Paper   Industry
                                 51*70
 Industry Overview
   Not all pulp and paper mills or converting operations generate
 hazardous waste. If, however, your facility uses strong acids and
 bases, toxic organic chemicals, paints and adhesives, ink, or
 solvents, the waste associated with using these materials might
 be hazardous waste. If you generate hazardous  waste, you might
 be subject to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
 requirements covering the generation, transportation, and
 management of hazardous waste.

 The paper industry is composed of several sectors, including:

     Pulp and paper mills, which produce mechanical,
      thermomechanical, and chemical pulps and process
      these pulps to form paper, paperboard, or building
      papers
     Converting operations, which manufacture boxes,
      tablets, and other finished paper products.


 Hazardous Wastes from
 the  Paper  Industry
   Pulp is made  by mechanically or chemically separating the
 fibers in wood or other cellulose materials from nonfibrous
 material. In the kraft pulping process, used to make most
 chemical pulp, a solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide
 dissolves the nonfibrous materials. The pulp is then bleached if
 white paper is being produced. Several chemicals can be used for
 bleaching, including chlorine gas, sodium hydroxide, calcium
 hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium
 peroxide. After any fillers and coloring materials are added, the
 pulp slurry is made into paper. Certain coatings can also be
 applied to the paper.

  The large-volume wastes produced by the paper industry are
not often classified as hazardous under RCRA. Some wastewaters
and wastewater treatment sludges might fail the Toxicity
Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test due to the presence
of organic constituents such as chloroform or trichloroethylene.
Several lower volume hazardous wastes are generated, including:

     Spent halogenated solvents  used in degreasing
     Corrosive waste generated from the use of strong
     acids and bases
      Paint waste containing solvents and paint waste
      with heavy metals

      Ink waste, which can include solvents, metals, or
      ignitable materials

      Petroleum  distillates from cleanup operations.

   Spills of hazardous substances might also generate RCRA-
 regulated hazardous waste. Certain paper manufacturing facilities
 have associated research laboratories, which might produce a
 variety of hazardous wastes. Table 1 lists some typical processes/
 operations that might produce hazardous waste. Table 2 lists
 Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping descriptions
 (required on the Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest) for a number
 of wastes that might be generated by the paper industry. Table 1
 and Table 2 are not comprehensive lists. If you do not find your
 waste here but suspect it is hazardous, contact your EPA
 Regional office or state hazardous waste management agency for
 additional information.


 Waste Minimization
   An effective waste minimization program can reduce the costs,
 liabilities, and regulatory burdens of hazardous waste
 management, while potentially enhancing efficiency, product
 quality, and community relations. Waste minimization techniques
 that can help you reduce the amount of hazardous waste that you
 generate include:

     Production planning and sequencing
     Process/equipment adjustment or modification
     Raw material substitution
     Loss prevention and housekeeping
     Waste segregation and separation
     Recycling.

  Training and supervision of employees implementing waste
minimization techniques is an important part of your successful
program.  Call the RCRA/Superfund Hotline toll-free at 800-424-
9346 (or TDD 800-553-7672 for the hearing-impaired) for waste
minimization information and publications.
EPA/530-SW-90-0270
                                                                                                 Printed on recycled paper

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                                                             Table 1
                                                Typical Paper Industry Operations:
                                        Materials Used and Hazardous Wastes that Might be
                                                             Generated









Waste Type
SPENT SOLVENTS AND
Carbon Tcunchloride*
Mcthylcnc Chloride
Telrachlorocthylenc*
1,1,1 -Trichloroethane
Trichlorocthylcne*
Chloroform*
Benzene*
Bthylene Dichloride*
Chlorobenzcne*
Methyl Ethyl Ketone*
Process/ Materials Used General Types of
Operation Waste Generated
Chemical Pulping Acids/alkalies, lime, Acid/alkaline waste
sulfurous acid, sodium
hydroxide, sodium sulfide
Bleaching Chlorine bleaches, sulfate Toxic wastewater and
bleaches, chloroform, wastewater treatment
solvents sludge
Acid/alkaline waste
Papermaking Pigments Wastewater treatment
sludge
Sizing and Waxes, glues, synthetic Toxic waste, including
Starching resins, hydrocarbons wastewaters and sludges
Coating, Inks, paints, solvents, Solvent waste
Coloring, and rubbers, dyes Ink waste
Dyeing Paint waste
Ignitable waste
Toxic waste
Cleaning and Tetrachloroethylene, Solvent waste
Degreasing trichloroethylene, Toxic rinse water
* methylene chloride,
trichloroethane, carbon
tetrachloride
Table 2
Paper industry Waste Descriptions1
Designations/Trade Names DOT Shipping Name Hazard Class
OTHER TOXIC OR IGNITABLE WASTES CONTAINING:
Carbon Tetrachloride, Carbon Tet, Waste Carbon Tetrachloride ORM-A
Tetrachloromethane
Methylene Chloride, Dichloromethane Waste Dichloromethane ORM-A
Tetrachloroethylene, Waste Tetrachloroethylene ORM-A
Perchloroethylene, PCE
1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 1,1,1-TCA Waste 1,1,1 -Trichloroethane ORM-A
Trichloroethylene, TCE Waste Trichloroethylene ORM-A
Chloroform Waste Chloroform ORM-A
Benzene Waste Benzene (Benzol) Flammable Liquid2
Ethylene Dichloride, 1,2- Waste Ethylene Dichloride Flammable Liquid
Dichloroe thane
Chlorobenzene, Monochlorobenzene, Waste Chlorobenzene Flammable Liquid
Phenyl Chloride
Methyl Ethyl Ketone, Methyl Acetone, Waste Methyl Ethyl Ketone Flammable Liquid









