&EPA
            United States
            Environmental Protection
            Agency
            Office of Research and
            Development
            Washington, DC 20460
EPA/540/2-91/010
June 1991
            Superfund
Survey of
Materials-Handling
Technologies Used at
Hazardous Waste Sites

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                                           EPA/540/2-91/010
                                           June 1991
      SURVEY OF MATERIALS-HANDLING
          TECHNOLOGIES USED AT
         HAZARDOUS  WASTE SITES
RISK REDUCTION ENGINEERING LABORATORY
 OFFICE  OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
       CINCINNATI, OHIO  45268
                                     Printed on Recycled Paper

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                                   NOTICE


     This material has been funded wholly or in part by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency under contract 68-03-3413 to PEI Associates,
Inc.  The document has been subjected to the Agency's peer and administrative
review, and it has been approved for publication as an EPA document.  Mention
of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or
recommendation for use.

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                                   FOREWORD


      Today's rapidly developing and changing technologies and industrial
 products ana practices frequently carry with them the increased generation of
 materials that, if improperly dealt with, can threaten both public health and
.the environment.  THe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged
^Congress with protecting the Nation's land, air, and water resources.
 Under a mandate of ..national environmental laws, the Agency strives to formulate
 and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities
 and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life.   These laws
 direct the EPA to perform research to define our environmental problems
 measure the impacts, and search for solutions.

      The Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory is responsible for planning,
 implementing, and managing research, development, and demonstrating programs
 to provide an authoritative, defensible engineering basis in support of the
 policies, programs,  and regulations of the EPA with respect to drinking
 water, wastewater, pesticides, toxic substances, solid and hazardous wastes,
 and Superfund-related activities.   This publication is one of the products of
 that research and provides a vital  communication link between the researcher
 and the user community.

      The purpose of  this  document  is to provide technical  information for the
 selection and implementation of materials-handling equipment and procedures
 as they relate  to remediation of hazardous  waste sites.
                                         E.  Timothy  Oppelt,  Director
                                         Risk  Reduction  Engineering Laboratory
                                     m

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                                  ABSTRACT
     This study summarizes the types of debris, material, and contaminants
found at Superfund and other hazardous waste sites and the materials-handling
equipment and general procedures used to perform site restoration and cleanup.
This report provides the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with
information on state-of-the-art materials-handling equipment and procedures
useful for addressing difficult, site-specific, materials-handling problems.

     The following factors affect the selection of equipment and procedures
for materials handling at hazardous waste sites:                         .
     o

     o

     o


     o

     o
          Type and quantity of contaminated materials present
          Amount and type of contaminants found on-site
          Type of removal or remedial action selected (capping, excavation,
          pumping, etc.)
          Treatment processes implemented on-site
          General site characteristics (climate, soil type and moisture,
          topography)                                          ..,•_••

     The report includes information concerning capabilities, performance,
and applicability of a variety of materials-handling equipment and procedures
at various hazardous waste sites and cost of their implementation.  Case
studies for 22 sites distributed throughout all 10 EPA Regions have been
included to provide detailed information concerning debris, material, and
contaminants found on site; the specific materials-handling needs; and
problems encountered.  Additional information has been provided for 37 pieces
of materials-handling equipment, including specifications, features, options,
manufacturers, and photographs.

     Because of the diversity of debris, material, and contaminants found on
Superfund and other hazardous waste sites, each site must be evaluated individ-
ually for the selection and implementation of materials-handling equipment
and procedures.  To date, adequate published information concerning debris
and material handled is not available to EPA personnel and response contrac-
tors.  Although attempts have been made to categorize debris and material
present on site, little information was found concerning their quantities at
specific sites.  Quantity estimates would be helpful to response contractors
and EPA personnel for estimating cost of equipment operations.

     This report represents a compilation of information regarding materials-
handling equipment and techniques that have been implemented at hazardous
waste sites throughout the U.S. and Europe.  The information will assist site
remediation contractors and EPA personnel in evaluating materials-handling
techniques for potential applicability at numerous sites that require remedia-
tion.
                                      IV

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                                  CONTENTS
Disclaimer
Foreward
Abstract
Figures
Tables
Acronyms/Abbreviations
Acknowledgments

   1.  Introduction
          Background
          Objectives
          Approach
          Report organization
   2.  Conclusions
   3.  Recommendations
   4.  Site Characterization
          Contaminant profile
          Debris/materials  found at hazardous  waste  sites
          Equipment used at hazardous  waste  sites
          Equipment availability
   5.  Materials-Handling Equipment and  Procedures
            Excavation and  removal
               Backhoe
               Front-end loader
               Crawler tractor
               Trencher
               Skid-steer loader
               Forklift truck
            Dredging
               Mechanical dredging
               Hydraulic dredging
               Pneumatic dredges
            Pumping
            Size and volume  reduction
               Size  reduction
               Volume  reduction
            Separation  and dewatering
               Component  separation
               Dewatering
            Conveying  systems
            Storage  containers, bulking tanks, and containment
               Storage containers and bulking tanks
               Containment systems
  n
 i i i
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viii
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                           CONTENTS  (continued)
            Compaction
               Soil  stabilizer
               Equipment
            Miscellaneous equipment and procedures
            Drum  handling and removal
            Asbestos remediation
            Emission control
            Low-level radioactive waste
            Equipment decontamination

   6.   Foreign  contacts

   7.   Case Studies
            Western  Sand and Gravel, Burrillville,  Rhode  Island
            Iron  Horse  Park, Billercia, Massachusetts
            Industrial  Latex, Wallington,  New Jersey
            International Metallurgical Services, Newark,  New Jersey
            Bruin Lagoon No. 2,  Bruin,  Pennsylvania
            Ambler Asbestos Tailings Pile, Ambler,  Pennsylvania
            Aberdeen Pesticide  Site, Aberbeen, North Carolina
            A.  L. Taylor Site,  Brooks,  Kentucky
            Midwest  Plating and Chemical  Corp., Logansport,  Indiana
            Aeroquip/Republic Hose,  Youngstown, Ohio
            6&H Landfill, Utica,  Michigan
            PBM Enterprises, Romulus, Michigan
            Midco II, Gary,  Indiana
            Motco Site,  La Marque, Texas
            Cleve Reber Site, Sorrento, Louisiana
            Quail Run,  Gray Summit,  Missouri
            Solid State Circuits,  Republic, Missouri
            B&C Metals,  Denver, Colorado                         -
            Burlington  Northern Railroad, Somers, Montana
            McColl Superfund Site,  Fullerton, California
            Pacific  Hide and  Fur,  Pocatello,  Idaho
            Northwest Transfer  Salvage  Yard,  Everson,  Washington

References                                          ,            '
Bibliography
Appendices
     A    Substances Found at  Proposed  and Final NPL Sites
            October 1986
     B    Debris/Materials Categorization
     C    Debris/Material  Characterization for 100  Hazardous Waste
            Sites
     D    Equipment Used at 100 Hazardous Waste Sites
     E    Debris/Material  Handling Overview for 67  Hazardous Waste
            Sites
     F    Equipment Costs for Hazardous Waste Work
     G    Equipment Descriptions
Glossary
Copyright notice
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                                      VI

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                                   FIGURES
Number
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16

17
 Frequency of occurrence for types  of debris/materials
   found on 100 hazardous waste sites
 Flowsheet for materials-handling procedures  at  hazardous
   waste sites
 Typical  wheel-mounted  backhoe
 Remote  operated excavator
 Operating dimensions and bucket action of a  bucket  loader
 Front-end loader being  used  for debris removal  at a
   hazardous  waste site
 Skid-steer loader with  hoe attachment
 Various  types  of fork-truck  attachments
 Mechanical and  hydraulic  dredging operations
 Typical  dragline
 Portable  hydraulic dredging  system
 Pump classification chart
 Self-contained portable shredder"
 Conveyor  being used during treatment process for contami-
  nated soil                                            ,
Drum crusher used for hazardous Waste site work
High-pressure water laser being used for onsite  decontami-
  nation/cleaning of a  front-end loader
Backhoe with  scraper attachment used for beach cleanup  of
  spilled oil
Page

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                                   TABLES
Number
  1
  2
  4
  5
  6
  7

  8

  9

 10
 11
 12
 13

 14

 15

 16
 17
 18
 19
Frequency of Occurrence, of Contaminants Found at 1035
  Superfund Sites                                  .
Equipment Used for Materials Handling at 100 Hazardous
  Waste Sites                                .,...-
List of Standard Inventory Equipment vs. Rented/Leased
  Equipment for Response Contractors                   '
Excavation/Removal Equipment Performance Characteristics
Maximum Reach and Depth of Various-Sized Backhoes
Theoretical Hourly Production of a Hydraulic Backhoe '
Representative Specifications for Crawler-Mounted and
  Diesel-Engine-Driven Backhoes
Representative Specifications for Crawler-Tractor Bull-
  dozers with Straight U-Shaped Blades
Comparison of Dredge Equipment that is Applicable at
  Hazardous Waste Sites
Equipment Used at the Western Sand arid Gravel Site
Equipment Used at the Iron Horse Park Site
Equipment Used at the Industrial Latex Site
Summary of Off-site Disposal of^Waste from the Industrial
  Latex Site
                                      \          -       ' •
Equipment Used at the International Metallurgical Services
  Site
Summary of Off-site Disposal of Waste from the Interna-
  tional Metallurgical Services Site'         ;
Equipment Used at the Bruin Lagoon Site
Equipment"Used at the Ambler Asbestos Tailings Pile Site
Equipment Used at the Aberdeen Pesticide Site
Equipment Used at the A. L. Taylor Site
10

13

15
20
23..
23

23

28

35
65
66
68

69

71 ;

71
72
73
75
76
                                     vm

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Number
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 23

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36
37
38

39
40
                             TABLES (continued)
 Equipment Used at the Midwest Plating and Chemical  Corp.
   Site
 Summary of Off-site Disposal of Waste from the Midwest
   Plating and Chemical Corp. Site
 Equipment Used at the Aeroquip/Republic Hose Site
 Summary of Off-site Disposal of Waste from Aeroquip/
   Republic Hose Site                         ,
 Equipment Used at 6&H Landfill  Site
 Equipment Used at the PBM Enterprises Site
 Summary of Off-site Disposal of Wastes from the  PBM  Enter-
   prise Site                              ,
 Equipment Used at the Midco  II  Site              ,
 Summary of Off-site Disposal of Wastes from the  Midco  II,
   Site                                        ......
 Equipment Used at the Motco  Site
 Equipment Used at the Cleve  Reber Site
 Equipment Used at the Quail  Run  Site
 Equipment Used at the Solid  States  Circuit  Site
 Summary  of Off-site  Disposal of  Waste  from  the Solid States
  Circuit Site
 Equipment Used  at  the  B&C Metals Site
 Equipment Used, at  the  Burlington Northern Site
 Equipment  Used  at  the McColl Site
 Equipment  Used  at  the Pacific Hide and Fur Site
Summary of Off-site Disposal of Wastes from the Pacific:
  Hide and Fur Site
Equipment Used at the Northwest Transformer Site
Summary of Disposition of Waste from the Northwest
  Transformer Site
 Page

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101
                                     ix

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                           ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS
ACE
CERCLA

cc
cfm
CFR
CWA
cylm
cysm
DOT
EPA
ERCS
gpm
hp
HEPA
MSW
NCR
NPL
NRC
OSC
OTR
PAH
PCB
psi
PVC
RCRA
ROD
RPM
SARA
SOP
THC
tph
UST
VOC
Army Corps of Engineers
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and
Liability Act
Cubic centimeters
Cubic feet per minute
Code of Federal Regulations
Clean Water Act
Cubic yard loose measurement
Cubic yard struck measurement
Department of Transportation
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Emergency Response Cleanup Services
Gallons per minute
Horsepower
High-efficiency particulate air filter
Municipal solid waste
National Contingency Plan                     ,
National Priorities List
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
On-Scene Coordinator
Over-the-road (tractor)
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon
Polychlorinated biphenyl
Pounds per square inch
Polyvinyl chloride     \
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Record of Decision
Remedial Project Manager
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
Standard Operating Procedure
Total hydrocarbons
Tons per hour
Underground storage tank
Volatile organic compound

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                               ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
r«-    * neport was PrePared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Office of Research and" Development, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory,
Cincinnati, Ohio, by PEI Associates, Inc., under Contract No. 68-03-3413
Majid Dosani, who served as PEI's Work Assignment Manager, and John Miller
were the principal authors.  Michael Taylor, Ph.D., was PEI's Project Manager
and Jack Greber was Project Director.  Other PEI staff contributing to the
project were Richard Gerstle, Judy Hessling, Sherri Gill, Jerry Day, Martha
Phillips, and Jim Scott.

     Naomi P. Barkley served as the EPA Technical Project Monitor.  The
authors wish to thank Donald E. Sanning.of EPA-RREL for providing technical
assistance.

     The authors also wish to thank the following industries and trade
organizations for their help and cooperation:

          National  Solid Waste Management Association (NSWMA),  Washington,
            Uo •
          Montgomery County Landfill,  VA.
          National  Aggregates Association,  MD.
          Dravo  Corporation,  OH.
          Silver Hill  Sand and Gravel,  NJ.
          Institute of Scrap  Recycling  Industries,  Washington,  DC.
          National  Association of Demolition Contractors,  IL.
o

o

o

o

o

o
                                     XI

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                                   SECTION 1

                                 INTRODUCTION
 BACKGROUND
      Superfund and other hazardous waste sites in the United States contain
 many different types of materials that require physical  separation, classi-
 fication, and decontamination.  These various materials  are often contaminated
 with hazardous chemical residues.  In some instances, however, although a
 material  found on-site contains no hazardous substance,  it still  must be
 handled and/or disposed of offsite (e.g.,  transported to a sanitary landfill).

      A typical Superfund or other hazardous waste site contains hazardous
 chemicals that are frequently mixed with the remnants of razed structures
 (wood, steel, concrete blocks); municipal  and/or industrial  solid wastes;
 metallic  debris (refrigerators, abandoned  cars,  drums, transformer casings);
 and contaminated soils, sludges, and liquids.  Materials-handling and classi-
 fying technologies are needed to deal  with the large  quantities of these
 various materials prior to, or in conjunction  with, their decontamination and
 disposal.

      For  the  purposes  of this study,  debris has  been  defined as any unused,
 unwanted,  or  discarded solid or liquid that requires  staging,  loading,
 transporting,  pretreating,  treatment,  and/or disposal  on  a hazardous  waste
 site.   In  addition to  debris,  other materials  (e.g.,  soil, sludge,  asbestos,
 and various liquids) must also be handled.

      Materials-handling procedures  may also be required for other  types  of
 activities that occur  at a  hazardous waste  site.  Site preparation may re-
 quire  the  use  of heavy equipment  to build access  roads, containment trenches,
 or  concrete decontamination  pads.   Pretreatment processes requiring materi-
 als-handling techniques  (screening, size reduction, dewatering) may be neces-
 sary  before a  remedial  treatment  technology  is applied.  Many current sites
 do  not  require  the cleanup of  hazardous waste; instead, they are essentially
 construction projects  involving the building of treatment facilities or new
 wells for dealing with  groundwater  contamination of unknown origin.  Such
 projects may require a  variety of materials-handling equipment and procedures
 not normally encountered during cleanup operations (e.g., the laying of pioe
 or deep-well  excavation techniques).

     To date,  published information concerning materials  handling at hazardous
waste sites is sparse.  An engineering and economic analysis is needed to
develop a data base useful to EPA personnel and response  contractors requiring
equipment or  procedures to address difficult materials-handling problems

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     This document provides technical information for the selection and
implementation of materials-handling equipment and procedures as they relate
to remediation of hazardous waste sites.


OBJECTIVES

     The objectives of this study are as follows:

     0    Characterize Superfund and other hazardous waste sites in terms of
          frequently found contaminants and on-site materials that need to be
          handled or decontaminated.

     0    Compile a summary of equipment and processes used for the handling,
          separation, and decontamination of debris and material at domestic
          and foreign hazardous waste sites.                  :

     0    Obtain descriptions from  industry and  vendors of materials-handling
          equipment that may be adaptable for use at hazardous waste sites.

     0    Present detailed case studies illustrating both typical  and  atypical
          materials-handling problems encountered at hazardous waste sites.

     0    Provide information on state-of-the-art materials-handling equipment
          and procedures that EPA personnel and  response contractors might
          find  useful for  addressing difficult,  site-specific, materials-hand!,-
          ing problems.
 APPROACH

      In this study the following approach was used to summarize the types  of
 debris/material  and contaminants found at Superfund and other hazardous -waste
 sites as well as the materials-handling equipment and general procedures  that
 have been implemented to perform site remediation:

      1)   A comprehensive literature search of 75 sources was conducted.
           These sources covered the following subjects:
           o

           o

           o

           o

           o

           o
General materials-handling equipment and procedures
Process equipment for resource recovery   .
Equipment/construction cost guides
Onsite materials handling
Contaminants profiles
Miscellaneous
     Stabilization/solidification
     Dust control                 _    ;
     Physical, chemical, and biological treatment -
     Case studies
     Determining compatibility of hazardous waste '
     SITE program

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  3)
 4)
6)
7)
8)
9)
       inrRe~Ions  Je°Jrds  of Dec1s1ons  (RODs)  were  reviewed  from  sites
                                  encountered during site r        on

                                              '
  Representatives  from  various  industries and  their respective trade
  Sa?  minhtehC°n?C^ S° °btai'n  ^"nation  on equipment/procedSrls
  tacts  ncfuSed   ^         Hazardous waste site work   These con-
      o

      o

      o

      o

      o
      Landfills
      Junk dealers  (scrap metal)
      Sand and gravel companies
      Demolition contractors
      Mining industry
      o

      o

      o

      o

      o
                                                     for site  character-
      Record of Decision Data Base (ROD)
      National Priorities List Data Base (NPL-Mitre Corp )
      Hazardous Waste Data Management System (HWDMS)
               C?nse^vat1on and Recovery Information Service  (RCRIS)
      Technical  Information  Exchange  (COLIS)
      National  Technical  Information  Service  (NTIS)

 Emergency  Response  Cleanup  Services  (ERCS) files for Region V (Zone
    W                                    *«lud1ng: equipment use?"
 The OSCs from Regions  I,  II, III, and V, ERCS personnel, and resoonse
 contractors from Region V were all contacted 'for site!spe?ific
 information regarding materials-handling efforts.

 Vendors were contacted for information concerning the capability
 and cost of materials-handling equipment,
                        *ha* have been implemented for handling,   "
outh  ..mnating materials at hazardous waste sites
outside the United States were obtained by contacting North American
fSr?^?^-?^0^0?"11""6 °n Challengei of Modern^sSSy     ""
(NATO/CCMS) Pilot Study participants as well as  representatives
(h^tTT^ C°"ductin8 ons^e remedial  activities   n Germany,
the Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom

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REPORT ORGANIZATION

     This report has been designed to provide quick, handbook-type access to
various equipment and procedures used for hazardous waste site remediation.
Section 4 addresses site characteristics, including contaminants present, the
types of debris and material found on selected sites, and equipment used.
This section also presents information concerning response contractor equip-
ment inventories.  Section 5 provides in-depth reviews of materials-handling
equipment and procedures.  This section also includes an evaluation of the
capabilities, performance, and application of this equipment for handling
materials at hazardous waste sites.  Cost information for renting, leasing,
or purchasing such equipment is also provided.  Section 6 presents case
studies of 22 hazardous waste sites.  These case studies include site descrip-
tions, contaminants present, equipment used for site remediation, specific
materials-handling problems, and the ultimate disposition of contaminated
material.  Appendix E contains an overview of the debris/material handled,
major contaminants and principal materials-handling equipment or procedure
used for 67 hazardous waste sites.  Appendix 6 contains examples of equipment
that have application for hazardous waste site remediation.
                                       4

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                             SECTION 2

                            CONCLUSIONS
The foil owing conclusions were.reached during this study:
1)
 2)
 3)
     o

     o

     o


     o

     o
 The diversity of debris, material, and contaminants found on Super-
 fund and other hazardous waste sites requires that evaluations be
.made on an  individual, site-specific basis/for the selection and
 :implementation of materials-handlingiequiprnent.  Factors affecting
 the selection of equipment and procedures  for materials handling
 are as follows:                       '   ,    ',.  '. _  ;              \

      Type  and quantity of contaminated materials present
      Amount^ and type  of  contaminants found on-site
      Type  of removal/remedial  action selected  (capping, excavation,
      pumping, etc.)
      Treatment  process(es)  implemented  on-site
      General site  characteristics (climate, soil type and  moisture,
      topography)

  No technical data  base currently exists that covers  both  the charac-
  terization^ of the  debris and material  to be handled  and the equipment
  anS procedures  used to deal  with these materials at  hazardous waste
  sites    References to debris/material  found and equipment used are
  random and often fall under the heading of "miscellaneous1.

  Eauioment and procedures used for materials handling (e.g., sand/-
  gr'avel! demolition, etc.) have not yet been adequately explored to
  take advantage of  nnovations that could  benefit hazardous waste
  sitl remediation.  The hazardous waste field has need for new
  devices  well as utilizing existing equipment not now being used
  to handle  hazardous waste and related materials.

  Existinq  available information concerning debris and materials
  handled is  inadequate for EPA personnel and response contractors.
  Attempts  have been made to  categorize the debris and materia  s that
  have been found on-site, but  virtually  no information  s available
  concerning the quantities of  debris and materials handled.   Esti-
  mates of  quantities  would be  helpful to response contractors  and
  EPA personnel  for disposal  costs estimations.
                                   5

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 5)    Based on  the  information  gathered  from  contacts  in  Germany,  the
      Netherlands,  France,  and  the  United  Kingdom, materials-handling
      equipment and procedures  currently used for remediation of foreign
      sites are essentially the same  as  those used in  the United States.
      Extensive hazardous waste site  work  is  currently being conducted in
      these countries,  however,  and contact should be  maintained to
      monitor future development of any  new or innovative materials-
      handling  technologies.

 6)    Data  concerning materials-handling equipment and procedures  used to
      remove or remediate contaminated debris  and materials at hazardous
     waste sites are difficult  to  access for most of  the Regions.  Files
     containing information regarding the equipment used on-site are
     often unavailable.  Also, much of the equipment  information is tied
     in with cost  information and  therefore subject to confidential
     business  information  (CBI) restrictions, which require a Freedom of
     Information form requesting access, to be filled out prior to
     obtaining the information.

7)   Based on the information gathered for this report,  the type of
     contaminant (e.g., acids,  low-flash point liquids)  does  not appear
     to have a  direct effect on the choice of equipment  and procedures
     used at hazardous  waste sites.  Whereas  the type of contaminant
     found on site affects  the  level  of personal protection required,
     the selection of most  equipment  is  based on cost, availability,  and
     the ability to deal  with the  physical  nature of the  debris/material
     to be handled.  The  contaminant  type  on-site does,  however, affect
     modifications  to the equipment chosen  for the site work  (e.g.,
     splash shield  installation on  excavation equipment).

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                                  SECTION 3

                               RECOMMENDATIONS
     The results of this study have prompted the following recommendations
for further action:

     1)   Given the wide diversity of debris and materials found on hazardous
          waste sites and the different methods of site remediation used, a
          central computerized data base dealing solely with on-site
          materials handling should be compiled.  This would provide EPA
          personnel and response contractors with a starting point for
          dealing with specific materials-handling problems.  A computerized
          data base could also be updated on a regular basis to provide for
          changes in the field of materials-handling, or to provide site-speci-
          fic information for on-going remediation/removal projects involving
          similar conditions (e.g., landfills, battery breaking operations,
          etc.)  Workshops for all 10 EPA Regions should be developed to
          brief  interested personnel about the content, availability, and
          accessing of the data base.

     2)   Vendors of equipment with hazardous waste site applications should
          be alerted to potential opportunities for hazardous waste site
          work.  Workshops/seminars sponsored by the U.S. EPA could be offered
          to vendors.  Additionally, U.S. EPA could develop and implement an
          international conference on materials-handling.

     3)   A standard operating procedure  (SOP) should be developed for dealing
          with materials found on hazardous waste sites that have the potential
          to be  recycled or  reclaimed.  A more comprehensive analysis should
          be performed  to investigate the feasibility of using recyclable
          materials  found on-site  (after classification and decontamination).
          For  example, many  sites contain large amounts of  scrap metal that
          could  be  salvaged  after being decontaminated.

     4)   Recommended  followup studies are  as  follows:

           0     Development  of  a  computerized materials-handling data  base and
                electronic bulletin  board  containing  information for both
                domestic and foreign  hazardous  waste  sites.

           0     Development  and implementation  of  seminars/training  sessions
                dealing with difficult,  site-specific, materials-handling
                problems.  These  seminars/training  sessions  would  be conducted

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to keep RPMs and OSCs updated on new and innovative pieces of equipment and
available options/accessories.  Field demonstrations of equipment and
procedures for dealing with debris/materials found on hazardous waste sites
would also be conducted.

               Continued monitoring of future development of new or innovative
               materials-handling technologies being used at domestic or
               foreign hazardous waste sites (e.g., U.S.  EPA recently developed
               and demonstrated a pilot-scale debris washer for handling
               contaminated metal  and concrete found on hazardous wastes
               sites).

               Collection of additional  information concerning  the effect  of
               equipment downtime  and parts availability  on overall  proiect
               costs  and schedules.

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                                  SECTION 4

                            SITE CHARACTERIZATION
CONTAMINANT PROFILE
     Superfund and other hazardous waste sites contain a variety of hazardous
chemicals.  Concentrations of these contaminants can range from several  parts
per billion of a single compound to thousands of drums containing high concen-
trations of complex mixtures of organic chemicals.  Several studies have
attempted to characterize the contaminants found on National Priorities  List
(NPL) sites.  The U.S. EPA has developed first- and second-priority lists of
hazardous substances most commonly found at NPL facilities that have been
determined to pose a significant potential threat to human health, as required
under SARA [52 Federal Register (FR) 12866, April 17, 1987, and 53 FR 41280,
October 20, 1988].  Significant compounds are also listed under the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (Appendix IX), Comprehensive Environmental
Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Contract Laboratory
Program), and Clean Water Act (CWA) (Priority Pollutant Compounds).  The U.S.
EPA and State environmental agencies may add or delete substances from these
lists as well as characteristics used to identify hazardous wastes not on the
lists.  Table 1 presents a list of the 25 most commonly encountered contami-
nants found at Superfund sites (Pasha Publication Co. 1989).  Appendix A
contains a complete list of hazardous substance found at 1035 Superfund
sites.  Also contained in the appendix is a breakdown of the frequency of
occurrence of contaminants by U.S. EPA region.

     The wide variety of chemicals found on hazardous waste sites may lead to
handling problems because of factors such as high corrosivity (resulting in a
need for corrosion-resistant equipment) or highly toxic volatile compounds,
which require special personal protective equipment.  Additional handling
problems also may arise from reactions occurring because of the complex
mixtures of chemicals found on site.


DEBRIS/MATERIALS FOUND AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

     Tamm, Cowles, and Beers (1988) defined debris categories based on informa-
tion derived from interviews with EPA personnel and response contractors.
The nine categories of debris presented in that report, however, were in the
context of feedstock  preparation.  As defined for this report debris is any
unused, unwanted, or  discarded solid or liquid that requires staging, loading,
transporting, pretreating, treatment, and/or disposal on a  hazardous waste
site.  These three researchers estimated that debris occurring on hazardous
waste sites ranges in quantity from less than 1 percent to  greater than 80

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 TABLE 1.   FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF CONTAMINANTS  FOUND
             AT 1035 SUPERFUND SITES  (1989)a
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Trichl oroethyl ene
Lead
Chromium
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
Heavy Metals
Tetrachl oroethyl ene
Benzene
Toluene
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Arsenic
Cadmium
1,1, 1-Trichl oroethane
Copper
Zinc
Vinyl chloride
Xylene
Chi orof orm
Phenols
1,1-Dichloroethane
Waste Solvents
Cyanides
Nickel
1 , 1-Dichl oroethyl ene
Ethyl Benzene
Methyl ene Chloride
246
230
173
156
147
138
137
131
129
119
100
86
74
71
68
67
65
64
60
57
53
46
45
45
45
Source:  1989 Guide to Superfund Sites.
                           10

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percent of the total waste found on site.  In addition to debris, other
materials (e.g., soil, sludge, asbestos, and various liquids) must be handled.
Debris and other material that require special materials-handling, are
presente^ in the following 12 general categories:
     o

     o

     o

     o

     o

     o
Textiles
Glass
Paper
Metal   ,
Plastic
Rubber
Wood/vegetation
Construction debris
Soil
Sludge
Liquids
Asbestos
Appendix B presents a detailed breakdown of these 12 categories.

     A review of information from 100 hazardous waste sites in all 10 EPA
Regions to identify the frequency of occurrence of debris or materials that
required materials-handling was vague.  One of the problems encountered in
categorizing the debris is that most RODs and OSC reports refer to "miscel-
laneous debris" and give no significant details about debris/material handl-
ing.  Figure 1 presents the frequency of occurrence for each of the debris/-
material types found, on 100 waste sites.  It should be noted that this list
represents what was mentioned—not what might actually have been on site.
Appendix C offers a more detailed breakdown of the 100 sites surveyed for
debris/material.  It should be noted that the debris/material profiles at
hazardous waste sites are relatively constant nationwide.  Contaminated soil,
liquids, and metals (drums, etc.) are the materials most commonly encountered
that require handling at the sites investigated for all 10 Regions.  No
significant difference  in debris and material appears to exist among the
sites found in the various Regions.
                                               v      .....

EQUIPMENT USED AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

     Information from 100 hazardous waste sites was reviewed to obtain a
profile of equipment used for materials-handling  on .site.  Table 2 shows the
number of sites at which each particular piece of equipment was used.  Ap-
pendix D contains a breakdown of the exact  equipment needs at the 100 sites.
Projects at the reviewed sites ranged from  major  removal/excavation efforts
involving sludge, soil, drums, tanks, and liquids to simple removal actions
of only a few  drums.

     Cross referencing  of Appendices C  and  D  gives an  indication of the
equipment needed to deal with various debris/material categories.  In addition
to the  equipment and  debris/material profiles  presented  in Appendices C and
D, Appendix E  contains  an overview of 67 sites from all  10 Regions, which
 indicates contaminant,  debris/material  handling,  and the  primary debris-
handling  procedures and equipment  implemented.

     The  major point  that emerged  from  discussions with  EPA  personnel and
 response  contractors  involved  on-site  remediation is that equipment  usage/-
modification/fabrication  is  site-specific  and often  involves  trial and  error.
                                      •11

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                                  _.        <
                                     Debris/Material Type
§
fe
V
Figure 1.  Frequency of occurrence for types of debris/materials found on 100 hazardous waste sites.

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    TABLE  2.   EQUIPMENT  USED  FOR MATERIALS  HANDLING  AT
                 100  HAZARDOUS  WASTE  SITES
 Equipment
Number of sites
 Excavation/removal

   Backhoe/excavator
   Front-end loader
   Lowboy
   Bulldozer       ,        ,
   Tractor (OTR)
   Skid  steer loader
   Fork!ift      •. •    '
   Crane
   Grader
   Dragline

 Pump/vacuum unit
                           i

   Diaphragm pump
   Vacuum truck
   Submersible pump
.   Trash  pump
   Vacuum unit    .',.'•   <*
   Barrel  pump

 Separation/size reduction  '

   Crusher (drum/debris)
   Shredder (tire, drum)
   Vibrating screen
   Conveyor

 Miscellaneous

   Generator
   Hand  tools (shovels, hammers,  etc.)
   Pressure washer/laser
   Air compressor
   Bulking tanks/pools                :
   Roll off boxes
   Drum  grappler                  -
   Cutting torch
   Drum  cart ,'           ,     •
   Nonsparking tool set
   Chain  saw
   Air hammer
   Drum  punch
   Hoe ram/pile driver
   Pug mill
      76
      62
      46
      42
      32
      '24
      21
      •21
       9
       1
      36
      21
      16
      15
      15
       7
      10
       9
       3
       2
      42
      41
      37
      33
      26
      25
      '21
      20
      16
      14
      13
      13
       8'
       4
       1
                             13

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 Despite the site-specific nature of hazardous waste remediation, similar
 conditions are often found at many sites (i.e., landfills, battery breaking
 operations etc.).  This results in similar techniques and SOPs being used at
 different sites for materials-handling.  The following are examples of site-
 specific solutions to problems involving equipment:

           Hydraulic systems had to be modified to adapt a backhoe for drum
           handling (grappler).

           Rubber or foam tires instead'of.pneumatic tires were used at sites
           with large quantities of sharp metal/glass objects.

           Splash shields had to be installed on heavy equipment.

           Larger bulldozers were used to winch smaller dozers  up  and down  the
           steep grades  of asbestos tailings  piles.

           Propane-powered instead of diesel-powered loaders were  used  for
           inside work to reduce fumes.

           Heavy equipment failed due to weather (e.g.,  cracked hydraulic
           lines  from cold,  tractability during icy  conditions1,  metal fatigue
           from digging  in frozen soil).

      0     A drum crusher instead of  backhoe  was  used  to crush  drums.

           Roll off boxes  were  converted  into  treatment chambers  for cyanide-
           contaminated  film chips.

      Detailed  descriptions  of how materials-handling equipment  and procedures
were  implemented  at  each  of 22  sites are contained  in Section  7, Case Studies.


EQUIPMENT AVAILABILITY

     Response contractor  equipment inventories vary according to the size of
the company and type of site  remediation typically performed.    In'most cases
contractors maintain a standard  inventory and rent or lease large, more
expensive pieces of equipment (e.g., bulldozers, cranes) for site-specific
needs.  Some of the larger, more specialized contractors maintain' inventories
that include heavy equipment.  Table 3 presents a list of standard inventory
equipment and frequently rented or leased equipment.
                                      14

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   TABLE 3.  LIST OF STANDARD INVENTORY EQUIPMENT VS.
    RENTED/LEASED EQUIPMENT FOR RESPONSE CONTRACTORS;
Equipment
Inventory
Rented/leased
Backhoe
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Fork!ift
Crane
Gradall
Skid steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Barrel pump
Drum crusher
Vibrating screen
Tire shredder
Hand tools
Nonsparking tools
Pressure washer
Generator
Drum grappler
Air compressor
Bulking tanks/pools
Air hammer
Chain saw
Cutting torch
Barrel cart
Drum punch
     X
     X
     X
     X
     X
     X

     X

     X
                        X
                        X
                        X
                        X
                        ,X
                        X
                        X
                        X
                        X
                        X
                        X
                        X
                        X
                        X
      X
      X

      X

      X

      X
                            15

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                                   SECTION 5
                  MATERIALS-HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES
      Materials  handling can be defined  as  "...a  system  or  combination  of
 methods,  facilities,  labor, and equipment  for moving, packaging,  and storinq
 of materials  to meet  specific  objectives"  (Kulwiec  1985).   Within the  context
 of hazardous  waste site remediation,  materials handling can encompass  every-
 thing from site preparation (e.g.,  the  building  of  access  roads)  to the
 actual  treatment processes. In general, onsite  materials-handling equipment
 and procedures  are used for the following  purposes:
      o
      o
      o
      o
      o
      o
     Physical separation and classification
     Site preparation
     Construction
     Feedstock preparation and handling
     Equipment, structure, and building decontamination
     Loading and hauling
     The selection of equipment for materials handling will usually be a
function of several important site-specific considerations.  These include
(Cull inane, Jones, and Mai one 1986):
          General site characteristics (vegetation, soil type and moisture,
          topography)
          Quantity of material present                                 f   .,
          Treatment technology implemented (pretreatment needs)
          Debris characteristics (metal, plastics, construction, etc.)
          Waste characteristics (solid, liquid, sludge)
          Packaging of waste materials (drums, tanks, lagoons, etc.)
          Ease of startup and demobilization
          Climate (temperature, precipitation)
          Size of working area
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
     Figure 2 presents a flow diagram of general materials-handling proce-
dures encountered on hazardous waste sites.  The suitability of a particular
piece of equipment for general onsite use will  depend on the following fac-
tors (Doerr, Landin, and Matrin 1986):
     o
     o
     o
     o
     o
     o
     Cost
     Availability
     Personnel  requirements  for operation, maintenance,  and  safety
     Versatility
     Storage  requirements
     Objectives  of treatment                                    >
                                     16

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                             IDENTIFY DEBRIS AND
                           MATERIAL TO BE HANDLED
                         (DREDGED, EXCAVATED, PUMPED
                             VACUUMED, SURFACE)
                                    I
                                ANALYZE FOR
                               CONTAMINATION
                                 TREATMENT
                             FOR CONTAMINATION
                                 REQUIRED?
          SEGREGATE AND STAGE
          BY CONTAMINANT CLASS
            AND MATERIAL TYPE
                                  SEGREGATE AND STAGE
                                    BY MATERIAL TYPE
YES
   PRETREATMENT
     REQUIRED?
(I.E. SIZE MODIFICATION,
    DEWATERING)
SIZE MODIFICATION
  REQUIRED FOR
TRANSPORTATION,
 RECYCLING AND
   DISPOSAL?
                                                                  MODIFY SIZE
                TREAT TO
                CLEANUP
               STANDARDS
                                 RECYCLABLE
                                                       ULTIMATE \
                                                       DISPOSAL I
  RECYCLE/
  RECLAIM
Figure 2.  Flowsheet for materials-handling procedures at hazardous waste sites.
                                    17
                                                                           M-3741-42-2-8/90-1

-------
      When equipment requirements have been determined, the job cost for each
 piece of equipment can be estimated.  Equipment can be purchased, rented, or
 leased.  Rented or leased equipment is initially less expensive to use, but
 the cost of purchased equipment can be amortized over several projects.

