United States
           Environmental Protection
Second Edition
April 1990
           Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OS-305)
&EPA     Waste  Minimization
           Environmental Quality
           with Economic Benefits
  Printed on Recycle^ Paper


Envirorimentcil Quality
with  Economic Benefits
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
Second Edition

Washington, D.C. 1990

                                            During the 1970s, the seriousness of the
                                            hazardous waste problem became
                                            apparent.  In 1976, Congress passed the
                                            Resource Conservation and Recovery
                                            Act—the first law to deal on the national
                                            level with hazardous  waste.
  By 1980, EPA had established a regula-
  tory program requiring "cradle-to-grave"
  management of hazardous waste. The
program set forth design requirements for
hazardous waste landfills, including liners
            and leak detection systems.
                              By 1984, it had become clear that even
                             well-regulated land disposal could cause
                           environmental damage. Landfill liners can
                                leak, possibly creating future cleanup
                              problems.  Treatment methods such as
                             incineration will reduce but not eliminate
                                         the need for land disposal.

Over the past decade, we have learned that the nation's
hazardous waste problems cannot be cured by simply
burying waste in the land.  In recent years. Congress
and FPA have emphasi/ed effective treatment of haz-
ardous waste prior to its land disposal. Treatment
alone, however, will not necessarily remedy our hazard-
ous waste problems.  It is essential that we first mini-
mi/e the generation and subsequent need for treatment,
storage, and disposal  of ha/ardous waste.  This concept,
called "waste minimization," is essential for ensuring a
healthful environment for us all.
Relying on treatment and establishing strict
controls on land disposal cannot fully solve
our hazardous waste problems. We also
must strive to minimize the amount of
hazardous waste generated in the first
place. This silver recovery unit both
reduces the amount of waste that must be
treated or disposed of and enables photo
processors to turn a profit on the recovered

          Waste Minimization Pays
        A leading chemical company established
        a program in 1987 that reduced waste
        generated at the company's facilities by
        more than 100,000 tons. This has saved
        an  estimated $250 million through sav-
        ings on reformulated products, conserved
        materials and energy, and the ability to
        delay or completely  eliminate the pur-
        chase of pollution control equipment.
       • • •    •   ••; .  • 'i   i / -i • i HI•- 'A ;M.- tlhii : N iviu'i
        r  ••  jiu 'it   tiva;cd  '-Utred. oi disposed ol.  In
 .Mm >iM''  •  isii  p-julaird under RC'RA. \-\\\ encour-
 !!_vs the minimi/alion ol all \\ asles thai pose risks to
human heahi and the environment. Waste minimiza-
lion techniques locus on source reduction or recycling
activities thai reduce  either the volume or the toxicity of
hazardous waste generated. Unlike many waste treat-
ment methods, waste minimization can he practiced at
several stages in most industrial processes. Like all in-
novative solutions to waste management problems,
waste minimization requires careful planning, creative
problem solving, changes in attitude, sometimes capital
investment, and, most important, a real commitment.

The payoffs for this commitment,  however, can be
great. Waste minimization can save money—often
substantial amounts—through more efficient use of
valuable resources and reduced waste treatment and
disposal costs. Waste minimization also can reduce a
                     generator's hazardous-waste-
                     related financial liabilities: the
                     less waste  generated, the lower
                     the potential for negative envi-
                     ronmental  effects.  Finally, tak-
                     ing the initiative to reduce haz-
                     ardous waste is good policy.
                     Polls show that reducing toxic
                     chemical risk is the public's pri-
                     mary environmental concern.
                     Waste minimization can pay off
                     tangibly when  local residents are
                     confident that industry is
                     making every effort to handle its
                     wastes responsibly.
                             Incentives and Obstacles
                             Industries and other hazardous waste generators across
                             the country are making progress toward reducing and
                             recycling wastes, but much more could be done.  The in-
                             centives are great, but, too often, so are the obstacles.

This vapor recovery unit traps escaping <-imes fr-jrn
a printing press area in the adjoining plat 1.  The
trapped vapors then condense, forming reclaimed
solvent, which is stored in a tank until it /;•• reused.
i'M.\l i.ll 1 I:' (.'list ol i )! Ik1! It M'll is i '!
ha/ardoiis \\aste management.  I ami
disposal. \\ Inch once cost as Intlc as
S I 0 per ton ot waste, mm costs at
least S240 per ton.  Disposal sites
are  in short suppl\. and prices keep
rising. Another important incentive
is that Congress has directed EPA to
phase out the land disposal of certain
types of untreated wastes. Under the
Agency's land disposal restrictions
program, mandated in the 1984
RCRA amendments, many untreated
wastes that were previously sent to
landfills will now be incinerated or
otherwise treated at costs many
times higher than those for land dis-
posal.  And these costs are only part
of the overall picture. Other costs
include waste storage expenses,
transportation fees, administrative
and reporting burdens, potential fi-
nancial liabilities from accidental
releases, and insurance (which,  for
many generators, may not even  be
                             Working against these strong incentives are a number of
                             practical obstacles that must be removed before waste
                             minimization can reach its potential.  Eliminating these
                             impediments will be a high priority for the Agency over
                             the next several years.

                             Information Is Scarce
                             Mam companies that genuinely want to reduce their
                             wastes do not have access to the information they need
                             to make appropriate decisions.  Identifying waste mini-
                             mization opportunities can demand specialized engi-
                             neering knowledge that many small- or medium-sized

            i,;'  i  ,  ,[ .  I.! II , data 01) i lie eost Cl Ice
: ,  i i  -  ;, •  •  iin-i-  Aasd1 ID mmi/ation techniques.  1m-
j 'i i !\ i-  ; i n t> in nil 11 o! i dissemination is one ol the most
miporant sieps lo eneouiaemg uaste minimi/ation.

Proclm 7 Quality Must Not Suffer

Reducing waste at the source may mean  changing the
way that products are made. Care must be taken not  to
risk the quality of established products.
Competing Pressures
Waste generators are struggling to keep up with emerg-
ing hazardous waste regulations.  Over the next few
years, many generators will be making long-term
commitments to phase out  land disposal and to adopt
waste treatment processes.  For many managers, waste
minimization may not seem as urgent as meeting these
regulatory deadlines. Because information is not al-
ways readily accessible and because process changes
may be required, action is too easy to postpone. For
waste minimization to gain acceptance among manag-
ers, they must realize how  it can  help meet their regula-
tory obligations, pay off in economic benefits, and im-
prove their image with the  public by demonstrating a
commitment to environmental quality.

