United States
                                Environmental Protection
                                Agency     >
                        Solid Waste and
                        Emergency Response
                          Winter 1992
 neusable News is  the
 ft quarterly newsletter of the
 EPA Office of Solid Waste's
 Municipal and Industrial Solid
 Waste Division. Reusable News
 reports on the efforts of  EPA
 and others to safely and effective-
 ly manage the nation's garbage,
 and provides useful information
 about key issues and concerns in
 MSW management.!
   In This  Issue
« EPA Announces Options to
  Standardize Recycling
  Marketing Claims (p. 1)
• President Bush Issues
  Executive Order Requiring
  Agency Recycling (p. 1)
• Illinois Communities Serve as
  Source Reduction Models
  (P- 2)
• Federal Recycling Gets a
  Boost from FARC II (p. 2)
• Focus on Corporate Award
  Winners (p. 3)
• MSW Management on the
  Alaskan  Tundra: Unique
  Problems, Unique Solutions
• Washington State Strikes
  G.O.L.D. (p. 5)
• EPA Releases Tire Market
  Study (p. 5)
• EPA Plans Outreach for
  Subtitle D (p. 7)
• National Tribal Conference
  on Environmental
  Management (p. 8)
Address comments or suggestions to
John Leigh,  Editor, at (202) 260-9350.
EPA Announces Options to

Standardize  Recycling

Marketing Claims
   An increasing number of products in the marketplace are being marketed on
   the basis of their environmental attributes.  For example, terms such as
"recycled" and "recyclable"  and symbols like the chasing arrows are now quite
                                 common on packages and products.
                                 These terms and symbols, however,
                                 are not always used consistently and
                                 their meanings may be unclear.
                                   To help minimize confusion  and
                                 increase consumer confidence, EPA is
                                 working with other federal agencies
                                 to coordinate federal efforts on en-
                                 vironmental labeling issues. Along
                                 with the Federal Trade Commision
(FTC) and Office of Consumer Affairs (OCA), EPA participates in the Interagercy
Environmental Marketing Task Force, which meets to consult on labeling issues.
                                             (Continued on page 7)

President  Bush  Issues Executive

Order Requiring Agency Recycling
  Recycled Content
 EPA prefers that marketers use the recycling
 emblem only for "recycled content" or "recyclable"
 claims, and that they clearly label the emblem.
 In a Rose Garden ceremony held
 October 31,1991, President George
Bush signed an Executive Order
launching  an  ambitious program to
stimulate waste reduction,  recycling,
and procurement of recycled goods in
all federal agencies and departments.
The Order,  entitled "Federal Agency
Recycling and the Council on Federal
Recycling and Procurement Policy," re-
quires  agencies not already so
engaged to develop a program to
             reduce the amount of waste produced
             and to recycle reusable materials such
             as paper, plastic,  metals, glass, used
             oil, lead-acid batteries, tires, and com-
             postable materials wherever possible.
              Recognizing that such programs
             depend on strong markets for recycled
             products, the Order requires  each
             agency to  report on its affirmative
             procurement  programs.  These
             programs will focus the immense pur-
             chasing leverage of the federal govern-
             ment on goods produced from
             recovered materials, stimulating the
             markets for recycled products. In addi-
             tion, each agency will designate a Recy-
             cling Coordinator, who will oversee the
             implementation and operation of these
             programs, and coordinate efforts to
             measure their success.

                         (Continued on page 8)
                                  * Reusable News is printed on paper that contains at least 50 percent recycled fiber.