      Cost estimates for several pieces of equipment are provided herein, and
 an overall summary of costs is presented in Appendix F.  Detailed cost esti-
 mates for operating, renting, leasing, and purchasina equipment can be ob-
 tained from Church's (1981) "Excavation Handbook" and R.S. Means (1988)
  Building Construction Cost Data."  The cost estimates were obtained from
 response contractors and equipment vendors.  Routine maintenance (e.g., oil,
 diesel fuel) costs have been figured into the rent/lease costs presented in
 Appendix F.  The rental/lease information listed in Appendix F was obtained
 from response contractors in EPA Region V; therefore, actual costs may vary ,
 for other EPA Regions.                                                  ......

      Frequently used materials-handling procedures  at hazardous waste sites'
 can be categorized as follows:
      o

      o

      o

      o

      o

      o

      o

      o

      o

      o

      o

      o

      o

      o
 Excavation and removal
 Dredging
 Pumping
 Size  and volume reduction
 Separation and dewatering
 Conveying systems
 Storage containers,  bulking  tanks,  and  containment
 Drum  handling  and  removal
 Compaction
 Miscellaneous  equipment  and  procedures
 Asbestos  remediation
 Handling  of low-level radioactive waste
 Emission  control
 Equipment decontamination
     A wide range of equipment  is available for conducting each of these
procedures.  One or more pieces can be selected as needed.

     The remainder of this section presents detailed technical information
(including capability, performance, and hazardous waste site applications)
for various materials-handling equipment and procedures.  Appendix G also
contains examples of specific models of equipment that have been used or have
potential for use on hazardous waste sites.  Included in this appendix are:
     o

     o
     o

     o

     o
     o
Photographs
Specifications
Features
Attachments
Options
Manufacturers
     Finally, representatives from several industries (e.g., sand and gravel,
demolition scrap dealers) that regularly use materials-handling equipment
                                      18

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were contacted to obtain specific information concerning equipment usage and
modifications that might be applicable for hazardous waste site work.  Although
these industries use a variety of materials-handling equipment, most of the
companies contacted were unwilling to provide any information.
EXCAVATION AND REMOVAL

     Most of the equipment used for excavation and removal work at hazardous
waste sites is standard heavy construction equipment.  Selection of excavation
equipment depends on the quantity and physical properties of thej debris and
materials present.  Table 4 presents excavation equipment performance char-
acteristics.  Because the materials found on sites vary, selection of excava-
tion equipment is very site-specific.  Excavation or removal processes take
place at most sites.  As shown in Table 2, backhoes are the most commonly
used equipment.  Excavation techniques are most applicable for dealing with
solid and thickened sludge materials.  Conventional excavation techniques are
less suitable when debris/materials have a high liquid content.

     In addition to the characterization of the debris and materials to be
handled, several other important factors must be considered before the exca-
vation or removal of materials from a site.  The selection of equipment (type
and size) may depend on one or all of these factors, including (Wagner et al.
1986):

     0    Density of the waste on a site (average densities of landfilled
          wastes are reported to be from 800 to 1000 lb/yd3 with moderate
          compaction) (Brunner and Keller 1972).

          Settlement of the fill.

     0    Bearing capacity of the site.
     0    Decomposition rate of wastes present.

     0    Packaging of the waste (drums, tanks, etc.).

     Excavation equipment generally operates in a batch rather than continu-
ous mode.   This aspect has the advantage of being able to deal with localized
areas of contamination within a hazardous waste site.  Excavation and removal
equipment is applicable under virtually all site conditions; however, such
application may be cost-prohibitive at great depths or under varied hydroge-
ologic conditions.  The capacities, horsepower, and size of equipment used
for excavation and removal vary widely.  Also, a variety of attachments,
accessories, and options are available for  individual pieces of equipment  (as
shown in Appendix 6).  The following subsections deal with various pieces  of
excavation  and removal equipment that have  proved to be applicable for work
at hazardous waste sites.

Backhoe

Capabilities--                                                 .
     The -backhoe, an  excavator for subsurface work,  is useful  for trench
digging and area excavation.   It may be crawler-mounted (trackhoe) or wheel/
tire-mounted.  Machines having a capacity of greater than 2 yd3 are generally
                                      19

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                             TABLE 4.  EXCAVATION/REMOVAL EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS3
ro
o

Excavation/
removal
equipment
Wheel -
mounted
backhoe
Crawl er-
mounted
backhoe
Wheel -
mounted
front-end
loader
Crawl er-
mounted
front-end
loader
Skid steer
loader
Bulldozer
Forklift
truck
Dragline

General
excavation
A

A

A


A


A
A
0
A
Ability to
excavate
hard and
compacted
material
A

A

A


A


B
A
0
A
A = Good choice. Equipment is fully
B = Secondary, choice. Eauioment is
Ability to
excavate
low-
solids
material
B

B

B


B


B
0
0
A
capable of
marninal 1 v t

Soil
hauling
B

0

A


B


B
0
0
0

Sludge
hauling
B

B

A


B


B
0
0
0

Mixing
of
solids,
soils
A

A

A


A


A
0
0
0

Spread-
ing
-cover
A

A

A


A


B
A
0
0

Site
maneuver-,
ability '
A

B '

A


B

-
A
B
A
0

Debris
hauling
A

B

A


B


A
0
A
0
performing function listed.

-------
crawler-mounted to aid in stability.  Smaller backhoes, which may be crawler-
or wheel-mounted, are used for exploratory or smaller excavation jobs (Church
1981).  A backhoe frequently used for hazardous waste work is a wheel-mounted
combination backhoe and front-end loader (Figure 3).  Several different
pieces of auxiliary equipment are available for backhoes, including clamshell
buckets, drum grapplers, dipperss loader buckets, and air percussion hammers.
The term "backhoe" was used in many of the equipment logs examined when
referring to both type backhoes (containing both a hoe and front-end load
bucket) and excavators (having a hoe only).  Excavators are usually larger
and have a greater net horsepower, digging depth, reach, and bucket size.

     Table 5 shows the maximum reach and depth of various-sized backhoe
buckets.  Table 6 shows the potential hourly production rates of a hydraulic
backhoe under a variety of conditions.  Table 7 gives specifications for
crawler-mounted and diesel-engine-driven backhoes.

Performance—
     Backhoes, the most common materials-handling equipment used for excava-
tion, have wide application for most categories of debris/material.  They are
used extensively for solids and sludge excavation removal.  When used with
various pumping or vacuum units, they are applicable for low- solids straining.
The backhoe bucket is easily controlled for precise width and depth excavation.
Backhoes can excavate both hard and compacted materials.  Tracked backhoes
can traverse a variety of terrains with little difficulty; wheeled backhoes
need a more level terrain for stability.
     Disadvantages of the backhoe include limited digging depth (45 feet
maximum), a linear reach of only 100 feet, and limited capabilities for
backfilling or compacting (JRB Associates 1982).  Onsite decontamination of
backhoes, as with most heavy equipment, is generally accomplished with
high-pressure hot water washers.

Application for Hazardous Waste Site Work—
     Backhoes are readily available and easily transportable.  They can be
rented or leased in most areas.  They are also the most versatile piece of
heavy equipment for this application.  Although used primarily for excavation
and trenching, other on-site applications include the following:

     0    Drum sampling with a drum plunger attachment

     0    Drum crushing (generally used on sites with less than 150 drums to
          be crushed)

     0    Offloading of equipment from trucks (generally wheel-mounted back-
          hoes with bucket attachment)

     0    Staging and/or loading of drums or debris with bucket attachment
          (structurally sound drums)

     0    Mixing of contaminated soil with various stabilization/solidifica-
          tion agents

     0    Drum handling with a hydraulic drum grappler attachment (requires
          modification of backhoe hydraulic system)
                                      21

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             Sources:  PEI Associates, Inc. 1990
Figure 3.  Typical wheel-mounted backhoe.
                  22

-------
      TABLE 5.  MAXIMUM REACH AND DEPTH OF VARIOUS-SIZED BACKHOESC
                  (maximum digging angle of 45 degrees)
       Hoe size,
Maximum reach
 of boom, ft
Maximum depth of
 excavation, ft
1
1.5
2
3.5
35
42
49
70
22
25
30
45
         Source:  Ware and Jackson 1978.
     TABLE 6.  THEORETICAL HOURLY PRODUCTION OF A HYDRAULIC BACKHOE0
                                 .(yd3/h)
                                        Bucket size,  yd
                                                       3
Product
Moist loam, sandy clay
Sand and gravel
Common earth
Hard, dense clay
/i ,
85
80
70
65
1.5
125
120
105
100
2
175,
160
150
130
2.5
220
205
190
170
3
275
260
240
210
:3.5
330
310
280
255
4
380
365
330
300
     Source:  Ware and Jackson 1978.
               TABLE 7.   REPRESENTATIVE SPECIFICATIONS FOR
           CRAWLER-MOUNTED AND DIESEL-ENGINE-DRIVEN BACKHOES
                                &
                                      Nominal  dipper capacity,  cysm
Specification
Working weight, 103 Ib
Horsepower for backhoe work
Range of dipper sizes for
rock excavation, yd3/m2
Digging radius, ft
Digging depth, ft
Dumping height, ft
1
59
110
7/8
to 1
38
23
12
2
113
146
1-3/4
to 2
47
29
17
3
174
205
2-1/2
to 3
51
32
19
4
201
250
3-1/4
to 4
56
36
21
5
264
300
4-1/4
to 5
60
40 '
22
6
352
360
5-1/4
to 6
64
44
24
Source:  Church 1981 (reproduced with permission).
Cubic yard struck measurement (see Glossary).
                                    23

-------
      Safety modifications  mentioned for hazardous  waste  work  include  instal-
 lation of splash shields and installation  of compressed-air units  on  the back
 of the equipment to allow  the operator to  work  for longer  periods  of  time on
 sites that require supplied air.   One  company has  recently marketed a tele-
 operated remote-controlled excavation  system (wheel-mounted)  (Deere and Co.
 1989).  This unit can  be used for excavating, bulldozing,  heavy  lifting,
 concrete breaking, or  the  remote  handling  of low-level radioactive waste.  It
 can be operated  up to  a mile away via  radio  transmission,  coaxial  cable, or
 fiber-optic cable which provides  maximum worker safety.  A cab-mounted camera
 allows for overall or  close-up viewing of  the work area.   Figure 4 shows a
 remote-operated  excavator  in use.

 Cost-
      Appendix F  presents rent/lease/purchase cost  summary  information for
 backhoes.   Purchase prices for wheel-mounted backhoes range from $28,000 to
 $90,000,  depending on  size and the  attachments  included.   Purchase prices for
 crawler-mounted  backhoes range from $100,000 to $650,000,  depending on size.

 Front-End Loader

 Capabilities—
      Front-end loaders may be  crawler-  or wheel-mounted; bucket capacities
 range from 1  to  5  yd3  and  1  to 20 yd3,  respectively (Church 1981).  Figure 5
 shows operating  dimensions  and bucket  action for a typical medium-sized
 bucket loader.   Front-end  loaders are  equipped  with buckets for digging,
 lifting,  dumping,  and  hauling  materials  (U.S. EPA  1985a). .

 Performance—
      Front-end loaders have  a  wide  application  for most categories of de-
 bris/materials.  Because of  their excellent  flotation and traction capabili-
 ties,  crawler-mounted  loaders  are ideal for  unstable uneven terrain.   .Depend-
 ing on  the type  of tires used, wheel-mounted loaders can maneuver on  rough,
 muddy,  and sloping terrain.  Wheel-mounted loaders are faster and more mobile
 than  crawler-mounted machines  (U.S. EPA 1985a).

      Front-end loaders are suitable for the excavation, spreading, and com-
 paction of cover materials.  They are excellent for hauling over short dis-
 tances  (less than  300 ft).   The disadvantages of front-end loaders include
 their unsuitability for hauling long distances and they often  must be  used in
 conjunction with other types of excavation equipment (Noble 1976).  Decontami-
 nation  is generally accomplished by use of high-pressure hot-water washers.

Application for Hazardous Waste Site Work—
      Front-end loaders are  readily available and are easily transportable.
Onsite application of front-end loaders includes the following:
          Hauling and staging of drums using bucket
          Offloading of equipment from trucks
          Staging of debris/materials (Figure 6)
          Feeding materials into treatment processes (e.g.,  shredding)
          Drum crushing (generally less than 150 drums)  using bucket
                                      24

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sg?(vi^sf«^%i•** *•"• v ^^^^^1^^^        .Js®$#** *<*?^ ^W^^^^SSS^SH^^ -vx  i^r;^^ % wt^y
                                                           *:V:; - ^tt
                                                                   \v
                                                    Photo courtesy of Deere & Company 1990
       Figure 4.  Remote operated excavator.
                        25

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12 ft 2 in.
              SOURCE: Church 1981   (reproduced with  permissionJ-~-^
                                   •29ft11 in.
      Figure  -5. Operating  dimensions and bucket action of a bucket loader.
                                       26

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                       Source:  PEI Associates, Inc. 1990
Figure 6.  Front-end loader being used for debris  removal
               at a hazardous  waste site.
                           27

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      0     Soil and  sludge excavation
      0     Site preparation  (access road construction)

      Safety modifications mentioned were similar to those for backhoes (i.e.,
safety shields and  compressed-air units).

Cost-
      Appendix F presents cost summary information for front-end loaders.
Renting/leasing rates vary  according to the size of the equipment, the
supplier,  and the geologic  area.  The purchase prices of crawler-mounted
loaders range from  $24,000  for smaller (0.75-yd3) buckets to $250,000 for
larger (4.5-yd3) buckets.   Purchase prices of wheel-mounted units range from
$13,000 (0.75-yd3)  to $130,000 (3.5-yd3).

Crawler Tractors

Capabilities-
      Crawler tractors (bulldozers) are generally equipped with a
hydraulically controlled (vs. a mechanical cable hoist) blade and bucket
lift, and  they are  usually  crawler-mounted (U.S. EPA 1985a).  They have a
variety of blades (straight U-shaped, angle-type), which are used for the
following  purposes  (Doerr,  Landin, and Matrin 1986):

      0     Multipurpose blades with digging teeth to cut trenches and to
           uproot trees, shrubs, and rocks

      0     Pushing blades to uproot and fell large trees

      0     Cutting blades to shear off trees and shrubs at or below soil
           surface

      0     Stacking  rakes, which are adapted for clearing

     Table 8 presents specifications for crawler-tractor bulldozers with
straight U-shaped blades.

                 TABLE 8.  REPRESENTATIVE SPECIFICATIONS FOR
           CRAWLER-TRACTOR BULLDOZERS WITH STRAIGHT U-SHAPED BLADES9
Tractor engine
  horsepower
                                           Blade data
Weight, Ib    Height, ft    Width, ft    Capacity, cylm
105
195
300
410
524
700
a Source: Church
Cubic yard loose

24,600
49,800
75,000
97,200
146,000
173,100
1981 (reproduced
measurement (see

3.2 8.7
4.8 11.8
5.0 13.9
6.0 14.4
7.1 17.0
7.0 19.8
with permission).
Glossary).
28
2.0
4.8
7.6
11.4
18.9
21.3




-------
Performance—
     Bulldozers are applicable for a variety of waste types.   Bulldozers  with
variable cleat design are generally very stable; however, they are suscepti-
ble to sliding during icy weather.  They are frequently used  for excavating
cover materials, clearing debris, constructing temporary or permanent dikes
and containments, and compaction.  Disadvantages of bulldozers include limit-
ed speed, limited mobility, and poor hauling capabilities.   Decontamination
is generally accomplished by use of high-pressure hot-water washers.

Application for Hazardous Waste Site Work—
     Bulldozers are readily available and easily transportable,,  Although
availability is not a concern, the size of the working area at hazardous
waste sites may limit the usefulness of bulldozers.  Applications for the use
of bulldozers include:
     0    Drum excavation
     0    Site preparation, excavation, clearing of access roads, and
          clearing of vegetation
     0    Mixing of contaminated soil with stabilization/solidification
          agents
    , °    General earth moving for capping of landfills

     Safety modifications include installation of splash shields and the
addition of compressed-air units for extended working periods.

Cost-
     Cost summary information for bulldozers is presented in Appendix F.  The
most common sizes used for site work are the CAT D-3 and D-6 (or equivalent)
units.  The purchase price of a 65-hp (CAT D-3) bulldozer is approximately
$50,000.  The larger, 140-hp (D-6) bulldozers have a purchase price of ap-
proximately $135,000.  Bulldozers larger than the D-6 size are generally not
appropriate for site work.  Average costs given in Appendix F vary according
to manufacturer and type of blade.
Trencher

     This piece of equipment is commonly referred to as a "Ditch Witch."
variety of hydraulically powered tools and accessories are available for
specific site applications.
                                                                A
Performance--
     Trenchers are suitable for a variety of excavation/grading applications
on site. "They are generally wheeled and able to perform many of the same
functions as larger backhoes, excavators, and bulldozers, but with a smaller
carrying capacity.  A variety of accessories are available, including:
     o

     o

     o

     o
Backhoe
Backfill blade
Augers
Remote handling
                                      29

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Application  for  Hazardous Waste Site Work--
     Trenchers are  readily  available and easily transported.  This piece of
equipment combines  the functions of several pieces of equipment into one unit
for smaller  sites.  Applications for the use of trenchers include:
      o

      o

      o


      o

      o
Soil and sludge excavation
Excavation of trenches for laying of pipe/lines
Mixing of contaminated material with stabilization/solidification
agents
Site preparation
Feeding material into treatment process
Cost--
     Cost summary  information for trenchers is not available.

Skid-Steer Loader

     This piece of equipment is commonly referred to as a "Bobcat."  It can
be equipped with a variety of hydraulically controlled buckets, grapplers,
and lifting attachments.

Performance—
     Skid-steer loaders have excellent application for hazardous waste site
work.  They can perform many of the same functions as the much larger front-
end loaders, and they can work in a much smaller area.  Skid-steer loaders
are ideally suited for indoor work, where they can operate with propane
rather than diesel fuel.  Although skid-steer loaders can traverse rough
muddy terrain, they function best on relatively flat surfaces.  A disadvan-
tage of the Bobcat is its smaller carrying capacity.  Figure 7 shows a
typical skid-steer loader being used for site work.                  ;

Application for Hazardous Waste Site Work—                     •",;',
     Skid-steer loaders are readily available and are easily transportable.
Possible uses include:
     o

     o

     o

     o


     o

     o
Drum loading and transport.
Offloading of equipment from trucks.
Soil and sludge excavation (fitted with shovel).
Mixing of contaminated material with stabilization/solidification
agents.
Site preparation.
Feeding material into treatment processes.
Cost--
     Cost summary information for skid-steer loaders is presented in Appen-
dix F.  Purchase cost varies according to bucket width [$5200 (35-in.  bucket)
to $22,000 (63-in. bucket)].

Fork!ift Truck

     Heavy-duty rubber-tired forklift trucks are available in capacities
ranging from 1 to 50 tons; the most commonly used ones are 1-, 1.5-, and
                                      30

-------
                   Source:   PEI  Associates,  Inc. 1990
Figure 7.   Skid-steer loader with  hoe attachment.
                      31

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2-ton Vehicles.  As shown  in  Figure 8, several accessories are available for
specific loads.  These  include high-lift masts, handling attachments for
cylindrical  objects (drums),  carton clamps, and fork side-to-side shifting
mechanisms  (Perry  1984).

Performance—
     Forklift trucks are suitable for loading, offloading, and staging of
equipment and drums at  hazardous waste sites.  The fork!ift truck has the
advantage of being compact, maneuverable, and versatile (Wagner, et al.
1986).  Although this piece of equipment requires a flat, relatively stable
terrain, additional tractability can be provided with 4-wheel-drive units.

Application  for Hazardous Waste Site Work--
     Forklift trucks are readily available and easily transportable.  General
applications include:

     0    Offloading of equipment from trucks.
     0    Onsite hauling over short distances.
     0    Loading, staging, and transport of drums.

Cost--
     Cost summary information for forklift trucks is presented in Appendix F.
The purchase price of these trucks varies from approximately $30,000 to
$85,000, depending on lift capacity, horsepower, and 2-wheel vs. 4-wheel
drive.


DREDGING

     Many hazardous waste sites require remedial techniques that entail
removal and/or containment of contaminated sediments.  The process of remov-
ing bottom sediments from bodies of water is referred to as dredging (U.S.
EPA 1985a).  Dredging is used for unlined surface impoundments containing
surface liquids that cannot be removed, but contain sediments (sludge) that
require removal.  Dredging categories discussed in this section are mechan-
ical, hydraulic, and pneumatic.  The EPA document "Remedial Action at Haz-
ardous Waste Sites" (U.S. EPA 1985a) contains a detailed description of
dredging equipment and operations.  Figure 9 shows an overview of several
mechanical and hydraulic dredging operations.  Table 9 presents a comparison
of dredging equipment that is suitable for hazardous waste site work.

Mechanical Dredging

Capabilities—
     Mechanical dredging techniques are frequently used in conjunction with
standard excavation equipment (backhoes, draglines, clamshells, etc.).  These
techniques are most applicable to relatively shallow, low-velocity streams
and rivers.  Clamshell  dredges, dragline dredges,  backhoes, and bucket-ladder
dredges are most commonly used for mechanical dredging.  Mechanical  dredging
is generally applied in bodies of water less than  100 ft deep and having
stream flows of 2 ft/s  or less (U.S. EPA 1985a).
                                      32

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Triple telescoping uprights
                                   Gripping forks
       Carton clamp
SOURCE: Perry 1984
(reproduced with permission)
  Figure  8,  Various  types of. fork-truck attachments:.
                          33

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                            BUCKET LADDER
                                                                                          CLAMSHELL DREOC£
CO
                              HOPPER DREDGE
                            PLAIN SUCTION DREDGE

^T^l
' — -
\ ^=\


	 -r?-.^f


si\ 1
                                                                           OIICKUOCLINC
                                                                                           CUrrERHEAO DREDGE
                                                                                            PNEUMA DREDGE
                             Figure 9.   Mechanical  and  hydraulic dredging operations.
                              Adapted from:  Hand 1978

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                   TABLE 9.  COMPARISON OF DREDGE EQUIPMENT THAT IS APPLICABLE AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES9
oo
01
Mechanical
Factor Dragline Backhoe
Vessel draft, b b
ft
Hinderance to Small Small
traffic
Maximum wave <3 <3
height, ft
Operation near Yes Yes
structures?
Operation in Limited Limited
open water?
Capable of Yes Yes
consolidating
sediments?
Susceptible to No No
debris damage?
Suitable for Solid Solid
liquid or solid
removal?
Hydraulic
Clam-
shell
b
Small
<3
Yes
Lim-
ited
Yes
No
Solid
a Source: U.S. EPA 1985a.
Depends on draft of supporting structure.
*•* MA — M^J. * 1 • I *i
Plain
suction
5-6
Signif-
icant
<3
No
Limited
No
Yes
Both
Cutter-
head
3-14
Some
<3
No
Lim-
ited
Yes
Yes
Both
Most barges have
Dustpan Hopper
5-14 12-31
Signif- Small
icant
<3 <3
No No
No Yes
Yes No
Yes Yes
Both Both
a draft of 5 to
Port-
able
•11/2
Some
<3
No
No
No
Yes
Both
6 ft.
Pneumatic
Air
lift
3-6
Some
<3
No
No
No
Yes
Both

Pneu-
matic
NAC
Some
<3
No
Lim-
ited
No
Yes
Both

Oozer
7
Signif-
icant
<3
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Both


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Performance—
     Clamshell (grapple) dredges are crane-operated and mounted on flat-
bottomed barges or crawler tractors.  The working depth of the clamshell,
while theoretically only limited by the length of the cable, is realistically
about 100 ft.  Bucket capacities range from 1 to 12 yd3.  Because clamshell
dredges leak heavily the Japanese have recently developed a tongue-and-groove
clamshell that is watertight (U.S. ECE 1986).

     The dragline dredge (Figure 10) can also be mounted, on flat-bottomed
barges or crawler tractors.  Like the clamshell, the dragline can be used for
any type of material.  The drag cable pulls the dragline bucket through the
material to be excavated.  This provides a longer reach than the clamshell.

     Bucket ladder dredges (Figure 9) use an inclined submersible ladder
supporting a continuous chain of buckets that rotate around pivots at both
ends of the ladder (U.S. EPA 1985a).  As the buckets rotate around the bottom
of the ladder, they scoop up the sediment, which is transported to and dumped
in a storage area.

     Backhoes also may be used for dredging purposes; these backhoes may be
mounted on a barge.  Because they have a more limited lateral and vertical
reach than do clamshells or draglines, backhoes are infrequently used to
remove contaminated sediment.

Application for Hazardous Waste Site Work—
     Clamshell and dragline dredges are readily available and are capable of
excavating materials at nearly in situ densities (U.S. EPA 1985a).  They also
generate large amounts of sediment resuspension.  Silt curtains can be used
to reduce sediment suspension.  Clamshells are effective for deep-water ex-
cavation, whereas draglines are limited to shallow-water. Although clamshells
and draglines have excellent lifting power, they are limited in mobility and
rotation speed, which slows excavation operations.

     Although backhoes are readily available for hazardous waste site work,
they are limited by their reach.  Smaller than clamshells or draglines,
backhoes have greater mobility and manueverability than other mechanical
dredgers.

Cost--
     Extensive unit cost information is presented in EPA's handbook "Remedial
Action at Hazardous Waste Sites" (U.S. EPA 1985a).  Backhoe costs are also
presented in Appendix F.  Costs of crawler-mounted clamshells range from
$95,000 to more than $1,000,000, depending on bucket capacity, horsepower,
and manufacturer.  Truck-mounted clamshell costs range from $60,000 to
$650,000, depending on axle configuration, horsepower, and manufacturer.
Renting/leasing information for hazardous waste site work is not available.

     Costs of crawler-mounted draglines range from $100,000 to more than
$1,000,000, depending on manufacturer and horsepower.  Costs of truck-mounted
draglines range from $55,000 to $500,000, depending on horsepower, axle
configuration, and manufacturer.  Renting/leasing information for site work
is not available.

                                      36

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                              SOURCE: Ware 1978
Figure 10.  Typical dragline.
               37

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Hydraulic Dredging

Capabilities—
     Hydraulic dredges are used to remove and transport sediment in a liquid
slurry (10 to 20 percent solids by weight).  They can be used in waters with
an appreciable flow rate (U.S. EPA 1985a).  One of the disadvantages of
hydraulic dredging is that, given the high liquids content of the dredged
material, large settling/dewatering areas must be available.  Five types of
hydraulic dredges are commonly used:  plain suction, cutterhead, self-propell-
ed hopper, portable (Mud Cat), and pneumatic.

Performance—
     Plain suction dredges rely on a centrifugal pump to provide suction to
capture and transport excavated slurry.  These dredges are pulled along the
bottom of the pond or impoundment, and the dredged material is,discharged
through a pipeline.  These units are used primarily for digging soft free^flow-
ing materials.

     Cutterhead pipeline dredges are widely used to transport waterbound
solids.  They are similar to  the plain suction dredge, except that a rotating
cutter loosens the material,  which is then sucked through the pump.  These
dredges can be used to pump all types of alluvial materials,"as well as clay
and other compacted deposits  (Pit and Quarry 1976).  Cutterhead dredges are
classified by the diameter of the discharge pipeline and range in size from 4
in. to 36 in. discharges.  Concentrations of suspended solids from dredging
operations using cutterheads  range from 200 mg/L to 300 mg/L near the cutter-
head to a few mg/L 2000 feet  from the dredge (Averett, Perry, and Torrey
1989).  The cutterhead dredge is capable of removing sediment with relatively
small amounts of resuspensions extending beyond the immediate vicinity of the
dredge (Raymond 1984).

     Hopper dredges are similar to the plain suction dredges, except that
they are self-propelled and are usually larger, ocean-going ships.  Sedi-
ment/material raised from the bottom-dragged suction heads  is pumped into
storage tanks in the ship..  To discharge  its contents, the  ship proceeds to a
deep-water dumping area, where its hopper doors are opened  to discharge the
material.

Pneumatic Dredges

Capabilities--
     Pneumatic dredges remove a higher proportion of solids than  coventional
dredging operations  (up to 60 percent solids have been sustained  during
actual dredging operations).  A disadvantage of the pneumatic  dredge is that
the pull of the compressed air cylinders  decreases  in  shallow water, so that
the effective operating depth is  greater  than  7.5 feet  (U.S. ACE  1986).

     Portable hydraulic dredging  systems  may be equipped with  any of the
units.   They are designed  to  be easily transportable.   Figure  11  shows  an
example  of  a portable  dredge. One major  advantage  of  portable  systems  is
a vessel depth, allowing them to  work  in  water less than 5  ft.
                                       38

-------
                                      SOURCE: Crisafulli Pump Co. 1989
Figure Hi.  Portable  hydraulic dredging system.
                       39

-------
     Pneumatic dredges are hydraulic dredges that use a compressed-air pump
and hydrostatic pressure to draw sediments/material to the collection head
(U.S. EPA 1985a).  They can be operated in shallow or deep water, and they
are easily dismantled and transported.  The capacity of a large pneumatic
system is 2600 yd3/h (Averett, Perry, and Torrey 1989).

Application for Hazardous Waste Site Work--
     Surface impoundments for which hydraulic and pneumatic dredging is
applicable include holding ponds; settling ponds; aeration lagoons; sludge or
slurry pits; dewatering basins; and general industrial, storage, treatment,
and disposal ponds.  These impoundments may be natural depressions,
artificial excavations, or diked containment areas (JRB Associates 1982).

     Plain suction dredges can handle large volumes of material, but the
sediments require extensive dewatering.  Cutterhead dredges are most efficient
when cutting and directing sediment/bottom material toward the pump, but the
action of the cutterhead results in turbulence and resuspension of the sedi-
ment.  Although all of these dredging systems have hazardous waste site
applications, the portable hydraulic dredges are most applicable for many
isolated sites.

Cost--
     Extensive unit cost information is presented in EPA's handbook "Remedial
Action at Hazardous Waste Sites," 1985.  Purchase costs for a portable hy-
draulic-cutter suction dredge range from $44,000 for an 8-in.-discharge
365-hp unit to $3,000,000 for a 24-in.-discharge 4400-hp unit.  Renting/
leasing information is not available.  No cost information is available for
pneumatic dredges.


PUMPING

     Many hazardous waste sites require the handling and disposal of large
volumes of liquids, including liquids with a high solids content or corrosive
characteristics.  Pump selection depends on various factors, including the
following:

     0    Properties of the liquid to be handled
          -    pH
               Viscosity
               Temperature
               Vapor pressure
          Required flow
          Intake and discharge pressures
          Metering
          Solids content
In general, pumps can be classified into two types:  positive displacement
and centrifugal.  Figure 12 shows a classification chart of these pump types.
A third type, the submersible pump is also discussed in this section.
                                      40

-------
CENTRIFUGAL
HORIZONTAL
GENERAL SERVICE
CHEMICAL (ANSI)
HIGH TEMP. 
-------
     Positive-displacement pumps may be either reciprocating (piston, plung-
er, or diaphragm) or rotary type.  Positive-displacement pumps displace the
liquid from the pump case by the reciprocating action of a piston or diaphragm
or by the rotating action of a gear, cam, vane, or screw (Bonner et al.
1981).  These pumps have a high overall operating efficiency, and they can
deliver liquids at low velocities with high pressure.  A disadvantage of
positive-displacement pumps is that they are less efficient with low-viscosity
fluid (internal slippage, air inclusion, etc.).

     Centrifugal pumps (trash pumps) are the most commonly used pump in the
chemical industry.  Flow rates range from 2 to 105 gallons per minute (gpm).
The advantages of centrifugal pumps are their simplicity, low initial cost,
uniform (nonpulsating) flow, small floor space requirements, low maintenance
requirements, quiet operation, and adaptability (Perry 1984).  Centrifugal
pumps convert velocity pressure generated by centrifugal force to static
pressure.  An impeller rotating at high speeds imparts velocity to the fluids.
For field use, internal combustion engines (gasoline or diesel fuel) are used
to run the pumps.

     Submersible pumps can be small centrifugal pumps or piston (air
operated) pumps and are used to drain shallow pits or sumps.  These pumps are
operational only when completely submerged in the liquid.  Some types can
operate with as little as 3/16 inch of fluid and can pump semisolids (IKS.
EPA 1985a).

Application for Hazardous Waste Site Work

     General pump selection depends on the required rate of flow and the
physical/chemical characteristics of the material to be pumped.  For hazard-
ous waste work, several different materials (e.g., acids, dyesi organic
solvents, brines, and caustics) may need to be pumped.  A variety of liner
materials have been developed to provide resistance to hazardous substances.
These include Viton, Nordel, neoprene, Teflon, polypropylene, polyethylene,
and natural rubber.  Abrasive materials (e.g., titanium dioxide, lead oxide,
and machine coolants) also may present a problem during pumping operations.
Rubber and ceramic liners are effective for resisting abrasive wear (Perry
1984).  Piston pumps should not be used to pump fluids containing abrasives,
as leaks could develop in the pump packing seal.                  ' '

     Both centrifugal and positive-displacement pumps can be used with fluids
having a high solids content. 'Reciprocating pumps have the advantage of
being able to pump sludges.  Screens can be used to remove oversized materials
that might damage the pump.