A Pennsylvania die manufacturer uses 1.1.1 -trichlo-
methane to clean and decrease machine parts.  Prior
to installing this solvent recovery unit, the company
shipped the contaminated solvent offsite for reclama-
tion and then purchased reclaimed solvent at $.80 per
gallon and virgin 1,1,1-trichloroethane at $4.50 per
Using this solvent recovery unit, the company now
reclaims solvent onsite at a cost of $.04-$. 10 per
gallon.  In addition, the company's purchase of virgin
1,1,1-trichloroethane has dropped from two 55-gallon
drums each month to two 55-gallon drums every 6
months, a savings of nearly $5,000 per year
;!ss.T\,ii en and Reco\erv .Act (RCRAi
vemiiK'iKV ol sourte reduction and
itcgy lor managing solid waste. As
 year RCRA  was passed by Congress.
 EPA developed a formal hierarchy for
 waste  management that listed source
 reduction as the preferred manage-
 ment option, followed, in order of
 preference, by onsite and offsite recy-
 cling,  treatment, and, last, land dis-

 In  1984, reflecting increased national
 concern over the hazardous waste
 problem. Congress directed EPA to
 report on whether it might be desir-
 able or feasible to develop mandatory
 requirements, such as national
 regulations,  to compel adoption of
 waste  minimization techniques. In
 1986.  EPA responded with its report
 to Congress  on waste minimization.

 This report explored various techni-
 cal, economic, and policy issues
 pertinent to hazardous waste source
 reduction and recycling, and con-
 cluded that mandatory programs
 would not  be desirable  or feasible at
 this time. EPA is continuing to collect
 and analyze  data from generators and
 other sources to assess further the
 need for statutory authority on waste
 minimization. These findings will
 provide the basis for a followup re-
 port to Congress in 1990. In this
 report  EPA will  evaluate whether ex-
 isting  incentives  have been sufficient
 to promote waste minimization, or
 whether some form of mandatory
 program is seen as necessary to im-
 plement the  national waste minimiza-
 tion policy.

                                                            ; I I  • <
                           i> i >•i  MI .  • ki \ t.icio  •   iixi. niaiKkiioiA programs
                           ,\<'iik:  V>A M \.' L'lK'v-.  mdu-Ur \ production decisions.
                           quite I'OssibK leading to counterproductive results.
                           Second, mandatory programs \\ould he difficult and ex-
                           pensive to design and administer.  Third, generators al-
                           ready face strong economic incentives to reduce their
                           wastes. A regulatory program would take  time to de-
                           velop.  and many industries might postpone any action
                           until mandatory requirements were spelled out.  The
                           time for making constructive source reduction and
                           recycling decisions is now, while industry is making
                           long-term decisions on how to respond to the land
                           disposal restrictions program and other revisions in the
                           ha/ardous waste law.
                           EPA's report to Congress stressed that  the most con-
                           structive role government can assume is to promote
                           voluntary waste minimi/.ation by providing information,
                           technology transfer, and assistance to waste generators.
                           Since the States deal firsthand with generators, EPA
                           believes the States should play the central role in
                           fostering knowledge about waste minimization.
                           Through waste minimization outreach programs, EPA
                           will provide technical materials and guidance as well as
                           information resulting from research efforts and other
                           sources. EPA is also developing a nonbinding waste
                           minimization policy  statement to provide guidance to
                           generators who must certify  and report information to
                           EPA on their waste minimization activities.
  Examples of Waste Minimization
         in Other Countries
One of the largest chemical manufacturers in the
Netherlands uses waste segregation, removal of
solvents in water solutions by distillation, and other
source reduction  measures  to  reduce the
company's annual wastewater output by 80 per-

In Sweden, a major pharmaceutical producer initi-
ated a program.to recycle  approximately 10,000
tons of hazardous waste solvents per year through
the company's onsite distillation plant, thereby re-
ducing by 60 percent the amount of solvent waste
that was shipped offsite for  disposal.
Waste Minimization in
Other Countries
EPA's waste minimization strat-
egy parallels those in Europe and
Japan. All of them rely on coop-
erative, voluntary efforts.  All of
them stress the importance of low-
pollution source reduction and
recycling technologies, waste
exchange (one company's waste
being used as another's feed-
stock), and information sharing.
As in the United States, these
countries operate on a two-tier
system: states, provinces, or pre-
fectures deal directly with waste

                                                        ; ' i!i KT i  • pi I.K id,1 diicu1 n*-.
                             .  >;   :     '   • :   V:M :  '. •- •••ir\C',ed in an [•])\ study .>['
                              -••IV •-:  >•-   -ic  ei.li.uiiiHi practice^ ha\e rejected the
                             notMii 0  mandatory neitonnance standards or other
                             regihatorv  ap|M-c:achcs. Several countries have commit-
                             ted -significant resources toward working with genera-
                             tors to reduce waste volumes.
Waste Minimization Practices in Other Countries

Waste End Taxes
Tax Incentives
Price Support System for Recycling
Government Grants as Subsidies
Low Interest Loans
Information and Referral Service
Site Consultation
Training Seminars
Technical Development Labs
Demonstration Projects
Industrial Research
National Waste Management Plans
Waste Reduction Agreements
Waste Reduction as a Part of Permits
Regional Waate Exchanges
Focus on Corporate Image
Focus on Consumer Practices









Source: Foreign Practices in Hazardous Waste Minimization (Medford, Mass.: Center for Environ-
mental Management, Tufts University, 1986).

  Setting up
  an Industry
    Suggested Steps
of a Waste Minimization
  Rank options by:
  - waste reduction
  - extent of current use
   in the industry;
  - potential for future
   application at the facility.
  Present preliminary results to
  plant personnel along with a
  ranking of options.
  Prepare a final report,  includ-
  ing recommendations to plant
  Develop  an implementation
  plan and schedule.
  Conduct periodic reviews and
  updates of assessments.
 ;; ; •   i  .[. : , s T i! ui i -\ '"ill*  :  I ;• lopi ll ^ >  A II LVIH'I ,1 I
 ••'.liii,MI  i.'  \a--u: mimn i/.ilmn. anil, \\heie\ei
.v-ssibk:. define lhat pro^iarn lormally in a urillen
Joe iinicnl.  ll should also develop an implementation
plan  tor each ol its I'aeilities or suhunits and periodically
revievv.  revise, and update its program to  reflect chang-
ing conditions.  While a waste minimi/.ation program
can target regulated ha/ardous  waste, it  can also easily
incorporate effective reductions of other types of

Conducting Waste Minimization
An effective first step in setting up a waste reduction
program is to perform a waste minimi/.ation assessment,
sometimes referred to as a "waste minimization audit."
Conducted by  in-house staff or an  independent outside
expert, a waste minimization assessment is simply a
structured review of a facility's potential opportunities
 Waste minimization assessments are an effective means of
 identifying opportunities for source reduction and recycling.