Illinois  Communities  Serve as Source Reduction  Models
   The Centra! States Education Center
   (CSEC), a nonprofit environmental
group, has developed a Model Com-
munity Program that is helping a grow-
ing number of Illinois' communities
reduce the amount and toxicity of the
solid waste they generate. Through this
program, CSEC assists communities in
encouraging businesses,  organiza-
  These models are generating much
less waste, and much of what they are
generating gets routed to the com-
munity recycling center, rather than the
landfill. For example,  one model
elementary school  periodically has
"waste-less" days.  On these days,
children are encouraged to minimize
the amount of garbage they generate
tions, and other groups to serve as
source reduction role models for the
remainder of the community. These role
models  also promote recycling and
utilization of recycled materials.
   Several schools and supermarkets
serve as community role models
through this program.  In the model
schools, classrooms have recycling
bins and cafeterias use durable, wash-
able tableware.  Model supermarkets
have a shelf-labeling program to high-
light products with source reduction at-
tributes, such as those with the least
amount of unnecessary packaging. Ad-
ditional  models  include churches,
banks,  libraries,  radio stations, a
sorority, a utility company, newspapers,
theaters, and even city halls. In all, more
than 40  models have been established
in seven different Illinois' communities.
Plans are under way to recruit many
more models, including restaurants,
department stores, hospitals, and even
entire school districts.
from their lunches. About 40 pounds of
garbage are produced in the lunchroom
on "waste-less" days, compared to the
60 pounds that are usually generated.
  According to John Thompson, Ex-
ecutive  Director of CSEC, citizens
really latch onto the idea of community
role models. 'The program makes the
solid waste problem seem solvable,
and at the same time touches on civic
pride," he  says.  CSEC sees role
models as a positive way that com-
munities can take control of their own
waste. The idea is to start small, show
people it can work, and then expand.
In this way, people's everyday be-
havior and attitudes toward waste can
be changed.
   CSEC is a small organization that
relies on a few staff  members  and
many volunteers to carry out its grow-
ing model community program. Before
instituting the program, CSEC sought
the  advice  of  psychologists and
market experts to determine the best
way to  encourage people to par-
ticipate in source reduction. These ex-
perts suggested the  idea of using
models because people enjoy being
looked up to as valuable members of
the community. In addition, groups of
people working together are more ef-
fective than several individuals prac-
ticing source reduction in their homes
because members of groups can rein-
force each other.
   According to  Myra Gordon, Solid
Waste Planning Specialist for CSEC,
'The real benefit of the program is that
it empowers individuals to take action to
reduce waste." She advises anyone
who is interested in starting a Model
Community Program to utilize existing
volunteer groups; to make  sure the
project  coordinator  has  time,
knowledge, and enthusiasm; to put the
extra effort into keeping the program
going after the initial excitement sub-
sides; and to insist that for facilities to
be models they must institute new be-
haviors, not just use the program for
   Many communities throughout the
nation are finding ways to reduce the
waste they generate. Illinois' Model
Community Program is somewhat uni-
que, however, in its use of role models
to teach others about source reduc-
tion. To encourage other communities
to become involved with the program,
CSEC publishes a  55-page booklet,
 Waste Reduction and the Model Com-
munity, that contains source reduction
suggestions and describes how to set
up a Model Community Program. To
order the booklet for $18.00 plus
$2.00 postage and  handling, or  for
more  information,  contact John
Thompson at (217) 344-2371.1
 Federal  Recycling  Gets a Boost
    The second  Federal  Agency
    Recycling Conference,  spon-
 sored by EPA and the U.S. General
 Services Administration (GSA), was
 successful in educating attendees
 about recycling and  procurement
 of  recycled products  in federal
   The  conference was held  in
 Washington, DC, on  December  3,
 1991.  The  conference  brought
 together over 200 procurement offi-
cials, building managers, recycling
coordinators,   and printing officials
from around the country. Speakers in-
cluded  John  P. Hiler,  Deputy
Administrator of GSA, Nancy V. Fires-
tone, Associate Deputy Administrator
of EPA, and David Struhs, Chief of
Staff of the Council on Environmental
   The  panel discussions  and
workshops included the following
• How to Establish a Comprehensive
   Office Recycling Program
• Federal Legislation That May
   Affect Your Program
• Encouraging Recycling—Employee
• Establishment and Maintenance of
   a Successful Collection System
a Procurement of Recycled Products
   For more information, call Terry Grist
of EPA at (202) 260-8518.1

            Focus on  Corporate  Award  Winners
A Tale of Two Dumpsters

eegee's Takes  Recycling to Heart

   Edmund Irving has always been aware of the benefits of
   recycling. Irving, president and co-owner of eegee's
Inc., in Tucson, Arizona, says his father's  career in the
recycling business instilled in him the value of reuse and
recovery at  an early age. But it was only after a second
8-cubic yard dumpster was installed at his company's com-
missary that the lesson really hit home—-and his pocketbook.
  eegee's,  a fast-food  chain specializing  in submarine
sandwiches  and salads, has 14  locations throughout the
Tucson area, all of which are supplied through a centralized
commissary where food is prepared and paper products
and other provisions are stored. By 1987, the commissary's
dumpster was being emptied daily, and the installation of a
   Through recycling, eegee's saves
    approximately $600 per month in
               disposal fees.
second dumpster threatened to raise already expensive
disposal costs even more. Irving realized the time had come
to take action.
  A preliminary investigation of the commissary's waste
stream revealed that 75 percent of the waste generated
consisted of corrugated cardboard boxes. To  keep this
recyclable material from being thrown  away, Irving pur-
chased a baling machine and began processing the boxes
for  recovery,  eegee's then undertook a comprehensive
evaluation of the waste stream in every section of the
restaurant and discovered that many recyclable materials
were simply being discarded.  An internal recycling cam-
paign was then launched to recover such items as computer
and office paper, flour drums (for reuse as recycling bins),
pickle buckets (which are sold for uses as varied as medical
waste receptacles and nursery stock planters), and polys-
tyrene foam food service products, such as cups and Italian
ice  containers (which are converted into insulation  and
building blocks).
  eegee's has succeeded in significantly reducing trash
disposal costs. Now, instead of two 8-cubic yard dumpsters
being emptied daily at the eegee's commissary, ones-cubic
yard dumpster is emptied three times per week. Irving says
the  company saves approximately $600 per month in dis-
posal fees.
  With the revenues earned through recycling efforts, Ir-
ving saw an excellent opportunity to contribute to the com-
munity in a second way. eegee's began  matching the
money generated from the sale of its recyclables  and
donating the total to "People First!", an umbrella charity that
distributes money to local causes, such as soup kitchens.
In 1990, Irving introduced "Recycling for People First!", an

