EPA/540/4-90/032
                                             September 1990
 NATIONAL  PRIORITIES  LIST  SITES:
                 New York
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
       Office of Emergency & Remedial Response
            Office of Program Management
              Washington, D.C. 20460

-------
If you wish to purchase copies of any additional State volumes or the National
Overview volume, Superfund: Focusing on the Nation at Large, contact:
            National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
            U.S. Department of Commerce
            5285 Port Royal Road
            Springfield, VA 22161
            (703)  487-4600

-------
                                           PAGE
INTRODUCTION:
A Brief Overview	iii

SUPERFUND:
How Does the Program Work to Clean Up Sites	vii

How To:
Using the State Volume	xvii

NPL SITES:
A State Overview	xxi

THE NPL PROGRESS REPORT	xxiii

NPL: Site Fact Sheets	I
'•  -.-,iV>~.^,""  :::: ..•<» V~  --^ _ ,  s^%%% ^ i^,,,*:,,, ,  s - " ^ - s  " "V. ^ „- *,,-.-- ^

GLOSSARY:
Terms Used in the Fact Sheets	G-l

-------
ii

-------
WHY THE SUPERFUND
PROGRAM?

       s the 1970s came to a
    £v \ close, a series of head-
      * line stories gave
Americans a look at the
dangers of dumping indus-
trial and urban wastes on the
land. First there was New
York's Love Canal. Hazard-
ous waste buried there over a
25-year period contaminated
streams and soil, and endan-
gered the health of nearby
residents. The result: evacu-
ation of several hundred
people.  Then the leaking
barrels at the Valley of the
Drums in Kentucky attracted
public attention, as did the
dioxin tainted land and water
in Times Beach, Missouri.

In all these cases, human
health and the environment
were threatened, lives were
disrupted, property values
depreciated. It became in-
creasingly clear that there
were large numbers of serious
hazardous waste problems
that were falling through the
cracks of existing environ-
mental laws. The magnitude
of these emerging problems
moved Congress to enact the
Comprehensive Environ-
mental Response, Compensa-
tion, and Liability Act in 1980.
CERCLA — commonly
known as the Superfund —
was the first Federal law
established to deal with the
dangers posed by the
Nation's hazardous waste
sites.
After Discovery, the Problem
Intensified

Few realized the size of the
problem until EPA began the
process of site discovery and
site evaluation.  Not hun-
dreds, but thousands of
potential hazardous waste
sites existed, and they pre-
sented the Nation with some
of the most complex pollution
problems it had ever faced.

In the 10 years since the
Superfund program began,
hazardous waste has surfaced
as a major environmental
concern in every part of the
United States. It wasn't just
the land that was contami-
nated by past disposal prac-
tices. Chemicals in the soil
were spreading into the
groundwater (a source of
drinking water for many) and
into streams, lakes, bays, and
wetlands. Toxic vapors
contaminated the air at some
sites, while at others improp-
erly disposed or stored
wastes threatened  the health
of the surrounding commu-
nity and the environment.
EPA Identified More than
1,200 Serious Sites

EPA has identified 1,236
hazardous waste sites as the
most serious in the Nation.
These sites comprise the
"National Priorities List":
sites targeted for cleanup
under the Superfund. But site
discoveries continue, and
EPA estimates that, while
some will be deleted after
lengthy cleanups, this list,
commonly called the NPL,
will continue to grow by ap-
proximately 100 sites per
year, reaching 2,100 sites by
the year 2000.
THE NATIONAL
CLEANUP EFFORT IS
MUCH MORE THAN
THE NPL

From the beginning of the
program, Congress recog-
nized that the Federal govern-
ment could not and should
not address all environmental
problems stemming from past
disposal practices. Therefore,
the EPA was directed to set
priorities and establish a list
of sites to target. Sites on the
NPL (1,236) are thus a rela-
                                          iii

-------
lively small subset of a larger
inventory of potential hazard-
ous waste sites, but they do
comprise the most complex
and environmentally compel-
ling cases. EPA has logged
more than 32,000 sites on its
National hazardous waste
inventory, and assesses each
site within one year of being
logged. In fact, over 90 per-
cent of the sites on the inven-
tory have been assessed. Of
the assessed sites, 55 percent
have been found to require no
further Federal action because
they did not pose significant
human health or environ-
mental risks. The remaining
sites are undergoing further
assessment to determine if
long-term Federal cleanup
activities are appropriate.
EPA IS MAKING
PROGRESS ON SITE
CLEANUP

The goal of the Superfund
program is to tackle immedi-
ate dangers first, and then
move through the progressive
steps necessary to eliminate
any long-term risks to public
health and the environment.