        Case Study of a Waste
      Minimization Assessment
                        -WiSte  minimization
                     ftfflSftlWace steel  rnak-
                          ffeam examined
                      i, Including source re-
                         ,<0r the company's
                              The assess-
ment revealed that calcium fluoride (fluorspar) in
the sludge generated during neutralization of the
pickling line wastewater could be economically re-
covered. Previously, the company had disposed
of the sludge and  purchased  1,000 tons of
fluorspar per year as ftux material for the steel
making process.  The waste minimization option
identified by the assessment team will save the
company $100,000 per year in costs avoided to
purchasefluorspar,andafurther$70,coo per year
because of a30percent reduction in the volume of
sludge to be disposed of.
Mam Suite programs promote and
support waste minimi/ation assess-
ments as a central element of their
waste minimi/ation programs. All
facilities that generate ha/.ardous
waste can benefit, and operations
that generate large volumes of
waste and/or highly toxic waste
can benefit greatly. Substantial
and continuing waste reductions
have also been achieved through
the information gained from con-
ducting waste assessments. Waste
minimization assessments identify
and characterize waste streams, the
production processes that are re-
sponsible for generating each par-
ticular stream, and the amount of
waste  generated by each.
                           The result> of a waste minimization assessment enable
                           companies  to identify cost-effective approaches to re-
                           duo  the volume and toxicity of waste generated. They
                           can then make more informed decisions on how to
                           allocate resources to source reduction and recycling
                           programs.  While some capital investment may be re-
                           quired, returns can be analyzed in terms of payback pe-
                           riods and opportunity costs.

                           Involving Production Staff

                           The key difference between waste minimization and
                           other environmental programs is that the essential deci-
                           sionmakers are often on the production rather than on
                           the environmental compliance side of the organization.
                           While many environmental controls can be simply
                           added to existing production processes, waste minimi-
                           zation usually happens within the production process
                           itself. For example, recycling decisions require input
                           from production staff, since waste often must be
                           pretreated or otherwise modified to permit in-house

                            Ha/ardous uaste disposal costs have increased rapidly
                            and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future as
                            generators compete for scarce treatment and disposal
                            capacity. Because process engineers in many industrial
                            plants are not required to consider "fully loaded" waste
                            management expenses (such as treatment and disposal,
                            transportation, tracking, management overhead, insur-
                            ance, and energy and  raw  material expenses) as part  of
                            their production costs, they may be making process
                            design and operation decisions that seem cost-effective
                            within a discrete process,  but that are actually ineffi-
                            cient from the company's overall financial perspective.

                            Keeping Accurate Records
                            An important step in setting up waste minimi/ation pro-
                            grams is to maintain accurate records on existing waste
                            generation rates and management costs, particularly  for
                            the maior ha/ardous waste streams that will be targets
                            for source reduction or recycling and that may have
                            been subject to waste minimization assessments as part
                            of the company's overall  waste minimi/ation program.

                            Working with State Programs
                            Some States have already instituted waste minimization
                            technical assistance and outreach programs; others are
                            initiating or expanding their efforts.  States can help
                            generators of all types, private and public, by providing
                            technical guidance, helping to find qualified engineers
                            to conduct waste assessments, serving as conduits for
                            obtaining the latest information on waste minimization
                            techniques, and putting companies with similar needs in
                            contact with each other.  Although companies must
                            protect the confidentiality of their business information.
                            they may, in many  instances, benefit from sharing or
                            trading expertise or experience with State  waste mini-
                            mization programs as intermediaries. States can also
                            help publicize a company's waste minimization efforts.

                                                                         IV ,Kllllll Isk'l i.'i
                                         i •. ,'i'ii iK'iilai ;.'!iMip- such as uimcrsitK's and
                                         ii III'L\ ni/alioii->.  Sonic ol these [)roi:r;iiiis are
                                         iliis paniplilcl.
 An electronics plant installed
        this electrolytic metal
      recovery cell to recover
copper from waste generated
in the production of telephone
    switching equipment. The
    process produces a better
 quality copper deposit on the
  cell's cathode plates, where
    the copper collects in half
   inch-thick sheets.  The cell
recovers 75 pounds of copper
   per week, which is sold for
    $.50 per pound—a total of
  about $2,000 per year. The
      use of the cell also has
  eliminated 1 drum of sludge
         per week, saving an
   additional $4,000 per year

•• •  i K  .-. I •  •• .1 -I  ; i HUM  ; /M• n -  u\ >uin |-ics can K1
.IK ui| >ed mil • lour'iui|or jau'L'oi lev m\enlor\ manage
ment and unproved operations, modification ol equip-
ment, production process changes, and recycling and
reuse. Such  techniques  can have applications across a
range of industries and manufacturing processes, and
can apply to hazardous as well as nonha/ardous waste.

Many of these techniques involve source reduction—
the preferred option on EPA's hierarchy of waste man-
agement. Others deal with on- and off-site recycling.
The best way to determine how these general ap-
proaches can fit a particular company's needs is to
conduct a waste minimisation assessment, as discussed
above. In practice, waste minimization opportunities
are limited only by the ingenuity of the generator. In
the end. a company looking carefully at bottom-line
returns may conclude that the most feasible strategy
would be a combination of source reduction and
recycling projects.

The approaches discussed and illustrated below provide
waste minimization examples for generic and specific
processes.  Several of these will be the subject of EPA
technology transfer documents (see inside front cover).
              Good Management Practices Mean Different
                         Things to Different Firms
   By improving the methods for analyzing raw materials and products, a textile fibers plant in
   Tennessee reduced the amount of waste solvent generated from 7,000 gallons to 2,400 gallons
   per year.

   Changing the reactor rinse and cleaning procedures on its truck-loading strainers has enabled
   a  California chemical  plant to reduce by 93 percent the amount of organics in its resin-
   manufacturing operation. Instead of allowing the phenol used in the manufacturing process to
   drip into the plant's sewage treatment system as a hose drains it from trucks, the company now
   flushes the hose with water, and the water-phenol mixture is recovered for reuse in a separate
   treatment system.

          Production Process Changes
            Substitute nonhazardous for hazardous
            ra\/v materials.
            Segregate wastes by type for recovery.
            Eliminate sources of leaks and spills.
            Separate hazardous from nonhazardous
            Redesign or reformulate end products to
            be less hazardous.
            Optimize reactions and raw material use.
          Recycling and Reuse
            Install closed-loop systems.
            Recycle onsite for reuse.
            Recycle offsite for reuse.
            Exchange wastes.
Belter Operating Practices

On • ol tlv best means ol reducing wastes is through
betier operating or housekeeping practices—that is,
ways to make existing processes work more efficiently,
and thereby generate less waste.  Better operating prac-
tices can involve anything from finding a more efficient
way to handle a particular hazardous waste to making
fundamental changes in the way  a company thinks
about waste management.