                              (Continued on page 6)
Fort  Howard Closes the

Recycling Loop

*T*he Fort Howard Corporation is a big business with a
 I long-standing commitment to recycling.  Since World
War II, Fort Howard, one of the nation's leading tissue paper
manufacturers,  has been at work refining recycling
  Today, this persistence has paid off. The technology
employed at Fort Howard enables the Wisconsin-based paper
manufacturer to produce quality paper  goods from
wastepaper items that others find unrecyclable, such as spiral-
bound notebooks and window envelopes. The company has
also developed state-of-the-art deinking and sanitation
units that even further expand its recovery potential.
  Clifford Bowers, Director of Communications at  Fort
Howard, says the company manufactures its products al-
most exclusively from recycled wastepaper, consuming
more than 1.2 million tons of recovered material each year.
Producing an equivalent amount from virgin material would
require harvesting 20 million trees annually.
  In May 1991, Fort Howard received a U.S. EPA
Administrator's Award in the industry category for its nation-
al recycling  advocacy program.  EPA recognized  Fort
                 Fort Howard
        manufactures its products
    almost exclusively from recycled
Howard not only for its internal recycling operations and
production process but for the manufacturer's outreach
programs as well. Indeed, Fort Howard's recycling efforts
extend weir beyond production to encompass waste dis-
posal, educational endeavors, and procurement programs
for many other corporations and communities.
  Fort Howard has worked with several other large cor-
porations, such as Southwestern Bell, Wisconsin Bell, and
Fingerhut, as well as the  Wisconsin state government, to
devise far-reaching office recycling programs that involve
collection of wastepaper and the  purchase of recycled
products. The recycling program set up for the  Wisconsin
state government has resulted in a 400 percent increase in
the government's recycling rate.
  In other community work; Fort Howard has collaborated
with regional telephone companies to institute a recovery
program for telephone directories. Similarly, in  Brown
County, Wisconsin, Fort Howard's  home county, the cor-
poration and local officials have developed and imple-
mented an extensive household recycling program. Fort
Howard does much of  the publicity work for this program
and accepts all wastepaper generated by the residents.

    \                         (Continued on page 6)

MSW Management

on the Alaskan


Unique Problems,

Unique Solutions

 In  rural Alaska, efforts to manage
 municipal solid waste are constrained
by factors that decisionmakers in most
other states would never encounter,
such as permafrost, lack of soil, limited
road systems, winds, and freezing con-
ditions during most of the year. These
conditions create a need for a special-
ized approach to solid waste manage-
ment, particularly in combination with
the  new Subtitle D landfill regulations
under the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA).
  Education is a necessary first step
in  any solid waste management
program because it encourages  in-
formed participation in achieving solid
waste management goals. Recogniz-
ing  this,  EPA Region 10  (Alaska,
Idaho, Oregon, and Washington) has
developed the Native Alaska  Waste
Education Project. Under this project,
the Region  awarded a grant to
Northwest Renewable  Resources
Center (NRRC), a not-for-profit  or-
ganization specializing in negotiation
and mediation, to develop and con-
duct a solid waste education program
in two Native Alaskan villages. A sub-
sequent grant from  EPA  Head-
quarters made it possible to expand
the program to four villages. Each vil-
lage represents a major Native Alas-
kan cultural group and geographical
  The education program will include
both a student and an adult component.
The student portion of the program  will
include the development of  a cur-
riculum on waste management and
may include a children's activity book
depicting the waste problems of a rural
Alaskan community, a "waste art" con-
test, skits, plays, and music. The adult
component of the program will include
community meetings and public service
announcements concerning  the solid
waste dilemma and the need for source
reduction and recycling.
  To guide in the development of  the
curriculum and the formation of a teach-
ing  methodology that will integrate
modem technical concepts with Native
     EPA's Second United States
     Conference on

     Municipal Solid  Waste


     Moving Ahead
        his conference is for people
        who are moving ahead in solid
     waste management. Participants
     from government, citizen interest
     groups, industry,  and  academia
     will share their experiences and
     successes.  This  year over 800
     attendees are expected, making it
     one of the largest gatherings of
     experienced  solid waste profes-
     sionals in the field today. Major
     conference topic areas include

       Integrated Solid Waste
       Planning and Management
       Economics of Solid Waste
       Source Reduction and Reuse
       Recycling and Market
     ~ Composting
       Combustion              *
       Land Disposal
       Public Involvement.
       Education, and
       Special Waste
     • Nonhazardous
       Industrial Waste
  If  you;  are  interested in
participating,  write to  EPA
Conference: Moving Ahead, c/o
SWANA, P.O. Box  7671, Silver
Spring, MD 20907, FAX (301)
589-7068,  or call Ms, Bhawna
Agarwal at (301) 585-2898.

