, NOS
ORM-E
ORM-E
NA9189
NA9189
OTHER IGNITABLE ANO/OR TOXIC WASTES
Paint Dryer
Paint, Enamel, Lacquer,
Stain, Shellac, or Varnish;
Paint Dryer
Paint, Enamel, Lacquer, Stain, Shellac,
or Varnish; Aluminum, Bronze, Gold,
Waste Paint Dryer, Liquid
Waste Paint, Enamel, Lacquer, Stain, Shellac, or
Varnish; Aluminum, Bronze, Gold, Wood Filler,
Combustible Liquid
Flammable Liquid
Combustible Liquid
Flammable Liquid
UN1168
UN1168
UN1263
UN1263
Aluminum, Bronze, Gold,   Wood Filler, Liquid or Lacquer Base,
Wood Filler, Liquid or      Liquid
Lacquer Base, Liquid
Enamel
Enamel
                               Liquid or Lacquer Base, Liquid
Waste Compound, Enamel
Flammable Liquid     NA1263
Lacquer, Paint, or Varnish Lacquer, Paint, or Varnish Removing,
Removing, Reducing, or Reducing, or Thinning Liquid
Thinning Liquid
PAINT WASTES WITH HEAVY METALS
Puinl Waste Paint Waste with Heavy Metals
IGNITABLE WASTES NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (NOS)
Ignitable Wastes, NOS Ignitable Wastes, NOS
Hazardous Wastes, NOS
Waste Compound, Lacquer, Paint, or Varnish,
Removing, Reducing, or Thinning Liquid

Hazardous Waste, Liquid, NOS

Waste Flammable Liquid, NOS
Waste Combustible Liquid, NOS
Waste Flammable Solid, NOS
Hazardous Wastes, Liquid, Solid, NOS
Combustible Liquid
Flammable Liquid

ORM-E
ORM-E

Flammable Liquid
Combustible Liquid
Flammable Solid
ORM-E
. NA1142
NA1142

NA9189
NA9189

UN1993
NA1993
UN1325
NA9189
* Toxicity Characteristic constituent. Any waste that results in a TCLP extract containing a Toxicity Characteristic constituent equal to or above regulatory
  levels is hazardous.
I These descriptions may change given variations in waste characteristics or conditions. Note that the DOT shipping name, hazard class, and UN/NA ID number
  do not directly correspond to RCRA categories of hazardous waste. 3 A combustible liquid has a flash point between 100F and 200F.
2 A flammable liquid has a flash point below 100F.             4 NOS - not otherwise specified.
       For further  information call the RCRA/Superfund Hotline 1-800-424-9346

-------