Laboratories
 Industry Overview
    Not all laboratories produce hazardous waste. If, however, you
 use ignitable compounds, strong acid or alkaline solutions, sol-
 vents, heavy metals, or toxic organic constituents, the waste you
 generate might be hazardous. If you generate hazardous waste, you
 might be subject to Resource Conservation Recovery Act
 (RCRA) requirements covering the generation, transportation, and
 management of hazardous waste.

    Laboratories that use chemicals are likely to generate hazardous
 waste. These laboratories include:

      Research and development laboratories, such as
      government labs (e.g., National Institutes of Health,
      Food and Drug Administration) and industrial labs
      (e.g., chemicals, Pharmaceuticals)
      Commercial testing laboratories, including labs that
      analyze hazardous waste samples
      Academic laboratories, such as university and high
      school labs, and labs of educational or scientific
      organizations
      Medical laboratories, including hospital and dental
      labs.
 Hazardous Wastes from Laboratories
   A large variety of wastes are generated by laboratories. The fol-
 lowing wastes are commonly generated:

      Spent solvents used in cleaning,  extraction, or
      other processes
      Unused reagents that are no longer needed, do not
      meet specifications, are contaminated, have exceeded
      their storage life, or are otherwise unusable in the lab
      Reaction products of known or unknown
      composition, which are often produced by research
      and academic labs. (To facilitate disposal, labs should
      try to identify or characterize reaction products to the
      extent possible and label them with this information.)
      Testing samples that are not entirely consumed
      by the test procedure
      Contaminated materials such  as glassware,
     paper, and plastic products.
   If you generate 100 kilograms (220 pounds or about half of a
 55-gallon drum) or more of hazardous waste per month, you must
 fill out a Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest when you ship haz-
 ardous waste off your property. The Manifest requires the proper
 Department of Transporation (DOT) description for each waste.
 Table  1 lists DOT shipping descriptions for some wastes gener-
 ated by laboratories. Table 1 is not a comprehensive list. If you
 do not find your waste here but suspect it is hazardous, contact
 your EPA Regional office or state hazardous waste management
 agency for additional information.

   Radioactive waste, which is generated by some laboratories, is
 generally regulated under the Atomic Energy Act and in many
 cases is excluded from RCRA regulation. Nuclear Regulatory
 Commission and DOT regulations might apply. Contact the
 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the DOT Materials Transport
 Bureau, or your state transportation agency for more information
 concerning proper transport and disposal of radioactive waste.


 Waste Minimization
   An effective waste minimization program can reduce the costs,
 liabilities, and regulatory burdens of hazardous waste manage-
 ment, while potentially enhancing efficiency, product quality, and
 community relations. Waste minimization techniques that can
 help you reduce the amount of hazardous waste that you generate
 include:

     Production planning and sequencing
     Process/equipment adjustment or modification
     Raw material substitution
     Loss prevention and housekeeping
     Waste segregation and separation
     Recycling.

   Training and  supervision of employees implementing waste
minimization techniques is an important part of your successful
program. Call the RCRA/Superfund Hotline toll-free at 800-424-
9346 (or TDD 800-553-7672 for the hearing-impaired) for waste
minimization information and publications.
EPA/530-SW-90-027m
                                                                                                  Printed on recycled paper

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                                                             Table  1
                                           Laboratories Waste  Descriptions1
Waste Type
SOLVENTS
Acetone
Benzene*
Chloroform*
Trichloromcthane
Designations/Trade Names




DOT Shipping Name

Waste Acetone
Waste Benzene
Waste Chloroform
Hazard Class

Flammable Liquid2
Flammable Liquid
ORM-A
UN/NA
ID Number

UN1090
UNI 114
UN1888
1,4-Dioxane
  Dieihylcne Ether
  l.f-Dielhylcne Oxide
  Diethylcne Oxide
  Dixyethylcne Ether

Ethanol
  Ethyl Alcohol
  Grain Alcohol

Eihyl Ether
  Ether
  Diethyl Ether
  Dicthyl Oxide

Formalin
Formaldehyde Solution
(1) flash point greater than
  141T
(2) flash point less than or
   equal to 141F
Hcxane
  n-Hcxane

hopropanol
  Isopropyl Alcohol
  TPA
  Dimethyl Carbinol
  2-PropanoI

Mcthanol
  Methyl Alcohol
  Wood Alcohol

Methyl Ethyl Kctone*
  MEK
  2-Butanonc

Methylene Chloride
  Dichloromethane

Pcntane

Petroleum Ether

Tctrahydrofuran
  THF

Toluene
  Toluol
  Methyl Benzene

Xylcne
  Xylol
  Dimethyl Benzene
Waste Dioxane





Waste Ethyl Alcohol



Waste Ethyl Ether




Waste Formaldehyde Solution





Waste Formaldehyde Solution





Waste Hexane


Waste Isopropanol





Waste Methyl Alcohol



Waste Methyl Ethyl Ketone



Waste Dichloromethane (or Waste Methylene
Chloride)

Waste Pentane

Waste Petroleum Ether

Waste Tetrahydrofuran


Waste Toluene



Waste Xylene
                                                                                                       Flammable Liquid      UN 1165
Flammable Liquid
Flammable Liquid
                    UN1170
                    UNI 155
ORM-A (or           UN2209
Combustible Liquid if
shipped in containers
larger than 110
gallons)

ORM-A (or           UNI 198
Combustible Liquid if
shipped in containers
larger than 110
gallons)