Better operating practices are specific to each facility
and to each waste-generating process, but general
themes include the following:

Personnel Practices
Heightened awareness by employees of the need for
waste minimization is essential.  Training programs, for
example, are ways to generate ideas and establish em-
ployees' commitment.

Evaporative recovery
systems can minimize the
volume of waste from metal-
plating baths and recycle
plating solutions by recover-
ing 90-95 percent of the
plating solution lost through
dragout.  The operating cost
of the recovery system is only
$.08 per gallon, while the
dragout sludge hauling and
disposal costs are close to
$1.00 per gallon.  With on'y
5-10 percent of the dragout
requiring waste treatment,
waste handling and disposal
costs have been reduced
'"'  "  Ul   ' '<•  •  :'.  i-Miii:.1 • i_ '.  to\ie d> islllueills. isolal
ii'L! !:v|in.| tiact vi]i,. or (-ccping ha/ardiuis stivanis liom
nonha/ariinus uasic. gcnetators can sometimes save
suhsiantial amounts of money on disposal or find new
opportunities  tor recycling and reuse.

Be tier Standard Procedures

Large quantities of ha/.ardous waste may be generated
through spills, improper storage practices, inefficient
production startup or shutdown, scheduling problems,
lack of emergency procedures and preventive mainte-
nance, or poorly calibrated pollution control devices.
New  standard procedures manuals, better inventory
control,  and routine training and retraining sessions can
help eliminate this inadvertent waste generation and
provide significant companywide source reduction
                               During standard equipment-cleaning operations, hospitals,
                               universities, and research centers, as well as many small- and
                               medium-sized businesses, such as metal finishers and furniture
                               manufacturers, generate small amounts of waste solvents.
                               These waste solvents can be recycled for reuse in cleaning
                               operations using small, commercially available recovery units.
                               Depending on the commercial value and amount of solvent
                               recovered, the pay-back time for recycling equipment can be as
                               short as 1 year.  Since transportation costs can be very high,
                               even businesses that use only low volumes of solvents may
                               find it more economical to recycle their waste solvents onsite
                               rather than ship the wastes offsite for recovery or disposal.

                                ()ii',' ol il <• n u >si d live I means of reducing paint-related
                                ha/ardotis u.iste is to use low-to\icit\ paints, such as
                                those th.it are \vater-hased products or do not contain
                                heavy metals.  Changing to water-based paints helps to
                                reduce the use of organic solvents that later must be
                                managed as ha/ardous waste and that also can be a
                                source of air pollution.
 The Department of Defense has developed a
 new technique called Plastics Media Blasting
     to strip paint from military aircraft.  In this
 process, small plastic beads are air blasted at
   the aircraft's surface, removing the paint by
 abrasion. This method requires less time and
        generates less hazardous waste than
 traditional wet paint stripping. On the basis of
     a test,  the DOD estimates that  the time
      required to strip an F-4 lighter has been
    reduced from 340 to 40 hours and that the
amount of hazardous waste has been reduced
 from 10,000 pounds of wet sludge per aircraft
 to 320 pounds of dry paint chips and decom-
            posed plastic media per aircraft.
                                             Another approach to reducing waste from
                                             painting operations is to employ mechani-
                                             cal paint stripping.  Companies that
                                             substitute such processes as bead blasting
                                             or cryogenic coating removal can avoid
                                             the use of ha/ardous caustics and solvents.

As stain is sprayed onto a
piece of furniture, the water
curtain in the booth traps the
excess stain and solvent
residue.  The water is
recycled back to the wet
booth and reused.
 Improved Paint Applications Programs
An electric company uses a water-based electrostatic
paint system instead of a conventional organic solvent
paint system.  This  has resulted in improved quality of
application, decrease of downtime from 3 percent to 1
percent, reduction in the generation of aromatic waste
solvent by 95 percent, reduction in paint sludge by  97
percent, and increase of efficiency with up to 95 percent
recovery and reuse  of paint.  The new system reduced
hazardous waste disposal costs and decreased personnel
and maintenance costs by 40 percent.

An automobile manufacturer modified its paint storage
and transfer system to be totally enclosed with full recircu-
lation, resulting in less frequent and easier cleanups and
improvement in paint quality.
                              More Effective Metal Parts Cleaning

                              Metal parts cleaning is an essential process for many
                              large and small industries as well as a wide variety of
                              businesses involved in the manufacture, repair, and
                              maintenance of metal parts and equipment. Potentially
                              ha/.arclous  substances used in metal parts cleaning can
                              be minimi/ed by reducing the volume or the toxicity of
                              the cleaning agents used. Either method can save
                              mone\ as well as reduce ha/ardous waste.  Generic ap-
                              proaches to minimi/.e waste from metal parts cleaning
                              include source control and substitution of cleaning

Ion exchange metal-recovery
units are used to remove heavy
metals from aqueous residues
generated by electroplating,
metal-finishing, electronics
manufacturing, and metal-
refining processes.  Ion
exchange systems are
commercially available, are
relatively compact, and use little
                                                    Siivni  :(  ',''U[];iiL' pi'i >ccsses L an
                                                    include  usriig abrasives in grease
                                                    less or ualer-based hinders, thus
                                                    eliminating the need tor subsequent
                                                    caustic-based cleaning to remove
                                                    the binder. Plants can also substi-
                                                    tute abrasive-tree, water-based
                                                    cleaning compounds for solvent
                                                    cleaners in many processes, thereby
                                                    reducing air emissions from
                                 A high efficiency vapor degreaser removes lubricants and oil
                                 substances in this metal parts cleaning operation.  This totally
                                 enclosed system, which collects solvent vapors and recycles
                                 them back to the cleaning operation, also reduces potential
                                 solvent air emissions.