     Whereas none of the industries contacted mentioned specific uses of
pumps or pumping systems, the chemical industry is known to have developed a
wide variety of pumps for dealing with caustics, ceramics, abrasives, alco-
hol, acids, brines, paper manufacturing effluent, mining waste, sludges,
solvents, resins, glue, and food.  Applications for hazardous waste site work
can be found among many of these pumps used by industry.
                                      42

-------
Cost

     Renting/leasing  information for various pumps is presented in Appen-
dix F.  Typical purchase costs are also given; however, costs vary widely,
depending on horsepower, port size, interior lining, and manufacturer.


SIZE AND VOLUME REDUCTION

Size Reduction

     Various kinds of size-reduction equipment are available.  Equipment used
to obtain uniform size reduction includes small grinders, chippers, roll
crushers, jaw crushers, large grinders, shredders, rasp mills, hammer mills,
and hydropulpers.  The goal of size reduction is to obtain a final product
that is both smaller in size and homogeneous.  For general hazardous waste
site work, size reduction does one of the following:   1) facilitates staging,
storing, and ultimate disposal of debris/material; or 2) serves as one of the
initial steps in feedstock preparation for treatment (i.e., attaining optimum
size of debris or materials that can be handled by a given treatment technol-
ogy).

     Several sources (Tamm, Cowles, and Beers 1988; Tchobanoglous, Theisen,
and Eliassen 1977) have considered the factors  that affect the selection of
size-reduction equipment for hazardous waste site work.   These include:

     0     Properties and characteristics (density, moisture content)  of
          material to be shredded (both pre-,and post-shredding).

     0     Size requirements of the shredded  material  for treatment or
          containment.

     0     Availability of equipment (including  mobility).

     0     Type of infeed system  required to  ensure efficient flow  rate
          [infeed opening,  batch  vs. meter (regulated) feed methods].

          The ability of the  treatment  process  to  accept metallic  materials
          and metallic debris  commonly  found on  hazardous  waste sites.

    0     Type  of operation (continuous  vs.  intermittent).

          Site  considerations  (size of work  area,  terrain,  weather condi-
          tions,  access,  and  noise).

    0     Precautions  taken for release  of toxic materials  or explosives
         within  the  size-reduction equipment.

    0    Ease  of  cleaning  and decontamination of  shredding  equipment  (in-
         cluding  feed equipment).
                                     43

-------
     Size-reduction equipment used for hazardous waste work was initially
designed and used to handle bulk materials such as sand and gravel, topsoil,
coal, iron ore, and crushed rock.  Several companies (e.g., Powerscreen of
America, Inc.; Shredding Systems, Inc.) have developed systems for the han-
dling or preprocessing of hazardous waste.  Shredding equipment can facili-
tate several treatment technologies, including the following (Powerscreen of
America, Inc. 1988):

     0    Incineration—requires consistent feed rate and a predetermined
          particle size.

     0    Biochemical treatment—is augmented by having small-particle-size
          and high-surface-area raw material.

     0    Solidification/stabilization processes—benefit from uniform
          particle size; in some cases, the shredding equipment's receiving
          hopper can be used for mixing.

     The shredder is the most commonly used piece of size-reduction equipment.
Figure 13 presents an example of a self-contained portable shredding; system
for hazardous waste work.  The most common type of shredder used in the
municipal solid waste field is the hammermill, which consists of a central
rotor with a hammer that causes a crushing action against the breaker plates.
Other types of shredders include ring mills, grinders, flail mills, and ball
mills.                     ••.'''• ;  .:.',    •   ''  '''.'•''''.*••    •  '•  .

     Pug mills are also available .for size reduction: and'homogenization (see
page 198).                                '              '           :'. '..•'.

     Shredders available for hazardous '.waste- site work may be hydraul teal ly,
electrically, or diesel driven.  They may be used strictly'for shredding pur-
poses or fitted with units that provide material separation capabilities.
Several case studies were presented at the National Technology Seminar (1988)
that illustrated actual onsite use of shredding systems.(  Shredding equipment
has been used in conjunction with backhoes, front-end loaders, farm disks,
forklifts, and grapplers to scalp and screen out such debris/material  as
batteries, tires, sheet metal, rock, clay, concrete pipe,  paint, cans,  and
railroad ties.                                               '   '   '      /
                                                   • • • , '   •.  ' '••.  '  ' •  '  - •  "
Volume Reduction

     Because typical size-reduction equipment often results in significant
volume reduction of the debris/material handled, several types of densifying
equipment used in the municipal solid waste industry may be applicable at
hazardous waste sites.  Densifiers are primarily used at the end of the
process line in MSW-to-energy systems to enhance the storability or transport-
ability of the waste.  Densifiers can be'classified into five different
pieces of equipment:  briquetters, cubetters, extruders, pelletizers,  and
compactors.  A report by Bendersky et al. (1980) contains a detailed descrip-
tion of densifying equipment used for MSW-to-energy systems.  (Drum compaction
is discussed in the Drum Handling and Removal subsection.)
                                      44

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                                SOURCE: Shredding Systems Inc. 1988
Figure  13.  Self-contained portable  shredder.
                      45

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SEPARATION AND DEWATERING

Component Separation

     The primary function of separation processes is to obtain two or more
distinct waste streams separated on the basis of a specific characteristic
such as size, density, or material type.  Separation/classification of
materials may be accomplished by either mechanical or manual means.  Material
separation at hazardous waste sites is important for several reasons.  First,
the screening of materials allows for more efficient operation of the chosen
treatment process  (i.e., screening for maximum size of debris/materials for a
given technology).  Debris/materials that exceed the maximum allowable size
must be separated  and treated/disposed of separately.  Second, separation
facilitates the staging and storing of debris/materials found on site by
grouping like-sized material.  Finally, recent evidence suggests that many
contaminants will  preferentially adsorb to fine-grained materials such as
clay and organic material (U.S. EPA 1985a).  Therefore, separation by grain
size should reduce the volume of contaminated material to be treated.

     Screening equipment can be divided into the following five general
categories (Perry  1984):

     0    Grizzly  screens—Sets of parallel bars set at predetermined spaces
          (can be  stationary or vibrating)

     0    Revolving screens (trommel screens)—A revolving cylindrical frame
          surrounded by wire cloth—open at both ends

     0    Shaking screens—A rectangular frame lined with wire cloth (often
          used in conjunction with conveying system)

     0    Vibrating screens—Used for high capacity and efficiency (may .be
          mechanically or electrically powered)

     0    Oscillating screens—Characterized by low-speed oscillation (often
          used with silk cloth)

     Grizzlies are used primarily for scalping, i.e., removing a small amount
of oversized material from material that is primarily fines (U.S. EPA 1985a).
Moving screens (i.e., vibrating, shaking, revolving, and oscillating) are
used to separate particles by grain size, typically in the size range of
0.125-in. to 6-in.

     Two factors have a direct bearing on the selection of screen equipment.
Overall width relates to capacity (i.e., the greater the width, the greater
the capacity), and the length of the screen relates to efficiency (i.e., the
longer the screen, the longer the residence time of the material) (Perry
1984).

     Additional  separation systems that may have application for hazardous
waste site work include air separation (light vs.  heavy components),
                                      46

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 flotation,  and  magnetic  separation  (ferrous  vs.  nonferrous metals).  These
 systems  have  been  discussed  at  length  for  MSW-to-energy  operations  (Runyon
 1985;  Savage  and Shiflett  1980).                  •

     Selection  of  a  separation  system  for  hazardous waste work  involves the
 following factors:

     0    Availability of  equipment  (mobility)

          Type  of  debris/material to be handled  (physical/chemical character-
          istics)

     0    Volume of  material to be handled

     Q    Site  considerations (size of working area, terrain, weather condi-
          tions, access, and noise)

          Ease  of Cleaning arid decontamination of separating equipment

     0    Whether  separation is to be accomplished dry or wet

     0    Type  of  feed-delivery system, including feed rate

     From discussions with response personnel and OSCs, most debris/material
separation  is accomplished by hand-sorting.  Hand-sorting is used primarily
for the sorting of larger, bulkier materials in the initial staging of onsite
materials.  Several  hazardous waste site descriptions have mentioned the use
of screening devices such as grizzlies and vibrating screens in conjunction
with shredders  (National Technology Seminar 1988).  The screening of materi-
als enabled more efficient operation of the chosen treatment processes (in-
cineration of PCB-contaminated transformers and capacitors and microbial
degradation of creosote-contaminated soil).  A detailed description of feed-
stock preparation and handling is presented in a recently completed EPA
report (Tamm, Cowles, and Beers 1988).

Dewatering

     Dewatering is the removal  or reduction of moisture from sludges or slur-
ries.  Dewatering techniques are used on hazardous waste sites where large
volumes of sludge or sediment must be handled or treated.  The ability to
dewater sludge  is important because it determines the volume of waste to be
handled.   If a sludge is dewatered to 5 percent solids, 4/5 of the volume  is
eliminated;  if dewatered to 10 percent solids, a 9/10 volume reduction occurs
(Robinson 1986).  The contaminated water resulting from the dewatering will
require additional  treatment.  A detailed discussion of dewatering techniques
is presented in "Remedial Action at Waste Disposal Sites" (U.S.  EPA 1985a).
Several dewatering methods are briefly described here.   These include the  use
of thickening and conditioning agents,  centrifuges,  vacuum filters,  pressure
filters,  and dewatering lagoons.
                                      47

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Thickening Agents—
     Sludges or slurries are generally sent to a thickener before going to
dewatering equipment.  Gravity thickeners and flotation thickeners are com-
monly used.  Solids concentrations of 2 to 15 percent are achievable by the
use of thickening agents (U.S. EPA 1985a).  Thickeners aid in water removal
and blending.  It should be noted that the addition of thickening agents will
result in an overall volume increase of the sludge or slurry, but is often
necessary in order to transport and dispose of the waste.

Conditioning Agents—
     Three chemicals (lime, ferric chloride, and polymers) are most often
used before dewatering, regardless of the dewatering equipment used.  These
chemicals can be used separately or together to enhance settling (Robinson
1986).

Centrifuges—
     The three types of centrifuges that have been developed are the disc,
basket, and scroll centrifuges.  Centrifuges operate on the basis of density
difference separation, and are therefore highly applicable for sludge
dewatering.  They are applicable for dewatering soils and sediments ranging
from fine gravel down to silt (U.S. EPA 1985a).  Because centrifuges are com-
pact, they require relatively little space and can be quickly mobilized and
demobilized.  Solids concentration ranges from 9 to 25 percent, and a solids
capture of 85 to 97 percent is possible (U.S. EPA 1985a).

Vacuum Filters—
     The most common vacuum filters consist of a cylindrical  rotating drum
that is submerged in the sludge.  Solids concentration ranges from 20 to 40
percent, and a solids capture of 85 to 95 percent is possible; however, this
process may require the use of large quantities of conditioning agents.  An
additional limitation is that incoming feed must have a solids content of at
least 3 percent.  Other types of vacuum filters are also available (e.g.,
belt filters).

Pressure Filters--
     Pressure filters are the most powerful dewatering devices in use.  Sol-
ids concentration ranges from 30 to 45 percent, and a solids  capture of 95 to
100 percent is possible.  One type of pressure filter consists of vertical
plates held rigidly in a frame and pressed together by a large screw jack or
hydraulic cylinder (U.S. EPA 1985a).  Other types of pressure filters are
also available (e.g., pressure leaf filters).  As with the vacuum filter,
conditioning agents are generally required.  Both pressure and vacuum filters
are applicable for mobile on-site work.

Dewatering Lagoons—
     A dewatering lagoon is lined with clay, and a synthetic  liner is used in
conjunction with a gravity- or vacuum-assisted underdrainage  system (U.S. EPA
1985a).  Although dewatering lagoons are highly effective (a  solids concen-
tration of 35 to 40 percent and 99 percent solids removal), this technique is
generally applicable to very large-scale operations, and it requires large
areas and long setup times.  Gravity filtration can also be used for smaller
applications (e.g., sand filtration units).

                                      48

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 CONVEYING SYSTEMS

      Conveying systems are often used at hazardous waste sites, generally in
 conjunction with shredding and screening pretreatment of feedstock for onsite
 treatment (Figure 14).  Several mobile conveying systems are available
 including screw conveyors, belt conveyors, bucket elevators, vibrating or
 oscillating conveyors, and continuous-flow conveyors.  A comprehensive de-
 scription of these various pieces of equipment is found in the Chemical
 Engineers Handbook by Perry (1984).

      The following factors should be assessed before selecting a convevina
 system for hazardous waste work:
      o

      o

      o

      o

      o
Capacity requirements
Length of travel
Physical/chemical characteristics of transported material
Availability of equipment (mobility)
Ease of cleaning and decontamination of conveying systems
 STORAGE CONTAINERS,  BULKING TANKS,  AND CONTAINMENT

 Storage Containers and Bulking Tanks

      An often overlooked aspect of  materials  handling  on  hazardous waste
 sites is the selection of a storage system.   Storage containers may  range
 from small  5-gallon  pails to 12,000-gallon or larger bulking  tanks.  These
 storage containers may be used simply  to  stage the material,  or they may be
 used in the treatment  process.   The most  commonly  used storage containers are
 55-gallon drums  and  85-gallon  overpacks (generally used for offsite  dispos-
 al).   Storage containers  or bulking tanks may be constructed  of polyethylene,
 polypropylene, or stainless steel.  Care must be taken to determine  the chem-
 ical  characteristics of the waste to be stored so  the construction materials
 of  the disposal  container chosen will  not be  incompatible with the stored
 material.

      Hazardous waste container  bag  liners are  also available  for lining roll-
 offs,  dump  trailers, compactors, or any vehicle used to transport hazardous
 waste.   These  liners generally  provide a triple-thickness of  leak protection
 and  are  constructed of high-density polyethylene.

      Fiberboard drums  and boxes also can be used to store solids.   These
 containers are generally  used when  the treatment option is incineration and
 both  the container and  the waste are to be incinerated.  These drums  can also
 be lined to provide limited  liquid  storage.   (This is not approved by the
 Department of Transportation, however, so such containers cannot be shipped.)

     A variety of collapsible or flexible containers  are also available for
 hazardous waste applications.  Collapsible rubberized containers that lie
 flat when empty and assume pillow configuration when  full  are available for
 liquids.  Collapsible,  self-emptying containers are also available for
asbestos removal.

                                      49

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                              SOURCE:   PEI Associates, Inc. 1990
Figure 14.   Conveyor being used during  treatment  process for
                   contaminated soil.
                            50

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      A wide  selection  of polyethylene tanks  for storing hazardous  waste  is
 commercially available.   Types  of tanks  include vertical,  horizontal,  and
 cone-bottom.   Department of Transportation  (DDT)-exempt tanks,  transporta-
 tion/storage tanks,  and  custom-molded tanks  are also  available  with
 capacities ranging from  55  to  12,000  gallons.   These  storage  tanks are con-
 structed  of  high-density cross-linked polyethylene  to enable  them  to retain
 materials that have  a  high  specific gravity, withstand the corrosive effects
 of-most acidic and alkaline solutions, and  resist stress cracking.  Typical
 chemicals that the tanks can handle are  sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide,
 hydrofluoric acid, sodium hypochlorite,  phosphoric  acid, and  ferric chloride.
 The  DOT-exempted  tanks are  capable of storing  up to 50 percent  hydrogen
 peroxide.  Polyurethane-insulated polyethylene tanks  and polyethylene-
 insulated steel and  alloy tanks  are also available.   Cross-linked  polyethy-
 lene, imposes  two  limits:  1) the working temperature  must  not exceed 150°F;
 and  2)  repairs must  be made by  patching  because polyethylene  tanks are not
 weldable  or  fusible.

 Containment  Systems
  '/;'..' "".'''•;   ''*'..".''"-"     -    .      ,
  ', V;A' variety:.of products  are  available for containment of spills of  hazard-
 ous;  material.   Sorbent booms, pads, sweeps, blankets,  pillows,  and particu-
 lates  are available  for  containment of industrial chemicals,  oils, and most
 hazardous waste spills.   Sorbents  are also available  to separate oil from
 wa^efi/oYi  hazardous waste  sites.   Oil -skimming/absorbent systems are also
 available for  oil/water  separation.   Vacuum trucks  and units  also  fall under
 the  heading  of containment  systems.   ,

 Vacuum;Systems--.                 ;
  ^•Industrial.vacuum loaders are frequently  used  on  hazardous waste  sites.
 Sizes, range  from  small 5-gallon  wet/dry  vacuums to  large 5000-galIon units
 mounted pn,-trucks. .  Ski.d-mounted  units are also available; the most commonly
 used size is 1500 gallons.

     Vacuum  loaders  are capable  of handling liquids,  high-solids-content
 sludges, or solids.  Whereas smaller vacuum units have a wide application for
 most sites, vacuum trucks (because of their high carrying capacities)   are
 generally used only  at sites where more  than 1500 gallons of material  must be
 handled.  Another aspect  to be considered is the compatibility of the  contam-
 inant with the construction materials of the vacuum unit.  Vacuum cylinders
 are generally  constructed of carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum,  or
 nickel alloys; however, they also can be treated with a variety of coatings,
 including epoxy, fiberglass, and neoprene rubber (U.S. EPA 1985a).   Appendix
 F contains information on renting and leasing of vacuum units and trucks.
 Purchase price varies according to capacity and manufacturer.


COMPACTION

Soil  Stabilizer

     A soil  stabilizer is a  soil additive that dries,  strengthens,  and  bonds
soil  into usable backfill.  Soil stabilizers minimize  subsidence from  restored

                                      51

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excavation by drying the soil, and they increase compressive strength of the
soil 3 to 16 times while retaining its original size and shape by weaving
soil particles together.  These soil additives can be used on a wide variety
of soils to turn the spoil into reusable backfill, which eliminates the need
to haul in replacement backfill.  Soil stabilizers are not toxic to plant or
animal life (plants can grow in soil that has been stabilized).  Performance
testing has shown that the stabilizers do not contribute to the corrosion of
metal, nor do they attack plastic piping.  The stabilized soil remains slightly
permeable and does not act as a moisture barrier.  It can also be reexcavated
later.

     Uses of stabilized soil include backfill stabilizer, access road base
stabilizer (not a permanent wearing surface), surface erosion control, pole
and marker stabilizer, and earthen berm construction.

Equipment

     A variety of compaction equipment is available for site work, including
sheepsfoot rollers, impact hammers, and rollers.  These pieces of equipment
can be hand-held or attached to backhoes, excavators, or skid-steer loaders.
Heavy equipment with tracks (bulldozers, etc.) also may be used for-compaction
purposes.


MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES

     Various smaller pieces of equipment are used to perform work at hazardous
waste sites.  Hand tools such as shovels, rakes, hoes, brooms, etc., are used
in support of larger pieces of equipment.  Chain saws and cutting torches may
be used to cut wood/vegetation or metal tanks and drums.  Air compressors may
be used at sites that require the use of an air hammer to break up solid
pieces of material (concrete, asphalt).  Many sites have no electrical source,
either because of disrepair or their remote location.  In this case, a gaso-
line- or diesel-powered generator may be required as a source of electrical
power.

     Another piece of equipment frequently used for hazardous waste work is
the lowboy truck.  This vehicle is generally used for loading and transport-
ing heavy pieces of equipment (bulldozers, loaders, etc.).  Although lowboys
are not directly used for site remediation, their cost and the available
space on site must be considered.

     Portable buildings have applications for hazardous waste sites where it
is necessary to contain air emissions.  These buildings are designed arid
prefabricated for rapid erection and redeployment by unskilled labor.  The
modular design allows the building to be extended or subdivided easily as the
user's needs change.  In addition, a crane can be used to lift the building
in its finished form.  The buildings are constructed of galvanized steel tube
arch frames (no internal columns) covered with a PVC-coated polyester fabric
approximately 0.03 in. thick.  Various standard sizes are available, and
customized buildings are available from manufacturers upon request.  These
                                      52

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structures are made to withstand high winds and extreme weather conditions
such as blizzards and tropical heat.  The buildings can be constructed with a
double layer of skin for increased insulation, and they are easily dehumidi-
fied.
DRUM HANDLING AND REMOVAL

     The handling and removal of drums on hazardous waste sites involve a
variety of procedures, including excavation, hauling, loading, lifting, pump-
ing, crushing, and shredding.  The following equipment is typically used for
these procedures:
     o

     o

     o

     o

     o

     o
Bulldozers
Drum crushers/shredders
Front-end loaders
Backhoes
Forklifts
Cranes
Drum grapplers (hydraulic)
Drum punches
Drum pumps
Barrel carts
Nonsparking tools
     Backhoes are the most frequently used piece of heavy equipment for drum
handling.  They are used to excavate, to transport, and sometimes, to crush
the drums.  Backhoes also may be fitted with hydraulically operated drum
grapplers.

     Drum grapplers are hydraulic backhoe and excavator attachments designed
for handling barrels and other similar cylindrical containers, including
those for hazardous waste.  The grappler is equipped with a large 360-degree
rotating-turntable mechanism and 3/4-inch nonsparking neoprene lining.  It is
designed for easy attachment and removal and for reducing labor while increas-
ing material handling speed and safety.

     Cranes, forklifts, front-end loaders, and bulldozers also are often used
at drum-handling sites, depending on the number of drums to be handled and
the available working space.  For sites requiring the disposal of less than
150 drums, a backhoe or front-end loader is commonly used to do the crushing;
the bucket is used to flatten the individual drums.  At sites containing more
than 150 drums, a drum crusher is generally used.  Although using a drum
crusher is slower, it is more cost-effective for disposing of a large number
of drums (Figure 15).

     Nonsparking hand tools constructed of molybdenum, manganese-bronze, or
aluminum alloys are frequently used around drum-handling and excavation
operations, especially with potentially highly flammable or shock-sensitive
materials.  Drum carts, dollies, pumps, and punches are also commonly used at
drum-handling sites.  Wagner et al. (1986) presents a comprehensive outline
of drum-handling techniques used on hazardous waste sites.
                                      53

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                                          SOURCE: Piqua Engineering Inc. 1989
Figure  15.   Drum crusher used for  hazardous waste site work.
                               54

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ASBESTOS REMEDIATION

     Asbestos remediation  projects  present  special  equipment  problems  because
of the  necessity of preventing  the  release  of asbestos  fibers  from  the work
area.   Generally,  two abatement techniques  are  used for asbestos  remediation:
the conventional containment approach  and the glove-bag technique.

     In the conventional containment approach,  an enclosure is established
around the inside  perimeter of  the  work area within which the  asbestos-con-
tatning material is to be  removed.  Plastic sheeting is placed on all  walls
andlthe floor.  This sheeting is sealed around  the  ceiling to  form  an  enclo-
sure" that essentially envelops  the  entire area.  This method  is generally
used for large work areas  (PEI  Associates 1989).

     With the ;glove-bag technique,  a small  enclosure is established around
each pipe covered  with asbestos-containing  thermal  insulation  by placing the
glove ba.g around the pipe  and taping or strapping it across the top and sides
to form an air-tight seal.  Workers then place  their hands in  thegloves
inside  th| bag to  remove contaminated  insulation without contaminating the
area outsfde the glove bag.  With both the  conventional  containment approach
and the gt-pve-bag Approach, a negative air.  pressure must be established in
the work area as a;secondary means  of.containment (U.S.  EPA 1985b).  -   /

     The following is a.list of the equipment, and materials commonly used for
asbestos remediation:                                   .

     °;   Plastic  sheeting
     '     -    Minimum 4 mils thick for walls and stationary objects
               Minimum 6 mils thick for floors
     0    Tape for sealing joints
     0    Impermeable containers (metal or  fiber drums,  6-mil  plastic bags)
     0    Glove bags
               7-mil clear polyethylene bag with attached tool pouch and
               entry port for insertion of wetting  tube  and/or HEPA-vacuum*
               hose nozzle
               10-mil clear polyvinyl  chloride  (PVC) bag with integral
               10-mil-thick PVC gloves, elasticized valve/port, and tool
               pouch
     0    Airless sprayer
          Vacuums  (with HEPA filters)
     0    Hand tools (scrapers, wire cutters, sprayers, sponges,  shovels,
          flexible wire saws)

     The document "Guidance for Controlling  Asbestos-Containing Materials  in
Buildings"  (U.S.  EPA 1985b) is available for further information  concerning
asbestos remediation projects.
  A HEPA vacuum is a vacuum equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air
  filter.
                                      55

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EMISSION CONTROL

     At most hazardous waste remediation  sites,  the  dust and/or vapor emis-
sions that result from the excavation,  loading/unloading, or transport of
soil, sludge, or sediment must be controlled.

     The following 14 commercially available dust and vapor control methods
have been identified (Todd et al. 1988):

      1)  Watei—Added topically  to increase the density and cohesion of
          soils, which reduces dust emissions

      2)  Water additives—Surfactants  added to  the  water to increase pene-
          tration and retention time

      3)  Inorganics—Inorganic salts (e.g., calcium chloride) absorb and
          chemically bind moisture.  Pozzolanic  material (cement and lime)
          can also be used

      4)  Organics—Oils, bitumens,  and vegetable gums bind with soils and,
          because they have a lower vapor pressure than water, are retained
          longer

      5)  Foams—Block vapor and  dust escape routes

      6)  Air-supported membranes—Used to enclose excavation areas

     7)    Acid gas neutralization additives—Ferrous compounds react with and
          return sulfurous  gases  below  the surface

      8)  In  situ treatment—Technologies that treat volatile organic-com-
          pounds without  excavation  (steam stripping, radio-frequency soil
          flushing,  etc.)

      9)  Self-supporting-enclosures—Enclosures that direct purged air to
          air pollution control devices

     10)  Vacuum tanks—Used  to remove  liquid and/or solids  for reduction of
          dust emissions

     11)  Covers,  mats, membranes—Provide a physical barrier on the soil
          (straw,  wood  chips,  and  sludges also used)

     12)   Wind screens—Used  to reduce wind shear over soils

     13)   Seasonal planning—Avoids excavation during excessively dry weather

     14)   Silt curtains—Used  to  reduce resuspended material  resulting from
          dredging operations                                      .
                                     56

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LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE

     Radioactive waste remediation presents'special problems for materials
handling because of the need to protect workers and the public from radiation.
Generally, the same type of equipment found at hazardous waste sites (crane,
loader, forklift, etc.) is used at radioactive waste sites.  Equipment(Opera-
tors are not usually shielded because this can cause a more severe safety
hazard (e.g., obstructing the operator's field of view).  Therefore, remote
materials handling is frequently used.

     A mobile, remote-controlled, teleoperated, multipurpose robot can be
used for remote materials handling.  This is a basic mobile platform onto
which 'a variety of arms/manipulators or payloads can be mounted.  It has
operational capabilities in hazardous materials detection, analysis, and
handling as well as nuclear/radioactive waste decontamination.  The robot is
suited for both indoor and outdoor work with its remotely selectable wheel or
track- system.  It can climb a 40-degree incline with a maximum.tilt of 27-
degrees on sand, muddy soil, and rocky terrain.  It can also climb stairs and
steep obstacles.

     Portable shot-blast cleaning systems have been used at low-level radia-
tion waste sites to strip contaminated paint off floor surfaces.  These
systems have a completely enclosed centrifugal blast wheel in the cleaning
head.  The wheel spins and metallic shot is propelled from the blades and
blasts the floor surface.  Both shot and contaminants are sucked into a
separation system which recycles the blasting media for reuse and removes the
contaminants to an attached dust collector.  This machine can be used on
concrete floors, parking decks, and road surfaces.  This technique of airless
shot blasting leaves surfaces dry and chemical-free and eliminates dust
pollution.  Portable shot-blast cleaning is also applicable for other hazardous
compounds adhering to paint or concrete.

     Several concentration technologies that reduce waste volume by concen-
trating the radioactive species from the original waste form are available
for liquid low-level waste, wet-solids low-level waste,.and dry-solids low-
level waste.  For liquid low-level waste, technologies include evaporation,
distillation, crystallization, flocculation, precipitation, sedimentation,
and centrifugation.  For wet-solids low-level waste, sedimentation, centri-
fugation, dewatering, drying, and dehydration can be used.  Possible choices
for dry solids low-level waste are compaction, shredding, and baling (EG&G
Idaho, Inc. 1984).                        .

     Commercially available decontamination equipment for dry-solids low-
level waste includes mobile dry-cleaning systems, mobile electropolishing
systems, mobile ultrasonic cleaners, portable high-pressure washers and glass
bead spray systems, and portable steam cleaning and degreasing systems (EG&G
Idaho, Inc. 1984).

     Specialized containers must be used for the storage and transportation
of low-level radioactive waste.  There are two types of shipping containers
for radioactive wastes:  Type A quantity containers and Type B quantity
                                      57

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 containers.   Type A  quantity  containers  are  based  on  limiting the amount of
 radioactive material  to  avoid excessive  exposure to the  general public should
 an  accident occur (<200  mRems/h  on  accessible  surface of container).  Type A
 packages must meet DOT requirements  outlined in 49 CFR Part  171 and regula-
 tions  governing  normal conditions of transport (Malloy 1984).  Examples of
 Type A quantity  containers  are high-density  polyethylene storage tanks.

     Type B quantity containers, by  definition, are those whose quantities
 exceed Type A quantity container limits.  Type B radioactive materials require
 special casks to limit their  release into the  environment if a serious accident
 should occur.  Type  B packages must  meet DOT requirements and regulations
 concerning normal conditions  of  transport and  hypothetical accident conditions.
 In  addition,  the packages must be certified  by the Nuclear Regulatory Commis-
 sion (NRC) (10 CFR Part  71) (Malloy  1984).   Examples  of  Type B containers are
 shielded shipping casks  with  lead shield equivalences ranging from 1.81 to
 4.58 inches.  .

     Low specific activity  (ISA) radioactive materials are exempt from DOT
 Type A packaging requirements.   (ISA materials are those in which the radio-
 activity is uniformly spread  and excessive radiation  exposure will not occur
 even if the materials were  to be released in a moderate  accident.)? These
 materials must be packaged  in strong, tight, industrial  containers and trans-
 ported in exclusive-use  vehicles. > The DOT exemption  is  applicable as long as
 the radiation levels  on  the container surface  do not  exceed 1 rem/h.  Type A
 quantities also  must  not be exceeded.  Otherwise,  the packages must be certi-
 fied by the NRC'and meet the  requirements for  normal,conditions of transport
 (Malloy 1984).^                            ,           •


 EQUIPMENT DECONTAMINATION            •.'•'•;'.'   ,     '  ': ;',  v
                                      i  F  '  • ;     "      ' '
     The most commonly mentioned method for  decontaminating and/or cleaning
 equipment on  a hazardous waste site  is with  a high-pressure/hot-water laser
 (Figure 16)'.  Generally, a concrete  decontamination pad  is built and a sump
 is dug.  The  rinsate caught in the sump (which contains  a 5-gallon drum)  is
 treated, if necessary, and then disposed of.   For  smaller jobs, a layer of
 plastic lining is used instead of building a decontamination pad and sump.
Other methods of decontamination mentioned by hazardous waste site personnel
 include vacuuming; applying solvent, acid-based foam or  gel, or surfactants;
and using scrub  brushes with water,  solvent,  acid-based  foam or gel, surfac-
 tants, or sand blasting  and repainting.

     Ease of equipment decontamination after use was mentioned as a factor in
 selecting a particular piece  of equipment.   Highly pbrous pieces (made of
wood, concrete, plastic)  are generally disposed of along with other contam-
 inated solids.  Some sites establish "clean"  areas  that can be accessed by
 incoming and outgoing equipment.   This separates the  contaminated equipment
from the uncontaminated equipment and reduces decontamination time.

     A comprehensive evaluation of equipment  decontamination was presented  by
Esposito et al.  (1985).
                                      58

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                             •SOURCE:  PEI Associates, Inc. 1990
Figure 16.  High-pressure water laser being used for onsite
       decontamination/cleaning of a front-end loader.
                             59

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                                   SECTION 6

                               FOREIGN CONTACTS
   ,   Representatives of foreign environmental  agencies, research groups, and
 remedial  contract companies dealing with the cleanup of hazardous waste sites
 were  contacted to obtain information regarding equipment and processes used
 for onsite  materials handling.   Countries contacted included France,  Canada,
 Norway, the Netherlands, Germany,  the United Kingdom (U.K.), and Denmark.
 Overall,  54 environmental  agencies, response contractors, research groups,
 and vendors were contacted in these seven countries.

      Information was obtained from the Warren  Springs Laboratory (WSL), which
 is the U.K. government's principal  environmental  research laboratory.   The
 following research'areas are currently being investigated at WSL:<

      0    Soil  decontamination  -'•...-'";•-;,'."',••;'•. .   ,   ,    .  .;     /'*      ',/y-
                Beach cleanup systems for oil        '             '"•'•.'•'    •
                Processing  and fractionation  of solids            •   ;  ;
                Slurries  and materials with poor handling Characteristics

      0    Materials  recovery                                     •
                Rotary screens                                  ;
                Air classification     ,.,               _  /    ,
                Air tabling                      .  :  '"  ;                '
                Flatbed  screens
                Shredders
                Magnetic  separators
                Conveyors,  screw  feeders,  hoppers

      0    Wet solids  handling

      0    Dry solids  handling

     One  innovative  application  of  materials-handling  equipment  in the  U.K.
is the use  of a  scraper attached to a  backhoe for beach  cleaning of spilled
crude oil  (Figure  17).  The  scraper consists of sheets  of rubber sandwiched
between wooden  boards and  clamped to  the bucket of  a  backhoe.

     Wa-'ren Springs Lab has  also developed a Beach  Material  Washer for
cleaning oil from  beach material (sand, pebbles).   The  process involves
loading the contaminated material into mobile concrete mixers for mixing with
kerosene.   This  preconditioned mixture is then  discharged into a chute  leading
to a screening trammel.  Beach material less than 25 mm  in size  passes to the
                                      60

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                                          SOURCE: Warren Springs Lab 1989
Figure 17.  Backhoe with  scraper attachment used for beach
                  cleanup of spilled oil.
                             61

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feed tank of the washer.  Oversized material  (i.e., greater than 25 mm) is
rejected.after a limited wash  (water) in the  partially submerged trammel.
Washed sand and small pebbles  (less than 25 mm) leave the washer by a de-
watering spiral screw system.  After dewatering, the discharge is conveyed to
a stockpile.  The unit has been developed as  a fully operational 20-tons-
per-hour prototype and is expected to-be scaled up to 50 tons per hour.

     The Water Research Centre in the U.K. has published a directory of
equipment used for the application of sewage  sludge to agricultural land
(Hall 1988).  This directory contains information concerning the selection
and availability of pumps, piping, sludge storage systems, soil injection
systems, spreaders, and tankers.  Although all of these pieces of equipment
have application for hazardous waste sites, little work has been done in the
U.K. on innovative uses of materials-handling equipment.

     Harwell Laboratory in the U.K. have developed the Waste Management
Information Bureau.  This computer data base  contains bibliographic details
as well as abstracts and keywords for more than 57,000 documents on waste
management, resource recovery, and associated topics.  This data base is a
potential source of information concerning materials-handling equipment and
procedures in the U.K. and can be accessed (for a fee) through the Harwell
Laboratory (Environmental Safety Centre), Oxfordshire, U.K.

     Overall, companies and laboratories in the U.K. that specialize in the
cleanup of hazardous waste sites have reported using many of the same types
of equipment and procedures as those used in  the United States.  Typical
pieces of equipment mentioned included:
          Front-end loader
          Bulldozers
          JCBs (backhoes)
          Trammel screen
          Centrifugal pump
          Positive displacement pump
          Shredder
          Conveyor
     Hazardous waste sites in the U.K. are generally cleaned up either by
excavation, removal, and landfill of contaminated material or by covering
contaminated land with uncontaminated material (depending on the end use).
No centralized program currently exists for the cleanup of hazardous waste
sites in the U.K.  As a result, available information concerning all aspects
of hazardous waste site cleanup (including materials handling) in the U.K. is
difficult to access.