       June 2-5,1992

 Hyatt Regency Crystal City

       Arlington, VA
Alaskan cultural values, NRRC has al-
ready gathered information from the tar-
geted villages, as well as from an
advisory committee of Alaskan experts
from the public and private sectors in
the fields of resource management,
public health, and education.
   In addition to education, NRRC will
seek to improve waste management in
the target villages through waste reduc-
tion, recycling, and other methods to be
identified during  the course  of the
project. These methods will need to be
tailored to the different needs of the
individual communities.
   The Native Alaska Waste Education
 Project will help create an infrastructure
 for continued  waste  education and
 management by fostering  contacts
 among teachers, solid waste officials,
 parents, and others. This infrastructure
 can eventually be used to find at-
 tainable  and environmentally sound
 solutions to Alaska's solid waste chal-

   For more  information on the Native
 Alaska Waste Education Project, con-
 tact Fran Stefan of the Solid Waste and
 State Programs Section of EPA Region
 10 at (206)553-6639.1

i&EPA   Publications
The following publications are available at no
charge from the EPA RCRA/Superfund  Hotline.
Call (800) 424-9346.
Bibliography of Solid Waste
Management  Alternatives
Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in
the United States: 1990 Update;
Executive Summary
Decision-Makers Guide to
Solid Waste Management
Environmental Fact Sheet: SWICH: EPA's
National Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse
Sites for Our Solid Waste: A Guidebook for
Public Involvement
Solid Waste Dilemma: An Agenda for Action
Unit Pricing: Providing an Incentive
to Reduce Waste
Variable Rates in Solid Waste: Handbook for
Solid Waste.Officials; Executive Summary

Source Reduction






Characterization of Products Containing Lead
and Cadmium in Municipal Solid Waste in the
United States, 1970 to 2000:
Executive Summary
Household Hazardous Waste: Bibliography of
Useful References and List of State Experts
Survey of Household Hazardous Waste and
Related Collection Programs


Recycling in Federal Agencies
Recycling Works! State and
Local Success Stories



Characterization of
Municipal Waste Combustion Ash, Ash Extracts,
and Leachates: Executive Summary
Environmental Fact Sheet: Municipal Landfill
Regulations Mean Safer Disposal of Solid Waste
Environmental Fact Sheet; Small Communities
and the Municipal Landfill Regulations
Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria:
Final Rule (October 9,1991)
Used Oil
How to Set Up a Local Program to
Recycle Used Oil
Recycling Used Oil: 10 Steps to
Change Your Oil

Recycling Used Oil: For Service Stations and
Other Vehicle-Service Facilities               530/SW-89-039d
Recycling Used Oil: What Can You Do?        530/SW-89-039b

Educational Materials

Adventures of the Garbage Gremlin: Recycle and
Combat a Life of Grime (Comic Book)           530/SW-90-024
Let's Reduce and Recycle: A Curriculum for
Solid Waste Awareness                      530/SW-90-005
Recycle Today: Educational Materials for
Grades K-12 (Pamphlet)                     530/SW-90-025
Ride the Wave of the Future:
Recycle Today! (Poster)                      530/SW-90-010
School Recycling Programs:
A Handbook for Educators                    530/SW-90-023


Native American Network
Reusable News
Used Oil Recycling
(Free subscriptions are available, as well as back issues, through
the Hotline.)

Environmental Fact Sheet:
Yard Waste Composting
Procurement Guidelines for
Government Agencies
Report to Congress: Methods to Manage and
Control Plastic Wastes; Executive Summary
Summary of Markets for Scrap Tires


The following publications are available for a

fee from the National Technical information

Services (NTIS).

Call (703) 487-4650.