                              Two approaches to minimi/ing waste from process
                              equipment cleaning are reducing the  frequency of clean-
                              ups and reducing the quantity and toxicity of waste.
                              For example, to reduce the frequency of cleanups, spe-
                              cialty chemical plants might schedule their batch proc-
                                                       esses to make a full year's run
                                                       of a single chemical all at
                                                       once, rather than interspersing
                                                       it  with batches of other prod-
                                                       ucts.  Other plants might
                                                       install more corrosion-
                                                       resistant pipes and vats that
                                                       can  tolerate less frequent
                                                       washing without risking
                                                       product quality.
Acetone is used at this Ohio fiber glass manufacturing plant to clean and rinse molds and finished
fiber glass panels for use on mass transit buses.  A cost of $225 per gallon for acetone coupled with
high disposal costs for the waste solvent caused the company to turn to onsite solvent recovery.
The plant now uses two solvent recovery units that reclaim 45 gallons of acetone per day at a cost
of $.04 to $. 10 per gallon. The recovery units, which have a typical pay-back period of 1 year, allow
the reclaimed solvent to be reused immediately. Not only has the company reduced its waste
volume by 90 percent, it has also substantially decreased the amount of virgin acetone it must
  Oil-water separators can be
      sized to accommodate
   different types of pollutant
  discharges from petroleum-
    and nonpetroleum-based
   industries. As oily influent
flows into the separator, oil is
 removed ana recovered and
 clean effluent is discharged.
The heavy solids settle to the
  bottom and are periodically

                 '^1' T '•   ; hi I  I >l  I 1 I I ,>  H M crates ,1 -,|IKi 1 I i.|liai!t 11 \  it!
                 hi!-!l)!\ ^<'i cenlratci.l  waste that can he recycled lui
                 additional rinsing, \\hilc the second, \\i\\-\ olnnie rinse
                 finishes the cleaning and generates a much kmer
                 toxicilN  uasle than he tore.
Examples of Other Waste Minimization Processes
                      isposal Problem   ;  n ^.  '
                      ttf a major cNfrfert com^cn^li KemMy mwiutee-
                 jterio ;^ict, 0enerate<| as a marm^irt?ip t^procfeiot, was
                          The  company reeeritly iNstelW^a new freon
                          juaBty hyilrocNoric ajtid.  By instsWing the n«w
                    acid storage facility, the company now is able to sell
                     ytir of acid that was previously $$card«i

                  Cyanide from Rinse Water
                       tjuses revers©;bsmosis to^ihtlriaie thf discharge of
                                                     ,ilion> that rccci\ e most ol
                                                     at ion exchanges, take actu;
                             physical possession of the waste and may initiate or
                             actively participate in the transfer of wastes to the users.
                             They are usually privately owned companies that
                             operate for profit.
                Actual Examples from a Waste Exchange Catalog
       Formaldehyde-Surplus. Formaldehyde solution. Potential Use: embalming fluid. Type
       1; Contains 25%formaldehyde with 10% glycerine, 10% alcohols (ethanol, isopropanol,
       methanol) and cRstied water by wet wt. Type 2: Contains 25% formaldehyde with 25%-
       35% ateotipls (eihanot, isopropanol, methanol) and distilled water by wet wt. 165,000
       gate, in 15 gal drums/plastic carboys in steel drums. One time. Independent analysis
       (specification) avuiliable. PA

       1,1,1-trichloroethane. 1,1,1-trichloroethane from asphalt extractions.  Contains 90%
       l.t.l-WcWoroethane with 10% asphalt and 1% oil.  220 gals, in drums available.
       Quantities vary. Thereafter 220 gal/yr. Sample available. PA

       Paraffin Wax. Paraffin wax from clean-out of chewing gum base mixers.  Fully refined.
       Potential use: firelogs, crayons, etc. Contains traces of gum base and calcium carbonate.
       80,000 fes. in 50 gal. drums. Quantities continuous.  Thereafter 40,000 Ibs/qtr.
                              While any type of waste can be listed in a waste
                              exchange, certain materials are more likely than others
                              to be recycled.  Most transactions involve relatively
                              "pure" wastes that can be used directly with minimal
                              processing.  Solvents, organics, acids, and alkalies are
                              most frequently recycled.  Metals from metal-bearing
                              wastes, sludges, and solutions also may be recovered

                              Waste exchanges are located throughout the country,
                              but computerized central listing services are now the
                              best first step in finding the most convenient one (see
                              inside back cover).

    Looking to
    the Future
                                 I •.  '   H ! I   •, '  K '  K  ,  '. 1 I  i i.Ill t1 K' iaiH ; i l|xp< )-,,! I: • l|
                                 ii.ii!1.  mil! '.Hi'ii  ha,jai''!< MIS \\aslcs, toruiiL'  Lienerator^ to
                                '•vpioiv oilier options. I reatmcnt technologies car  as-
                                sunk-  much ot the \vask- management burden from  land
                                disposal, hut treatment is expensive, and. at least in the
                                near term, capacity is limited.  EPA's strategy to
                                minimi/.e the generation of ha/ardous waste will help
                                reduce or eliminate regulated wastes  that are now
                                managed by treatment or land disposal as well as other
                                wastes that pose risks to human health and the environ-

                                Waste minimization is one of the few areas where
                                national environmental goals and industry's economic
                                interests clearly  coincide.  For generators, the benefits
                                include reduced costs, liabilities, and regulatory burdens
                                associated with  hazardous waste management.   For the
                                general public, waste minimization pays off in an im-
                                proved environment.

                                Because of these shared interests, EPA is promoting
                                voluntary action on the part of industry. The only for-
                                mal waste minimization requirement  under RCRA is
                                that industries certify that they have waste  minimization
                                programs of their own design in place. To support this,
                                                             EPA will publish a non-
                                                             binding waste minimi-
                                                             zation policy statement
                                                             reflecting the Agency's
                                                             ideas on what an effec-
                                                             tive voluntary program
                                                             might include. EPA is
                                                             also revising its
                                                             biennial reporting re-
                                                             quirements to provide
                                                             generators with
                                                             checklists with which
                                                             to describe  their
                                                             activities and report
                                                             their  progress.
Waste minimization promotes environmental quality.

                                       ill nl H'\  ,
                                       \. l-.p\\
                                       locus on
RCR.A hazardous waste.  I he overall Agency  strateg)
will, however, address multimedia opportunities and
will include an information clearinghouse, a national
data base, research and technology transfer, and support
for State programs.

EPA's technology transfer program will provide infor-
mation to industry on methods to prevent waste
generation by changing industrial processes, materials.
and operations.  One of the Agency's first projects is to
issue a detailed manual on how to conduct a waste
minimi/.ation assessment.  This will be followed by a
15-minute videotape illustrating the step-by-step proc-
ess, w ith examples of how different firms have profited
from ihese assessments. EPA is also producing a com-
puten/.ed bibliography on waste minimization and a
series of technology transfer documents on a variety  of
subjects.  In addition, the Agency is developing a series
of guidance materials for IS  different types of industries
that tend to generate small quantities of hazardous
waste.  All of these materials will be available through
State waste minimi/.ation programs.