UN/NA
ID Number

UN1846
UN1593
UNI 897
UN2831
UN1710
UN1888
UNI 114
UN1184
UNI 134
UN1193
Mixed Spent Halogcnatcd
Solvents

Petroleum Distillates
                        Meetco, Butanone, Ethyl Methyl
                        Ketone, MEK, 2-Butanone
Petroleum Distillates
                                  Hazardous Waste, Liquid, NOS3



                                  Waste Petroleum Distillate
                                                                                                    ORM-E
                                                                                                                        NA9189
Flammable Liquid      UN 1268
Combustible Liquid4   UN1268

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                                                          I 3DIG L. (continued)
                                         Paper  Industry  Waste Descriptions1
Waste Type
CORROSIVE WASTES
Ammonium Hydroxide
Hydrobromic Acid
Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrofluoric Acid
Nitric Acid
Phosphoric Acid
Potassium Hydroxide
Sodium Hydroxide
Sulfuric Acid
OTHER WASTES AND
Paint Waste with Heavy
Metals
Corrosive Liquid
Corrosive Solid
Ignitable Wastes, NOS
Hazardous Wastes, NOS
Designations/Trade Names

Ammonium Hydroxide, Aqueous
Ammonia, Ammonia Water, Spirit of
Hartshorn
Hydrobromic Acid
Hydrochloric Acid, Muriatic Acid
Hydrofluoric Acid
Nitric Acid, Aquafortis
Phosphoric Acid, Orthophosphoric
Acid
Potassium Hydroxide, Caustic Potash
Sodium Hydroxide
Sulfuric Acid, Oil of Vitriol
GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS
Paint Waste with Heavy Metals
Corrosive Liquids
Corrosive Solids
Ignitable Wastes, NOS

DOT Shipping Name

Waste Ammonium Hydroxide (containing not
less than 12% but not more than 44% ammonia)
Waste Ammonium Hydroxide (containing less
than 12% ammonia)
Waste Hydrobromic Acid
Waste Hydrochloric Acid Mixture
Waste Hydrochloric Acid Solution
Waste Hydrofluoric Acid
Waste Nitric Acid (over 40%)
Waste Nitric Acid (40% or less nitric acid)
Waste Phosphoric Acid
Waste Potassium Hydroxide Solution
Dry Solid, Flake, Bead, or Granular
Waste Sodium Hydroxide Solution
Dry Solid, Flake, Bead, or Granular
Waste Sulfuric Acid

Hazardous Waste, Liquid or Solid, NOS
Waste Corrosive Liquid, NOS
Waste Corrosive Solid, NOS
Waste Flammable Liquid, NOS
Waste Combustible Liquid, NOS
Waste Flammable Solid, NOS
Hazardous Waste, NOS
Hazard Class

Corrosive Material
ORM-A
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Oxidizer
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material

ORM-E
Corrosive Material
Corrosive Material
Flammable Liquid
Combustible Liquid
Flammable Solid
ORM-E
UN/NA
ID Number

NA2672
NA2672
UN1788
NA1789
UN1789
UN1790
UN2031
NA1760
UNI 805
UN1814
UN1813
UN1824
UN1823
UN1832

NA9189
UN.J760
UN1759
UN1993
UN1993
UN1325
UN9189
* Toxicity Characteristic constituent.  Any waste that results in a TCLP extract containing a Toxicity Characteristic constituent equal to or above regulatory
  levels is hazardous.
1 These descriptions may change given variations in waste characteristics or conditions.  Note that the DOT name, hazard class, and UN/NA shipping ID number
  do not directly correspond to RCRA categories of hazardous waste.
2 A flammable liquid has a flash point below 100F.
3 NOS -Not otherwise specified.
4 A combustible liquid has a flash point between 100F and 200F.

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For further information call the RCRA/Superfund Hotline 1-800-424-9346

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