     Participants in the NATO/CCMS pilot-study meeting on remediation technolo-
gies for contaminated soil and groundwater held in The Netherlands in 1988
also provided lists of contacts that have dealt directly with onsite remedia-
tion in Germany.  Several volumes of information were received concerning
hazardous waste site remediation in Germany.  All of the information received
was written in German.  Time constraints have prohibited any in-depth
                                      62

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translation.  Some of the German response personnel contacted stated that
much of the equipment and procedures used for site remediation was "patent
pending," and they were unable to provide details concerning materials handl-
ing.
                                      63

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                                   SECTION  7

                                CASE STUDIES


     The 22 case studies presented in  this section  illustrate specific appli-
cations and problems  involving materials-handling equipment and procedures at
different hazardous waste sites.   The  information included in these case
studies was obtained  from the following sources:
          RODs
          OSC reports and files
          ERGS files
          Communication with onsite response personnel
          Communication with OSCs for specific sites
     In addition to the case studies presented in this section, Appendix E
contains an overview of 67 sites  (including the 22 case studies) from all 10
regions, including contaminants,  debris/material handled, and primary debris
handling procedures and equipment.

     The specific information needed to write these case studies was obtained
by visiting U.S. EPA Regional Offices.  OSC reports and accompanying files
were reviewed.  Region IX was not visited because the needed information was
physically unavailable as a resul.t of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake.
Availability and completeness of  information varied considerably from Region
to Region.  Many files were unavailable because of litigation at the site.
In several instances, the files and records for a particular site could not
be located during the visit.  Available files and reports usually contained
incomplete information, regarding equipment usage.

     An additional problem involved accessing confidential business informa-
tion (CBI) at the EPA Regional Offices.  Most Regions do not allow access to
the CBI even when a Freedom of Information (FOI) request is filed.  This
presented an additional problem because most of the equipment information was
presented with CBI cost information.  The majority of the equipment usage
information was obtained from CERCLA Daily Work Orders.

     This section includes site history, contaminants, site description,
equipment and problems encountered for 22 sites.  Completeness of the informa-
tion available varied for the various sites discussed, especially for the
equipment used.  An asterisk next to a piece of listed equipment indicates
that the information as to the exact model is unknown.
                                      64

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r
   WESTERN SAND AND GRAVEL, BURRILLVILLE, RHODE ISLAND (REGION I)

   Site History

        This semi-rural 12-acre site was used to dispose of septage and chemical
   waste.  The wastes were dumped into unlined seepage lagoons and allowed to
   infiltrate into the soil and eventually to percolate to the groundwater.
   Available hazardous waste manifest records indicate that during the 1-year
   period 1978-79, 470,000 gallons of chemical waste was dumped at the facility.
   Records were not available for quantities of waste dumped before 1978.

   Contaminants

        The primary contaminants of concern included:
             Chlorobenzene
             Toluene
             Ethyl benzene
             Xylene
             Benzene
1,1-Dichloroethane
Trans-l,2-dichloroethylene
Methylene chloride
Trichloroethylene
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
   Site Description
        Existing contamination at the site included:

             0    Approximately 400 yd3 of sludge
             0    Contaminated liquids in the lagoon
             0    Contaminated groundwater

   Equipment

        Table 10 presents a detailed equipment list.  Liquids from the lagoon
   were pumped out with skid vacuums equipped with basket strainers.  Sludge was
   also pumped from the storage lagoon and solidified on site by shovel  dozers.
   A safety dike was constructed around the solidified material  for containment
   until it was packed in drums and dump trailers.  A backhoe was used to crush
   29 drums.
           TABLE 10.   EQUIPMENT USED AT THE WESTERN SAND AND GRAVEL SITE
   Boat (without motor)
   Dump truck
   Bobcat with front-end loader attachment
   2500-gal  vacuum unit
   1000-gal  skid vacuum  unit
   25,000-gal vacuum rig
   Shovel  dozer (CAT 955)
   Shovel  dozer (Case 350)
   Backhoe (Case 680)
                    Generator
                    Electric wrench
                    Basket strainers  (2  in.  by
                      1/8 in.)
                    Water laser (10,000-psi)
                    Diaphragm pump
                    Drum pump
                    Chemical-resistant hose
                                         65

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Problems  Encountered

     No major materials-handling problems were reported.

Final Disposition

     Forty-two thousand gallons of liquid was pumped out of the storage
lagoon and disposed of off-site.  Two hundred ninety-six drums of material
were disposed of after solidification with sawdust.  Twenty-nine drums were
disposed  of after being crushed on site.
IRON HORSE PARK, BILLERCIA, MASSACHUSETTS (REGION I)

Site History

     This 15-acre site operated as a landfill from 1943 through 1975 for the
disposal of asbestos waste.  The landfill received asbestos sludge, dust, and
waste board from an asbestos-insulating-board manufacturer.  The threat posed
by the site was from open uncovered piles of friable asbestos.

Contaminant                                                         ,       ',.

     The major contaminant of concern was asbestos fibers.

Site Description

     Exposed asbestos piles were randomly located throughout the landfill
area.  The area was vegetated and heavily wooded.  Depth of the asbestos
piles was unknown.  Airborne fiber levels ranged from none detected to 0.006
fiber/cc.  The work conducted at the site involved covering (capping)  and
stabilization of the asbestos piles.  An estimated 6000 yd3 of asbestos was
located in the wooded area around the landfill.

Equipment

     Asbestos contamination of the access road required that the road  be
covered with gravel and widened before truck traffic could be allowed  onto
the site.  Spreading of the gravel and grading of the road were accomplished
with a CAT D6 bulldozer and a Case 850 angle bulldozer.  This site required
extensive preparation prior to accomplishing the work.  In addition to the
road work, bulldozers and chain saws were used to clear extensive vegetation
and trees.  A detailed equipment list is presented in Table 11.

            TABLE 11.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE IRON HORSE PARK SITE
          Bulldozer (CAT D6)
          Bulldozer (CAT D4)
          Bulldozer (Case 850)
          OTR tractor
          Roll off box
          Fire hose (1000 ft)
Storage trailer (30 ft)
Lowboy
Backhoe
Front-end loader (CAT 955)
Chain saw
Generator
                                      66

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 Problems  Encountered

      Extensive rainfall  delayed site operations  and the application of the
 cover material.   These  delays  resulted in an extension of the period of
 performance.   During drier days,  daily dust control  by the use of fire hoses
 was  necessary  to  ensure  that no asbestos  fibers  became airborne.

 Final  Disposition

      A small number  of  bags filled  with asbestos were  transported from the
 site and  disposed of.
 INDUSTRIAL ^ LATEX .WALLINGTON,  NEW  JERSEY  (REGION II)       -  .......

 Site History    ;

     This 9.67-acre  site, which  contained  two main  buildings comprising
 18,000 ft2, was used to produce  adhesives,  resins,  and  other chemical products,
 Several fires had occurred  in  the  buildings  over the years.

     Materials  left  on site  included  the following:
          o

          o

          o .

          o,,

          o
1300 drums and pails
2 above-ground fuel tanks
17 below-ground tanks
30 production vats
200 buried and partially buried drums
Contaminants
     The following contaminants were found on site:
          PCBs
          Benzene
          Ethyl benzene
          Toluene
          Nitrocellulose
          Barium
               Xylene
               Pi ceo resins
               Hexane
               Methyl ethyl ketone
               Perch!oroethylene
               1,1-DichToroethylene
Site Description
     Many of the drums found at the site contained flammable arid/or shock-
sensitive substances and were either leaking or in a deteriorated condition.
Several nearby wells had to be closed because of contamination from the site.
The removal action performed at this site occurred during 1986.  The
following work was ordered to be performed:
          Fence construction and security
          Drum staging and segregation
          Removal of shock-sensitive, explosive, or highly flammable materials
          Removal of all material stored in drums, vats, and tanks
                                      67

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Site Description

     Many of the drums had either spilled contents or were leaking.  The
spent photographic film was in piles on the ground.  Air samples taken in the
building revealed the presence of asbestos and cyanide.  The following work
was ordered to be performed.                                  ,

     0    Site stabilization                     '
          -  Debris removal
          -  Removal of shock-sensitive material
          -  Drum staging
          Recovery of salvageable/recyclable material
          Lab packing of known chemicals
          Consolidation of drummed waste
          Crushing of empty drums/lab containers
          Removal of spent film
          Removal of asbestos material around the pipelines
Equipment                                                            .   ,

     The 55-gallon drums containing unknown ma'terials were remotely opened by
using a backhoe.  One hundred three drums were crushed with a CAT 215 excavator
bucket and then covered until loaded into roll off boxes.  A 10-ft x 10-ft
crushing pad constructed of sand and lined with lime was constructed to crush
468 containers of known and unknown liquids and solids.  Approximately 135 yd3
of spent photographic film was loaded into 55-gallon fiber drums by using
hand shovels, a vacuum cleaner, and a backhoe.

     A major materials-handling effort at the site involved asbestos removal.
Approximately 400 linear feet of exposed asbestos containing material (ACM)
on pipes and fibrous material on the floor needed to be removed and disposed
of.  The following procedure was .used to remove the asbestos:
                                                  • i               ,    . ' L   . ' '"'
     1)   The decontamination area was set up at the southwest stairwell.

     2)   A critical barrier of plastic sheeting was set up to enclose the
          stairwell.                                       „,   .   •     ,

     3)   Glove bags were used (6-mil transparent polyethylene with plastic
          arms).

     4)   The bags were installed to provide an enclosure of the section of
          pipe or fitting from which the ACM was to be removed.  The sides of
          the bags were cut and placed around the pipe/fitting and the open
          edges folded and duct-taped to form a proper seal.

     5)   The painted canvas wrapping was cut away, and "amended" water was
          sprayed through a small incision in the bag.

     6)   As soon as the ACM was adequately wetted, it was removed from.the
          pipe or fitting and placed in the glove bags.
                                       70

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     7)   After removal of the ACM, the pipe or fitting was thoroughly wire
          brushed and wet-wiped.

     8)   A HEPA vacuum machine was used to remove any remaining asbestos
          fibers prior to removal of the glove bags.

     9)   Glove bags containing the ACM waste were placed in polyethylene
          bags to achieve the necessary double bagging required for trans-
          portation to the approved disposal site.

     10)  Visual inspection of pipes and fittings was undertaken by the site
          manager.  Reeleaning of some sections of the pipes and fittings was
          ordered where traces of the ACM were detected.

     11)  The pipes and fittings were encapsulated after reinspection con-
          firmed that the areas appeared sufficiently clean.

     Table 14 lists the equipment used at this site.


 TABLE 14.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE INTERNATIONAL METALLURGICAL SERVICES SITE
          Excavator/backhoe (CAT 215)
          Industrial vacuum cleaner
          Remote drum opener
          Forklift
-Pallet lifter
 Hand tools (shovels)
 Drum agitator
 Glove bags
Problems Encountered

     Overall, few materials-handling problems were encountered.  Constant
clogging of the vacuum cleaners by the spent photographic film flakes
required the use of shovels instead.  The vacuum cleaners were used to skim
the top layer of soil underneath the film piles.

Final Disposition

     Table 15 presents a breakdown of the amounts and disposition of wastes
found at the site.

   TABLE 15.  SUMMARY OF OFF-SITE DISPOSAL OF WASTE FROM THE INTERNATIONAL
                         METALLURGICAL SERVICES SITE
Waste type
Crushed drums
Debris
Spent film
Labpacks
Asbestos
Amount
One 30-yd3 roll off box
Three 30-yd3 roll off box
497 drums
105 drums
87 bags
Disposition
Landfilled
Landfilled
Incinerated
Incinerated
Landfilled
                                      71

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BRUIN LAGOON NO. 2, BRUIN, PENNSYLVANIA (REGION III)

Site History

     This 4-acre site consisted of a 2-acre open lagoon and a 2-acre closed
lagoon.  The site was a repository for process wastes from an on-site oil
refinery.  Concentrated sulfuric acid was used to treat the crude oil during
the manufacturing process.  The spent acid was deposited into the lagoon with
other refinery wastes, such as bauxite, bone powder, carbon filter cakes,
spent alkali, and coal fines.  Estimates are that the lagoon contained two
million gallons of acidic white oil sludge.

Contaminants

     Contaminants found on-site v/ere as follows:
          Hydrogen sulfide gas
          Sulfuric acid
 Organic  acids
 Sulfur dioxide
Site Description
     During the initial removal action, heavy equipment broke through what
was thought to be the bedrock bottom of the lagoon.  The bottom turned out to
be a bauxite-like layer.  The breakthrough resulted in the discharge of a
2-ft geyser of concentrated acid and acid mist.  The fissure was covered, and
boreholes were installed to monitor subsurface conditions.  The initial
removal activity also included the removal of hazardous materials in tanks.
During the second removal action, the lagoon was filled' in, the surface was
stabilized, and 13 monitoring wells were installed to release trapped gases
and to evaluate the conditions beneath the crust.

Equipment

     Heavy earth-moving equipment (e.g., excavators and bulldozers)  were the
primary materials-handling equipment used on the site.  Table 16 lists the
equipment used.

             TABLE 16.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE BRUIN LAGOON SITE
     Rubber-tired loader (4.5 yd3)*
     Bulldozer*
     Backhoe*
     Hand tools
     Lowboy
 Barrel  cart
 1.5-in.  pressure  pump
, 1.5-in.  suction and discharge  hose
 OTR  tractor
Problems Encountered                                                 ,

     Unexpected delays and higher costs were encountered while a large bull-
dozer equipped with a ripper blade was located to break up the sludge that
had solidified during the first removal action.  During the backfilling
                                      72

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operation of the open lagoon, upwelling sludge also became a problem and
resulted in domed reservoirs of sludge.  Reinforcment was added to the berm
to ensure that the sludge would be contained within the site.

Final Disposition

     No waste material was removed from this site.


AMBLER ASBESTOS TAILINGS PILE, AMBLER, PENNSYLVANIA (REGION III)

Site History

     This 15-acre site is an active asbestos-processing facility located in a
residential/industrial area.  Two tailings piles of exposed asbestos-bearing
material were located adjacent to homes and a playground.  Wipe and bulk
surface samples showed positive for asbestos and resulted in closure of the
playground.

Contaminants

     The primary contaminant was asbestos (chrysotile and amosite).

Site Description

     The areas of concern were two asbestos piles covering 6.2 acres.  The
Locust Street pile was 1200 feet long, 300 feet wide, and 60 feet high.  The
plant pile was 900 feet long, 750 feet wide, and 60 feet high.

Equipment                                     .

     Bulldozers, front-end loaders, and backhoes were used to cover the
slopes with soil and to compact the soi'l covering the piles.  Dust-control
measures were implemented to cut down on airborne asbestos emissions.  A
drainage system was also installed to direct the runoff from the covered
piles away from the city's storm drains;  Table 17 lists the equipment used.
              TABLE 17.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE AMBLER ASBESTOS
                             TAILINGS PILE SITE
     Backhoe*
     Barrel punch
     High-pressure washer
     Hand tools
     Portable air blower
     Drum grappler (hydraulic)
     Front-end loader (4.5 yd3)*
     Fqrklift (2-ton)
Cutting torch
OTR tractor
Lowboy
Bulldozer (CAT D3)
Bulldozer (CAT D6)
Sheepsfoot roller
Erosion control matting
                                      73

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 Problems Encountered

      Because of the height and steep slope  of the  piles,  the  contractor
 experienced difficulties  in covering and  compacting  them.   The  steeper slopes
 could not be cut to make  them more  gradual  or terraced  because  of concerns
 for air releases of asbestos.   Thus, the  process of  covering  the slopes was
 very slow and difficult.   A large bulldozer was used to winch a smaller
 bulldozer up and down  the slope in  some areas, but most areas required the
 use of^a sheepsfoot roller.   In most cases, hand tools  were used to spread
 the soil  on the slopes.   The steepness of the slopes also presented an erosion
 problem that required  the use  of soil stabilization  matting.  Matting was
 unrolled over the slope and secured with  metal staples  or stakes.

      Riprap also needed to be  installed at  the bottom of one  portion of the
 Locust Street pile,  where a creek had eroded the bottom portion of the pile.

      Working space was also a  problem at  the site.   Numerous  delays resulted
 from the limited access and movement areas  available to equipment drivers and
 operators.

      Heavy  rains during the  operational period resulted in  erosion and runoff
 problems.   The  muddy conditions  on  site resulted in  significant time delays
 for vehicle decontamination  by  high-pressure  washers.   As many  as 150 loads
 of  soil  per day were delivered  to the site,  and each  truck  had  to be washed
 down before leaving  the site.   As a  backup,  a fire hose was used to remove
 mud tracked after the tire washing.

 Final  Disposition

      No waste material was  removed from the  site, but roughly 600,000 yd3 of
 asbestos-laden material was  stabilized.
ABERDEEN PESTICIDE SITE, ABERDEEN, NORTH CAROLINA (REGION IV)

Site History                      -

     This site began operations as a formulator and manufacturer of pesticides,
Pesticide and fertilizer residues were buried in pits and trenches on the
site.  (The site consists of three separate areas:  the Mclver Dump Site; the
Twin Sites; and the Fairway Six Site, located on the Pit Golf Course.)  The
areas of concern are five separate areas contaminated with pesticide waste on
the Fairway Site.

Contaminants

     The contaminants of primary concern are:
          Toxaphene
          Endosulfan sulfate
          Heptachlor
          DDT
          ODD
Lindane
Alpha-BHC
Beta-BHC
Delta-BHC
                                      74

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 Site Description

   ,  The  removal  action  involved  the  excavation  of  four  trenches  on the Pit
 Golf Course.  The fairway  that  contained  the  trenches  posed a  threat  to.
 groundwater and surface  water runoff.  The removal  action  at this  site
 involved  the  excavation  of soil for eventual  incineration.

 Equipment                                               ,.  ••    .

     A'tracked backhoe and front-end  loader were used  for  the  excavation of
 the soil.  The soil was  transported to a'staging area, loaded  into a  hopper,
 and then  moved by conveyor to a power screening  apparatus.  Discharge from
 the screening apparatus  was  stored on a >,30-mil PVC  liner.  After  all
 contaminated  material was  placed  on the screen,  a top  cover liner  was
 chemically affixed to the  bottom  liner.   Table 18 lists  the equipment used.


-•..-   ;'  ,   TABLE 18.  EQUIPMENT  USED AT THE ABERDEEN PESTICIDE  SITE
           Front-end  loader*
           Backhoe*
           Vibrating  screen
           Conveyor     •
           Loading hopper dump truck
Garden hose pump
OTR Tractor
Lowboy (20- and 50-ton)
30-m.il. PVC liner
Barrel shredder ..
Problems  Encountered

     Because of the large amount of material rejected by the power screening
device, a shredder was  installed on one of the screens.  The shredder was
used to attain a uniform size  (<2  in.) of the rejected materials  (e.g.,
crushed drums, bricks,  large pieces of rubbish, and tires).

Final Disposition

     Approximately 22,000 yd3  of soil and an additional pile of crushed drums
were temporarily stored on-site awaiting incineration.
A. L. TAYLOR SITE, BROOKS, KENTUCKY  (REGION  IV)   ,

Site History

     This 22-acre site was an uncontrolled industrial waste dump.  It was
used for the disposal of chemical liquids, sludges, and crushed drums.  At
one point, more than  17,000 drums were observed on the surface.  The site had
been used as a drum-cleaning and recycling operation, the drum contents had
been disposed of in excavated pits on the property.

Contaminants

     The primary contaminants of concern include:

                                      75

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                                     Zinc
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           Tra^h piarasp  (2- In.)
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                "s.,, indludfrag t^rtJrogen .cyaniJSe .:gas .-and t>ydro§en .r,hl'orrife.  The
                 vats .contained'both  frigrhlj aCTrfic and '.aTkaTira: liqiulas..
         .irndsrsratmd .chwifeers that :had faeen used as .sirtlcs "hati -cttTlected "large
araourits of s'lutlge and 'anlTscemaneous ^sriTid tfebrts..  ^PBrforaiaroi-e cff the 'f oTTiow-
                        at 'this :s:fts.:
                    and disposal of  aTl  hazarttraws
           IBecoritaoni nation df the 'bull cnng and Its coritents
           Saoiprtlng and  ana'Tys'ts
                                          77

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Equipment

     Table 20 lists the equipment required for cleanup of this site.  The 16
plating lines had to be drained,.dismantled, and decontaminated (by water
laser).  Miscellaneous debris had to be staged, decontaminated, and disposed
of.  Drums were staged inside by using a forklift and loader.  Empty drums.,-'
were crushed; because there were fewer than 100 drums, a backhoe was used for
the crushing.  The bulk of the materials-handling effort at this site
involved sludge and solids removal from the underground chambers.

              TABLE 20.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE MIDWEST PLATING
                           AND CHEMICAL CORP. SITE                -   -  -  ,
     Box truck (2-ton)
     Stake-bed truck (2-ton)
     Bobcat
     Forklift
     Diaphragm pump (2-in.)
     Diaphragm pump (3-in.)
     Electric submersible pump (2-in.)
     Front-end loader, wheeled (1,5-yd3)
     Air compressor (185-cfm)
     Electric winch (1-ton load)
     Vacuum tanker (1800-gal)
Drum vacuum (wet/dry) ••
Water laser (8000-psi)
Water laser (3000-psi)
Holding pool (12,000-gal)
Submersible mixer (2.5-hp) •'
Crane (14-ton)
Skid vacuum unit (1500-psi)
Backhoe (Case 580)   ,
Lowboy (20- to 40-ton) "
Chain saw
Generator (5-kW)     •	
Problems Encountered

     The major materials-handling problem encountered involved the removal  of
the plating sludge and miscellaneous debris (plastic piping, pails*, empty
drums) from the underground chambers.  A vacuum tanker (or Supersucker) was
able to pick up the sludge, but not the solid debris.  This problem was
overcome by using a downsized rolloff box structurally reinforced to handle
an attached electrical winch for hoisting the sludge out of the chamber.  A
cut-down 55-gallon drum was lowered into the chamber, where it was manually
loaded (by workers with shovels).  The drum (2/3 full) was then hoisted up
and dumped into the roll off box, where it was mixed with kiln dust for
solidification.  A front-end loader (bucket) was used for mixing, and a
Bobcat was used to remove the mixture for staging.  This setup worked reason-
ably well, but both the winch and the electric motor had to be replaced.

Final Disposition

     Table 21 presents a breakdown of the amounts and disposition of wastes
found at the Midwest site.
                                      78

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            TABLE 21.  SUMMARY OF OFF-SITE DISPOSAL OF WASTE FROM
                 THE MIDWEST PLATING AND CHEMICAL CORP. SITE
Waste type
                          Amount
Disposition
Cyanide mixture
Hazardous waste. 1 iquid
Plating waste
Cyanide pretreatment (peroxide)
Cyanide pretreatment
Decontamination water
Waste solvents for processing
Debris (not specified)
Waste chromic acid solution
Waste cyanide poison B solid
Spent cyanide bath solution
Potassium chroma te waste
Chromic acid mixture
212 tons
6 drums
99,100 gal
2 drums
-
5,000 gal
355 gal
-
2,541 gal
1 drum
6 drums
1 drum
1 drum
Landfill ed
Recycl ed/ recovered
Treated
Treated
Treated
Treated
Fuel blending
Treated
Treated
Treated
Treated
Treated
Treated
AEROQUIP/REPUBLIC HOSE, YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO (REGION V)

Site History

     The site was a 9-acre abandoned industrial facility containing between
10 and 15 buildings.  Many of these buildings were in a state of disrepair
due to lack of maintenance, water leaks through broken windows., holes in
roofs, and looting (scrap metal, electrical equipment).

     The following materials were left on site:
          o

          o

          o

          o ,

          o

          o,

          o
300 drums of high-level PCB solids
200 drums of low-level PCB solids
10 drums of decontaminated fluids
8 drums of dielectric PCB oils
13 medium-sized transformer casings
1 large transformer
1 small capacitor
Contaminants
     The principal contaminants found on site were PCB oils.

Site Description

     Transformers on the roof of a five-story building had been tipped over
and released PCB oils onto the asphalt roof and the gutters and into the
building interior.  Substantial soil  contamination and possible contamination
of sediments were also noted in a nearby creek.  The following work was
ordered to be performed at the site:
                                      79

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     0    Sampling of suspected areas of contamination
     0    -Removal and disposal of all PCB-contaminated materials
     0    Decontamination of PCB-contaminated-articles and disposal of all
          cleanup material

Equipment

     Transformer casings, a transformer, and a capacitor were located inside
a five-story building.  Transformer casings on the second and third floors
were manually carried to access windows and lowered to ground level by use  of
a backhoe and support chain.  The larger transformer was removed from the
boiler house by using cutting torches and a 6-ton towmotor.  The cases and
transformer were staged in a plastic-lined diked area inside an adjacent
building.                             ,                                   ,

     Cleanup of the second-story roof of the manufacturing building was ac-
complished by using a towmotor to lift a dumpster up to the roof and loading
it with the contaminated material (tarpaper, cement, gutters, window frames)
to minimize contamination of other parts of the building.                ;

     Oil-soaked ash found in the sub-basement of the boiler house was removed
by chopping it into small chunks (with picks and shovels) and pushing it into
the hose of a vacuum unit (Supersucker).  All PCB-contaminated material was
staged in two piles (high or low PCB contamination) and covered with Vis-
queen.

     Cleanup of the sewer system involved using two trash pumps to reroute
the water.  A Supersucker vacuum tanker was used to remove bottom sediments
and surrounding soils.  A backhoe was used to excavate and remove contaminat-
ed soil from the sewer outlet to the creek and to spread riprap to prevent
soil erosion.  Table 22 presents a detailed listing, of the equipment used.
          TABLE 22.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE AEROQUIP/REPUBLIC HOUSE SITE
          Hydraulic drum gfappler
          Jack hammer
          Generator (5-kW)
          Backhoe (CAT 215)
          Lowboy (20- to 40-ton)
          Portable holding tank
          Pressure pump (1.5-in.)
          Crane (20-ton)
          Circular saw
          Backhoe (Case 580)
Dump truck (5- to 10-yd3)
Trash pump (2-in.)
Hand tools
Holding tank (300-gal)
Vacuum Tanker (1800 gal)
Forklift (2-ton)  '
Fork!ift (6-ton)
Cutting torch
Air chipper
HP/HW washer (1200-psi)
Problems Encountered

     Despite major removal efforts, few problems were encountered.  Routine
logistical problems involved in moving heavy equipment within a limited space
                                      80

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were common.  Because of the weight of the liquid-soaked material  in the
boiler house, the Supersucker hose became clogged and had to be replaced.

Final Disposition

     Table 23 presents a breakdown of the amounts and disposition of wastes
found on the Aeroquip/Republic Hose site.
         TABLE 23.  SUMMARY OF OFF-SITE DISPOSAL OF WASTE FROM THE
                         AEROQUIP/REPUBLIC HOSE SITE
     Waste type
       Amount
Disposition
PCB-contaminated material
PCB transformers
PCB transformers
PfiB oil
PCB capacitor
PCB-contaminated debris
258 tons
625 ft3
425 gal
12 gal
140 Ib
7 drums
Landfilled
Treated/1 andfi lied
Treated/1 andfi 1 1 ed
Incinerated
Treated/ i nc i nerated
Landfilled
G&H LANDFILL, UTICA, MICHIGAN (REGION V)                        '

Site History

     This site  is a 17-acre closed municipal and industrial landfill, which
at one time received waste solvents, oils, grease, and automotive waste at
volumes of up to 60,000 gallons/month.  Liquid industrial waste was stored on
site in lagoons.  In 1982, a removal action was undertaken to prevent leaking
of PCB-contaminated oils.  In 1986, construction began on an interceptor/
collector trench and a groundwater barrier made of sheet piling.

Contaminants

     The principal contaminants found on the site were as follows:
           PCBs
           Ethyl benzene
           Toluene
           Phenols
           Lead
Xylenes (1,2; 1,3; 1,4-dimethylbenzene)
Zinc
Copper
Cyanide
Mercury
 Site Description
      To prevent public  access  and  further  migration  of  PCB-contaminated oils,
 the following actions were  undertaken:

      0     Recovery and  storage of  PCB  oils
      0     Groundwater barrier  construction
      0     Increased site security  and  restriction  of access
                                       81

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 Equipment

      To collect/contain isolated seepages, a series of "pipe dams" were con-
 structed to form a long shallow collector/interceptor trench.   A trackhoe and
 a perforated bucket were used to excavate the trench, which allowed the
 liquids to drain while retaining the solids and debris.   The liquids remain-
 ing in the trench were pushed to the outlet by using a trash pump and hose
 nozzle attached to the trackhoe bucket.   Water was sprayed from the nozzle to
 push the viscous liquid and to wash the  banks of oil.  A vacuum truck was
 used to pick up liquids and PCB oils.

      The groundwater barrier was positioned downgradient from  the interceptor
 trench.  The barrier was constructed of  8-ft-long sheets of steel  piling
 driven 7 ft into the ground by use of a  crane-mounted,  vibrating,  pile driver.
 A detailed equipment list is provided in Table 24.

              TABLE 24.   EQUIPMENT USED AT THE 6&H LANDFILL,  SITE
      Front-end  loader (CAT 955)
      D-3  bulldozer (wide-track)
      Backhoe  (Case 580)
      Backhoe  (Cat  225)
      Backhoe  (CAT  215)
      Crane  (20-ton)
      Pile driver  (V-5)
      Tractor, diesel  w/40-ton  lowboy
      Dump truck (5- to 10-yd3)
Dump truck (10- to 20-yd3)
Chain saw
Trash pump (3-in.)
CAT 215 bucket
Submersible pump (1-in.)
Circular saw
Vacuum truck (3500-gal)
Pressure washer (3000-psi)
Problems Encountered

     The viscous nature of the oil mixed with the debris in the interceptor
trench impeded the vacuuming of the oil.  Attaching the hose nozzle of the '
trash pump to the trackhoe bucket made  it easier to move the oils in the
trench.  Because of the presence of a wetland area containing heavy vegeta-
tion, extensive site preparation was necessary before the removal action
could begin.  The site also had to be kept as dry as possible for heavy
equipment maneuverability.

Final Disposition

     Contaminated liquids were stored on site.  A pole barn was constructed
to hold three 5800-gallon plastic storage tanks for temporary storage of
these liquid wastes until their disposal offsite.


PBM ENTERPRISES, ROMULUS, MICHIGAN (REGION V)

Site History

     This site, an abandoned silver recovery facility, contained X-ray film
that had been left on site.   Approximately 400 yd3 of used film and  chips

                                      82

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           TABLE  25.   EQUIPMENT  USED AT THE  PBM  ENTERPRISES, SITE
      Front-end  loader  (955  CAT)
      Generator  (5-kW)
      Front-end  loader/crawler
       (CAT  936)
      Backhoe  (Case  580  or equivalent)
      Tanker truck (5000-gallon)
      Flatbed  truck
      Gradall
      Compressor  (175 cfm)
      Compressor  (750 cfm)
      Pipe wrench (48-in.)
Wet Vac
Lowboy (20- to 40-ton)

6000-gal  tank
3000-gal  tank
Acid pump
Tanker truck (6000-gal, rubber)
Dump truck
Chemical  pump
Roll off box
560 Steel tank
         TABLE 26.  SUMMARY OF OFF-SITE DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM THE
                            PBM ENTERPRISES, SITE
Waste type
           Amount
Disposition
Treated film chips, debris, sand, and wood
Contaminated runoff
Alkaline corrosive liquid
Alkaline waste
Alkaline solid
Alkaline liquid
Alkaline wastewater
Alkaline liquid treated
Solvent-containing solids
1,280yd3
5,564 gal
26,572 gal
12,976 gal
4,240 gal
147,483 gal
3,900 gal
. 16,942 gal
82 yd3
Landfilled
Treated
Treated
Treated
Treated
Treated
• Treated
Treated
Landfilled
MIDCO II, GARY, INDIANA (REGION V)

Site History

     The site is a 7-acre tract in an industrial area of Gary, Indiana,
located in Lake County in the northwest part of the State.  Until 1977, the
site was used as a solvent, acid, base, and industrial waste recycling/dis-
posal facility.  In August 1977, a major fire completely burned the facility,
and it was abandoned at that time.

     Materials left on the site included the following:

     0    Two large piles of burned-out drums (approximately 65,000) and
          approximately 2500 drums that were still  intact

     0    Twelve 10,000-gallon above-ground tanks and one buried tank;  nine
          of the tanks still contained hazardous materials
                                      84

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          Two areas used for dumping paints, sludges, plating waste, and
          PCBs (a sludge pit 120 ft x 30 ft x 10 'ft, and a filter bed 150 ft
          x 40 ft x 10 ft)

          Contaminated soil.
Contaminants
     Contaminants found on site were as follows:
          1,1,1-Trichloroethane
          Phthalates
          Phenols
          Ethyl benzene
Methylene chloride
Naphthalene
Toluene
Arsenic
PCBs
Cadmium
Lead
Cyanide
Site Description
     Many of the drums found at the site contained hazardous and/or flammable
substances and were either leaking or in a deteriorated condition.   The
sludge pit and filter bed (which contained paints, sludges, plating waste,
and PCBs) were unlined and therefore posed a threat to groundwater.  The
tanks contained flammable liquid waste, including solvents, paints, and paint
sludge.  The underground tank was believed to be leaking into the groundwater.
Because of these perceived threats, an immediate removal action was recommend-
ed.  The remedial action performed at this site took place during the period
1985 to 1988.  The following work was ordered performed at the site:
          Establishment of staging and loading areas
          Conducting drum removal
          Cleaning, removal, and disposal  of on-site above- and below-ground
          tanks
          Removal and disposal  of onsite sludge
          Installation of a clay cap
          Air monitoring
Equipment

     This site presented a major materials-handling effort involving several
problems, including staging, separation, and disposal  of numerous  drums;
excavation of underground tanks; decontamination of large above-ground tanks;
excavation of the sludge pit; and extensive site preparation.   A detailed
equipment list is provided in Table 27.
                                      85

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                TABLE  27.   EQUIPMENT  USED AT THE MIDCO  II, SITE
           Backhoe  (Case  225)
           Backhoe  (Case  580)
           Drum grappler  (hydraulic)
           Stake-bed truck  (2-ton)
           diaphragm pump (3-in.)
           Trash pump  (2-in.)
           Generator (5-kW)
           Hand tools
           Lowboy (20-ton)
           Diesel tractor
Holding pool (300-gal)
Front-end loader (CAT 953)
High-pressure water laser
Drum shredder
Drum punch
Vacuum unit (1500-gal)
Cutting torch
Submersible pump
Holding pool (24-ft-diameter)
     Tracked backhoes outfitted with drum grapplers were used for the initial
drum removal.  The drums were sorted into liquid and solid waste piles.  The
drums containing solids were picked up with the grappler and fed into a drum
shredder.  A backhoe was then used to move the shredded material to an area
where it was sampled before a tracked loader placed it onto a truck for
off-site disposal.  Liquid drummed waste was emptied into a vacuum truck and
sent off-site for treatment.

     A cutting torch was used to dismantle the aboveground tanks, and a
backhoe was used to excavate the underground "clarifier tank."  A large
amount of scrap metal on the site had to be cut into smaller pieces and
decontaminated for off-site disposal.