Waste minimization clearly provides opportunities to
deal more efficiently and effectively with wastes that
are hazardous to human health and the environment.
These opportunities are unique in that they provide im-
mediate financial rewards to industry, increased waste
management flexibility to generators, and reduced pres-
sures on the nation's existing treatment and land
disposal capacity.  Now is the time to investigate and
take practical steps toward waste minimization, before
major commitments are made for treatment and disposal
options.  Over the longer term, the benefits of source re-
duction and recycling will be key incentives for genera-
tors to integrate waste minimization  techniques into
their overall hazardous waste management programs.

 State Hazardous  Waste Agencies
Alabama      Alabama Department of
                Environmental Management
              1751 Dkkenson Drive
              Montgomery, AL 36130
              (265) 271-7730

              HAMMARR Regulation
                Information Service
              University of Alabama
              P.O. Drawer G, University Station
              Tiiscaloosa, AL 35487
              (205) 348-6100

Alaska        Alaska Health Project
              Waste Reduction Assistance
              431 West 7th Avenue, Suite  101
              Anchorage, AK 99501
              (907) 276-2864

              Department of Environmental
              3220 Hospital Drive
              P.O. Box O
              Juneau, AK 99811-1800
              (907) 46.'i-2666

Arizona       Department of Environmental Quality
              2005 N. Central Avenue
              Phoenix, AZ 85004
              (602) 257-2318

Arkansas      Arkansas; Industrial Development
              No.  1 Capitol Mall
              Little Rock, AR 72201
              (501) 682-7322

              Hazardous Material Training
              4301 W. Markham St.,  Mail Stop 638
              Little Rock, AR 72205
              (501) 661-5766

California      Alternative Technology  Section
              Department of Health Services
              P.O.  Box 942732
              Sacramento, CA 94234
              (916) 324-1807
Colorado      Department of Health
              4210 E. llth Avenue
              Denver, CO 80220
              (303) 331-4841

Connecticut    Connecticut Hazardous Waste
                Management Service
              900 Asylum Avenue, Suite 360
              Hartford, CT 06105
              (203) 244-2007

              Local Assistance and
              Connecticut Department of
                Environmental Protection
              165 Capital Avenue
              Hartford, CT 06106
              (203) 566-3437

Delaware      Hazardous Waste Management  Branch
              Delaware Department of Natural
                Resources and Environmental
              P.O. Box 1407
              Dover, DE 19903
              (302) 736-3689

Florida        Waste Reduction Assistance Program
              DER/Division of Waste Management
              2600 Blair Stone Road
              Tallahassee, FL 32399-2400
              (904) 488-0300

Georgia       Hazardous and Industrial Waste
                Management Program
              Georgia Institute of Technology
              O'Keefe Building
              Atlanta, GA 30332
              (404) 894-3806

              Environmental Protection Division
              Georgia Department of Natural
              205 Butler Street, S.E.
              Atlanta, GA 30334
              (404) 656-2833

Hawaii        Hazardous Waste Program
              Hawaii Department of Health
              P.O. Box 3378
              Honolulu, HI 96801
              (808) 548-8834

Idaho         Bureau of Hazardous Materials
              450 West State Street
              Boise, ID 83720
              0208) 334-5878

Illinois        Illinois Hazardous Waste Research
                and Information Center
              1808 Woodfield Drive
              Savoy, IL 61874
              (217) 333-8940

              Waste Reduction Unit
              Illinois Environmental Protection
              2200 Churchill Road
              P.O. Box 19276
              Springfield, IL 62794
              (217) 781-6760

Indiana       Department of Environmental
              Office of Solid and Hazardous Waste
              105 South Meridian Street
              P.O. Box 6015
              Indianapolis,  IN 46206-6015
              (317) 232-8857

              Department of Environmental
              Office of Technical Assistance
              105 South Meridian Street
              P.O. Box 6015
              Indianapolis,  IN 46206-6015
              (317) 232-8172

              Environmental Management and
                Education Program  (EMEP)
              Center for Public Policy
              Room 120, Young Graduate House
              Purdue University
              West Lafayette,  IN 47906
              (317) 494-5036

Iowa          Simall Business Assistance Center
              112 Latham Hall
              University of Northern Iowa
              Cedar Falls,  IA 50614
              (319) 273-2079

              Iowa Department of Natural Resources
              Afallace State Office Building
              Des Moines, IA 50319
              (515) 281-8489

Kansas        Department of Health and
              Forbes Field
              Topeka, KA 66620
              (913) 296-1698
Kentucky      Department for Environmental
              18 Reilly Road
              Frankfort, KY 40601
              (502) 564-2150

              Kentucky Partners
              University of Louisville
              Ernst Hall
              Louisville, KY 40292
              (502) 588-7260

Louisiana     Department of Environmental Quality
                Solid and Hazardous Waste
              625 N. Fourth Street, 6th Floor
              Baton Rouge, LA 70804
              (504) 342-1216

              Department of Environmental Quality
                Policy and  Planning
              625 N. Fourth Street, 5th Floor
              Baton Rouge, LA 70804
              (504) 342-1255

Maine        Department of Environmental
              State House Station 17
              Augusta, ME 04333
              (207) 289-7838

Maryland     Maryland Environmental Services
              2020 Industrial Drive
              Annapolis,  MD 21401
              (301) 974-7281

              Hazardous  Waste Program
              Department of the Environment
              2500 Broening Highway
              Baltimore, MD 21224
              (301) 631-3343

Massachusetts Asst. Commissioner for Waste
              Department of Environmental Quality
                and Engineering
              One Winter Street, 5th Floor
              Boston, MA 02108
              (617) 292-5765

              Department of Environmental
              Office of Safe Waste  Management
              100 Cambridge Street, Room  1904
              Boston, MA 02202
              (617) 727-3260

Michigan      Office of Waste Reduction
              Department of Commerce
              106 W. Allegan, Suite 111
              P.O. Box 30004
              Lansing, MI 48909
              (517) 335-1178

              Department of Natural Resources
              P.O. Box 30028
              Lansing, MI 48909
              (517) 373-4735

Minnesota     MnTAP (Minnesota Technical
                Assistance Program)
              University of Minnesota
              Box 197 Mayo
              420 Delaware Street, SE
              Minnesapolis, MN 55455
              (612) 625-4949

              Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
              Hazardous Waste  Section
              520 Lafayette Road
              St.  Paul, MN 55155
              (612) 296-7284

Mississippi     MSU Chemical Engineering
              P.O. Drawer CN
              Mississippi  State, MS 39762
              (601) 325-2480

              Environmental Protection Council
              P.O. Box 10385
              Jackson, MS 39209
              (601) 961-5276