Addendum for the Regulatory Impact Analysis for
the Final Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills  PB92-100 858
Analysis of U.S. Municipal Waste Combustion
Operating Practices                          PB89-220 578
Charging Households for Waste Collection and
Disposal: The Effects of Weight- or Volume-Based
Pricing on Solid Waste Management              PB91-111 484
Markets for Scrap Tires                       PB92-115 252
Municipal Waste Combustion Study:
Report to Congress                          PB87-206 074
Office Paper Recycling: An Implementation Manual  PB90-199 431
Promoting Source Reduction and Recyclability
in the Marketplace                           PB90-163122
Regulatory Impact Analysis for the Final Criteria
for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills               PB92-100 841
Solid Waste Dilemma: An Agenda for Action;
Background Document                       PB88-251 137
Solid Waste Dilemma: An Agenda for Action;
Background Document; Appendices             PB88-251 145
States' Efforts to Promote Lead-Acid Battery
Recycling                                  PB92-119965
Variable Rates in  Solid Waste: Handbook for
Solid Waste Officials                         PB90-272 063
Yard Waste Composting: A Study of
Eight Programs                             PB90-163 114

                           Regional Contacts
                        Municipal  Solid Waste
Region 1
Ron Jennings
U.S. EPA-Region 1
John R Kennedy Federal Building
Boston, MA 02203
Mail Code: HER-CAN6
(617) 573-9656

Region 2
Mike DeBonis
U.S. EPA-Region 2
26 Federal Plaza
New York, NY 10278
Mail Code: 2AWM
(212) 264-0002

Region 3
Andrew Uricheck
U.S. EPA-Region 3
841 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19107
Mail Code: 3HW53
(215) 597-7936
Region 4
Patricia Zweig
U.S. EPA-Region 4
345 Courtland Street, NE
Atlanta, GA 30365
Mail Code: 4WD-RCRA
(404) 347-2091

Region 5
Andy Tschampa
U.S. EPA-Region 5
77 West Jackson Blvd.
Chicago, IL 60604-3590
Mail Code: HRP-8J

Region 6
Will Lemmond
U.S. EPA-Region 6
Interstate Bank Building
1445 Ross Avenue
Dallas, TX 75202-2733
Mail Code: 6HH
(214) 655-6760

Region 7
David Flora
U.S. EPA-Region 7
726 Minnesota Avenue
Kansas City, KS 66101
Mail Code: STPG
(913) 551-7523
Region 8
Judy Wong
U.S. EPA-Region 8
999 18th Street
Suite 500
Denver, CO  80202-2466
Mail Code: 8HWM-WM

Region 9
Jeff Scott
U.S. EPA-Region 9
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
Mail Code: H-3-1
(415) 744-2091

Region 10
Lauris Davies
U.S. EPA-Region 10
1200 6th Avenue
Seattle, WA  98101
Mail Code: HW072
(206) 553-6522

 Washington State Strikes G.O.L.D.
    G.O.L.D. fever is running rampant in
    Washington state government of-
fices. State  employees  throughout
Washington have been mobilized under
the banner "reduce, reuse,  and
recycle," and the results are evident.
   Since  its  inception  in 1988, the
G.O.L.D. (Government Options to
Landfill Disposal)  program has been
Washington's primer on source reduc-
tion  and office recycling at state
government agencies. G.O.L.D. was
introduced as part of  a multifaceted
environmental initiative, Toward 2010:
an Environmental Action Agenda, by
Governor Booth Gardner and  the
Washington Department of Ecology.
David Block,  G.O.L.D. program  ad-
ministrator, says the program is meant
 to serve as an example to the citizens
 of the state. "The state government is
 part of the  citizenry," Block says.
 "Through G.O.L.D., we can set a trend
 for the rest of the state to follow."
   Under the program, every  state
 agency receives  a G.O.L.D.  plan,
 which outlines the  recycling, source
 reduction, and procurement goals of
 the state, and a manual describing
 how  these  objectives  can  be
 achieved. Each agency, with the  as-
 sistance of G.O.L.D. workers, under-
 takes an internal audit of its waste
 stream before designing  a waste
 management strategy.
   As Block  explains,  the G.O.L.D.
 program  does  not dictate a rigid  im-
 plementation scheme  for  ac-
 complishing recycling and source
 reduction goals; rather, every agen-
 cy, based on the guidance provided
 in the G.O.L.D. manual and advice
 from the  G.O.L.D. technical staff,
 sets up a policy tailored to its own
 specific features.
   Under the aegis of the G.O.L.D.
 program, recovery rates at the 12-
 building  Olympia  Capitol Campus,
 which  employs  7,000  people
 throughout the year and several
 thousand more during  legislative
 sessions, have reached 60 percent.
 Workers at  the  campus currently
 recover four major components of
 their waste  stream: office paper,
 cardboard, glass, and aluminum. In
 addition, antifreeze and motor oil from
 state-owned vehicles are recycled.
   Block  also credits the G.O.L.D.
 program with instituting many simple,
 yet effective,  source reduction techni-
EPA Releases Tire Market Study
   EPA recently released a report en-
   titled Markets for Scrap 7/res-that
describes factors affecting the current
supply and demand for scrap tires, as
well as future market trends. The.docu-
ment also examines various recycling
prospects for used tires and legislative
and economic options for managing
scrap tires.
  The publication is the first in a series
of five  market studies that  EPA is
developing to help state and local offi-
cials and industry "close the recycling
loop." A concise summary of the report,
which provides a general overview of
market trends for scrap tires, is also
  Markets for Scrap Tires is avail-
able from the National Technical Infor-
mation Service, 5285 Port Royal Road,
Springfield, VA22161, (703) 487-4600.
Summary of Markets for Scrap
Tires can  be obtained by calling the
RCRA/Superfund Hotline at (800) 424-
9346, Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m.
to 7:30 p.m. EST. I
ques. Washington state government of-
fices, for instance, now make double-
sided copies whenever possible, and
mechanical shops servicing state agen-
cies, such as auto repair centers, now
recover solvents. State employees
often furnish suggestions for possible
source reduction methods, Block
says, demonstrating the heightened
awareness brought  about by the
G.O.L.D. program.
  The G.O.L.D.  program  also
provides guidance for implementing
Washington's  new  procurement
policy, established by the legislature
in 1991. Thanks to  the  G.O.L.D.
program, state  agencies  now pur-
chase  recycled paper,  as well as
dioxin-free paper envelopes and file
  For more  information, contact David
Block at (206) 586-5651.1
                                                                         Did You! Know?
     he Steel Recycling, Partnership,
   ..  a  coalition of solid waste
  management  and  recycling
  organizations, steel and steel can
  producers and users, and grocery
  industry  represjentatives,  has
  launched  a public education and
  awareness program. The program
  consists of promotional events and
  television advertising  aimed at
  raising public awareness of steel
  recycling.  For  more information,
  please contact thd Steel Recycling
  Institute at (800) 876-SCRI.