     A backhoe was used to excavate the two sludge pits, and the material  was
moved to the treatment area with a rubber-tired loader.  The sludge was
solidified with lime.

Problems Encountered

     During the 5-month effort, the ambient temperature ranged from -15 to
36° F.  Because of these low temperatures, water (high-pressure laser) was
not used to perform the decontamination.  Tc avoid having to clean the heavy
equipment, "clean roads" were built on site on which to run "clean equipment.1
Equipment used in the contaminated area stayed on-site until the effort was
completed.  An additional problem presented by the cold weather was the
frequent shattering of air-line fittings.  Heavy equipment was provided with
extra lubrication to prevent breakdowns, and during the coldest weather, part
of the crew arrived on-site half an hour early to warm up the equipment
before actual work operations began.

Final Disposition

     Table 28 presents a breakdown of the amounts and disposition of wastes
found on the Midco II site.
                                      86

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   TABLE 28.  SUMMARY OF OFFSITE DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM THE MIDCO II SITE
Waste type
Cyanide soil/solids
PCB soil
Non-PCB liquids
Cyanide mixture
Tank-cleaning waste
Amount
3137 tons
7035 tons
60 tons
6 drums
5000 gal
Disposition
Land-filled
Land-filled':
Incinerated
Treated
Treated
MOTCO SITE, LA MARQUE, TEXAS (REGION VI)

Site History                                                              ,

     This 11-acre site is an abandoned tar reclamation facility consisting of
seven waste disposal pits and nine storage tanks containing 4 million gallons
of liquids and styrene tar.  The site is adjacent to a marsh that is used
extensively for shrimping, crabbing, and fishing.  Previous removal  actions
have involved the following:

     0    Dike repairs, redrumming, removal and disposal  of hazardous drums  -
          1981.

     0    Carbon treatment of 2 million gallons of lagoon contents,  and
          increased freeboard - 1981.

     0    Lowering of water level in pits - 1983 and 1985.

Contaminants       •                                                  >:

     Vinyl chloride      .          Acids
     Styrene tars                  Lead
     Chlorinated hydrocarbons      Mercury

Site Description

     Heavy rains in 1986 resulted in elevated water levels in the disposal
pits.  The dike was within 4 inches of overtopping and contaminating a nearby
marsh.  The following work was ordered to be performed:

     0    Staging of pumping equipment and caustic material

     0    Pumping water from Pit 1; injecting caustic into the line  and
          discharging into a settling pond

     0    Pumping treated water from the settling pond into roadside ditch
                                      87

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 Equipment

      Six-inch diesel pumps were used to pump out the pits.  Table 29 shows
 equipment used on-site.


                  TABLE 29.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE MOTCO SITE
                Diesel pump (6-in.)
                Air compressor
                Generator
                                         Polyethylene  tank
                                         Hand  tools
                                                                    A new
 Problems  Encountered

     Cold weather caused  the caustic  soda to become very viscous.
 valve was installed on the treatment  manifold to improve flow.

 Final Disposition

     Approximately 1.5 feet of water  was pumped out of the pit.


 CLEVE REBEK SITE, SORRENTO, LOUISIANA (REGION VI)

 Site History

     This 25-acre site is a former landfill that accepted both municipal and
 industrial waste.  Numerous drums containing chemical  waste were buried on
 the site.  (Spillage of volatile chemical wastes occurred during the handling
 and disposal of the drums.  The site  contained four surface- ponds, five major
 surface piles of metal drums, and a buried waste pit.)  The adjoining land is
a mix of swamps/dense vegetation and  sparsely populated residential areas.

Contaminants                                                      .     ;

     The contaminants of primary concern include the following:
          4,4'-DDT
          4,4'-DDE
          4,4'-DDD
          Hexachlorobenzene
          Mercury
          Chlordane
          Chiorobenzene
                                   Di-n-butyl phthalate
                                   Hexachlorobutadiene
                                   Arsenic
                                   Aluminum
                                   Lead
                                   Toluene
                                   Atrazine
Site Description
     The majority of the industrial waste was disposed of in a pit that
varied from 6 to 20 feet in depth and held approximately 220,000 yd3 of
v/aste.  Leachate from the pit has migrated from the pit and mixed with the
municipal waste.  Also, ponds on the site contain about 22 million gallons of

                                      88

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surface water.  An estimated 6400 drums are buried on site, and refuse debris
is scattered over the surface.  Finally, the site has areas of stained soil
and zones where black tarry substances leak to the surface through cracks in
the soil.

     The removal action ordered for this site involved removing the sources
of surface contamination.

Equipment

     The primary pieces of equipment used for the excavation of the drums
were bulldozers and front-end loaders.  Bulldozers were also used to clear
vegetation and to build a dirt and sand access road.  Drum crushing at the
site was accomplished with bulldozers.  Table 30 is a partial listing of the
equipment used on the site.
              TABLE 30.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE CLEVE REBER SITE
               Bulldozer *
               Dump trucks
               Wheeled front-end loaders*
               PVC liners for trucks
Backhoe
Hand tools
Roll off box
Problems Encountered

     Muddy conditions from excess rain resulted in the bulldozer being used
to push trucks onto and off of the site.  The front-end loader also needed to
be pushed out of the mud on occasion.  An additional  problem occurred because
the drums were buried very close to the surface or, in one instance, above
ground level with soil mounded over them.  During the operation of the heavy
equipment, care had to be taken to avoid disturbing these drums.

Final Disposition

     During the removal action, 70 truck!oads of waste and 1100 crushed drums
were removed from the site, and 713 yd3 of clay was brought in for capping of
contaminated areas.


QUAIL RUN, GRAY SUMMIT, MISSOURI (REGION VII)

Site History

     Quail Run Mobile Manor is a mobile home park in which the road through
the park had been sprayed for dust control with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-
dioxin (TCDD)-contaminated waste oil.  The affected area included:

     0    28 mobile homes
     0    1 house
                                      89

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           HfflD
           5
                orf? aant amfee*tp?tniint
                   uiniter an stpposifc
                 
-------
     The following heavy equipment (with function description) was regularly
used during the excavation phase:
     CAT  215  -




     Case 580  -


     CAT 910   -



     Cranes




     Hopper



     Trucks




     CAT 936   -
     Bag
     platform
A large-capacity trackhoe, equipped with a 48-in.
straight-edged bucket to obtain a smooth cut.  One CAT
215 was equipped with an articulated bucket suitable for
cutting at different slope angles.

A smaller capacity, rubber-tired backhoe, equipped with a
straight-edged bucket.

An articulated highloader that was primarily used for
transport of supplies and materials to the work crews, as
well as for movement of concrete.

Two to three cranes of varying capacities (18- to 32-ton)
were used for removing bags from the hopper and for
loading .and unloading bags into dump trucks.  Cranes were
also used for suspending concrete for decontamination.

A custom-designed and fabricated aluminum funnel on a
stand for holding the bulk bags and channeling dirt into
the bags from the backhoe bucket.

Dump trucks were used during earlier excavation phases
for transport of bags within the contaminated area of the
park and, primarily, within the clean areas.  Dump trucks
were also used for transport of bags of soil.

A high-capacity, extending highlift equipped with custom-
designed and manufactured forks made from heavy-gauge,
6-in.-diameter steel pipe.  This highlift was used for
removing full bulk bags from the trucks and stacking them
within the storage structures.

This stand was custom designed for holding a full bag
while the forks of the CAT 936 were placed under the bag
for lifting it to the top row of the stack.
Problems Encountered

     Continued rainfall and muddy conditions caused the project to be shut
down for several months.  The mud caused excavation problems as well  as
problems with loading soil/mud into the bags.  Additional problems occurred
during excessively dry weather when it became necessary to apply water to the
excavation area as a dust-control measure.  Rubber-tired vehicles were pri-
marily used instead of tracked ones to minimize the mixing of surface-con-
taminated soils.
                                      91

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Final Disposition

     The foil-owing material was disposed of or decontaminated at the site:
               Six hundred cubic yards of concrete
               Approximately 10,121 two-cubic-yard bags of soil
               Approximately 2101 two-cubic-yard bags of contaminated debris
               Eight 20-yd3 dumpsters of decontaminated debris
SOLID STATE CIRCUITS, REPUBLIC, MISSOURI (REGION VII)

Site History

     This 1/2-acre site is a former cold-storage warehouse (refrigeration
plant) and circuit board manufacturing facility.  During the manufacturing of
circuit boards, approximately 42 drums of trichloroethylene (TCE) were used
over a period of 5 years, resulting in the accumulation of 2310 gallons of
liquid waste that was stored in a basement sump.  In February 1979, the
building burned to the ground.  Debris from the fire was bulldozed into the
basement of the building.  A cap was not placed over the debris, and water
was able to percolate freely over the debris and fill material in the
basement.  In 1984, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) and
the manufacturer conducted soil and liquid sampling around the basement and
excavated soil and debris from the basement area that has been stockpiled on
site.

Contaminants

     The principal contaminant found on site was TCE in concentrations as
high as 460,000 ppb (soil).

Site Description

     The city of Republic's water supply was found to be contaminated with
concentrations of TCE between 23 and 140 ppb.  Debris and soil from the 1984
excavation were still stockpiled on the site.  The following work was ordered
to be performed at the site:

     0    Loading and transportation of 1400 yd3 of soil that had been stock-
          piled during the SSC/MDNR removal action of 1984

     0    Removal of an additional (up to) 880 yd3 of contaminated soil

     0    Development and construction of six monitoring wells at the site.
          Four wells were to be shallow (18 to 20 feet deep), one was to be
          approximately 400 feet deep, and another was to be 600 feet deep

  \  °    Removal of contaminanted shallow groundwater.  Disposal of the
   I       contaminated water at the Springfield, Missouri, municipal
   i       wastewater treatment plant
                                      92

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 Equipment

      Excavation  of the  concrete  slab  in  the  basement  required  the  use  of  a
 pavement breaker (hoe ram)  attachment for  the  backhoe because  of the thick-
 ness  of the  slab (14 to 18  inches). Table  32 lists  the equipment used.


          TABLE 32.  EQUIPMENT  USED AT THE  SOLID  STATE CIRCUITS SITE  .
                Equipment

 7500-gal  galvanized  tanker
 6000-gal  galvanized  tanker
 4.5-yd3 front-end  crawler (loader)

 Backhoe (Case-580)
 Emergency-response van
 Backhoe (CAT-255)
 Pickup truck
 Passenger sedan
 Weight scales
 Tractor trailer
 Pumps
 Compressor
 Air hammer
 Hoe-ram attachment
 Stake-bed truck
 Cutting torch
          Utilization

Hauled contaminated water
Hauled contaminated water
Excavation and loading of contami-
  nated soil
Excavation
Command post and equipment storage
Excavation
Hauled supplies
Transported workers to and from site
Weighed trucks
Mobilization and demobilization
Pumped wastewater
Operation of air hammer
Cracked concrete slab
Cracked concrete slab and footings
Equipment transportation
Cutting of basement pipes and
  elevator shaft
Problems Encountered       '     •

     The only major materials-handling-related problems encountered were
project delays resulting from the unexpected problems of having to obtain a
pavement-breaking attachment for the backhoe (because of the thickness of the
concrete slab) and the tank trucks for pumping and hauling the contaminated
water accumulated during the excavation.

     Excavation stopped during the project because of a problem with the
offsite facility chosen for soil disposal.  This resulted in site activities
being suspended for more than 3 months.  When excavation resumed several
thousand gallons of water had filled the excavation area, and tanker trucks
were brought in to pump out the contaminated water.

Final Disposition

     Table 33 presents a breakdown of the amounts and disposition of wastes
found at the Solid State Circuit site.
                                      93

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            TABLE 33.  SUMMARY OF OFFSITE DISPOSAL OF WASTE FROM
                        THE SOLID STATES CIRCUIT SITE
     Waste type
     Amount
     Disposition
TCE-contaminated water
TCE-contaminated soil
108,000 gal
  1,990 tons
Wastewater treatment plant
Landfilled
B&C METALS, DENVER, COLORADO (REGION VIII)

Site History

     A 33,000-ft2 building housed a former radium-processing operation.   The
elevated radon levels found in the building were the result of infiltration
of radon gas from nearby soil (2400 yd2) contaminated with radium (Ra-226).
The building was still in use at the time of the removal action.

Contaminant

     The contamination on the site resulted from the decay of radium to  radon
gas, which is a naturally occurring radioactive gas.

Site Description

     The building includes a first-floor shop and office area, a  basement
storage area, and a basement appliance-refinishing operation.  The work
ordered to be performed was the installation of a plenum wall-stack vent
system to reduce radon levels.

Equipment

     Table 33 presents a summary of the equipment used on the site.  The work
performed dealt primarily with the installation of the vent and sealing  the
building against the entry of any radon gas.  Table 34 lists the  equipment
used.
              TABLE 34.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE B&C METALS SITE
                    Pickup truck ,
                    Wheelbarrow
                    Cutting torch
                    Hand tools
          Submersible pump
          Generator
          Tractor
Problems Encountered

     No materials-handling problems were reported.
                                      94

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 Final  Disposition                              ,

      No  waste  was  removed  from the  site,  but radon  levels  in  the  building
 were  reduced to  levels  deemed  acceptable  to  the  EPA.
 BURLINGTON  NORTHERN  RAILROAD,  SOMERS,  MONTANA  (REGION  VIII)

 Site  History

      The  site was formerly  a facility  that  treated  railroad  ties with wood
 preservatives.  The  preservatives  included  a zinc chloride solution and  a
 creosote/diesel oil  mixture.   The  northern  end of the-site was used as a
 storage area for treated and untreated wood and  process  residues.  From  1901
 to  1971 the plant discharged zinc  and  creosote-contaminated  liquid and solid
 wastes to a disposal  lagoon, which occasionally  overflowed into a drainage
 ditch that  emptied into a nearby lake.       .

 Contaminants

      The  main contaminants  of  concern  include:
          Naphthalene
          Phenanthrene
          Acenaphthene
          Fluorene
          Benzp(a)anthracene
          Benzo(a)pyrene
Pyrene
Zinc
Nickel
Copper
Arsenic
Site Description
     A small pond, created from overflow of the disposal lagoon into a topo-
graphically low area, (approximately 200,000 gallons) just north of the
Flathead Lake shoreline contains sludges that are heavily contaminated with
creosote- related compounds to a depth of-., 1 to 2 feet.  The following work
was ordered to be performed at the site:

          Draining the standing water in the swamp pond and depositing the
          water into either a 150,000-gallon storage tank on the BN property
          or a lined (60-mil) RCRA overflow pit on the BN property

     0    Excavation and removal of the contaminated soils and sludges from
          the drained pond and depositing them in a lined (60-mil) RCRA
          sludge pit

     0    Backfilling the resulting cavity to a level that matches the exist-
          ing ground surface

Equipment

     Submersible pumps were used to pump the contaminated water into the RCRA
pit and the storage tank.  A working ramp for the heavy equipment was con-

                                      9.5

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structed to provide access to the sludge on the bottom of the pond.  The ramp
required 900 yd3 of fill.  Table 35 lists the equipment used on the site.
          TABLE 35.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE BURLINGTON NORTHERN SITE
     Backhoe*
     Front-end loader (4.5-yd3 bucket)
     Bulldozer (CAT D3)
     Polyethylene storage tank
     Submersible pump
     Discharge hoses
     Roll off box
     Hand tools
Problems Encountered

     The only major materials-handling problem encountered involved continued
pumping of contaminated water from the pond area as a result of rains and
recharge.

Final Disposition

     Total contaminated water discharge to the overflow pit and the storage
tanks was 127,000 gallons.  Total sludge and soil removed to the RCRA pit was
3280 yd3.
McCOLL SUPERFUND SITE, FULLERTON, CALIFORNIA (REGION IX)

Site History

     The McColl site was used for disposal of acidic refinery sludge, a
byproduct of the production of high-octane aviation fuel in the early and
nrid-1940's.  In the 1950's, fill material and drilling muds from nearby oil
exploration activities were also deposited there.  Later, the site was
covered with soil in an attempt to make it suitable for development.

Contaminants

     Three major waste types are present at the site:  a green mud-like
material, a black viscous tar-like material, and a black char-like asphaltic
waste.  The principal air emissions of concern are sulfur dioxide (S02) and
volatile organic compounds.  The following is a detailed list of the chemical
constituents known to be present at the site:
               Methylene chloride
               Acetone
               2-Butanone
               Benzene
               Toluene
               Ethyl benzene
               Xylene
               Vanadium
               Zinc
Aluminum
Barium
Calcium
Chromium
Copper
Cobalt
Lead
Manganese
                                      96

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Site Description

     The 20-acre site contains 12 waste pits or sumps.  A trial excavation of
part of one sump was performed over a 6-week period with approximately 100
cubic yards of waste being removed.  This trial excavation and waste handling
project was performed for a better definition of potential air-emission and
materials-handling problems expected during full-scale excavation and treat-
ment.  The potential impact of air emissions on the local community was also
investigated.

     The work was performed within a temporary enclosure, and air was
exhausted from the enclosure through a sodium-based wet scrubber and a
granular activated-carbon-bed adsorber.  Foam was used to suppress atmos-
pheric releases from the raw waste excavation, storage, and processing.  The
air exhaust from the enclosure was monitored for total hydrocarbons (THC) and
S02.  These and other selected organic and reduced sulfur compounds were
monitored along the site's perimeter and in the ambient air of the surround-
ing neighborhood.

Equipment

     A 60 ft x 160 ft, rigid-frame, polyvinylchloride-covered enclosure was
constructed to contain all air emissions released during the trial excava-
tion.  Ventilation air was continuously drawn through the enclosure at a rate
of 1000 ft3/min.  An induced-draft fan operating outside the enclosure
directed the ventilation air to the air pollution control system and exhaust
stack.

     Excavation of the 15-ft-long x 10-ft-wide x 25-ft-deep pit was accom-
plished with a track-mounted backhoe.  A 20 ft x 20 ft working pad was con-
structed for the trackhoe operation.  A trench shield constructed from
1/4-inch carbon steel was used to shore the walls of the excavation pit.

     The excavated material was categorized by waste type and transported to
individual waste piles within the enclosure by a front-end loader.  The
excavated char and mud wastes did not require processing.  The tar waste was
solidified with lime-based additives in a pug mill  consisting of two shafts
fitted with short paddles mounted on a cylinder.  After mixing, this material
was extruded and automatically cut into small  pellets.  Samples of the
different wastes were collected in 55-gallon drums  for future testing as  feed
material for a thermal  destruction technology.

     After processing was completed, all remaining  materials were returned to
the pit.  Refilling and restoration of the pit were accomplished with a
front-end loader.  Table 36 lists of the equipment  used at the McColl  site.

                TABLE 36.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE McCOLL SITE
          Backhoe*
          Soil crusher
          Fork!ift
          Pickup truck
          Skid-steer loader
Fan
Vibratory screen
Roll off box
Pug mill
Pressure washer
Generator (40-kW)
                                      97

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Problems Encountered        .

     Despite the application of a foam vapor suppressant, much higher than
expected concentrations of S02 and THC were generated within the enclosure.
The foam did not adhere well to the waste and tended to degrade faster than
expected.  The high concentrations required that excavation work be performed
in Level A personal protective equipment.

     Seepage of tar into the excavation pit occurred despite the use of a
trench shield.  This caused some excavation difficulties.


PACIFIC HIDE AND FUR, POCATELLO, IDAHO (REGION X)

Site History

     The 10-acre site is a former metals reclamation operation.  The facility
overlies an aquifer that serves as a drinking water source for local resi-
dents.  Material left on the site included the following:

     0    An unknown number of transformer parts
     0    Approximately 582 capacitors
     0    650 drums
     0    Large pieces of debris (vehicle frames, washers, dryers,
          refrigerators, bins, tanks, combine chassis, cars)   :      '•-• '

Contaminant

     The primary contaminant of concern were PCBs.

Site Description

     The capacitors and transformer parts on the site were leaking PCB-con-
taminanted oil onto the ground.  Many of the drums were in a deteriorated
condition and leaking.  A Federal search warrant was necessary to gain access
to the site.  During two separate removal actions (1983 and 1984) the follow-
ing work was performed:           *

     0    Contaminated soil was excavated and disposed of.
     0    Capacitors were staged and shipped out for disposal.
     0    Drums were overpacked and shipped out for disposal.
     0    Large pieces of scrap were cleaned.

Equipment

     A backhoe and front-end loader Were used to excavate the soil.  A crane
was used to stage and load the capacitors into overpacks.  A steel work pad,
sump, and curtain structure were constructed to steam-clean and pressure-wash
(with detergent) the large pieces of scrap found on the site.  Table 37 shows
the equipment used at the site.
                                      98

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         TABLE 37.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE PACIFIC HIDE AND FUR SITE
          Steel drum roller
          Backhoe*
          Front-end loader*
          Bulldozer*
                                   High-pressure/hot-water washer
                                   Crane  (15-ton)
                                   Forkllft
Problems Encountered

     No major materials-handling problems were encountered at this site.

Final Disposition

     Table 38 presents a breakdown of the amounts ana disposition of wastes
found at the Pacific Hide and Fur site.
         TABLE 38.  SUMMARY OF OFF-SITE DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM THE
                          PACIFIC HIDE ANfTFUR SITE
         Waste type
                           Amount
Disposition
     Capacitors
     Contaminated soil
     Drums
     Debris
                          582
                           30 yd2
                           16
                          180 large pieces
Incinerated
Landfilled
Landfilled
Steam-cleaned and left on site
NORTHWEST TRANSFER SALVAGE YARD, EVERSON, WASHINGTON (REGION X)

Site History
                                                             casings  on the
     This 1.2-acre site is a former transformer storage and recycling
facility.  The open unsecured site contained 200 transformer casings
ground.  The site also contained the following:

     0    Oil-stained soil patches around the transformers
     0    An unlined air curtain pit incinerator
     0    A barn used for transformer disassembly

Contaminants

     The primary contaminant of concern were PCBs.

Site Description

     Sampling revealed the presence of 35 PCB-contaminanted transformers,
soil contamination, and PCB contamination in the barn.  The following work
was ordered performed:
                                      99

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     0    Cleaning and rinsing of transformers contaminanted with PCB fluids
     0    Cleanup and decontamination of the barn
     0    Excavation and disposal of contaminated soil

Equipment

     The following protocol and equipment were used to clean the
transformers:

     1.   Transformers were staged above a large, galvanized metal stock
          water tank with the aid of a forklift.

     2.   The PCB-contaminated oil was drained into the tank and then pumped
          to the appropriate compartment of a bulk tank truck staged adjacent
          to the work area.  The truck was divided into four compartments;
          two were designated for PCB fluids ranging from 0 to 45 ppm, and
          the other two were designated for liquids containing 45 to 500 ppm
          PCBs.

     3.   Transformers were rinsed three times, each time with a volume of
          diesel fuel equivalent to 10 percent of the total transformer
          volume.

     4.   Rinsings were drained and pumped to the tank truck after each
          flushing.

     During the barn decontamination, a jack hammer was used to remove a
heavily contaminated concrete berm.   The concrete floor was pressure-washed
and steam-cleaned with a high-pressure/hot-water washer.  Wood on the inside
of the building was sand-blasted.

     Excavation of the soil was performed with bulldozers and backhoes.  Six
inches to one foot were removed from the area around the barn and incinerator.
Soil around the septic system basin was removed to a depth of 20 feet.  Table
39 lists the equipment used for the cleanup of this site.


         TABLE 39.  EQUIPMENT USED AT THE NORTHWEST TRANSFORMER SITE
               Forklift
               Steam/pressure washer
               Dumpster
               Stake-bed truck
               Trash pump (2-in.)
               Generator (5 kW)
               Electric barrel pump
Air compressor
Jack hammer
4-wheel drum dolly
     Backhoe*
Bulldozer*
Clam shell crane
Problems Encountered

     No major materials-handling problems were reported at this site.

                                      100

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Final Disposition

     Table 40 presents a breakdown of the amounts and disposition of wastes
from the Northwest site.
             TABLE 40.  SUMMARY OF DISPOSITION OF WASTE FROM THE
                         NORTHWEST TRANSFORMER SITE
     Waste type
Amount
Disposition
Soil
Debris
High concentration PCB liquids
Low-concentration PCB liquids
1400 yd3
Several piles
4660 gal
1500 gal
  Landfill
  Landfill
  Incinerated
  Recycled
                                      101

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-------
Runyon,  K.G.   1985.   Improvement  of Magnetically Separated  Ferrous Concen-
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Savage,  G.  M., and G. R.  Shiflett.  1980.   Processing  Equipment for Resource
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-------
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                                      108

-------
               APPENDIX A

FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF CONTAMINENTS
         AT 1035 SUPERFUND SITES
                   109

-------
CONTAMINANTS ;
*•": •/''''" '" " -, "- ' ,', -' -msmofigm
1 RICHLOROETHYLENE
LEAD
CHROMIUM
POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (RGBs)
HEAVY METALS
TETRACHLOROETHYLENE
BENZENE
TOLUENE
VOLAl ILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCs
ARSENIC .
CADMIUM
1 ,1 ,1 - 1 RlCHLOROETHANE
COPPER
ZINC
VINYL CHLORIDE
XYLENE
CHLOROFORM
PHENOLS
1,1-DICHLOROETHANE
WASTE SOLVENTS
CYANIDES
NICKEL
1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE
ETHYLBENZENE
METHYLENE CHLORIDE
PESllCIDES
MERCURY
POLYAHOMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs)
1 ,2-TRANS-DICHLOROETHYLENE
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
PENTACHLOROPHENOL
FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE
\
65
23
12
12
18

20
20
21
29
8
2
16
4
1
8
11
8
3
9

2
5
5
8
4
4
3
6
5


/it
3€Z
39
25
20
30
36
28
25
26
37
11
9
12
9
6
15
8
12
11
4
10
1
5
1
8
10
9
9
6
4

2
ill
150
44
37
22
15
13
18
30
14
9
15
12
16
6
11
17
6
11
8
10
2
9
8
6
5
2
1
8
7
3
1
4 I
fc
IV
134
15
44
39
23
27
8
16
19
12
17
23
9
14
11
9
9
5
14
8
4
7
9
4
5
7
10
8
1
9
9
7 |
HAH
.y
523
51
45
38
40
35
30
23
27
23
29
22
15
15
13
10
21
12
16
20
21
21
9
9
14
13
4
5
13
10
22
7 I
EGlOi
I Vf
5$
7
17
11
12
11
2
8
8
4
10
4
3
8
6
4
5
2
5
2
4
2
2
1
3
1
5
2
3
1
5
5 I
MS
V«
ff4
8
13
8
2
4
3
5
6
4
5
9
4
4
7
2
1
3
1

3
4
3
1
1
1
o
1
3
1
1

vifi
35
3
11
4
1
8
2
5
2
1
10
9

2
c

1
1
3

1

2

1
2
3

1
2
o
5
IX
703-
46
9
7
6
8
24
4
4
7
7
g
10
8
n
3
4
7
3
6
7
1
1
18

3
5
3
1
5

6
X
SO -
10
17
12
9
5
3
1
4
3
7
7
1
4
6

1
4

1
5
6
o


2
o
3
1
1

3
TOTAL *
7035 ;
246
230
173
156
147
138
137
131
129
119
100
86
74
71
68
67
65
64
60
57
53
46
45
45
45
45
42
42
41
40
39

-------
1 ' ' * \ -'' •
f $ ;' " % 4 ' 5' i
-, , - '<. , ^ c- > j
CONTAMINANTS > v
ACIDS
BARIUM
CARBON TETRACHLORIDE
CREOSOTE
METHYL ETHYL KETONE
TRICHLOROETHANE
WASTE OILS/SLUDGES
CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
1,2-DICHLOROETHANE
MANGANESE
NAPHTHALENE
1 ,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE
DDT
DIOXINS
IRON
CHLOROBENZENE
PHTHALATES
WASTE PAINTS/LAQUERS
DICHLOROBENZENE
DICHLOROETHYLENE
ACETONE
ASBESTOS
1,1,1 -TRICHLOROETHYLENE
LINDANE
BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATES
HALOGENATED SOLVENTS
CHLORDANE
AMMONIA
CAUSTICS
FURANS
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
DIELDRIN
FREQUENCY QBOCCUBRENCE > >
, ;••
1
3
1
4
2
8
3


2
1

3

1

2
2

1
2
2
2
2

1
3


2
1


;!J
8

6

1
3
11
6
1

5
3
3
5
4
1
4
1
5
1
1
2

2
4
4
2

3


1
III |
3
3
2
4
2
3
1

7
3
1
5



10
5

2
4

2
3
1
2




1


' £i
IV
1
6
1
6
2
2
1
2
2
3
7
1
12

4
1
1
1
4
1



10
1
3
8


1
3
6
PARE
V ;|
6
8
4
5
9
2
8
10
7
7
1
6

3
6
3
3
6
1
4
6
2
5

1


3
2
4
7

:Gl€»
Vf |
1
4
1
6
1

4
1
1
2
5

4
4
1

2
2


1



2
1
1
7
2


1
$ ,
ml
5
3
3





4
2
1
1

6
1
1

4


1
2

1
2
1
1




1
•.
VIII I
1
1

4
1
2
1


3
2
1
1
1
2




1












IX
1

6
2
2
12
1
2



1
1
1
1
2


3
3
3
5
2


1



3


X
3
4
3

2
1

5

3




2


3


1

2





1



TOTAL,
32
30
30
29
28
28
27
26
24
24
22
21
21
21
21
20
17
17
16
16
15
15
14
14
13
13
12
10
10
10
10
9
(continued)

-------
ro
k VCO^TAWIINIAMTB .

SELENIUM
TOXAPHENE
ALDRIN
METHANE
METHYLISOBUTYLKETONE
PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS
PHENANTHRENE
2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID (2,4-D)
2,4-DIMETHYLPHENOL
BENZO[A]PYRENE
CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS
SULFURIC ACID
ALCOHOLS
ANTHRACENE
BERYLLIUM
DDE . -
FLUORIDE
PYRENE
STYRENE
SILVER
THORIUM
TRICHLOROPROPANE
1 ,2-DICHLOROPROPANE
2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID (2,4,5-T)
BORON
FLUORANTHENE
FREON-113
HEPTACHLOR
METHYLPARATHION
URANIUM
ANTIMONY
FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE
I




1
2





2
1


1




1




1




1

II

1

1
3

4
2
1




1


1

2
2
1





2



1

| III





2



2
2
4



4



1
1
1

2

1






E
IV

2
7
5
2
1
1
1
1
1


2
1
3

3
1
2







2

1
3

*
PARI
I V '

3



1

2

2
2

1

1


1
1


4

1

1
1

1


2
EGior
| w


1


1

2
2
1
1


1
1
1
1
1

2
1



3
1


1
1


JS
VII'

1
1
1



1
1

1

1

1


2
1
1
1
1



1


2 ,
1
1

VHI

1

1

1
3


1


1







1









1

IX

1


2



2

1
1

3


1





6
2
2


5




X












1




1












1

TOTAL

9
9
8
8
8
8
8
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
     (continued)

-------
-t , * . * : "< - *- ^ :
> l : ' l, / ' * * ' " i
i CONHTMINANTS * \
BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)ETHER
COAL TARS
ODD
DIBROMOCHLOROPROPANE
DICHLOROETHANE
HYDROFLUORIC ACID
PHOSPHATES
RADIUM AND COMPOUNDS
SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
SULFATES (ION)
TIN
2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE
BENZENEHEXACHLORIDE
BENZO[A]ANTHRACENE
BENZO[J,K]FLUORENE
CARBON DISULFIDE
CHLORIDE (ION)
DI-N-BUTYL-PHTHALATES
DIBENZOFURAN
DIETHYLPHTHALATES
ETHYLENEDIBROMIDE
ETHYLENE GLYCOL
FLUORENE
HEXOCHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE
HYDROGEN SULFIDE
NITRATES
RADIOACTIVE WASTES
RADON AND COMPOUNDS
TETRACHLOROETHANE
THIOCYANATES
TRIBROMOMETHANE
ACENAPTHYLENE
* ^FREOUENCY OF OCCURRENCE , * J
J
1






1
























!!

1
1





1


1





2

1


1
3
1

1
3


2

, IM J
1





1
1





1
2
1



1




1




1

1
* m
IV

1
1



2



1
1
2
1
1
1






1


1
2

1

1

PARE
V
1
2


3
4


3
2
1
1
1
1


2




1


1
1



2


EGiO*
* VI' |
1



1




1
1




1
1

3


1
1





1



IS;
m ]


1




1

1







1


1










1
vm |






t
1











1












f \
m |


1
4
















2




1


1



i
X










1










1










TOTAi i
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
(continued)

-------
^ -v -v "f
*"* ", : v , >< COMTAtS«IWAMm \ « V\ • \
ACROLEIN
ALUMINUM
ANILINE
BROMOMETHANE
CHLORODIBROMOMETHANE
CHROMIC ACID
CHRYSENE
COBALT
CYCLOHEXANE
DINITROTOLUENE
ETHYLACETATE
ETHYLPARATHION
ETHYLENE
ETHYLENECHLORIDE
HEXACHLOROBENZENE
INKS AND DYES
ISOPHORONE
MAGNESIUM
N.N-DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE
SODIUM HYDROXIDE
THIMET
TRICHLOROFLUOROM ETHANE
TRICHLOROPHENOLS
TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT)
VANADIUM
1 ,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE
2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOL
ACETONITRILE
ADIPIC ACID
BENZONITRILE
BUTADIENE
CHLORINATED BENZOFLUORIDE
FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE
^fVl


1





1

1


1




1













11



1
1
1
2
1





1
1
2
1
1




2



1
1
1

1
1
III
1








1










1



2







E
IV










1
1


1




1
1
1



1



1


PARI
V

1
1


1


1
1


1






1



2








=Gior
VI
1



1


1



1




1















IS
VII












1




1














vi«|



1




























-DC* 1


















1


1










-)t'i

1






























TOTAL
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
(continued)

-------
- "'i f ••• ' $ ,, - f
* ^ ,', ' , ? * ' \\ 4
- - *< - * , t :., * 1
< -*' , , CONTAMINANTS ;
DICHLORONITROETHANE
DIMETHYLPHENOL
ENDOSULFAN SULFATE
HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE
HEXYL PHTHALATE
MALEIC ACID
MERCURIC CHLORIDE
METHYL ACETATE
MOLYBDENUM
N-BUTYLACETATE
NAPALM
PENTACHLOROETHYLENE
PICOLINES
POTASSIUM CHROMATE
PYRIDINE
SEVIN
TETRACHLOROBENZENE
THALLIUM
TRICHLOROBENZENE
TRICHLOROFLUOROETHANE
TRIETHYLPHOSPHATE
TRIMELLITIC
TRISULFIDE
VINYL ACETATE
i ,FREOUENCYOFOCCUBRENC£
j







1
















ir


1
1

1









1





1

1
in

1


1





1









1



,B
N
1












1








1

PAR!
V.