Missouri      Missouri EIERA
              P.O. Box 744
              Jefferson City, MO 65102
              (314) 751-4919

              Department  of Natural Resources
              Waste Management Program
              P.O. Box 176
              Jefferson City, MO 65102
              (314) 751-3176

Montanai      Department of Health
              Solid and Hazardous  Waste Bureau
              Cogswell Building
              Helena, MT 59620
              (406) 444-2821

Nebraska      Department of Environmental Control
              301  Centennial Mall South
              Lincoln, NE 68509
              (402) 471-4217
Nevada       Department of Conservation and
                Natural Resources
              Waste Management Division
              201 South Fall Street
              Carson City, NV 89710
              (702) 885-5872

New          Department of Environmental Services
Hampshire    Waste Management Division
              6 Hazen  Drive
              Concord, NH 03301-6509
              (603) 271-3449

New Jersey    Department of Environmental
              Division  of Hazardous Waste
              401 East  State Street
              Trenton,  NJ 08625
              (609) 633-0737

              Department of Environmental
              Office of Science and Research
              401 East  State Street, CN-409
              Trenton,  NJ 08627
              (609) 984-6072

              Hazardous  Waste Commission
              28 West State Street, Room 614
              Trenton,  NJ 08608
              (609) 292-1459

New Mexico   Department of Environmental
              Hazardous  Waste Bureau
              1190 St. Francis Drive
              Santa Fe, NM 87504
              (505) 872-2835

New York     Waste Minimization Section
              Division of Hazardous Substances
              Department of Environmental
              50 Wolf Road
              Albany, NY 12233-7253
              (518) 485-8400

              State Environmental Facilities Corp.
              50 Wolf Road
              Albany, NY 12205
              (518) 457-4132

North         North Carolina Pollution Prevention
Carolina        Program
              Department of Environment, Health
                and Natural Resources
              PD. Box 27687
              Raleigh, NC 27611-7687
              (919) 733-7015

              Hazardous Waste Branch
              Division of Health Services
              Department of Human Services
              P.O. Box 2091
              Raleigh, NC 27602
              (919) 733-2178

Ohio          Diivision of Solid and Hazardous
                Waste Management
              P.O. Box 1049
              Columbus, OH 43266
              (614) 644-2956

              Ohio Technology Transfer
              65 E.  State Street, Suite 200
              Columbus, OH 43066
              (614) 466-4286

Oklahoma     Waste Management Service
              Oklahoma State Department  of Health
              P.O. Box 53551
              Oklahoma City, OK 73152
              (405) 271-7047

Oregon       Department of Environmental Quality
              Hazardous and Solid Waste Division
              811 S.W. Sixth Avenue
              Portland, OR 97204
              (503) 229-6165

Pennsylvania   Department of Environmental
              Bureau of Waste Management
              PD. Box 2063
              Harrisburg, PA  17120

              Center for haxardous Materials
              University of Pittsburgh
              320 William Pitt Way
              Pittsburgh, PA 15238
              (412) 826-5320

              PENNTAP (Pennsylvania Technical
                Assistance Program)
              The Pennsylvania State UniversiU
              1527 William  Street
              University Park, PA 16802
              (81.4) 865-1914
Rhode Island  Office of Environmental Coordination
              Department of Environmental
              9 Hayes Street
              Providence, RI 02903
              (401) 277-3434

              Center for Environmental Study
              Brown University
              135 Angell Street
              P.O. Box 1943
              Providence, RI 02912
              (401) 863-3499

South         Department of Health and
Carolina        Environmental Control
              Solid  and Hazardous Waste
              2600 Bull Street
              Columbia, SC 29201
              (803)  734-5200

Tennessee     Center for Industrial Services
              The University of Tennessee
              226 Capitol Blvd. Bldg., Suite 401
              Nashville, TN 37219-1804
              (615) 242-2456

              Department of Health and
              150 Ninth Avenue North
              Nashville, TN 37219
              (615) 741-3657

Texas         Hazardous and Solid Waste
              Texas  Water Commission
              1700 North Congress Avenue
              P.O. Box 13087, Capital Station
              Austin, TX 78711
              (512) 463-7761

Vermont      Department of Environment and
              Hazardous Materials Management
              103 South Main Street
              Waterbury, VT 05676
              (802) 244-8702

Virginia       Waste Minimization Program
              Department of Waste Management
              101 North 14th Street
              Richmond, VA 23219
              (804) 225-2667

Washington    Waste Reduction and Recycling
              Solid and Hazardous Waste Program
              Department of Ecology
              Mail Stop PV-11
              Olympia, WA 98504
              (206) 459-6302

West Virginia  Department of Natural Resources
              Division of Waste Management
              1201 Greenbrier Street
              Charleston, WV 25311
              (304) 348-5935

Wisconsin     Department of Natural Resources
              P.O. Box 7921
              Madison, WI  53707
              (608) 267-3763

Wyoming      Solid Waste Management Program
              Wyoming Department of Environmental
              122 W. 25th Street
              Cheyenne,  WY 82002
              (307) 777-7752

              U.S. EPA Region VIII
              Hazardous Waste Management Division
              Denver Place (8HWM-RI)
              999 18th Street, Suite 500
              Denver, CO 80202-2405
              (303) 293-1795


Further Information  on  Waste Minimization
                       Hazardous Waste Exchanges
                       California Waste Exchange
                       Department of Health Services
                       Toxic Substances Control Division
                       Alternative Technology Section
                       714/744 P Street
                       P.O. Box 942732
                       Sacramento, CA 94234-7320
                       (916) 324-1807  (Robert McCormick)

                       Enstar Corporation*
                       P.O. Box 189
                       Latham, NY 12110
                       (518) 785-0470  (J.T. Engster)

                       Great Lakes Waste Exchange
                       400 Ann Street, N.W, Suite 201-A
                       Grand Rapids, MI 49504-2054
                       (616) 363-3262  (Jeffrey Dauphin)

                       Idaho Waste Exchange
                       Idaho Department of Environmental Quality
                       Hazardous Materials Bureau
                       450 West State Street
                       Boise, ID 83720
                       (208) 334-5879  (Vicki Jewell)

                       Indiana Waste  Exchange
                       Purdue University
                       School of Civil Engineering
                       West Lafayette, IN 47907
                       (317) 494-5063  (Dr. Lynn Corsonam)

                       Industrial Materials Exchange (IMEX)
                       Seattle—King County Environmental Health
                       172 20th Avenue
                       Seattle, WA 98122
                       (206) 296-4633  (Jerry Henderson)
                       Fax: (206) 296-0188