                 Hot  Off the Hotline
                    jUesltion: I am a landfill owner planning to close my
                    'landfill sometime within the next 2 years before the
                 new Subtitle D landfill criteria take effect on October 9,
_  	         i  1993. Dbes this exempt me from the regulations?
    nswer: Owners and operators of landfills that ceased receipt of waste
   kbefore the publication jof the revised Subtitle  D criteria on October 9,
1991, are exempt from ^ll requirements of  the criteria. Owners and
operators that cease receipt of waste after October 9, 1993, on the other
hand, are subject to all <|>f the new regulations. However, owners and
operators that  stop  receiving waste after October  9, 199°1, but before
October 9,1993, are obligated only to place a final cover over their landfills
within 6 months of the lastj receipt of waste.
   The final rule requires tjiat a final cover must consist of two layers, the
first to minimize infiltratioji of  liquids into the waste and the second to
minimize erosion of  the infiltration  layer  The infiltration  layer must be  a
minimum 18 inches of earthen material that (1) has a permeability less than
or equal to the bottom liner system or natural subsoils, or (2) achieves  a
permeability of  1 x 10 5 cm/sec, whichever is less. The erosion layer must
be at least 6 inches of earjthen material capable of sustaining native plant
growth.                 |
   The criteria constitute the minimum federal  standards   Landfill
owners and operators. However,  may still have to comply with more
stringent existing state criteria.
                     he following publications are available at no charge
                   i  from the EPA RCRA/Superfund Hotline. Call (800)
                  424-9^46 Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 7:30
                  p,m. 6ST

 Proposed Guidance  onlthe  Use of Environmental Marketing Terms
 (EPA/530-SW-91-072AJ.  Explains the development of voluntary
 guidelines that companies can follow when marketing their products as
 environmentally beneficial. In particular, the usage of the terms "recycled"
 and "recyclable" and the recycling emblem are clarified,

 Final Cover Requirement^ for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (EPA/530-
 SW-91-084), This environmental fact sheet describes the federal require-
 ments for final closure ofian MSW landfill and also discusses additional
 technical issues landfill owners and operators may want to consider.

 Summary of Markets fcjr Scrap  Tires (E PA/530-SW-90-074B).  Sum-
 marizes, in a concise  brc-chure and  in nontechnical  language,  the main
 points of a larger study entitled Markets for Scrap Tires.