1

1









:QIO*
VI






1










1






iS
va|
























'
VIII |








1















IX j









1

1




1

1
1




X
























TOTAt











1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
en
        a -1989 Guide to Superfund Sites

-------
           APPENDIX B




DEBRIS/MATERIALS CATEGORIZATION
             116

-------
                                 APPENDIX B
                       DEBRIS/MATERIALS CATEGORIZATION
Textiles
     0  Rags
     °  Tarpaulins
     0  Mattresses
Glass
Paper
     0  Bottles, ballasts
     0  Windows

     0  Books/magazines
     0  Packaging
     0  Cardboard/fiberboard, drums
Metal
     0  Ferrous—cast iron, tin cans,  slag
     0  Nonferrous—aluminum, brass, copper,  stainless  steel
     0  Metal  objects—drums, tanks, refrigerators,  cars,  gas cylinders,
                       vans,  railroad  rails,  transformers,  capacitors, scrap
                       metal
Plastic
     0  Battery casings
     0  Six-pack rings
     0  Buckets
     0  Plastic bags/sheets
Rubber
     0  Battery casings
     0  Tires
     0  Hose
                                     117

-------
Wood/Vegetation
      0  Stumps,  leaves, brush, branches
      0  Pallets, railroad ties
      0  Furniture

Construction Debris
      0  Brick/concrete
      0  Asphalt
      0  Pipe
      0  Plywood
      0  Insulation—fiberglass
Soil
      0  Clay
      0  Topsoil
      0  Fly ash
      0  Sediment—stones, rocks
Sludge
      0  Paint
      0  Oil
      0  Lead batteries, acid
      0  Still bottoms
Liquids
     0  Oil
     0  Water—ponds, rinsate
     0  Acids/solvents
Abestos
          Insulation
          Friable debris
                                       118

-------
            APPENDIX C

DEBRIS/MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION
  FOR 100 HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
               119

-------
                                          DEBRIS/HATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION FOR 144 HAZARDOUS HASTE SITESa
Site
Region I
Union Chealcal Co.
Cannon Engineering
Iron Bars* Park
Fletcher Faint
Ridge Avo.
Cook' 3 Landfill
Davli Liquid Chemical
Western Sand and Graval
Region II
Industrial Latex
Int'l Metallurgical Services
Kearny Drum Dump
Chemical Insecticide Corp.
Jagger Lane
Wide Beach
Region III
Delaware Sand 1 Cravel
Kane ft Lombard St. Drum
ABM-Wade
Ambler Asbestos Tailings
Boyertown Scrap
Brovn's Battery Breaking
Bruin Lagoon #2
State

HE
HA
HA
KB
HH
RI
RI
RI

HJ
HJ
HJ
NY
NY
MY

DE
MD
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
Mlia.


J








^












I«x-
tllei
























Clan


/



/




^












Httal"

D.T
O.t

D

D,H
D,T



D,T,M
D




D




M




V







J
^












flu-


















^



i









j














j

Wood,



^
^





i
^










^

Conatr.












V


/



V






/
^

f
i
i
/
/





i


^

V


/





r.s
0







F,0








F,W

A.H


/

/
V


J
1










1

/


A)bn-



/


J













/



PO
o
      (continued)

-------
Site
Malitovsky Drum
Taylor Borough
Tyson's Dump
Westllne
Region IV
Mowbray Engineering
Tower Chemical Co.
A . L . Taylor
Lee's Lane Landfill
Newport Dump Site
Plastifax Co.
Aberdeen Pesticide
American Creosote Works
Region V
ASF Materials
Belvidere Municipal Landfill
Chicago Drums
Gebhart Fertilizer
LaSalle Electrical
U.S. Scrap
Conservation Chemical
Envirochem
Fell's Junkyard
Lake Sandy Jo
MIDCO II
Kidwest rlating/Kokomo
Midwest Platlng/Logansport
State
PA
PA
PA
PA

AL
FL
KY
KY
KY
MS
NC
IN

IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IN
IH
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
Misc.



^















1



- ^



Tex-
tiles



























Glass



























Metal"
D,T
D



T

0
D
M


. T

T

D
D,T
D,T
D
D,T
T,M
M

D,T
D,M,T
D,M,T








/

^

/















Plas-









/













































Wood,
Veg.







^

















V

Constr.







y

j
/




/







i




V

^


1
j


^
v
v



/



,
j


V
/



F,0
0,W
W
W

0
W
H,L
H
W
A,B
W
W,0








W



W,A,H,F


/




/

.




.


.









^

Asbes-



























(continued)

-------
PO
ro
Site
Hinth Ave. Dump
Portage Dnun
Tyler Strtet Drums
Carter Salvage
Duell t Gardner
Forest Waste
C 1 H Landfill
Liquid Disposal
PBH Enterprises
Rasmussen Dump
Saglnav Faint
Verona Well Field
Barney Rumple
Union Scrap
American Steel Drum
Dayton Tire & Rubber
Industrial Excess Landlll
Republic Rose
Setter Brlte Plating
Lee's Farm
Try Chem
Region VI
Allen Transformer
Cleve Reber
Crystal City Airport
Geneva Industries
Hotco Site
State
IH
IM
IH
HI
HI
HI
HI
MI
MI
HI
HI
MI
Ml
HN
OB
OH
OB
OH
WI
WI
WI

AR
LA
TX
IX
TX
Hlsc.



/



^





i-
^

^



i






tex-
tiles



























Class







^



















-
Hetal'
D,T
D
D
H
D
D

M,T

D
D
T
D

D
D,M,T

D,H
D

D,T

D
D

I

Paper
/












/


J






1



Plas-
tic
/












/.'





/ -



/ ,.



Rubber
/


















f







Hood,
Veg.
/




/
^
t








^






V
V


Constr.
Debris
/















t
J




J


^

Soil
V


/
/
/
^
^
j
/.
/
i
^
. i
V
^
^
. j
j
j


V
V
^
j
V
Liquid*
0,H
F


0

o,s
F,W
H,W


W


F
W

0
B
W
B

W
W

w,o!-
W,H:
Sludgo


/

^
/
/
/














/


/.

Asbes-
tos



























           (continued)

-------
Site
Peases Chemical Co.
Stewco Site
Triangle Chemical
Region Til
B&B Salvage Co.
Broadvay Salvage Oil #1
Minker Cul-de-Sac/Area
Fosch Foundry
Quail Run
Solid State Circuits
Region YIII
BtC Metals
Eagle Mine
Gene Murren Property
Mestos Well
FDC Spas
Woodbury Chemical
Burlington Northern RR
Montana Pole HPL
Arlinston Spill Site
Region IX
McColl Site
Region X
Alaska Battery Enterprises
Ohlsen Mountain
ArrComm Corp.
Bunker Hill
State
IX
IX
TX

MO
MO
MO
MO
MO
MO

CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
MT
MI
WY

CA

AK
AK
ID
ID
Misc.


i



1




















Tex-
tiles



























Glass



























Metal"


D .

M

M
M










I





M
*T





























Plas-
"tle











1 :











V



























J



Wood,
Veg.





/
. / .

/








^









Constr.







^
/
^

: ^






t





i


Soil
/ -

^

/.
j
/ -
/





;
j


^
v
/

. /



/
^


o,w
A,F,W




A,H
0
W


0
A

F,H

0
w,o




W

. 0,H


' V
I V









J


.








v

J

Asbei-






















'




CO
       (continued)

-------



Slt«
Pacific Hide i Fur
Northwest Dust Control
American Croaaarm & Conduit
Northwest Transformer
William I Son Transformer
Stat<
ID
OR
WA
WA
WA
Hlac.





r.x-
tii«





Class
/




Metal"
D,H
D,T

H







Plas-











Uood,
Veg.


/


Constr.
Debris



/

Soil

V



This list contains what waa mentioned as being on alto, not what actually may have b«en preaent.


0,W




Sludge

V




Asbes-




,

                 Acids
                 Drums
                 Flammable
                 Hazardous liquid
                 Metal objects
                 Oil
                 Solvents
                 Tanks, vats
                 Water
ro

-------
      APPENDIX D

 EQUIPMENT USED AT 100
HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
         125

-------
                                                      REGION I

Backhoe/excavator
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landfill compactor
Grader
Crane
Forklift
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel pump
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Pressure washer/ laser
Crusher (drum/debris)
Union
Chemical
MM
7
7

-------
                                             REGION  I  (continued)

Shredder (tire, drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart
Drum punch
Drum grappler
Holding/bulking tanks
Generator
Air compressor
Air hammer
Chain saw

Hand tools
Non-sparking tools

Pug mill
Rolloff box
Dragline
Conveyor
Portable building
Union
Chemical
MN


V
,
4

4




V
•4






Cannon
Engineer-
ing, MA




V










•1



Iron
Horse
Park, HA









•1









Fletcher
Paint,
NH









J





V



Ridge
Ave.,
NH









V

V







Cooks
Landfill,
RI









y

•1







Davis
Liquid
Chemical, Rl


V
V


V


V


V






Western
Sand &
Gravel, RI






•
-------
                                                   REGION  II
ro
oo

Backhoe/excavator
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landfill compactor
Grader
Crane
Forklift
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel -pump
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Pressure washer/laser
Crusher (drum/debris)
Industrial
Latex,
NJ
7
•J






•I
V
•1
•1

V



V

International
Metallurgical
Services, NJ
•1

V






V





•1
•1


Kearny
Drum
Dump, NJ
-1


V

V







V





Chemical
Insecticide
Corp., NY
•1
•1
V














•1

Jagger
Lane, NY
•J
V
















_.
Wide
Beach, NY


-1



-
V



V



V



             (continued)

-------
REGION II  (continued)

Shredder (tire, drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart
Drum punch
Drum grappler
Holding/bulking tanks
Generator
Air compressor
Air hammer
Chain saw
Cutting torch
Hand tools
Non-sparking tools
Hoe ram/pile driver
Pug mill
Roll off box
Dragline .
Conveyor
Portable building
Industrial
Latex ,
NJ
/



V
/

/


/
/



1


•~- 	 -.
International
Metallurgical
Services, NJ















i



Kearny
Drum
Dump, NJ


1

'/

/.




V







Chemical
Insecticide
Corp., NY

-









/







Jagger
Lane, NY








1


1






•
Wide
Beach, NY








V











-------
                                                      REGION III

Backhoe/ excavator
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landfill compactor
Grader
Crane
Fork! i ft
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel pump
Vacuum unit
.Vaccum truck
Pressure washer/
laser
Crusher (drum/
debris)
Del aware
Sand &
Gravel ,
DE
/
/

/
1
i













Kane &
Lombard
Drum,
MD
/
/

/

/





/





1

ABH
Wade,
, PA
/
/








/
/





V

Ambler
Asbestos
Tailings,
PA
/
/

/

/



i







1

Boyer-
town
Scrap
Metal ,
PA



















Brown's
Battery
Breaking,
PA
1
/
/

/







.






Bruin
Lagoon,
PA
/
/
/
/

/





/







Halitovsky
Drum Co.,
PA
/
1

;

/


/

;
/



i
;
/ :
-
Taylor
Borough,
PA
/
/
/
















Tyson ' s
Dump ,
PA
/



1








1





Westline,
PA
/




/













CO
o
   (continued)

-------
REGION III (continued)

Shredder (tire
drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart
Drum punch
Drum grappler
Holding/bulking
tanks
Generator
Air compressor
Air hammer
Chain saw
Cutting torch
Hand tools
Non-sparking tools
Hoe ram/pile
driver
Pug mill
Roll off box
Dragline
Conveyor
Portable building
Delaware
Sand &
Gravel ,
DE
/

/

/

V












Kane &
Lombard
Drum,
MD
/



V
/
;
/

i









ABM
Wade.
PA











/



,../



Ambler
Asbestos
Tailings,
PA



/
/





V
/

/





Boyer-
town
Scrap
Metal,
PA






1




/
V


•/



Brown ' s
Battery
Breaking,
PA











V







Bruin
Lagoon,
PA


./.
















Mai i tovsky
Drum Co . ,
PA
' 1

i

i
-/





/
1






- Tayl or
Borough,
PA






/
V











Tyson's
Dump,
PA





V













Westline,
PA






/




/








-------
                                                       REGION IV

Backhoe/excavator
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landfill compactor
Grader
Crane
Fork! i ft
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel pump
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Pressure washer/laser
Crusher (drum/debris)
Howbray
Engineering,
AL
1
/
/
1
i
1




i

i


/

/
/
Tower
Chemical,
FL
;
/

1

1






/




V

A.L.
Taylor,
KY
/
/
/
y
1
/






/




/
/ :
Lee's Lane
Landfill, KY
/
/
/
/
/
/





1





1
V '
Newport
Dump,
KY
i
/
;
;
/
;

/




y




/
/ :
Plastifax
Co., MS


;











/
i



Aberdeen
Pesticide,
HC
/
/

/
/
/





/







American
Creosote,
TN
/
/
















:, '
oo
.ro
  (continued)

-------
                                                   REGION  IV (continued)

Shredder (tire, drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart
Drum punch
Drum grappler
Holding/bulking tanks
Generator
Air compressor
Air hammer
Chain saw
Cutting torch
Hand tools
Non-sparking tools
Hoe ram/pile driver
Pug mill
Roll off box
Dragline
Conveyor
Portable building
Mowbray
Engineering,
AL





/
/
V


1








Tower
Chemi cal ,
FL





1












!
A.L.
Taylor,
KY





/
- 1
' i











Lee's Lane
Landfill, KY





/

;
;
/









Newport
Dump", "
KY
;





i
i
V










Plastifax
Co., MS


t



1




1
i



i


Aberdeen
Pesticide,
NC
;
;


/












/

American
Creosote,
TN



















U)
oo

-------
                                                      REGION V
co .

Backhoe/excavator
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landfill compactor
Grader
Crane
Forklift
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel pump ,
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Pressure washer/
laser
Crusher (drum/ •-.-.
debris)
Conser-
vation
Chemical ,
IN
/


/







/
/
/
1

V


HIDCO
i "•
IN
/
/

/

/





i
1
/

V

;

Midwest
Plating-
Kokomo,
IN
/


/

;



. /
. /
/

/

' ' • 'V

/'

Midwest
Plating-
Logans-
port,
IN
/
/

/



/
1

i
i

1

r
i
/ . ;
- • • '
Lake
Sandy Jo,
IN


/















,..:-. : ,.:-
9th Ave
Dump,
IN

/
/








... /






-~ ... .--:.-
Envi rochem-
Zionsville,
IN
/
/
/
/







/
: /.



i

"••- -•--•••-- •-••-

-------
                                              REGION V (continued)
co
en

• Shredder (tire,
drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart
Drum punch
Drum grappler
Holding/bulking
tanks
Generator
Air compressor
Air hammer
Chain saw
Cutting torch
Hand tools
Non-sparking tools
Hoe ram/pile driver
Pug mill
Roll off box
Dragline
Conveyor
Portable building
Conser-
vation"
Chemical ,
IN


/

/
1
1
1
/


/
/


• '-'-! '',



WIDCO
II.
IN
/


/
/
i
1
i'"


4
1
V '






Midwest
Plating-
Kokomo ,
IN





i

^


r

/






Midwest
Plating-
Logans-
port,
IN





/
V '.
/











Lake.
Sandy Jo,
IN









/"









9th Ave
Dump,
IN



















Envi rochem-
Zionsville,
IN





; .
/ -
/
/

•' /
y

' ' /






-------
                                                   REGION V (continued)

Backhoe/excavator
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landfill compactor
Grader
Crane
- Forklift
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel pump
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Pressure washer/
laser
Crusher (drum/
debris)
Tyler St.
Drum,
IN



/






1







V
Portage
Drums,
IN



/






1







i
Fell
Junkyard,
IN
/
/








/








A&F
Greenup,
IL



/







;







Bel vide re
Landfill,
IL
/
V



i













Chicago
Drums,
IL










/
/







Gebhart
Fertilizer,
IL

t

i

1




;





/ .


U.S.
Scrap
Chicago,
IL
/
/
/
/


/









V
/

Lasal 1 e
Electric,
IL

/

/

/






V






Carter
Salvage,
MI
/
/
/
/





V
1

i
1
/

V
/
/.
00
ov
    (continued)

-------
                                                                 REGION V  (continued)
GJ
•-J
         Shredder  (tire,
         drum)	
         Vibrating screen
         Drum cart
         Drum punch.
         Drum grappler
         Holding/bulking
         tanks
Generator

Air compressor
         Air hammer

         Chain saw

         Cutting torch
          Hand tools

          Non-sparking tools
          Hoe ram/pile
          driver	
          Roll off box

          Dragline Conveyor
                             Tyler St.
                               Drum,
                                 IN
                                 Portage
                                 Drums,
                                   IN
  Fell
Junkyard,
   IN
  A&F
Greenup,
   IL
Belvidere
Landfill,
    IL
Chicago
 Drums,
   IL
  Gebhart
Fertilizer,
    IL
  U.S.
  Scrap
Chicago,
   IL
 Lasalle
Electric,
   IL
 Carter
Salvage,
   MI
       (continued)

-------
                                                              REGION V  (continued]
 CO
 00
                                                                                      Verona
                                                                                      Well
                                                                                      Field,
                                                                                       HI
  Barney
  Rump!e
Junkyard,
   MN
  Liquid
Disposal,
   HI
Union Scrap
  Iron &
  Hetal
 G & H
Landfill
   HI
   PBM
 Enter-
rises,  HI
Forest
Waste,
  HI
Saginaw
Paint,
  HI
Rasmussen
  Dump,
   HI
Ouell  &
Gardner,
   HI
         Backhoe/excavator

         Front-end loader

         Bulldozer
        Tractor (OTR)
        Landfill compactor

        Grader
        Skid-steer  loader

        Diaphragm Dum

        Trash  pump
        Submersible pump
        Barrel pump

        Vacuum unit
       Pressure washer/
       laser
       Crusher (drum/
       debris)
(continued)

-------
                                                REGION V  (continued)

Shredder (tire,
drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart
Drum punch
Drum grappler
Holding/bulking
tanks
Generator
Air compressor
Air hammer
Chain saw
Cutting torch
Hand tool s
Non-sparking tools
Hoe ram/pile
driver
Pug mill
n~n _rr i 	
I\U 1 1 U 1 1 UUA
Dragline
Conveyor
Portable building
Liquid
Disposal ,
MI


/

/
r
i
y


i




j



G & H
Landfill,
MI



















PBM
Enter-
prises, MI





/

; .



/ .



j



Forest
Waste,
MI






V





;






Saginaw
Paint,
MI







y


1
;







Verona
Well
Field,
MI







/


i
' 1







Rasmussen
Dump,
MI
/



i













i
Duell &
Gardner,
MI



















Barney
Rump! e
Junkyard,
MN






/
/



i
1






Union Scrap
Iron &
•Metal
MN






/




/







co
<£)
    (continued)

-------
                                          REGION V  (continued)

Backhoe/excavati on
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landf i 1 1 compactor
Grader
Crane
Fork! i ft
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel pump
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Pressure washer/
laser
Crusher (drum/
debris)
American
Steel Drum,
OH
/
/

/

/




.V
1
V

;

i
i

Dayton
Tire &
Rubber,
OH
/
/

/
/


/
/

/
/
/


/
/


Industrial
Excess
Landfill, OH
/
/
/
/

/


;



/




/

Republic
Hose,
OH
/


y

/


/
/

/
/



V
1

Better
Brite
Plating,
WI










/
/







Lee's
Farm,
WI
/
/
;
/
;
/


/
/

/
/




i
i '
Try Chem
Milwaukee,
WI
/


;







1


i




(continued)

-------
                                              REGION V (continued)

Shredder (tire,
. drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart
Drum punch
Drum grappler '
Holding/bulking
tanks
Generator
Air compressor
Air hammer
Chain saw
Cutting torch
Hand tools
Non-sparking tools
Hoe ram/pile
driver
Pug mill
Roll off box
Dragline
Conveyor
Portable building
American
Steel Drum,
OH





/
/
/
/

/
'./



;



Dayton
Tire &
Rubber,
OH


1



/
/











industrial
Excess
Landfill, OH



/


/ .
/

/
/
/
/






Republic
Hose,
'OH




1
1
. 1
./
/


1
1






Better
Brite
• Plating,
WI







1




1






Lee ' s
- Farm,
; WI





/
V
rf

;
/
i





. i

Try Chem
Milwaukee,
WI



















(continued)

-------
                                                    REGION VI

Backhoe/excavator
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landfil] compactor
Grader
Crane
Fork! i ft
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel pump
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Pressure washer/laser
Crusher (drum/debris)
Allen
Transformer,
AR
/
/
/
/
/



/
/
/






/

Cleve
Reber,
LA
/
/
/

/














Crystal City
Airport, TX
/
/
/

1


1









1

Geneva
Industries,
TX
/

/





/
/

1

1





HOTCO,
TX











/







Pesses
Chemi cal ,
TX
/
/
/

/






1





I

Stewco,
TX
/

/

/








V



/

Triangle
Chemical,
TX
/
/






/







1


ro
 (continued)

-------
                                            REGION VI (continued)

Shredder (tire, drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart
Drum punch
Drum grappler
Holdinq/bulkinq tanks
Generator
Air compressor
Air hammer
Chain saw
Cutting torch
Hand tools
Non-sparking tools
Hoe ram/pile driver
Pug mill
Roll off box
Dragline

Portable building
Allen
Transformer,
AR





1





1



i



Cleve
Reber,
LA















r



Crystal City
Airport, TX



















Geneva
Industries,
TX

1



^
/ ..




.1



/'



MOTCO,
TX





/
.. 1
1











Pesses
Chemi cal ,
TX











. / .



;



Stewco,
TX










r




;



Triangle
Chemical ,
-TX




V










/



oo
(continued)

-------
REGION VII

Backhoe/excavator
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landfill compactor
Grader
Crane
Fork! i ft
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel pump
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Pressure washer/laser
Crusher (drum/debris)
B&B
Salvage,
HO
/



/




/





/

1.

Broadway
Salvage
Oil #1, HO
y

y

y














Hinker Area,
Cul de Sac. HO
y
y
y

y
y

y
/
i





• • i -

\

Posch
Foundry,
HO
. /



/




: V









Quail
Run,
HO
/
/


./


/
\






^

i-

Solid
State
Circuits, HO
/
/



V





/







(continued)

-------
                                                   REGION VII (continued)
tn

Shredder (tire, drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart . . .
Drum punch
Drum grappl er
Holding/bulking tanks
Generator
Air compressor
Air hammer , , .
Chain saw
Cutting torch
Hand tools
Non-sparking tools
Hoe ram/pile driver
Pug mill
Roll off box
Dragline
Conveyor
Portable building
B&B
Salvage,
MO




1





;








Broadway
Salvage
Oil #1, MO








T'






i



Minker Area,
Cul de Sac, MO





- /
1 •- -

\






\



Posch
Foundry,
MO -



















Quail
Run,
MO






1
./



/ .



. /



Solid
State
Circuits, MO







'" /
/

?


/





   (continued)

-------
                                                       REGION VIII

Backhoe/excavator
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landfill compactor
Grader
Crane
Forklift
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel pump
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Pressure washer/laser
Crusher (drum/debris)
B&C
Metals,
CO





;







1





Eagle
Mine,
CO



/

/













Gene
Mureen,
CO
1




1













Hestas
Well,
CO
/


















PDC
Spas,
CO
/


/
/














Woodbury
Chemical,
CO

/
1
1
/














Burlington
Northern,
HT
/
/


/








;





Montana
Pole,
MT
/
1
1
/




/
/



V



r •

Arlington
Spill Site,
WY

;

















-li.
Ol
      (continued)

-------
REGION VIII (continued)

Shredder (tire, drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart

Drum grappler
Holding/bulking tanks



Chain saw
Cutting torch
Hand tools

.Hoe ram/pile driver
Pug mill
Roll off box
Drag! i ne
Conveyor
Portable building
B&C
Metals,
CO






/



/
1







Eagle
Mine,
CO



















Gene
Mureen,
CO


















	
Mestas
Well,
CO



















PDC
Spas,
CO











f



/



Woodbury
Chemi cal ,
CO



















Burlington
Northern,
MT





rf





/



1



Montana
Pole,
MT



















Arlington
Spill Site,
WY















/




-------
                                    REGION  IX

Backhoe/excavator
Front-end loader
Bulldozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landfill compactor
Grader
Crane
Fork! i ft
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel pump
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Pressure washer/laser
Crusher (drum/debris)
Shredder (tire, drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart
Drum punch
Drum grappler
Holding/bulking tanks
Generator
Air compressor
Air hammer
McColl, CA
y








J
J






J
J

J




J


(continued)
                                      148

-------
REGION IX (continued)

Chain saw
Cutting torch
Hand tools
Non-sparking tools
Hoe ram/pile driver
Pug mill
Roll off box
Dragline
Conveyor
Portable building
McColl, CA


J


J
J


J
        149

-------
                                                       REGION X

Backhoe/excavator
Front-end loader
Bui 1 dozer
Lowboy
Dump truck
Tractor (OTR)
Landfill compactor
Grader
Crane
Fork! i ft
Skid-steer loader
Diaphragm pump
Trash pump
Submersible pump
Barrel pump
Vacuum unit
Vacuum truck
Pressure washer/
laser
Crusher (drum/
debris)
Alaska
Battery,
AK
/
/
/
/















Ohlson
Mountain,
AK









/

;







Arrcomm
Corp.,
10
/
/






/.
^

/




1
/

Bunker
Hill,
ID
/
/


i
;

/


;








Pacific
Hide &
Fur. ID
/
/
1





1
1



-



/

NW Dust
Control
Facilities,
OR








/


V




/


American Crossarm
& Conduit, WA
/


1





i






1
1

Northwest
Transfor-
mer,
WA
/

/
/




i
1

1


1

i
i *

William & Son
Transf. & Salv.,
WA
/
V

V













/

en
o
     (continued)

-------
                                      REGION  X  (continued)

Shredder (tree,
drum)
Vibrating screen
Drum cart
Drum punch
Drum grappler
Holding/bulking
tanks
Generator
Air compressor
Air hammer
Chain saw
Cuttingjtorch
Hand tools
Non-sparking tools
Hoe ram/pile
driver
Pug mill
Roll off box
Dragline
Conveyor
Alaska
Battery,
. AK















' /


Ohlson
Mountain,
: AK


/



1


/
/







Arrcomm
Corp. ,
ID




1


'/

;
i




• V


Bunker
Hill,
ID











V






Pacific
Hide &
Fur, ID


/















NW Dust
Control .
Facilities,
OR










/




i


American Crossarm
& Conduit, WA





/





/






Northwest
Transfor-
; mer,
WA


/




1 ..
/.









William & Son
Transf. & Salv.,
WA






. .1 	
1 .
./






4


en
    (continued)

-------
            APPENDIX E

DEBRIS/MATERIAL-HANDLING OVERVIEW
   FOR 67 HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
               152

-------

Union Chemical , ME
Cannon Engineering, MA
*
Iron _Horse Park, MA
Fletcher Paint, NH
Ridge Avenue, NH
Cooks Landf i 1 1 , RI
Davis Liquid Chemical,
RI
*
Western Sand &
Gravel, RI
*
•^Industrial Latex, NJ
*
International Metal -
lurigal Services, NJ
EPA
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
II
.JJT'^
Major
contami nants
Flammable sol-
vents,
Shock-sensitive
materials, PCBs,
Metals
Asbestos
Volatile organ ics,
PCBs
Asbestos
Asbestos,
organic solvents
1,1,1-Trichloroe-
thane, tetrachlor-
oethylene, benzene
Volatile organics
PCBs, shock-sensi-
tive liquid, flam-
mable organic
liquids
..Heavy metals,
potassium cyanide,
acids, shock-sen-
sitive liquids
Principal debris/
materials handled
4000 gal sludge;
>5000 gal flammable liquids;
>200 drums
475 5-gal pails
6000 yd3 of asbestos in exposed
piles
Several hundred drums
Asbestos waste pile 100 ft x
50 ft x 30 ft
172 drums;
7 yd3 asbestos;
glass debris
>200 drums
42,000 gal hazardous liquids;
297 drums of solidified material;
29 drums crushed
4381 gal of flammable organic
liquids; 113,050 gal of PCB-
containing liquids
Three 30-yd3 rolloffs of debris;
480 drums of spent photographic
film
Debris/materials-handling
procedure/equi pment
Excavation of sludge; vacuum trucks used for
liquids. Drums crushed with loader/backhoe.
• . ' •
Pails were opened remotely by a skid-steer
loader with a drum attachment; contents
bul ked for removal .
Heavy equi pment was used to grade the pi 1 es
and cap them; heavy vegetation required site
preparation and widening of access :roads.
Compatible wastes were bulked and oyerpacked
for offsite disposal.
Site was covered and stabilized with gravel,
sand, and loam by using heavy equipment,
including a gradall .
Asbestos was boxed for disposal. Drums were
shipped for offsite disposal.
Drums staged and crushed with backhoe; site
preparation included construction of an
access road and a clay pad for drum-crushing
operations.
Liquids from storage lagoon were pumped out
by vacuum truck; dike was constructed around
solidified sludge that was not drummed;
loader was used for drum crushing.
Drum shredder was used to crush >900 drums;
shredder was loaded with a backhoe and drum
grappler; 125-ton crane was used to hoist 22
USTs onto platform for draining; water lasers
were used to cut up potential Ty explosive
USTs.
103 drums crushed with a backhoe. Debris was
loaded into roll of fs and landfilled. Spent
film was loaded into drums by using shovels
and a high-powered vacuum.
en
  (continued)

-------
        Kearny Drum Dump, NJ
        Chemical Insecticide
        Corp., NY
        Jagger Lane,  NY
        Wide Beach,  NY
        Delaware Sand  &  Gravel
        Landfill,  DE
C71
        Kane and  Lombard
        Streets Drum Site, MD
       ABM-Wade, PA
        Ambler Asbestos Tail-
        ings Pile, PA
  II
 II
 II
 II
 III
III
                                  III
III
                                                 Kajor
                                              contaminants
 Lead, chromium,
 toluene, methy-
 lene chloride
 Pesticides
 2,3,7,8-TCDD,
 arsenic
                                          Trichloroethylene,
                                          tetrachloroethy-
                                          lene, .toluene
                                          PCBs
 Benzene,  heavy
 metals, TCE,  PCBs
 Paint waste, vola-
 tile organics,
 heavy metals,
 toluene
                                          Heavy metals,
                                          PCBs,  cyanides
                                          aci ds
Asbestos
                                     Principal  debris/
                                     materials handled
                             290 leaking or deteriorated
                             drums; top 3 in. of soil on the
                             1-acre site scraped off.
                             Leachate was collected from a
                             parking lot; 250 feet of trench
                             cleared of debris.
                             7192 feet of water main installa-
                             tion and tie-ins for 78 homes
                             with contaminated wells.
                                                               20,000 yd" of roads  and  shoulders
                                                               to be paved, graded, and com-
                                                               pacted to mitigate PCB con-
                                                               tamination.
                             975 empty drums;  575  drums  con-
                             taining a variety of  contaminants
                             120  yd3 of shredded drums;
                             55 overpacked drums
                            Approximately 5000 full or
                            partially full drums; 400 yd3 of
                            contaminated soils; 1300 yd3
                            contaminated debris.
                            2 exposed asbestos tailings piles
                            -approximately 600,000 yd3  of
                            asbestos-laden material.
                                                                    Oebri s/materi als-handli ng
                                                                       procedure/equipment
                                                                                                   32 drums crushed with backhoe.
 Trackhoe was  used to  clear  the  trench  and to
 reinforce the berm.   ——--—
                                                         A backhoe and loader were used in this pipe
                                                         laying and water hookup construction job.
                                                                A gradall and bulldozer were used to shape
                                                                the existing PCB-contaminated soil for
                                                                application of an emulsion seal and 4 in. of
                                                                asphaltic paving and surface seal.
A backhoe with drum grappler attachment was
used to load liquids plus fly ash into a
compatibility chamber for solidification.  A
drum shredder was also used for empty drums.
1115 RCRA "empty" drums (<2 inches of mate-
rial) were shredded in a clay-lined cell
covered with a polyethylene liner to contain
residual spillage.  Equipment problems caused
the shredder to. be shut down for several days
while parts were located.
                                                         The drums  containing  hazardous materials were
                                                         mixed in with  scattered  and  deteriorated
                                                         building debris, which made  the  removal and
                                                         staging of the drums  (with a backhoe and-
                                                         loader) very slow.
                                                         The piles were covered with soil and
                                                         compacted by using heavy equipment.  Steep-
                                                         ness of the piles required a large bulldozer
                                                         to winch a smaller bulldozer up and down the
                                                         slope to compact the.soil.
  (continued)

-------

Browns Battery Break-
ing, PA
* -
. Bruin Lagoon, PA
Hutchinson Mine, PA
Malitovsky Drum Co.,
PA
Taylor Borough, PA
Tyson's Dump, PA
Westline, PA
Tower Chemi cal , FL

EPA
JII
III-
III
III
III
III
III
IV

Major
contaminants
Lead
Acids, hydrogen-
sulfide, sulfur
dioxide
PCBs ;
Volatile organ ics,
heavy metals,
PCBs, asbestos
PAHs, phthalate'
acid esters
Toluene, xylene,
1,2,3-trichloro-.
propane
Phenol ,
2, 4-di methyl phenol
DDT, DDE, ODD, l
xyl enes

Principal debris/
materials handled
72,000 yd3 of contaminated soil/
casings; 20,000 yd3 of backfill/
cover- materi al .
Backfill material to fill in old
lagoon; solidified sludge in the
1 agoon .
251tons of contaminated soil;
495 gallons of contaminated
diesel fluid.
1052 drums; 1282 tons soil;
24,235 gallons aqueous liquids;
7 tanks
None
Contaminated leachate was treated
and discharged on site.
Sludge in a lagoon.
70 drums; excavated soil ;
wastewater from the 1 agoon .
•
Debri s/materi al s-handl i ng
procedure/equi pment
Bulldozer, backhoe, and dumptrucks were used
to break up frozen lead-contaminated soil and
to transport it. to an onsite disposal area.;
Disposal area' measured 600 ft x 230 ft x 7 ft
and was covered wi th cl ay and topsoi 1 .
Numerous instances of equipment failure due
to metal fatigue from frozen soil.
A bulldozer with a ripper blade was used to
break up the solidified sludge in. the lagoon.
Monitoring wells were installed to release
trapped gases.
Soil was loaded into roll off boxes for
disposal ("drum dri" fixative added because
of high water content).
A backhbe and front-end loader ;wefe used for
soil excavation. Skid-steer loader was used
to stage drums"; a drum shredder was brought
on site to shred drums.
Installed fences and warning signs.
800- ft leachate collection pipeline and
gravel bed were installed by using tracked
excavator. •
Sludge Was removed from the lagoon with a
backhoe; fill was trucked in to restore
original site characteristics.
Burn/burial area of 2275 ft2 was excavated to
a depth of 8 ft with backhoe/excavators and
loaders. • Contami nated wastewater was pumped
I rum i ayuun . .. , '•• n
(continued)