Flammable Liquid      UN1208
Flammable Liquid      UN1219
Flammable Liquid      UN1230
Flammable Liquid      UNI 193
ORM-A


Flammable Liquid

Flammable Liquid

Flammable Liquid
UN1593


UN 1265

UN1271

UN2056
Flammable Liquid      UN1294
Flammable Liquid      UN1307

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                                         I dOl6 1 (continued)
                              Laboratories Waste Descriptions1
Waste Type Designations/Trade Names
Carbon Tetrachloride*
Carbon Tet
Tetrachloromethane
Perchloromethane
Ignitable Liquids
ACIDS/BASES
Acetic Acid
Hydrochloric Acid
Nitric Acid
Perchloric Acid
Sulfuric Acid
Oleum
Fuming Sulfuric Acid
Ammonium Hydroxide
Ammonia Solution
Aqueous Ammonia
Potassium Hydroxide
Caustic Potash
Sodium Hydroxide
Caustic Soda
Lye
NON-SPECIFIC WASTES
Corrosive Liquids
Corrosive Solids
Oxidizer, Corrosive,
Liquid
Oxidizer, Corrosive, Solid
Oxidizer
Poisonous Liquid5
Poisonous Solid
Corrosive, Poisonous
DOT Shipping Name
Waste Carbon Tetrachloride
Waste Flammable Liquids, NOS3
Waste Combustible Liquids, NOS

Waste Acetic Acid, Glacial
Waste Acetic Acid, Solution
Waste Hydrochloric Acid
Waste Nitric Acid, over 40%
Waste Nitric Acid, 40% or less
Waste Nitric Acid, Fuming
Waste Perchloric Acid, not over 50% acid
Waste Perchloric Acid,
exceeding 50% but not exceeding 72% acid
Waste Perchloric Acid, exceeding 72% acid
Waste Sulfuric Acid
Waste Sulfuric Acid, Spent
Waste Oleum
Waste Ammonium Hydroxide, containing less
than 12% ammonia
Waste Ammonium Hydroxide, containing not
less than 12% but not more than 44% ammonia
Waste Potassium Hydroxide, Solid
Waste Potassium Hydroxide, Liquid
Waste Sodium Hydroxide, Solid
Waste Sodium Hydroxide, Liquid

Waste Corrosive Liquids, NOS
Waste Corrosive Solid, NOS
Waste Oxidizer, Corrosive, Liquid, NOS
Waste Oxidizer, Corrosive, Solid, NOS
Waste Oxidizer, NOS
Waste Poison B, Liquid, NOS
Waste Poison B, Solid, NOS
Waste Corrosive Liquid, Poisonous, NOS
Hazard Class
ORM-A
Flammable Liquid
Combustible Liquid

Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Oxidizer
Corrosive Material
Oxidizer
Oxidizer
Oxidizer
Forbidden4
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
ORM-A
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material

Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Oxidizer
Oxidizer
Oxidizer
Poison B
Poison B
Corrosive Material
UN/NA
ID Number
UN1846
UN1993
NA1993

UN2789
UN2790
UN1789
UN2031
NA1760
UN2032
UN1802
UN1873
UN1830
UN1832
NA1831
NA2672
NA2672
UN1813
UN1814
UN1823
UN1824

UN1760
UN1759
NA9193
NA9194
UN1479
UN2810
UN2811
UN2922
Liquid

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                                                         I 3D 16  1  (continued)
                                          Laboratories  Waste  Descriptions1
Waste Type
Poisonous, Corrosive
Solid
Poisonous, Oxidizing
Liquid
Poisonous, Oxidizing
Solid
Hazardous Waste Liquid6
Hazardous Waste Solid
Designations/Trade Names





DOT Shipping Name
Waste Poisonous Solid, Corrosive, NOS
Waste Oxidizer, Poisonous, Liquid, NOS_
Waste Oxidizer, Poisonous, Solid, NOS
Hazardous Waste, Liquid, NOS
Hazardous Waste, Solid, NOS
Hazard Class
Poison B
Oxidizer
Oxidizer
ORM-E
ORM-E
UN/NA
ID Number
UN2928
NA9199
NA9200
NA9189
; NA9189
* Toxicity Characteristic constituent. Any waste that results in a TCLP extract containing a Toxicity Characteristic constituent equal to or above regulatory
  levels is hazardous.
1 These descriptions may change given variations in waste characteristics, conditions or process modifications. Note that the DOT shipping name, hazard
  class, and UN/NA ID number do not directly correspond to RCRA categories of hazardous waste.
2 Substances with a flash point less than 100F are classified as "Flammable Liquid"; substances with a flash point greater than or equal to 100F and less than
  2WF arc classified as "Combustible Liquid."
3 NOS - Not Otherwise Specified.
4 Forbidden materials arc prohibited from being  offered or accepted for transportation.
5 Certain gases and volatile liquids (e.g., cyanogen, phosgene) are classed as Poison A. The gases and liquids have a different UN/NA ID; NA 1953 for
  poisonous liquid or gas, flammable, NOS; or NA 1955 or poisonous liquid or gas, NOS.
6 Materials (e.g., disposable labware) contaminated with small quantities of a variety of hazardous substances generally can be classified as Hazardous Waste,
  NOS, unless a more specific DOT shipping name applies.  The entire weight of the contaminated materials, not just the weight of the substance(s) making it
  hazardous, is considered when determining quantity.
        For further  information  call the RCRA/Superfund  Hotline 1-800-424-9346

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