 For information about EP/i's procurement guidelines for cement containing
 fly ash, paper and papejr products, lubricating oils, retread tires, and
 building insulation, call th£ Recycled  Products Information Clearinghouse
 at (703) 941-4452. The Clearinghouse is now, free of charge, offering a
 listing  of vendors of th^se products, as  well as  other informational
 materials,              '
A Tale of Two Dumpsters
eegee'slakes Recycling
to Heart
(Continued from page 3)
organization banding together about 50
Tucson  businesses working to further
both environmental and humanitarian
efforts in the city.
   eegee's  underwrites the entire
project. Businesses that join "Recycling
for People  First!" undergo a detailed
audit of their waste stream to determine
which items can be recovered, eegee's
then supplies these businesses with
free cardboard recycling  bins and
voluntarily collects  the recyclable
materials and delivers them to the ap-
propriate processing plants. Proceeds
from the sale of these recyclables go to
People  First! Irving says keeping the
program cost-free fosters participation
and reinforces the notion that recycling
can easily,  and even profitably, be "in-
corporated into the daily work
   In May 1991, eegee's was honored
with a U.S. EPA Administrator's Award
in the small business category for its
dynamic work and creative accomplish-
ments in recycling. Indeed, eegee's
stands  as a model to the community
in  both  an  environmental  and
humanitarian sense.
   For  more information, contact
 Edmund Irving at (602) 298-1829.1

 Fort Howard  Closes the
 Recycling  Loop
 (Continued from page 3)
   Fort Howard  also co-sponsors
several pilot programs, both  with its
subsidiaries and  with independent
companies, aimed  at recovering
production  residuals,  like sludge and
boiler fly ash. In addition, the company
 has launched an  initiative to  partially
 power its Green Bay facility with energy
generated by combustion of used tires.
   Fort Howard's national recycling ad-
 vocacy program clearly demonstrates
that business can  make a significant
 impact  on national recycling efforts.
 Fort Howard's role in recovery entails
 not only collection but also production,
 an imperative for closing the recycling
   For more  information, contact Clif-
 ford Bowers  at  (414) 435-8821,
 extension 4087. §

EPA Announces Options to Standardize Recycling Marketing Claims
(Continued from page 1)

   As part of this federal effort, EPA is
currently exploring options for volun-
tary guidelines that companies can
follow   when  marketing  their
products    as    environmentally
beneficial. The  first issue EPA is
addressing concerns terms related
to recycling.  On October 2,  1991,
EPA published a notice in  the
Federal Register describing alterna-
tive approaches for standardizing
recycling claims. Currently, EPA
prefers the following options for
standardizing recycling claims:
   Recycled content claims. When
   making recycled content claims,
   marketers  should  display  the
   percentage of recycled materials in
   the product (by weight).
   Claims of recyclability.  When
   making claims  of  recyclability,
   marketers should make qualified
   recyclable claims and state the rate
   at which the material is recycled
   Use of the recycling  emblem,  the
   chasing arrows recycling symbol should
   be used only to indicate that a product
   contains  recycled content or is
   recyclable.  It should not be used  as a
   symbol of other environmentally
   beneficial traits.  Also; when using the
   symbol, marketers should label the
   emblem to indicate  that it refers
   either to "recycled content" or to the
   "recyclability" of the product or
   Packaging versus product claims.
   Claims about recycled  content or
   recyclability should indicate whether
   they  apply to the  product,  the
   package, or both.
   EPA Holds Public Meetings on Labeling
      m November 13 and 14, 1991, EPA, with the assistance of its partner
      'agencies on the Interagency Environmental Marketing Task Force, the
   Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Office of Consumer Affairs (OCA),
   conducted  public meetings on voluntary preferred guidance options  for
   recycled content and recyclable marketing claims. At the meetings, EPA
   representatives listened to comments from over 40 individuals, such as state
                                     and  local officials, industry repre-
                                     sentatives, and public  interest
                                     groups. Speakers commented on all
                                     of the voluntary guidance options
                                     proposed by EPA in  the October 2,
                                     1991, Federal  Register,  including
                                     use of the terms "recycled content"
                                     and "recyclable" and application of the
                                     recycling emblem in environmental
                                     marketing claims.
   EPA'sBowdoin Train and FTC's James Spears.   Reaction to E PA'S preferred option
   for the use of the claim "recycled content" was generally favorable;  however,
   the Agency will need to address several other issues raised in the meetings.
   For example, one issue related to whether, in addition to identification of the
   percentage of total recycled content, the percentage  of post-consumer
   materials used in a product also should be provided.
     The Agency received a number of different comments  concerning  its
   preferred option on the "recyclable" claims. Some speakers opposed EPA's
   proposal to include the national recycling rate with "recyclable" claims, arguing
   that these statistics are difficult to obtain and, once obtained, quickly become
   obsolete. Many speakers reacted favorably to EPA's preferred guidance option
   for the use of the recycling emblem and the Agency's recommendation that
   claims of "recycled content" and "recyclability" specify whether they apply to
   the product, package, or both, it
   The Federal Register notice also
lists preliminary definitions developed
by EPA for nine terms related to recy-
cling. The public comment period  on
the notice ended December 31,1991.
   EPA has developed a fact sheet and
a flyer, which explain the contents of the
notice.  To obtain a copy of the notice,
fact sheet, or flyer, call the  RCRA
Hotline at (800) 424-9346, or write to:
RCRA Docket Information Center
Office of Solid Waste (OS-305)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
401 M Street, SW.
Washington, DC 20460
EPA  Plans  Outreach For Subtitle D
    EPA is launching a vigorous out-
    reach program geared toward
both the states  and the regulated
community  regarding  the  revised
Subtitle D landfill regulations,  which
were  published  last October. The
program began last fall  with workers
from EPA Headquarters conducting
brief 1-day information sessions with
officials from states and EPA Regions.
  More detailed technical training for
state officials is slated for this spring.
Upon completion  of the training, EPA
will encourage the states to hold train-
ing sessions for landfill owners  and
operators in their jurisdictions.
   This winter, EPA will issue two docu-
ments to help clarify the new criteria. A
pamphlet for the general public will out-
line municipal solid waste (MSW) dis-
posal problems, giving special focus to
improvements in sanitary landfill prac-
tices. The pamphlet  also will  explain
how  the Subtitle D revisions will ad-
dress MSW disposal problems by re-
quiring safer  landfills. Another EPA
booklet will be developed for  landfill
owners and operators that will provide
a clear, concise summary of the new
   The publication of these documents
will be followed by the release of an
EPA technical manual for landfill
owners/operators,  contractors, and
consultants. The manual is intended to
provide insight on how to meet the min-
imum federal requirements set forth in
the regulation.
   For more information, call Andrew
Tepiitzky of EPA's Off ice of Solid Waste,
at (202) 260-4536.1