-------
Site name
A. L. Taylor, KY
Newport Steel , KY
Plastifax Co., MS
Aberdeen Pesticide,
NC
Gebhart Fetilizer Co.,
IL
HIDCO II. IN
Midwest Plating &
Chemical Corp. -
Kokomo, IN
EPA
Region
IV
IV
IV
IV
V
V
V
Major
contaminants
Methyl ene chlo-
ride, phthalates,
xylene, heavy
metals, chromium
and aliphatic
acids
Methyl ene chlo-
ride, ethyl ben-
zene, lead, 1,2-
dichloroethane,
benzene, toluene
Chlorinated para-
fin, sulf uric/-
nitric acid, caus-
tic soda, phospho-
ric acid
Pesticides
DDT, 2,4-D, N-
methyl-N-nitroso-
ethanamine, Naph-
thalene
PCBs, cadmium,
lead, cyanide,
methyl ene chlo-
ride, 1,1,1-
trichloroethane,
ethyl benzene
Trichloroethene,
perchloroethene,
copper and potas-
sium cyanides,
acids
Principal debris/
materials handled
Excavated soil; buried drums;
vegetation; surface water.
Excavated soil
Contaminated water in marshy area
(4000 gal); removed an additional
foot of soil from marsh.
22,000 yd3 of soil; crushed
drums .
Removed 155 tons of dry pesti-
cides, 300 tons of solid
fertilizer, and 3800 gal of
liquid fertilizer.
Removed more than 10,000 tons of
contaminated soil /sol ids and 5000
gallons at contaminated liquids
(including PCB waste).
Large amount of debris including
process vats, scrap metal, and
wood debris.
Debri s/material s-handl ing
procedure/equi pment
Drum crushing was conducted with a backhoe
and loader; a retention pond was dug to
contain runoff water; site was cleared of
vegetation, leveled, and compacted.
Site work involved excavation of soil for the
installation of a leachate collection system
and subsequent backfilling and grading of the
area.
Standing liquid was pumped into a holding
tank. A dragline was used to remove top foot
of soil. A lime slurry was sprayed over the
area because of low pH.
Trackhoe and front-end loader were used to
stage soil and load it into a hopper/conveyor
for transport to a power screening apparatus
prior to incineration. Rejected debris from
screening was shredded.
Loose solid pesticides and herbicides were
bagged, primarily by hand; faulty transfer
pump required that liquid drummed material be
hoisted to rail car by skid-steer loader and
dumped by hand.
Backhoe was used to excavate sludge pits;
cutting torches were used to cut up above-
ground tanks; approximately 65,000 drums were
staged, separated, and shredded using track-
hoes, grapplers, and drum shredder.
The debris was decontaminated using a 12.5%
solution of sodium hypochlorite with a water
laser, vacuum truck, and 12,000 gal portable
pool. Metal debris was recovered, wood was
landfilled.
(continued)

-------
Site name
*
Midwest Plating &
Chemical Corp. -
Logansport, IN
*
6&H Landfill, MI
Liquid Disposal , Inc. ,
HI
*
PBM Enterprises, MI
*
Aeroquip/Repub-
lic Hose, OH
Lee's Farm, WI
Allen Transformer, AR
EPA
Region
V
V
V
V
V
V
' VI
Major
contaminants
Tetrachl oroethy-
lene, chromic
acid, hydrogen
cyanide gas, .chro-
mium, cadmium
PCBs, ethyl ben-
zene, cyanide,
mercury, lead
phenols -
Acids, bases,
paint waste, sol-
vents, liquid &
solid isocyanates
Cyanide
PCB oils
Lead
PCBs
Principal debris/
materials handled
More than 100,000 gal of liquid
waste was treated; plating sludge
was solidified with kiln dust.
High-solids-content liquids
More than 800 drums were crushed
(and disposed of offsite);
approximately 10,000 gal of waste
liquid was disposed of offsite.
1280 yd3 of debris/film chips;
approximately 200,000 gal of
liquid wastes and wastewater.
Approximately 500 drums; 14
transformer casings; 1 capacitor;
285 tons PCB-contaminated soil/
solids
Approximately 15,000 yd3 of
contaminated soil and battery
casings.
Drums; electrical equipment;
debris; soil; and wastewater.
Debri s/materi al s-handl i ng
procedure/equi pment
Drums were staged and crushed with a forklift
and loader; a vacuum truck was used to pick
up sludge from underground chamber;, a cut-
down 55-gal drum and winch were used to haul
solids out of the underground chamber that
could not be picked up by vacuum truck.
A hose nozzle connected to a trash pump was
attached to a trackhoe to move and collect
oils from an interceptor/collector trench
before collection by a vacuum track;
extensive site preparation was necessary
prior to work activities because the site was
located on a wetland. .
Drum crusher was used for crushing the drums;
liquid isocyanates packed in 15-gal plastic
cubes for transporting to incinerator; most
liquid wastes pumped to bulking tanker.
Onsite treatment of waste was performed using
sodium hypochlorite; reaction vessels were
formed from roll off boxes lined with PVC; a
concrete pad was constructed and a sump dug
to collect runoff /spills.
Oil soaked ash in basement was removed by
chipping into small chunks (picks and
shovels) and using a vacuum unit, backhoe was
used to excavate soil, transformer casings
lowered from second story of building using
chains and backhoe.
Onsite treatment with a chelating agent
involved the excavation, separation, and
mixing of contaminated materials. Vibrating
screens * feed honner/conveuor; and hsavv
equipment were used.
Backhoe, loader, and bulldozer used to
excavate contaminated soil and concrete pad;
crane used to move transformers.
en
  (continued)

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Site name
Cleve Reber, LA
Crystal City, TX
HOTCO, TX
Passes Chemical Co.,
TX
Stewco Site, TX
Triangle Chemicals,
Inc..-TX
B&B Salvage Co., MO
EPA
Region
VI
VI
VI
VI
VI
VI .
VII
Major
contami nants
Toluene, chloro-
benzene, iron,
DDT, DDD, benzoic
acid
DDT, DDE, DDD,
toxaphene, BHC,
2,4,-D, PCP,
parathion, chlor-
dane, arsenic,
dieldrin
Vinyl chloride,
acids, lead, mer-
cury
Cadmium, chromium,
nickel, lead, cop-
per
Tetrachl oroethane ,
methyl chloride,
naphthalene, cad-
mium, DDT, arse-
nic, lead
Acids, corrosives
phthalate esters,
benzidine, ethyl -
benzene
PCBs
Principal debris/
materials handled
1100 drums and contaminated soil.
Excavated and drums
Wastewater from waste disposal
pit.
1500 drums and debris; 6 inches
of soil removed from the site.
Pumping wastewater and an oily
sludge from 2 unlined lagoons (75
ft x 75 ft x 10 ft and 55 ft x 15
ft x 15 ft).
1094 crushed drums; contaminated
sol 1
300 transformers; 800 tons
scrap metal; soil; drums
Debr 1 s/materi al s-handl i ng
Site work involved excavation of drums and
soil by using standard heavy equipment;
Heavy equipment was used to excavate a 50 ft
x 10 ft x 8 ft trench to contain drums crush-
ed by a bulldozer and contaminated soil.
The low-pH wastewater from the disposal pit
was pumped through a mixture manifold with
50% NaOH.
Front-end loader was used to stage and load
drums onto trucks; water sprays were used for
dust control .
Wastewater from the 2 ponds was pumped out
with a submersible pump with a sock filter to
remove oil and suspended solids; an emulsion
layer and the sludge layer were solidified
with fly ash (mixed by a backhoe) and loaded
onto trucks.
Drums were emptied and contents were bulked
into a tanker truck. A front-end loader was
used to crush the drums.
The site contained a. large amount of uncon-
taminated scrap metal (cars, etc.) that
required the use of a trackhoe-mounted
grappler to be brought on site to "stage and
load the metal for delivery to a recycler.
Access roads needed to be cleared and graded.
en
CO
  (continued)

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01
UD

Broadway Salvage Oil,
MO
Mi nker-Cul -De-Sac, MO
.*
Quail Run, MO
^ *
Solid State Circuits,
MO . " '
*
B&C Metals, CO
Eagle Mine, CO
'• Gene Murren Farm, CO
Mestas Well, CO
EPA
VII
VII
VII
VII
" VIII
VIII
VIII
VIII
Major
contaminants
PCBs
Dioxin
Dioxin
Trichloroethylene
Radon
PCBs
Cyanide, zinc,
copper, chromium,"
nickel
Heavy metals .
Principal debris/
materials handled
342 tons of contaminated soil and
debris.
2420 yd3 of soil, vegetation, and
metal debris.
Approximately 20,000 yd3 soil;
•600 yd3 concrete; and approxi-
mately 4000 yd3 debris.
108,000 gallons wastewater;
1990 tons "soil
.Construction debris
3 transformers; flood water in
the mine; 5 capacitors
21 drums
Excavated soil from 75 ft x 8. ft
water line trench.
Debri s/materi al s-handl i ng
procedure/ equi pment
Excavation was performed with a large
excavator; because of isolated "hot spots" at
the site, the equipment was moved on clean
plywood to minimize cross contamination..
Access road was cleared and graded.
Soil was excavated with a backhoe and then
loaded into a hopper that emptied into 2-yd3
polypropylene bags, which were picked up by a
crane and deposited on a flat-bed truck; "
structures were decontaminated by using vac-
uum high-pressure wash and wipe-down cycles.
Soil excavation and disposal procedures were
similar to those at the Minker sites; con-
crete was decontaminated by suspending chunks
of concrete from a crane while being
pressure-washed.
Excavation of the concrete slab in the base-
ment required the use of a pavement breaker
(hoe ram) attachment on the backhoe because
of slab thickness (14-18 in.). A work delay
resulted in accumulated rainwater that became
contaminated and required pumping and
disposal-.
Work on the site consisted of the instal-
, lation of a plenum wall -stack vent system to
reduce radon levels.
Diaphragm pumps were used to pump out the
water so that the transformers and capacitors
could be removed from the mine.
'
The drums were loaded by a backhoe onto a
'trailer for transportatton tcra hazardous
waste disposer.
A backhoe was used to install a water line to
a home with a contaminated well.
  (continued)

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Site name
POC Spas, CO
Woodbury Chemical, CO
Burlington Northern
Railroad, HT
HcColl Site, CA
Alaska Battery Enter-
prises, AK
Ohlson Mountain AC&W,
AK
Arrcomp Corp, ID
Pacific Hide & Fur,
ID
EPA
Region
VIII
VIII
VIII
IX
X
X
X
X
Major
contaminants
Iso-cyanates,
acetone, styrene
Pesticides
B(a)P, pyrene,
zinc, nickel, cop-
per, arsenic,
naphthalene, fluo-
rene
Organic and
sulfur-containing
gases
Lead.
PCBs
PCBs, toluene,
methyl ene chlo-
ride, -ethyl ben-
zene, xylene, ace-
tone
PCBs
Principal debris/
materials handled
62 drums
Soil grading •
3280 yd3 of sludge/soil,
127,000 gal of wastewater.
100 yd3 soil
2900 yd3 of contaminated sail
4 transformers; 3 storage vans;
capacitors
9700 gallons of contaminated
liquids; 137 yd3 of contaminated
soil; 3 tank trucks; 23 storage
tanks.
582 capacitors; 16 drums;
180 large pieces of debris;
30 yd3 of contaminated soil
Debr i s/mater i al s-handl i ng
procedure/equi pment
Drums were loaded by backhoe; 30 empty drums
were rinsed, crushed, and taken to a local
landfill.
A bulldozer and 4.5-yd3 loader were used to
grade the site prior to installing a security
fence.
A pond containing creosote-contaminated
sludges was drained by using submersible
pumps, and water was stored in a lined pit
and storage tank onsite; sludge was excavated
by using heavy equipment and stored in a
lined pit.
A portable building was constructed over the
site during the excavation by an excavator; a
pug mtll was used to size and mix soil. 	
Soil was excavated with heavy equipment; a
bulldozer was used to break up frozen soil
(temperatures ranged from -3 to -10°F).
Capacitors and transformers were drained and
steam-cleaned; PCB liquids were solidified
and drummed; flooring in trailers that was
soaked with oil was removed and 'drummed.
Tanks were cleaned by hooking a compressor to
a drum of kerosene and inserting a hose into
the tank to break up the sludge; a backhoe
and front-end loader were used to excavate
the soil and to load plastic-lined dump
A steel work pad, sump, and curtain were
constructed prior to steam-cleaning and
pressure washing the large scrap pieces found
on the site; a crane "was used to stage~and
CTl
O
  (continued)

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Site name
NW Dust Control
Facilities, OR
Ameri can ,Crossarm
& Conduit, WA
* "... :.
Northwest Transfer
Salvage Yard, WA "
Williams & Son
Transformer Salvage,
WA
EPA
Regi on
X
X
X
X
Major
contami nants
PCBs
Creosote
PCPs
PCBs
PCBs
Principal debris/
materials handled
33,000 gal of contaminated
liquids; 1000 gal of sludge;
2250 pounds of solidified sludge
120,000 gal of oil and
contaminated water; 175,000
pounds of soil /debris
1440 yd3 of contaminated soil;
6000 gal of PCB-contami nated
liquids; several piles of .debris;
4 transformers
222 yd3 of debris/soil;
1000-gal tank containing sludge;
305 light ballasts
Debri s/mater i al s-handl i ng
procedure/equi pment
11 tanks were cut with acetylene torches (C02
was pumped into tanks to reduce explosion
potential); contaminated liquids were pumped
to tanker trucks for disposal; sludges were
solidified with sawdust. ;
Soil was excavated with a backhoe; oil booms
and sorbent pads were used to isolate the oil
before pumping it to a tanker truck..
Excavation of the soil was accomplished with
bulldozers and backhoes; transformers were
staged above a holding tank by using a fork-
lift for draining and rinsing; a jackhammer
was used to remove a concrete berm; wood
inside building was sand-blasted.
Floor of building was broken up by using a
jack-hammer and the pieces disposed of; the
1000-gal tank, with a small amount of sludge,
was located on a truck and shipped off site;
soi 1 was excavated wi th a- backhoe arid front-
end loader.
cr>
          Sites for which case studies have been presented in Section 7.

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          APPENDIX F

EQUIPMENT COSTS FOR HAZARDOUS
         WASTE WORK
            162

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               APPENDIX F



EQUIPMENT COSTS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE WORK
Rent/lease (1990
Equipment
Excavation/ transportation
Backhoe
Rubber-tired (1-yd3)
Tracked (1.25-yd3)
Front-end loader
Wheeled (1.5-yd3)
Crawler (4.5-yd3)
Bulldozer
65-hp
140-hp
Lowboy
9-ton
20-ton
Crane, hydraulic
(1.5-ton)
Forklift, 4-wheel -drive
(2-ton)
Skid-steer loader
Pump/vacuum unit
Diaphragm pump (2- in.)
Trash pump (2-in.)
Submersible pump (2-in.)
Vacuum unit (1500-gal)
Vacuum truck (5000-gal)
(continued)
Per day


150-235
495-765

320-520
670-950

215-465
400-750

130-185
155-250
360-420
95-165
95-185
95
25-85
60-100
310-375
380-620

Per week


585-1060
1980-3065

1300-2090
2670-3795

850-1920
1600-2990

520-600
615-1000
1440-1600
380-740
375-730
380
70-340
250-400
1240-1495
1530-2470

dollars)
Per month


3320-1870
6435-9965

4210-6780
8685-12,330

2770-5730
5210-9380

1660-1950
1990-3245
4685-5210
1240-2210
1125-2185
1160
205-1015
745-1250 '
4025-4860
4965-8025

Purchase


48,780
215,000

66,200
221,560

49,700
134,350

NA
NA
107,890
37,030
12,370
1300
1900
1810
NA
180,000

                     163

-------
 APPENDIX F (continued)
Rent/lease (1990
Equipment
Separation/size reduction
Drum crusher, explosion-
proof (7.5-hp)
Tire/drum shredder
Vibrating screen
Crusher
Conveyor (40-ft)
Miscellaneous
Hand tools
Non-sparking tools
Pressure washer (2500
psi)
Drum grapper, hydraulic
Generator (10-kW)
Air compressor (2-hp)
Bulking tank (5000-gal)
Air hammer
Chain saw (14-in.)
Cutting torch
Barrel cart
Drum punch
Per day

NA
1800-1900
370
815
245
12
55
90-355
135-165
40-70
65-110
105
20
50
70
40
60
Per week

1100
7,585-12,680
1400
3245
970
50
250
360-1420
540-740
160-280
260-435
425
50
225
280
150
285
dollars)
Per month

NA
24,700-54,500
4160
9750
2910
140
745
1165-4610
1755-2210
515-850
850-1410
1390
140
NA
840
NA
1080
Purchase

10,300
40,000-
300,000
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1600
1200
3700-
7500
630-1180
190
250
275
NA
NA - Prices not available.
                                     164

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      APPENDIX G




EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS
         165

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                                 APPENDIX  G
                            EQUIPMENT  DESCRIPTIONS             .       ,,1:,'',

     This appendix  contains  information on 36 pieces of equipment that.are,'
either used or have potential applications for hazardous waste site work. 'It
includes specifications, features, options, manufacturers, and photographs.
Attachments and accessories  are also  included for some pieces of equipment
(e.g., bulldozers and front-end loaders).  For most types of heavy equipment
a wide variation in the size and working capacity exists.  Representative
models of these pieces of equipment were chosen based on their suitability
for site work.  It  should be emphasized, however, that other models with
different capacities and sizes are available.  A representative list of
manufacturers was also generated for each piece of equipment in the appendix,
but the list is not meant to be all inclusive nor to endorse specific
vendors.
                                      166

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                             INDEX TO APPENDIX 6
Backhoe
Backhoe attachments
Crane
Crawler tractor (dozer, bulldozer)
Dredging systems
Drum grappler
Barrel handler
Earth auger
Excavator (tired)
Excavator (tracked)
Flexible bulk containers
Hand-held accessories
Hazardous waste container bag liners
High pressure washer (water laser)
Hoe-ram (impact hammer)
Horizontal auger (composter)
Industrial vacuums
Loader [(tired), front-end loader]
Loader [(tracked), front-end loader]
Loader attachments
Mixer (mini-maxcrete)
Mobile shear
Oil skimmer (rope mop)
Portable building
Portable holding tank (collapsible)
Portable vibrating screen
Pugmill (silo mixer)
Pumps and pumping systems
Radioactive waste containers
Rough terrain fork!ift
Shredders
Shreddder/compactor system
Shredder - mixer
Skid  steer loader  (Bobcat)
Skid  steer loader attachments
Trenching machine
 Page

 168
 169
 170
 171
 172
 173
 173
 174
' 175
 176
 177
 178
 179
 180
 181
 182
 183
 184
 185,
 186
 187
 188
 189
 190
 191
 192
 193
 194
 195
 196
 197
 198
 199
 200
 201
 203
                                       167

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                             Backhoe
                                                     Source: PEI Associates, Inc.
Specifications
  Overall Length:  up to 27 ft
  Width: 7ft, 4 in.
  Height: 13 ft, 9 in.
  Operating Weight: up to 22,500 Ib
  Digging Depth: up to 18 ft
  Reach: up to 22 ft, 8 in.
  Lift Capacity: up to 7300 Ib
  Power: up to 115 hp (net)

Features

  backhoe with hydraulic, self-adjusting, self-equalizing, inboard mounted, wet disk
  brakes; 4-speed power shift single stage, dual-phase torque converter power
  shift-reverser; automatic return-to-dig;  hydraulic self-leveling loader;  loader
  bucket level indicator; work lights; bucket sizes from 7/8 cu. yd to 1-3/4 cu. yd.

Options

  •  Turbocharger
  •  Cab heater
  •  Extendable dipperstick for backhoe
  •  3- or 4-lever, pedal-swing backhoe controls
  •  Reversible stabilizer pads
  •  Trackshoes
Manufacturers
       John Deere & Co.
       J.I. Case Co.
       Hitachi
       Massey Ferguson
Ditch Witch-The Charles Machine Works, Inc.
Caterpillar, Inc.
Komatsu
JCB
                                   168

-------
Backhoe Attachments
 V-Bucket
 Ripper
 Tooth
 V-Ditching
 Bucket
  Extendable
  Dipperstick
  Quick
  Coupler
  Hydraulic
  Compactor
  Hydraulic
  Breaker
Backfill
Blade
Rolling
Compactor
Pavement
Removal
Bucket
 Auger
 Jaw
 Bucket
 Thumb
 Ripper
 Bucket
                                Illustrations courtesy of Deere & Company 1990
                 169

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                                Crane
                                 Source: Grove Worldwide Manufacturing 1990
Specifications

  Maximum Tip Height: 173ft                                   .  ..
  Loaded Boom Angle: 78°
  Maximum Load Capacity: 12 to 28 tons
  Boom Length: up to 155 ft                                           ,
  Overall Length (stowaway position): up to 41 ft, 9 in.
  Overall Width (outriggers extended): up to 24 ft

Features

  truck-mounted rough terrain hydraulic crane;  four section trapezoidal full-power
  boom; telescopic swingaway extension (maximum 30° angle); load moment and
  anti-two block system with audio-visual warning and control level lockout-
  electronic display of boom angle, length, radius, tip height, relative load moment
  maximum permissible load and actual load; ball bearing swing circle with 360° '
  continuous rotation; cold start aid;  electronic back-up alarm; engine distress
  audio-visual warning system;  hoist mirrors.
Options
       Auxiliary hoist
       360° rotating beacon
       Engine block heater
       Tow winch
       Tool kit
Work lights
Cab spotlight
Hookblocks
Spare wheel assembly
Pintle hook front/rear
Manufacturers
       Grove Manufacturing Co.
       National Crane
       Demag Cranes
Abell-Howe
JLG Cranes
                                     170

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                     Crawler Tractor
                             Dozer
                                                      Photo courtesy of Deere & Company 1990
Specifications
  Overall Length: up to 18 ft, 6 in.
  Height: up to 10 ft, 6 in.
  Operating Weight: up to 39,700 ID
  Blade Width: up to 138 in.
  Power: up to 165 hp (net)

Features
  nowpr anale tilt strait tilt and semi-U blades; oil-cooled steering clutches and
  b?akes  4-speedI direct drive transmission; 4 forward and 4 reverse speeds;
  lever controlsrroll-over protective structures;  adjustable blade pitch;  chain
  guides.          ,

 Options
  • Wide blade
  • Wide track
  • Halogen work lights
  • Counterweights
  • Pedal steering
 Attachments
        Backhoe
        Cable plow
        Draw bar

  Manufacturers
        John Deere & Co.
        J.I. Case Co.
        Hitachi
Ripper
Sideboom
Winch
Caterpillar, Inc.
Komatsu America Corp.
                                     171

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                  Dredging Systems
 Specifications
  Length: 31 ft
  Width: 8ft
  Height: 9 ft, 1  in.
  Weight (dry): 12,500 Ib
  Working Depth (std.): 18 ft
  Pontoons: (4)  30 in. x 32 in. x 144 in.
  Engine: 100, 150, or 177 hp diesel
  Pump: 6, 8, or 12 in. hydraulic r-1-
  Capacity: 1800 to 4500 gpm of „<»«„ ai <+u n
           1000 to 2500 gpm of sludge at 40 ft
Features
                                          Source: Crisafulli Pump Co. 1990
                                         *"" 8 *> ^ ''"' di
     r^redg.i,n?Jlys!em wjth nydraulic control; travels from 0 to 100 ft per
ertag?o?S3l
-------
  Drum Grappler
Barrel Handler
             Source: PEI Associates, Inc.
                                                    Source: LaBounty Manufacturing, Inc. 1990
Specifications
  Height: 52 in.
  Weight: 1,700lb
  Width: 30 in.
  Open: 40 in.
  Close: 22 in.
Features
  specially designed barrel handlers for moving barrels, including those of
  hazardous waste; 360° rotating turntable mechanism; 3/4 in. non-sparking
  neoprene lining;  made with high-alloy, high-tensile, abrasion-resistant steel;
  heat-treated alloy pivot bearings; fits most excavators and backhoes.
Manufacturers
       LaBounty Manufacturing, Inc.
       Gensco Equipment Co. Ltd.
       Mack Manufacturing, Inc.
       Downs Crane & Hoist Co.,  Inc.
                                   173

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                          Earth Auger
                                                Source: Ditch Witch 1990
Specifications
  Length:  108 in.
  Width: 30 in.
  Height: 43 in.
  Auger Speed: 0 (min.) to 90 (max.) rpm
  Case  Bore Diameter: 4 to 20 in.
  Maximum Thrust: 14,000 to 48,000 Ib
  Operating Weight: 650 to 1450 Ib
Features

  hydraulically-powered earth augers allow variable boring speeds; will work in
  boring pits containing water; can bore through most soil conditions; power
  supplied by power sources located outside the boring pit for reduced engine heat
  and noise.
Also Available
  Pneumatic pipe pushers


Options

  Variety of cutterheads & augers for various types of soil


Manufacturers

       Ditch Witch - The Charles Machine Works
       Allied Steel & Tractor Products, Inc.
                                   174

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                     Excavator  (Tired)
                                                        Photo courtesy of Deere & Company 1990
Specifications
  Overall Length:  up to 28 ft, 3 in. (std. arm)
  Width:  8 ft, 2 in.
  Height:  up to 10ft, 2 in.
  Operating Weight: up to 36,575 Ib
  Digging Depth: up to 20 ft, 8 in.
  Reach:  up to 31 ft, 4 in.
  Lift Capacity at 20 ft: up to 10,150 Ib
  Power:  95 hp (net)

Features
  excavator with turbocharged diesel engine; high efficiency, variable flow
  hydraulic system;  two-lever, low effort pilot controls; 2 speed choices (max
  speed 21.4 mph).

Options

  • Short or long arm
  • Bucket sizes from 1/2 cu. yd to 3/4 cu. yd
  • Dual or single tires
  • Rear blade or stabilizers
  • Remote control  operation
    - up to one mile  without visual contact
    - 8 hours of operation on batteries in operator control units
    - remote operation via radio frequency or hardwire cable controls
    - high resolution video & audio feedback
    - proportional control of dig functions
    - discrete on/off control of engine, dozer blade, travel speed
 Manufacturers
        John Deere & Co.
        Gradall Co.
        Caterpillar, Inc.
Vermeer Mfg. Corp.
Saf-T-Boom Corp.
Komatsu
                                    175

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                    Excavator (Tracked)
                                                   Photo courtesy of Deere & Company 1990
 Specifications

  ,9,^" Len9th:  UPto 38 ft> 7 in- (std. arm)
  Width: up to 11 ft, 11 in.'
  Height: up to 10ft, 8 in.
  Operating Weight: 97,350 Ib
  Digging Depth: up to 26 ft, 10 in.
  Cutting Height: up to 36 ft, 3 in.
  Dumping  Height: up to 25 ft, 6 in.
  Power: 265 hp (net)

Features

  hwS?V£r°r yith Hrbo,cfiaurged and aftercooled diesel engine;  two-lever, low effort
  hydraulically controlled boom, arm, bucket, and 360° swing; straight propellinq
  track-type undercarriage with sealed track chain;  hydraulic track ad ustmen   3
  digging mode selections; work lights.                       adjustment,  3

Options

   Short or long arm
   Extra wide track shoes
   No-arm  attachment option
   No-boom attachment option
   No-bucket attachment option
   Bucket sizes from 1/2 cu. yd to 2-3/4 cu. yd
Manufacturers
       John Deere & Co.
       Gradall Co.
       Caterpillar, Inc.
Vermeer Mfg. Corp.
Saf-T-Boom Corp.
Komatsu
                                 176

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              Flexible Bulk Containers
               Collapsible  Containers
                                             Source: Helios. Containor.Corp. 1990
Specifications
  Volume:  15to60cu. ft
  Sizes (LxWx H): 35 in. x 35 in. x 18 in. to 35 in. x35in. x 69 in.
  Std. Tops: duffel (full open) and charge spout (14 in.)
  Std. Bottoms: closed (1-way use), discharge spout (16 in.) and full open
Features
  collapsible, self-emptying container with top loading spout and optional bottom
  dispenser;  can feed directly into processing equipment; can use forklift to
  load/unload containers; can be used with conventional material handling
  systems; can be loaded onto truck, rail car, and barge; can be used for
  transporting or storing chemicals, fertilizers, minerals.
Options
  • Custom-sized rectangular bags
  • Custom-sized cylindrical bags (44 in.)
  • Silkscreen company name on bag
  • Document pouch, warning labels sewn on
Manufacturers
       Helios Container Systems, Inc.
       Bulk-Lift International, Inc.
UF Strain rite
Walpole, Inc.
                                 177

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                Hand-Held Accessories
 Jack Hammer

   Height: 23 to 27 in.
   Blows Per Minute: 800 to 2500
   Working Pressure: 100 to 1950 psi
   Maximum Back Pressure: 145 psi
 Two-Man Auger
   Flow: 5.3 gpm
   RPM: 90 (maximum), forward or reverse
   Torque: 270ft-lb
   Pressure: 1500 to 2200 ft-lb
   Weight: 70 Ib
 Cut-Off Saw

  Length:  19 in.
  Wheel Diameter: 14 in.
  Weight:  18.5lb
  RPM: 4700 to 5300
  Arbor Size: 1 in.
 Power Pack

  Engine: 8 to 11 hp (gasoline)
  Dimensions (LxWxH): 26 in. x 19 in. x 23 in to
    34 in. x 22 in. x 26 in.
  Fuel Capacity: 1.2 to 1.8 gal
  Weight: 121 to187lb
Submersible Pump

  Weight: 21 to 62 Ib
  Height: 10.5 to 17.3 in.
  Width: 8.5 to 18 in.
  Discharge Size:  2 to 3 in.
  Output (max): 225 to 670 gpm
  Solid Size: 0.375 to 1.75 in.
  Power Requirement: 5 to 7 hp

Manufacturers

      Allied Steel & Tractor Products, Inc.
      Ingersoll-Rand Co.
Source: Allied Steel and Tractor Products, Inc. 1990
                                  178

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  Hazardous  Waste Container Bag Liners
                                    Source: Packaging Research and Design Corp. 1990
Specifications
  Thickness: 4, 6, 8, or 10 mil
  Bottom Width:  92 or 96 in.
  Height: up to 120 in.
Features
  constructed of plastic made from a special blend of resins; highly resistant to
  tears, punctures and chemicals; designed to fit inside roll-offs arid dump trailers;
  snug corner fit; most can be installed by one person in 5 minutes; extra-tall
  liners (96,100 or 120 inches) can be folded to center and sealed for transporting
  sludges, dust, odorous materials, asbestos;  form fits to container size.
Options
        3 grades of plastic: high performance (heavy-duty) to industry average
Manufacturers
                Research and Design Corp.
       Specialty Plastic Fabricators, Inc.
       Flexilon Package Corp.
                                 179

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               High  Pressure Washer
                        Water Laser
                                                Source: Allied Steel & Tractor Products, Inc. 1990
Specifications

  High Pressure/Low Flow Pump Head
  Pressure:  up to 40,000 psi
  Flow: 1 to 46 gpm

  Low Pressure/High Flow Pump Head
  Pressure:  up to 2950 psi
  Flow: up to 128 gpm
Features

  pneumatically operated hand-held tool which can be used as a cutting tool or for
  equipment decontamination; cuts concrete up to 6 in. in thickness; cold cutting
  of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
Manufacturers

      Allied Steel & Tractor Products, Inc.
      Ameriquest Co.
      Valley Hydro/Laser Technologies, Inc.
      Laser Applications, Inc.
      Ingersofl-Rand Co.
                                  180

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                          Hoe-Ram
                     Impact Hammer
                             Source: Allied Steel & Tractor Products, Inc. 1990

Specifications

  Overall Length:  75 in.
  Working Length: 17 in.
  Chisel Diameter: 3.5 in.
  Weight with Std. Bracket: 1200 Ib
  Impact Energy Class:  1200ft-lb
  Frequency: 500 blows/min.
  Operating Pressure:  100lb/sq. in.

Features
  boom-mounted impact hammer; standard cross-cut chisel demolition tool;
  automatic shut-off at any angle; easily removable boom pins for
  hamrner-to-bucket exchange;  ideal for pavement breaking, rock and boulder
  removal, building demolition, foundation removal, cleaning slag pits.

Also Available

  truck-mounted, self-propelled hydraulic impact hammer; hydraulic-tilt chassis to
  work on uneven surfaces;  choice of breaking, cutting, or tamping tool.

Options

  • Tool variations
  • Hydraulic or pneumatic

 Manufacturers

       Allied Steel & Tractor Products, Inc.
        IngersolI-Rand Co.
        Bomag Corp.
        Broderson Mfg. Corp.
                                  181

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                    Horizontal Auger
                     Sludge Aerator
                        Composter
                                          Source: Brown Bear Corp. 1990
Specifications
  Length: 39 in.
  Height: 51 in.
  Overall Width: 81.5 in.
  Swath Width: 72 in.
  Tilt:  10° either direction
  Discharge: left hand
  Weight: 1300lb
  Handling Capability:  100 to 4000 tons per hour

Features

  self-contained auger/aerator attachment for loaders not exceeding 8000 Ib;
  reversible, replaceable blade; 24 in. diameter auger or 24 in. paddle aerator;
  adjustable dirt shield.
Options
        24 in. dia. auger with 4 position, quick adjusting wear plates
        24 in. dia. compound helical paddle auger
        Quick attach mounts for most vehicles
Manufacturers
      Brown Bear Corp.
      SWR Corp.
                                182

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                   Industrial  Vacuums
                                                  Source: Super Products Corp. 1990
Specifications

  Length: 161 to 216 in.
  Height: 124 to 132 in.
  Width: 96 in.
  Weight: 7,160 to 11,500 Ib
  Air flow: 1,350 to 4,500 cfm
  Maximum  rated vacuum: 200 in. HteO
  Air flow at maximum vacuum: 1050 to 3750 cfm

Features
  positive displacement vacuum pump; exhaust silencer; diesel engine; hinged
  top access doors for baghouse maintenance; wet or dry vacuum; ground level
  access door for maintenance of first stage baghouse; permanently mounted, skid
  mounted, or wagon-mounted.
Options

       Sound Suppression Package
       Engine Safety System
       Level Detector
       Work Lights
       Hazardous Waste Containers

Accessories

       HEPA Filters
       Fluidized Nozzles
       Floor/Wall Nozzles
       Crevice Nozzles

Manufacturers

       Super Products Corp.
       DeMarco Max Vac Corp.
       Vacuum Engineering Corp.
Beacon Lights
Diesel-Powered Air Compressor
Various Diesel Engines
Tapered Baghouse
Removable Collection Bin
Suction Hose
Hose Couplers
Permanent Ducting Systems
Ultravac Products
Edwards High Vacuum, Inc.
                                  183

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                         Loader (Tired)
                      Front-End Loader
                        ~	«sw~—              ,           Photo courtesy of D
-------
             Crawler-Loader (Tracked)
                   Front-End  Loader
                                          Photo courtesy of Deere & Company 1990
Specifications
  Overall Length: up to 18 ft, 6 in.
  Height:  up to 10ft, 3.7 in.
  Operating Weight:  up to 37,450 Ib
  Tipping Load:  up to 25,340 Ib
  Dump Clearance: up to 112 in.
  Bucket Size: up to 2.25 cu. yd
  Power:  up to 140 hp (net)

Features
  automatic hydrostatic drive; single lever travel speed and direction control;
  turbocharged diesel engine; pedal controls;  roll-over protective structures;
  counter-rotating tracks;  single-lever loader control with float position and
  return-to-dig; boom safety lock pin; push button starting.

Options
  • Cab heater and A/C
  • Bolt-on bucket teeth
  • Front pull hook
  • Halogen work lights
  • Cold-weather starting aid
 Attachments
       Winch
       Ripper
       Cable plow

 Manufacturers
       John Deere & Co.
       J.I. Case Co.
       Komatsu Corp.
Multipurpose bucket
Drawbar
Caterpillar, Inc.
Terramite Corp.
JCB
                                  185

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Loader Attachments
  Quick
  Coupler
 Forks
  Angle
  Dozer
 Cement
 Mixer
  Side Dump
  Bucket
 Post
 Driver
 Auger
Snow
Plow
 Claw
Jib
Boom
 Multi-Purpose
 Bucket
Broom
                          Illustrations courtesy of Deere & Company 1990

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                                Mixer
                        Mini-Maxcrete
                                                   Source: Maxon Industries, Inc. 1990
Specifications                                                .
  Overall Length:  13ft, 2-7/8 in.
  Overall Width:  6 ft, 9 in.
  Overall Height:  6 ft, 8-1/2 in.
  Mixing Speed:  2-10 rpm (rotates in two directions)
  Capacity: 410 gal
  Power Unit:  18 hp Briggs & Stratton gasoline engine
  Hydraulics: 2500 psi rated circuit with high pressure gear-type pump


Features
  mixer-agitator with double reduction chain drive with high pressure orbital
  hydraulic motor driving heavy-duty shaft with 8 urethahe paddles; tilt-away grid
  top for loading, visual mixing inspection; 3-position mixer control
  (charge/stop/discharge); gate has double-acting cylinder with inching control for
  metered discharge.