                       Industrial Material Exchange Service (IMES)
                       P.O. Box 19276
                       2200 Churchill Road, #24
                       Springfield, IL 62794-0276
                       (217) 782-0450  (Diane Shockey)
                       Fax: (217) 524-4193
                       *R)r-profit waste information exchange

                           Industrial Waste Information Exchange
                           New Jersey Chamber of Commerce
                           5 Commerce Street
                           Newark, NJ 07102
                           (201) 623-7070 (William E. Payne)

                           Montana Industrial Waste Exchange
                           Montana Chamber of Commerce
                           P.O. Box 1730
                           Helena, MT 59624
                           (406) 442-2405 (Don Ingles)

                           Northeast Industrial Waste Exchange (NIWE)
                           90 Presidential Plaza, Suite 122
                           Syracuse, NY 13210
                           (315) 422-6572 (Lewis Cutler)
                           Fax: (315) 442-9051

                           Pacific Materials Exchange (PME)
                           S. 3707 Godfrey Blvd.
                           Spokane, WA 99204
                           (509) 623-4244 (Bob Smee)

                           Resource Exchange Network  for
                             Eliminating Waste (RENEW)
                           Texas Water Commission
                           P.O. Box 13087
                           Austin, TX  78711-3087
                           (512) 463-7773 (Hope Castillo)
                           Fax: (512)463-8317

                           San Francisco Waste Exchange
                           2524 Benvenue #435
                           Berkeley, CA 94704
                           (415) 548-6659 (Portia Sinnot)

                           Southeast Waste Exchange (SEWE)
                           Urban Institute
                           Department of Civil Engineering
                           University of North Carolina
                           Charlotte, NC 28223
                           (704) 547-2307 (Maxie May)

                           Southern Waste Information Exchange (SWIX)
                           P.O. Box 960
                           Tallahassee, FL 32302
                           (800) 441-7949 (Eugene B.  Jones)
                           (904) 644-5516
                           Fax: (904) 574-6704

Wastelink Division of TENCON, Inc.
140 Wooster Pike
Milford, Ohio 45150
(513) 248-0012 (Mary E. Malotke)
Fax: (513) 248-1094
Canadian Waste Exchanges

Alberta Waste Materials Exchange
Alberta Research Council
P.O. Box 8330, Postal Station F
Edmonton, AB, Canada T6H 5X2
(403) 450-5408 (William C. Kay)

British Columbia Waste Exchange
2150 Maple Street
Vancouver, BC,  Canada V6J 3T3
(604) 731-7222 (Lynn Deegan)

Canadian  Chemical Exchange*
P.O. Box 1135
Ste-Adele, PQ, Canada JOR 1LO
(514) 229-6511 (Phillipe LaRoche)

Canadian  Waste Materials Exchange (CWME)
ORTECH International
Sheridan Park Research Community
2395 Speakman Drive
Mississauga, ON, Canada L5K 1B3
(416) 822-4111 ext. 265 (Bob Laughlin)

Manitoba Waste Exchange
do  Biomass Energy Institute, Inc.
1329 Niakwa Road
Winnipeg, MB,  Canada R2J 3T4
(204) 257-3891 (James Ferguson)

Ontario Waste Exchange
ORTECH International
Sheridan Park Research Community
2395 Speakman Drive
Mississauga, ON, Canada L5K 1B3
(416) 822-4111 ext. 512 (Linda Varangu)

Peel Regional Waste Exchange
Regional Municipality of Peel
10 Peel Center Drive,
Brampton, ON,  Canada L6T 4B9
(419) 791-9400 (Glen Milbury)

                         Other Waste Exchanges

                         Union Chemical Laboratories
                         Industrial Technology Research Institute
                         321, Kuang Fu Road, Sec. 2
                         Hsinchu, Taiwan (Republic of China) 30042
                         (Ai-Lun Huang, Assoc. Researcher)
                         Leads on Possible Exchanges

                         Tennessee Waste Exchange

                         Ontario Waste Management Corporation
                           Waste Exchange

                         Defunct Exchanges

                         Alabama Waste  Exchange
                         University of  Alabama
                         P.O. Box 870203
                         Tuscaloosa, AL  35487-0203
                         (205) 348-5889 (William J. Herz)
                         Fax: (205) 348-8573

                         Western Waste Exchange
                         Arizona State University
                         Center for Environmental Studies
                         Krause Hall
                         Tempe,  AZ 85287-1201
                         (602) 965-1858 (Dr. Nicholas Hild)

                         EPA Waste Minimization
                         Information Sources

                         U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Report to
                         Congress: Waste Minimization, Vols. I and II. EPA/
                         530-SW-86-033  and -034. (Washington, D.C.: U.S.
                         EPA, 1986). t

                         U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Waste
                         Minimization—Issues and Options, Vols. I and III. EPA/
                         530-SW-86-041  and -043. (Washington, D.C.: U.S.
                         EPA, 1986).f
                         tAvailable from the National Technical Information
                         Service as a five-volume set, NTIS No.

EPA Pollution Prevention Policy (Federal Register,
January 26, 1989).

EPA Guidance to Hazardous Generators on the
Elements of a Waste Minimization Program (Federal
Register, June 12, 1989).

EPA Pollution Prevention Clearinghouse (call RCRA

EPA Manual on Waste Minimization Opportunity
Assessments, Manual.

EPA Video—"Less is More: Pollution Prevention is
Good Business" (call RCRA Hotline—1-800-624-9346).

                                  U.S. EPA REGIONAL OFFICES
                                 EPA REGION 1
                                 John F. Kennedy Building
                                 Boston, MA 02203
                                 (617) 565-3715

                                 EPA REGION 2
                                 26 Federal Plaza
                                 New York, NY 10278
                                 (212) 264-2657

                                 EPA REGION 3
                                 841 Chestnut Street
                                 Philadelphia, PA 19107
                                 (215) 597-9800
726 Minnesota Avenue
Kansas City, KS 66101
(913) 551-7000

999 18th Street
Denver, CO 80202-2405
(303) 293-1603

1235 Mission Street
San Francisco, CA 94103
(415) 556-6322
                                 EPA REGION 4
                                 345 Courtland Street, NE
                                 Atlanta, GA 30365
                                 (404) 347-4727

                                 EPA REGION 5
                                 230 South Dearborn Street
                                 Chicago, IL 60604
                                 (312) 353-2000

                                 EPA REGION 6
                                 1445 Ross Avenue
                                 Dallas, Texas 75202
                                 (214) 655-6444
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101
(206) 442-1200
Office of Solid Waste
401 M Street, SW
Washington,  DC  20460

(800) 424-9346 or
TDD  (800) 553-7672
(in Washington, DC,
382-3000 or TDD 475-9652)