Bush Issues Executive Order

(Continued from page 1)
  At the heart of the Order is the Coun-
cil on  Federal Recycling and Procure-
ment Policy, created to facilitate agency
compliance. In  the initial stages, the
Council will be developing guidelines to
specify the goals of the recycling, waste
reduction, and procurement programs,
and suggesting possible implementa-
tion plans. The Council will be reviewing
current federal procurement programs
and recommending changes that will
remove impediments to purchasing
recycled goods. The Order also calls for
the Council to develop incentives to en-
courage implementation and more
comprehensive programs.
  In addition, the Council is charged
with collecting and disseminating infor-
mation among the agencies to assist
the development of  recycling  and
procurement programs. By sharing in-
formation such as the types of materials
being recycled, the savings that are
resulting, and the sources and prices of
recycled goods being purchased, the
effectiveness of the entire effort will be
increased. The Council is also intended
to serve as the focal point for govern-
ment recycling and procurement, keep-
ing  abreast of progress  and making
recommendations for improvements.

  The Council will be composed of the
Recycling Coordinators from seven key
agencies, including  EPA;  the General
Services Administration; the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration;
and  the  Departments of  Energy,
Defense, Commerce, and the Interior.
Also to be included are the Chairman of
the Council on Environmental Quality and
the Administrator of the Office of Federal
Procurement Policy. EPA Administrator
William K. Reilly has named Gail Wray
as the Federal Recycling Coordinator.
Wray will chair the Council.
   While the Order allows the agencies
flexibility in designing and implementing
their programs, reporting requirements
also have been incorporated to add ac-
countability and gauge program effec-
tiveness. For example, all agencies must
report directly to EPA regarding the im-
plementation  of their procurement
programs. EPA is required to submit a
report to the President  summarizing the
adoption of these programs.
   For more information, contact Gail
Wray at (202) 260-3252.1
 National Tribal Conference on  Environmental  Management
    The Eastern Band of Cherokee In-
    dians, with the support of EPA Head-
 quarters, EPA Region 4, the Bureau of
 Indian Affairs, the Indian Health Service,
 and the Department of Housing and
 Urban Development, is holding the Na-
 tional Tribal Conference on Environmen-
 tal Management on May 19 to 22,1992,
 in Cherokee, North Carolina.
   Workshops will be held on a variety of
 topics,  including drinking  water, pes-
 ticides, solid  and  hazardous waste
 management,  and  recycling. Training
 sessions  also will be conducted on
 revised landfill criteria and hazardous
 waste requirements, developing solid
                                     waste management plans, estab-
                                     lishing environmental programs on
                                     reservations, and other environmen-
                                     tal topics.
                                       Over 500 representatives from
                                     tribes across the country are invited to
                                     attend. From 30 to 40 vendors also are
                                     expected to exhibit the latest in en-
                                     vironmental products. For more infor-
                                     mation, call Judi Kane of EPA's Office
                                     of Solid Waste at (202) 260-5096.1

                                     The mention of publications, products, or
                                     organizations in this newsletter does not
                                     constitute endorsement or approval for use by
                                     the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
   Communications Services Branch (OS-305)
   Office of Solid Waste
   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
   401 M Street, SW.
   Washington, DC 20460
   Official Business, Penalty for Private Use $300