Options
  Barrel Lift:  1000 Ib lifting capacity with heavy-duty lifting cylinder; also tilts and swings
  Power Unit: 10 hp electric motor available
 Manufacturers
        Maxon Industries
        Philadelphia Mixers Corp.
VFL Technology Corp.
Davis Pugmill Inc.
                                   187

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                         Mobile  Shear
                                 Source: LaBounty Manufacturing, Inc. 1990
Specifications

  Cutting Depths:  10 to 76 in.
Features

  mobile shear constructed of high tensile, high alloy, abrasion-resistant steel;
  processes steel beams, reinforced steel pipe, rail cars, tree stumps and tires;
  360° continuous rotation; high performance cylinders; angle actuators; range in
  sizes to fit skid-steer loaders to excavators.
Manufacturers

       LaBounty Manufacturing, Inc.
                                  188

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                        Oil Skimmers
                          Rope Mop
                                          Source: Oil Mop, Inc. 1990
Specifications

  Length: up to 10ft
  Width: up to 7.5 ft
  Height: up to 7 ft
  Weight (dry): up to 8000 Ib
  Mop Speed: 0-150ft/min
  Mop Length (max): 2000 ft
  Power: 37.5 hp at 1800 rpm
  Recovery Capacity: up to 200 Bbl/hr+
Features

  skid-mounted wringer units with oil collection pan; guide and training rollers;
  squeezer rollers; hydraulically powered pumps;  centrifugal trash pump used to
  transfer oil from collection pan;  mop speed & direction controlled by lever
  connected to pump;  mop made with oleophilic, hydrophobic fibers.


Options

  • Range of sizes from barrel-mounted wringers to large skid-mounted units
Manufacturers
      Oil Mop, Inc.
      Containment Systems
      Abanaki Corp.
Oil Skimmers, Inc.
Hudson Industries
                                189

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                      Portable  Building
                                                   Source: PEI Associates, Inc.
Specifications

  Spans: 30-115 ft
  Length:  any, in modules of 10 ft
  Height: variable
Features

  prefabricated modular .buildings for rapid erection and deployment; hot-dip
  galvanized steel tube arch frames covered with PVC-coated polyester fabric
  which is self-extinguishing & fire retardant; may also be constructed of coated
  aluminum; custom-manufactured sizes available; can easily be extended or
  sub-divided; no internal columns; double skin options for increased insulation;
  can be lifted in erected form by crane; designed to withstand foul weather (Arctic
  and tropical conditions); climate-controlled.
Options

  •  Choice of color combinations
Manufacturers
       Rubb, Inc.
       Canvas Specialty
Anchor Industries, Inc.
Spandome Corp.
                                  190

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                Portable  Holding Tank
              Collapsible  Storage Tank
           Fabric Tanks,  Bladder Tanks
                                            Photo courtesy of Aero-Tec Laboratories, Inc. 1990
Specifications

  Sizes: 16 different capacities from 100 gal to 100,000 gal
  Access: 2 in. fill/discharge fitting & access plate
  Ventilation: vent pipe, spark arrester, pressure relief
  Fittings: steel and aluminum unless otherwise specified


Features
  collapsible, rubberized containers which lay flat when empty and assume pillow
  configuration when full of liquid; containers collapse around liquid, eliminating
  vapor build-up and evaporative emissions; limits liquid losses; keeps out dust
  and other contaminants; compacts to less than 5% of expanded shape;  resists
  outdoor exposure to sunlight (UV light), high and low temperatures, abrasion,
  and mildew; can hold industrial chemicals (alcohol, acids, alkalis, aqueous salt
  solutions);  not resistant to chlorinated solvents, ketones, aromatics.
Options
  •  Intermediate sizes on custom order
  •  Special shapes, fittings or color on special order
Accessories
       Flanges
       Fittings
       Manholes
Pumps
Gate Valves
Check Valves
Repair Kits
Ground Cloths
Hoses
Couplings
Nozzles
Filters
Manufacturers
       Aero-Tec Laboratories, Inc.
       Kepner Plastics Fabricators, Inc.
                  Vinyl Tech, Inc.
                  Terra Tank Corp.
                                 191

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              Portable Vibrating  Screen
                                     Source: Powerscreen of America 1990
Specifications
  Length: up to 28 ft
  Height: up to 11 ft, Gin.
  Width: 7 ft, 11 in.
  Weight: up to 24,200 Ib                               -;,,=•       ,
  Screen Size: up to 12 ft x 7 ft                                  ,.
  Hopper Opening:  up to 14 ft, 9 in.
  Conveyor Belt Width: 5ft                           ,
  Conveyor Belt Speed: 270 ft/min.                                 ;
  Max. Production: 650 tph                            •         •    ,


Features

  screen powered by a 47 hp air^led diesel hydraulic unit; twin road wheels
  heavy-duty tow bar and hydraulic jacking leg; screen mesh sizes range from 1/4
  in. to 4 in.; screening angle adjusts from 12° to 25°.       •  ' X '-. Y


Manufacturers

      Powerscreen of America, Inc.                   ;        ••
      Read Corp.
      Kason Corp.
      FMC Corp.           .
      Simplicity Engineering
                                 192

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                              Pug  Mill
                            Silo  Mixer
                                                 Source: PEI Associates, Inc.
Specifications

  Load-Out Hopper Capacity: 20 cu. yd
  Maximum Output:  800 tph
  Motor:  200 hp with automatic transformer starter
  Pug Mill:  KA-85 Barber-Greene style twin-shaft
  Hydraulics: 400 gpm water-injection system
  Conveyor: 4 ft (width) x 70 ft (length)
  Clearance Below Load-Out Hopper: 15 ft
Features

  computerized pug mill with paddle-type mixing tips mounted on pug mill shafts;
  designed for continuous operation (no batching); automatically adjusts rate of
  input after weighing material by changing belt speed and/or hopper opening
  resulting in a consistent product; shredders in each input hopper; computer
  printout of daily activities; shaft assemblies are, mounted in heavy-duty bearings
  with shaft seals mounted on each end to prevent leaking; stores in memory up
  to 50 mixing designs with 6 additives.
Manufacturers

       Conti Construction Co.
       Davis Pugmill, Inc.
       Eastern Cleveland Mixers
       Marjon  Mixers, Inc.
                                    193

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         Pumps and Pumping Systems
                                        Source: Crisafulli Pump Co. 1990
Submersible Pump

  Discharge Sizes: 2 to 16 in.
  Flow: 100 to 9000 gpm
  Motor: electric, diesel, gas/hydraulically or electrically driven pumps

Vertical Pump

  Discharge Sizes: up to 24 in.
  Flow: up to 20,000 gpm
  Will pump high weight fluids.

Trailer Pump

  Discharge Sizes: 4 to 24 in.
  Flow: 500 to 20,000 gpm
  Motor: diesel or electric
  Will handle thick sludges and mud.

Slurry Pump

  Discharge Sizes: 6 to 16 in.
  Flow: up to 3800 gpm
  Mixing to 11,000 gpm
  Will handle highly viscous fluids.

•  All pumps can be custom-made.
Manufacturers
      Crisafulli Pump Co.
      Wilden Pump & Engineering Corp.
H&H Pump Co.
Edson International
                                194

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         Radioactive Waste Containers


       High Integrity Containers: Type A Quantities
                                       Source: Scientific Ecology Group, Inc.
Specifications
  Internal Volume: 6.5 to 173 cu. ft

Features
  storage and transport container constructed of high density cross-linked
  polyethylene;  attachable grapple beams tor remote grappling purposes;  may be
  equipped with steel liners and/or underdrains.
             Shipping Casks:  Type B Quantities
                                         Source: Scientific Ecology Group, Inc.
 Specifications
  Internal Dimensions (dia. x height): 54 in. x 62.13 in. to 76.75 in. x 80.25 in.
  Lead Shielding Equivalence: 1.81 to 4.58 in.
  Approximate Maximum Bad Level: 3 to 800 rem/h
  Maximum Payload: 20,000 Ib

 Features
  re-inforced shielded casks for shipping radioactive waste; some equipped with
  impact rings constructed of high density polyurethane foam to withstand 30 ft
  drop;  thermal insulation to withstand thermal radiation requirements.

 Manufacturers
        Scientific Ecology Group, Inc.
        Electropanel
                                  19.5

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                   Rough Terrain  Forklift
                                                        Source: Massey Ferguson Industrial 1990
 Specifications

  Length (less forks): up to 1 65 in.
  Width: 60 to 84 in.
  Height to Overhead Guard: 98 in.
  Turning Radius: 11 5 to 168 in.
  Lift Capacity: up to 1 00,000 Ib
  Lift Height: up to 30 ft
  Mast Tilt: 1 5° forward/1 2° backward

Features
                 n: brake light?; cold start assist;  foot and hand
                tial lock; roll-over protection system; side shifter mast-
  instrument and warning lights; horn.                             '
Also Available

Options

   4-wheel drive
   Enclosed cab with heater, defroster, wipers & mirror
   Rear work lights
   Fork lengths: 42 to 96 in.
   Mast height: 10 to 30 ft

Manufacturers

       Massey Ferguson industrial Machinery, Inc
       Trak  International
       Caterpillar, Inc.
                                                          *>* movement
                                                      Clark
                                                      Komatsu
                                   196

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                           Shredders
                                                Source: MAC/Saturn Corp. 1990
Specifications

  Length:  up to 150 in.
  Width: up to 72 in.
  Infeed Opening (L x W): 22 in. x 22 in. to 120 in. x 58 in.
  Power: up to 500 hp
  Shaft Torque Range: up to 80,000 ft-lb
  Cutter Thickness: 5/8 in. to 4 in.
  Cutter Diameter: 5-1/2 in. to 30 in.
Features
  hydraulic-driven rotary shear-type shredder; low noise; low dust; automatic
  reverse, non-jamming capability; low speed and high torque; replaceable
  cutters, spacers, cleaning fingers, keys; cutting accomplished by drawing
  material past interfaces of 2 counter-rotating blades in close tolerance; can
  handle hazardous/nuclear waste, tires and rubber, ferrous and non-ferrous
  materials, solid waste and batteries.
Options
  • Stationary or portable configuration
  • Diesel or electric motors
 Manufacturers
        MAC/Saturn Corp.
        Shredding Systems, Inc.
        Hi-Torque Shredder Co.
Jersey Stainless, Inc.
Eidal International Sales
Corp.
                                     197

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          Shredder/Compactor System
                                       Source: MAC/Saturn Coip. 1990
Features

  shear-type shredder combined with a high density compactor; automatically
  shreds and compacts plastics, metals (including drums and conduit), wood
  cardboard, rubber, cloth, paper, etc; bales are 15 in. x 30 in. x variable lenqtrr 3
  bales automatically loaded into a 45 cu. ft container.         •>  - •      •
Manufacturers
      MAC/Saturn Corp.
      S&G Enterprises, Inc.
      International Baler Corp.
      Compaction Technologies, Inc.
      Consolidated Balers & Compactors
                              198

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                    Shredder-Mixer
            Earth Materials Processor
                       Composter
                                        Source: Powerscreen of America 1990
Specifications

  Width: 8ft
  Height: 13 ft, 6 in.
  Maximum Rated Capacity: 200 cu. yd/h
  Hopper Opening: 7 ft x 12 ft
  Hopper Capacity: 5 cu. yd
  Discharge Height:  12 ft, 8 in.
Features

  conveyor and stone grate; hydraulic brakes; highway tires; shredding belt;
  lump breakers; trash-away conveyor; variable sweep and deflector.
Options

  • Gasordiesel engine
  • Programmable controller (adjusts feed rate for maximum load, reverses
     shredding belt at selected intervals to clean debris, operates shaker gate,
     safety switches)
  • Shaker gate
  • Hopper platform
Manufacturers
      Powerscreen of America/Royer Industries
      Compost Systems Co.
                               199

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                     Skid-Steer Loader
                                        Source: Melroe Company 1990
Specifications
  Length (less bucket): 73 to 118 in.
  Width (less bucket): 36 to 90 in.
  Height: 72 to 96 in.
  Height to Bucket Pin: 92 to 130 in.                     •  .  j  .
  Rated Operating Capacity: 600 to 4000 Ib
  Tipping Load:  1217 to 8100 Ib

Features

  small loader with multi-job attachment versatility; hydraulic bucket positioning;
  work lights; operator cab; seat bar; seat belt; instrument panel; tip-up operator
  cab; gasoline or diesel engine; 22 gal fuel tank; spark arrester muffler;
  hydrostatic transmission.

Also Available

  a multipurpose tool carrier (MTC) with four-wheel hydrostatic drive which
  provides a tighter turning radius.

Options
  •  Enclosed cab
  •  Flotation tires
  •  Lift arm stops
  •  Cab heater
  •  Suspension seat
  •  Propane fuel source

Manufacturers

       Bobcat-Melroe Co.
       John Deere and Co.
       J.I. Case Co.
       New Holland, Inc.
       Gehl
                                  200

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             Skid Steer Loader Attachments
Backhoe
  • High production digging
  • Full line of models for a variety of loader sizes

Combination Bucket
  • Ideal for dozing, grappling, leveling, digging, loading and dumping
  • Heavy-duty cutting edges and cylinders

Industrial Fork Grapple
  • Handle scrap and assorted metal, including irregular shapes

Hydraulic Breaker
  •  For concrete demolition
  •  Up to 750 ft-lb impact energy class
  •  Backhoe or loader mount
 Landscape Rake
  • Grade, level, and scarify in close quarters
  • Break up lumpy soil or pick up rocks and dump them where needed

 LaBounty Shear
  • Cut through rebar, scrap metal, concrete, pipe
  • 360° rotation

 Angle Blade
  • Snow removal
   • Dozing and backfilling dirt

 Pallet Fork
   • Handle baled or pallet materials
   • Move bulky or bagged materials

  Longwood Grapple
   •  High performance  log handler

  Grapple Bucket
   • Move heavy and odd-shaped objects with ease
   • Handle scrap, waste, or pipe
                                                            Source: Melroe Company 1990
                                      201

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                Skid Steer Loader Attachments
                                    (continued)
  Grader
    • 7 ft, six-way hydraulically controlled moldboard
    • Used for landscaping and asphalt/concrete work

  Earth Auger

    • Hydraulic auger with high-torque, low-speed power
    • Dig holes 6 to 36 in. deep

  Scarifier

    • Adjustable depth skids for preset digging depth
    • Rips asphalt for removal

  Sweeper

   • Clean up, spread sand, or scrape mud
   • Sweep and collect debris with one attachment

 Tire Tracks

   • Float over soft, sandy, or muddy ground
   * Increase traction on slippery surfaces

 Hydraulic Trencher

   • Trench with side-to-side maneuverability
   * 4 to 12 in. widths and up to 48 in. deep


 Utility Fork/Grappler

   • Useful for handling  bundled material, loose straw


 Vertical Mast

  • For stacking, lifting, or loading material
  • 2 models: 10 or 12 ft lifting height

Vibratory Roller

  • Smooth or padded 48 in. wide drum
  • 4156 Ib of force at 2153 vibrations per minute

York Rake

  • Rip up soil with scarifier teeth, blade down high spots & fill
    holes, rake surface to remove large rocks and debris
                                                            Source: Melroe Company 1990
                                    202

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                   Trenching Machine
                                 J^K..- -   - .,- .   -.'••sfj&sat   —— Source: Ditch Witch 1990
Specifications
  Attachment Length: 7ft, 11 in.             .
  Overall Length: 15 ft, 11-3/4 in. to 19 ft, 2-1/4 in.
  Operating Height: 95 to 98-1/2 in.        --
  Width (with backfill blade): 64 to 77 in.
  Maximum Plow-In Depth: 18 to 30 in.
  Maximum Trenching Depth: 48 to 62 in.
  Maximum Trenching Width: 12 in.

Features
  combination of trencher and vibratory plow in one attachment; fits; 30 to 65 tip
  class Modularmatic® equipment; feed-in or pull-out vibratory plow blades; can
  be used in combination with other attachments.

Also Available
  • Front-end mounted backhoe with a maximum digging depth of 111 in.     .
  • Trenching machine which digs trench and installs flexible dram tubing and filter
     medium in one continuous operation.

Options
  • Double auger system
  • Heavy duty digging chain
  • Offset trencher
  • Remote handling apparatus
 Other Attachments
     ,   Double-pivot trencher
        Trencher
        ;Vibratory plow
        Reel carrier

 Manufacturers
        Ditch Witch - The Charles Machine Works
        Gradall Co.
        Bobcat - Melroe Co.
Earth saw
Hydraulic boring,units
Roto-Witch
VermeerMfg., Inc.
Industrial Builders, Inc.
                                   203

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                                    GLOSSARY
"5mer).A
 ruays
                                       ss
                               dHve" by an a1r «"»P«*Sor (e.g., a jack-
                                           l'ts;  clearfn9  'andi "  leveling
                      !I"f°r1n9 t001  that  consfsts of a shank' with spiral
                                                     feed s^crew' and a

                            °f °later1a1 prePared> loaded- <"• excavated  per
                                                                       load
bobcat:  See skid-steer loader.

                 float1"9  barr1er  "sed to contain oil and catch floating
                                   204

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bucket:   The typically rounded part of an excavating machine used for
     digging, lifting, and carrying material.

bulking tanks:  Plastic or metal  receptacles used for storing and/or mixing
     material (usually liquid) at hazardous waste sites.

bulldozer:  Crawler tractor with a hydraulic or cable-controlled front-
     mounted blade.

capping:  The process of covering buried waste materials  with a cover
     material (usually clay).

CAT:  Trademark name for the Caterpillar Tractor Company.

cherry picker:  A small truck or tractor-mounted derrick or hoist.

clamshell:  A two-jawed bucket mounted on flat-bottomed barges or crawler
     tractors.  Loads by its own weight when lifted by a line.

classification:  Arranging or sorting waste materials into uniform categories
     or classes (usually by size, weight, color, shape, etc.).  (See separa-
     tion,  screening.)                       ,

compaction:   Reduction in volume of material—generally of fill or soil—by
     rolling  or tamping.

conveyor:   A  mechanical device used to haul materials by cable, belts, or
     chains.

crane:  A machine  used for lifting, transporting, and lowering loads.  Also
     used for the  handling of buckets for excavation and dredging.

crawler:  A set of roller-chain  tracks used to  support and propel an excava-
     tion machine.

crusher:  A machine used  to  break  up  material  into  smaller sized  pieces by a
     pounding action with  hammers,  beaters, etc.

cubic yard  loose measurement (cylm):  Unit  of  excavation in  machine, in
     stockpile, or after  compaction (Church 1981).

cubic yard  struck  measurement (cysm):  Unit of capacity  of  bucket body, bowl,
     or dipper  of  a machine.   Sometimes  called water-level measurement
      (Church 1981).

 cutterhead:,  A  set of revolving blades  used for cutting—set at  the  beginning
      of the suction line  of a hydraulic  dredge.
                                      205

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 debris:  Unused, unwanted, or discarded solids or liquids that require stag-
       ing, loading, transporting, pretreating, treatment, or disposal at a


 dewatering:  The removal of water by filtration, evaporation, centrifugation,
      thickening, pressing, pumping, or draining.

 dragline:  An excavation machine with a revolving shovel that carries a
      bucket attached by cables and digs by pulling (scraping) the bucket
      toward the machine.

 dredge: +A machine used for the excavation of soil/sediment from the bottom
      or the banks of a body of water.

 excavation:   Removal  of the ground surface by cutting, digging,  or scooping.

 excavator:   A machine for digging and  removing earth  with a hoe  attachment-
      generally larger than backhoes.

 ferrous:   Metals that are primarily composed of iron  (steel  or tin cans,
      automobiles,  refrigerators,  etc.).

 flash point:   The  lowest temperature at  which a material  will  volatilize to
      yield sufficient vapor to  form a  flammable gaseous  mixture with  air.

 fly ash:  Small  particles  of  ash  and soot  generated as a  result of burnina
      coal, oil,  or  waste materials.

 forklift:  A  self-propelled machine (usually gas or diesel) used to lift and
      transport objects.

 front-end loader:   A  loader with  a front-mounted hydraulically operated
      bucket;  used for excavation  and hauling  (payloader).

 grappler:  Hydraulic  drum grapple attachment  that uses heavy tongs and a
      wrist-action motion and 360-degree rotation along the plane of attach-
      ment to  a backhoe.

 grizzly:  A set of  parallel bars frame-mounted on an angle to promote the
      flow and separation of excavated material.

 groundwater:   Water occurring in the zone of saturation in an aquifer or


hammermill:   A mechanical device used to break up waste material  into smaller
     pieces by use of a system of heavy rotating hammers.

hazardous waste:   "...A solid waste or  combination  of  solid wastes, which
     because  of its  quantity,  concentration, or physical, chemical, or infec-
     tious characteristics may -
                                      206

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     (A)   cause  or  significantly  contribute to  an  increase  in serious irre-
 ?        versible,  or  incapacitating  reversible illness;
          or
   ': (B)   pose a substantial  present or potential  hazard  to human  health  or
          the environment when improperly treated, stored,  transported, or
          disposed  of,  or otherwise managed."   [RCRA 1004(5)].
hoe:   Any of various instruments  used  for tilling, mixing,  or  raking.
hoe ram:   Hydraulic or pneumatic  impact hammer used for breaking up rock,
     concrete, asphalt, etc., which can be mounted on a backhoe or skid-steer
     loader.
hopper:  A funnel-shaped receptacle with an opening at the top for loading
     and a discharge opening at the bottom for bulk-delivering material.
hydraulic:  Operated or affected by the action of water.or other fluid  of low
     viscosity.
jaw bucket:  A hoe bucket backhoe attachment with a rear hinge for easier
     unloading.
jaw crusher:  Primary  crusher with a  fixed and an oscillating jaw spaced at
     the  top and closely  spaced  at the bottom.
jib boom:   An extension that  is  hinged to the  upper end of a crane boom.
leachate:   A  liquid  solution  containing  decomposed waste,  bacteria, and      -
     potentially hazardous contaminants  that drains from landfills or contam-
     inated sites.                                                       :
nonferrous:   Metals  containing no  iron,  such as aluminum cans,  copper wire,
     brass, etc.
overburden:  The rock, earth, waste materials, or other matter  found directly
      above the  material  to  be excavated  (e.g., earth  over  a buned tank).
 overpack:  Oversized drum (usually 85-gallon)  used for storage  of damaged
      and/or leaking 55-gallon drums.
 pneumatic:  Pertaining to or operated by air  or  other gas.
 pressure washer:   Device used to direct and spray water  at high pressure for
      decontamination of heavy equipment.
 pug mill:  A machine for mixing and tempering a  plastic  material  by the
      action of blades revolving in a  drum or  trough.        ,
                                       207

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  resource recovery:  The extraction and utilization of valuable material froitr
      the waste stream (e.g., glass, aluminum, paper).                     ,»
  ripper bucket:  A toothed hoe bucket backhoe attachment for digging in frozen
      ground, shale, and rock.
  riprap:  Heavy rocks placed along ah embankment of a body of water to prevent
      further soil erosion.
  rolloff box:  dumpster box that cgn be detached from truck chassis .and left
      on site.
 scalping:  Process of removing residual  or weathered rock at a cut prior to
      excavation.
 scarifier:   An implement or machine with downward projecting tines for
      breaking down a road surface or earth 2 feet or less.
 screening:   Separating pulverized/crushed material  into  various  sizes  bv
      using  a sieve.
 separation:   Dividing  debris/material  into groups of similar materials
      by manual  or mechanical  means.
 sheepsfoot  roller:   A  cylindrical  steel  drum to  which knob-headed  spikes are
      fastened;  used  for  compacting earth.
 shredder:  A mechanical  device used  to break up  waste material into smaller
      pieces  by  a  tearing action.
 skid  steer loader:   A  small  loader with a  front-mounted  bucket—may be fueled
      by gas,  diesel, or propane  (commonly  referred to as a Bobcat).
 sludge:  A waste material in  the form of a  high-solids-content liquid—gener-
      ally produced from water and  sewage treatment processes.
 slurry:  A pumpable mixture of liquid and fine insoluble solids.
 sorbent:  A material, compound, or system that can provide a sorption
      function, such as absorption, adsorption, or desorption.
 spoil:  Excavated rock and soil.
 stabilization:  A process by which waste is converted to a more chemically
      stable form (solidification or chemical reaction).,
 sump:  Pit,  tank, or reservoir in which water is collected or stored.
surfactant:   A surface-active substance (e.g., detergent).
trackhoe: A tracked backhoe
                                      208

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trommel:  A revolving cylindrical, frame surrounded by wire  cloth,  open at
     both ends—used for separation,                                   ,

V-ditehing bucket; , A hoe bucket backhoe attachment that reduces cave-in.

water laser:  Device that directs and sprays water at very  high pressures
    . (>3Q,000 psi) and can be Used as a cutting tool.

winch:  Motorized machine with a drum on which tb coil a rope, cable, or
     chain; for hauling or pulling.
                                        209

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                          Copyright Notice

 Table 5    From Ware, S. A. and G. S. Jackson. 1978.  Liners for
            Sanitary Landfills and Chemical and Hazardous Waste
            Disposal Sites.  Used by permission of the U.S.
            Environmental Protection Agency - Center for
            Environmental Research Information.  Cincinnati, OH.'•" "

 Table 6    From Ware, S. A. and G. S. Jackson. 1978.  Liners for
            Sanitary Landfills and Chemical and Hazardous Waste'
            Environmental Protection Agency - Center for
            Environmental Research Information.  Cincinnati, OH.

 Table 7    From Church, H.K. 1981.  Excavation Handbook.  Used by
            permission of McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.'•  New York,  NY.

 Figure 4    From John Deere and Co.,  Industrial Division. 1990
            Used by permission of John Deere and Co., Mbline, IL..

 Figure 5    From_Church, H.K. 1981.  Excavation Handbook.  Used by
            permission of McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.  New York,  NY,

 Table 8    From Church, H.K. 1981.  Excavation Handbook.  Used by
            permission of McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.  New York,  NY.

 Figure 8    From Perry, R. H. 1984.  Perry's Chemical Engineer's   •
            Handbook.   Reproduced with permission from McGraw-Hill
            Publishing Co.  New York,  NY.

 Table 9    From U. S.  Environmental  Protection.Agency 1985.
            Remedial Action at Waste  Disposal Sites, Handbook.     :
            Used by permission of the U.  S. Environmental
            Protection Agency - Center for Environmental Research
            Information.  Cincinnati,  OH.

 Figure 10   From Ware,  S. A. and G. S.  Jackson.  1978.   Liners for
            Sanitary Landfills and Chemical and Hazardous Waste
            Disposal Sites.   Used by  permission of the U.S.     .
            Environmental Protection  Agency - Center for
            Environmental Research Information.   Cincinnati, OH.

 Figure  11   From Crisafulli  Pump Company. 1990.   Used by permission
            of the Crisafulli Pump Company,  Glendive,  MT.

 Figure  12   From Bonner,  T.A.  1981.   Engineering Handbook for
            Hazardous  Waste  Incinerators.  Used by permission of
            the U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency - Center -for'..
            Environmental Research  Information.  Cincinnati,  OH.

Figure  13   From Shredding Systems, Inc.  1989.   Used by permission
            from Shredding Systems  Inc.   Wilsonville,  OR.    .    '. . •
                                210

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Figure 15


Figure 17
           From Piqua Engineering,. Inc.  1989.   Used by permission
           of Piqua Engineering,  Inc.   Piqua,  OH.

           From Warren Springs Laboratory.  1989.   Used by
           permission of the Warren Springs Laboratory.
           Hertfordshire,  United Kingdom.           .  -:
Appendix  G
Backhoe
attach.
pg. 169

Crane
pg. 170
Crawler
tractor
pg.  171

Dredging
system
pg.  172

Barrel
handler
pg.  173

Earth
auger
pg.  174
           From John Deere and Co.,  Industrial Division.  1990.
           Used by permission of John Deere and Co.,  Moline,  IL.


           FromGrove Worldwide Manufacturing Co.  1990.  Used by
           permission of Grove Worldwide Manufacturinf Co.,
           Shady Groye, PA.

           From John Deere and Co.,  Industrial Division.^1990.
           Used by permission of John Deere and Co.,  Moline,  IL.


           From Crisafulli Pump Company. 1990. Used by permission
           of the Crisafulli Pump Company, Glendive,  MT.


           From LaBounty Manufacturing, Inc. 1990.  Used by
           permission of LaBo:unty Manufacturing, Inc. Two Harbors,
           MN.      •            •

           From Ditch Witch Sales and Service.  1990  . Used by
           permission of Ditch Witch Sales and  Service.
           Cincinnati, OH.
 Excavator  From John Deere and Co., Industrial Division._1990.
 (tired)     Used by permission of John Deere and Co., Moline,  IL,
 pg.175

 Excavator  From John Deere and Co., Industrial Division.^1990.
 (tracked)  Used by permission of John Deere and Co., Moline,  IL,
 pg.176

 Flexible   From Helios  Container Systems,  Inc. 1990.  -Used by
 containers permission of  Helios Container  Systems,  Inc.
     177    Bloomingdale,  IL.
pg

Hand-held
access.
pg. 178
             From Allied Steel  and  Tractor  Products/  Inc.  1990
             Used by permission of  Allied Steel  and Tractors
             Products,  Inc.   Solon,.OH.
 Bag liners  From Packaging Research and Design  Corp.  1990.   Used by
 pg. 179     permission of Packaging Research and Design  Corp.
             Madison,  MS.
                                 211

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Water
laser
pg.  180

Hoe-ram
pg.  181


Horizontal
auger
pg.  182

Vacuum
pg.  183

Loader
(tired)
pg.184

Loader
(tracked)
pg.185

Loader
assecc.
pg.  186

Mixer
pg.  187

Mobile
shear
pg.  188

Oil
skimmer
pg.  189

Holding
tank
pg.  191

Vibrating
screen
pg.  192

Pumping
system
pg.  194

Rad'ctive
containers
pg.  195
From Allied Steel and Tractor Products, Inc. 1990.
Used by permission of Allied Steel and Tractors
Products,  Inc.  Solon, OH.

From Allied Steel and Tractor Products, Inc. 1990.
Used by permission of Allied Steel and Tractors
Products,  Inc.  Solon, OH.

From Brown Bear Corp. 1990.  Used by'permission of
Brown Bear Corp. Lenox, IA.
From Super Products Corp. 1990.  Used by permission of
Super Products Corp. Milwaukee, WI.

From John Deere and Co., Industrial Division. 1990 .
Used by permission of John Deere and Co., Moline, IL.
From John Deere and Co., Industrial Division. 1990.
Used by permission lof John Deere and Co., Moline, IL,
From John Deere and Co., Industrial Division. 1990.
Used by permission of John Deere and Co.., Moline, IL.',
From Maxon Industries, Inc. 1990.  Used by permission
of Maxon Industries, Inc.  Milwaukee, WI.

From LaBounty Manufacturing, Inc. 1990.  Used by
permission of LaBounty Manufacturing, Inc.  Two
Harbors, MN.

From Oil Mop, Inc. 1990.  Used by permission of Oil
Mop, Inc.  Belle Chase, LA.
From Aero-Tec Laboratories, Inc. 1990.  Used by
permission of Aero-Tec Laboratories, Inc.  Ramsey NJ.
From Powerscreen of America. 1990.  Used by permission
of Powerscreen of America.  Louisville, KY.
From Crisafulli Pump Company. 1990. Used by permission
of the Crisafulli Pump Company,  Glendive, MT.
From Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. 1990.   Used by
permission of Scientific Ecology Group,  Inc.  Oak
   Ridge,  TN.
                                 212

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Forklift
pg.  19 6
Shredder
pg. 197

Shredder/
compactor
pg. 198

Shredder/
mixer
pg. 199

Skid-steer
loader
pg. 200

Loader
assecc.
pg. 201-2

Trenching
machine
pg. 203
 From Massey  Ferguson  Industrial Machinery,  Inc.  1990.
 Used by permission  of Massey Ferguson  Industrial
 Machinery, Inc.   Chamblee, GA.

 From MAC/Saturn  Corporation. 1990.  Used by permission
 of  MAC/Saturn  Corporation.  Grand Prairie,  TX.

 From MAC/Saturn  Corporation. 1990.  Used by permission
 of  MAC/Saturn  Corporation.  Grand Prairie,  TX.
'From Powerscreen  of America.  1990.  Used by permission
 of  Powerscreen  of America.  Louisville, KY.,
 From Melroe  Company.  1990.  Used by permission of
 Melroe  Company.  Fargo, ND.
 From Melroe  Company.  1990.  Used by permission of
 Melroe  Company.  Fargo, ND.
 From Ditch  Witch  Sales  and  Service.  1990.  Used by
 permission  of  Ditch Witch Sales and  Service.
 Cincinnati,  OH.
                                 213

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TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
(Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing) \
1. REPORT NO. 2.
EPA/540/2-91/010
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
Survey of Materials-Handling Technologies
Used at Hazardous Waste Sites
7. AUTHOR(S)
Majid Dosani & John Miller
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
PEI Associates, Inc.
P.O. Box 46100
Cincinnati, OH 45246
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory — Cin. , OH
Office of Research & Development
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Cincinnati, OH 45268
3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION NO/
PB91-186924
5. REPORT DATE
. June 1991
6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO
10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
68-03-3413
13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
Project 12/88 - 9/90
14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
EPA/600/14
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
Naomi P. Barkley - Proiect Officer (513/569-7854) FTS 684-7854
16. ABSTRACT

 This study  summarizes types of debris, material and contaminants  found  at Superfund and
 other hazardous waste sites.  Materials-handling equipment and general  procedures used
 for site restoration and cleanup are  listed.   Information concerning  capabilites,
 performance and applicability of a variety of equipment and implementation costs are
 given.  Case studies for 22 sites in  all  10 EPA Regions are included.   Detailed
 information of  specific materials—handling needs and problems encountered on site are
 provided.
17. KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
a. • DESCRIPTORS
Sites, Materials handling, Materials
handling equipment, Hazardous materials —
materials handling, Removal
18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
RELEASE TO PUBLIC
b.lDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
Superfund, Hazardous
waste sites, Site
restoration, Site cleanup
Remediation—removal ,
Innovative technology,
Implementation costs
19. SECURITY CLASS (This Report)
Unclassified
20. SECURITY CLASS (This page)
Unclassified
c. COSATl Field/Group
•
21. NO. OF PAGES
225
22. PRICE 1
EPA Form 2220-1 (R«v. 4-77)    PREVIOUS EDITION is OBSOLETE
                                             214
                                                       *U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 'W2-6-IS-003/40660

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Agency
                                     Cincinnati OH 45268-1072
                                                                                                                                               POSTAGE & FEES PAID
                                                                                                                                                          EPA
                                                                                                                                                   PERMIT No. G-35
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use, $300
                                                                Please make all necessary changes on the above label,
                                                                detach or copy, and return to the address in the upper
                                                                left-hand corner.

                                                                If you do not wish to receive these reports CHECK HERE o;
                                                                detach, or copy this cover, and return to the address in the
                                                                upper left-hand corner.
                                                             EPA/540/2-91/010

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