The Superfund responds
immediately to sites posing
imminent threats to human
health and the environment
at both NPL sites and sites
notontheNPL. The purpose
is to stabilize, prevent, or
temper the effects of a haz-
ardous release, or the threat
of one. These might include
tire fires or transportation
accidents involving the spill
of hazardous chemicals.
Because they reduce the
threat a site poses to human
health and the environment,
immediate cleanup actions
are an integral part of the
Superfund program.

Immediate response to immi-
nent threats is one of the
Superfund's most noted
achievements. Where immi-
nent threats to the public or
environment were evident,
EPA has completed or moni-
tored emergency actions that
attacked the most serious
threats to toxic exposure in
more than 1,800 cases.

The ultimate goal for a haz-
ardous waste site on the NPL
is a permanent solution to an
environmental problem that
presents a serious (but not an
imminent) threat to the public
or environment.  This often
requires a long-term effort. In
the last four years, EPA has
aggressively accelerated its
efforts to perform these long-
term cleanups of NPL sites.
More cleanups were started
in 1987, when the Superfund
law was amended, than in
any previous year.  And in
1989 more sites than ever
reached the construction
stage of the Superfund
cleanup process. Indeed
construction starts increased
by over 200 percent between
late 1986 and 1989! Of the
sites currently on the NPL,
more than 500 — nearly half
— have had construction
cleanup activity.  In addition,
over 500 more sites are pres-
ently in the investigation
stage to determine the extent
of site contamination, and to
identify appropriate cleanup
remedies.  Many other sites
with cleanup remedies se-
lected are poised for the start
of cleanup construction activ-
ity. Measuring success by
"progress through the
cleanup pipeline," EPA is
clearly gaining momentum.
EPA MAKES SURE
CLEANUP WORKS

EPA has gained enough
experience in cleanup con-
struction to understand that
environmental protection
does not end when the rem-
edy is in place. Many com-
plex technologies — like
those designed to clean up
groundwater — must operate
for many years in order to
accomplish their objectives.

EPA's hazardous waste site
managers are committed  to
proper operation and mainter
nance of every remedy con-
structed. No matter who has
been delegated responsibility
for monitoring the cleanup
work, the EPA will assure
that the remedy is carefully
followed and that it continues
to do its job.

Likewise, EPA does not
abandon a site even after the
cleanup work is done.  Every
                                         IV

-------

five years the Agency reviews
each site where residues from
hazardous waste cleanup still
remain to ensure that public
and environmental health are
still being safeguarded. EPA
will correct any deficiencies
discovered and report to the
public annually on all five-
year reviews conducted that
year.
CITIZENS HELP SHAPE
DECISIONS

Superfund activities also
depend upon local citizen
participation. EPA's job is to
analyze the hazards and
deploy the experts, but the
Agency needs citizen input as
it makes choices for affected
communities.

Because the people in a
community with a Superfund
site will be those most di-
rectly affected by hazardous
waste problems and cleanup
processes, EPA encourages
citizens to get involved in
cleanup decisions.  Public in-
volvement and comment does
influence EPA cleanup plans
by providing valuable infor-
mation about site conditions,
community concerns and
preferences.

This State volume and the
companion National Over-
view volume provide general
Superfund background
information and descriptions
of activities at each State NPL
site. These volumes are
intended to clearly describe
what the problems are, what
EPA and others participating
in site cleanups are doing,
and how we as a Nation can
move ahead in solving these
serious problems.
USING THE STATE AND
NATIONAL VOLUMES
IN TANDEM

To understand the big picture
on hazardous waste cleanup,
citizens need to hear about
both environmental progress
across the country and the
cleanup accomplishments
closer to home. The public
should understand the chal-
lenges involved in hazardous
waste cleanup and the deci-
sions we must make — as a
Nation — in finding the best
solutions.

The National Overview
volume — Superfund: Focus-
ing on the Nation at Large —
accompanies this State vol-
ume. The National Overview
contains important informa-
tion to help you understand
the magnitude and challenges
facing the Superfund pro-
gram as well as an overview
of the National cleanup effort.
The sections describe the
nature of the hazardous
waste problem nationwide,
threats and contaminants at
NPL sites and their potential
effects on human health and
the environment, the Super-
fund program's successes in
cleaning up the Nation's
serious hazardous waste sites,
and the vital roles of the
various participants in the
cleanup process.

This State volume compiles
site summary fact sheets on
each State site being cleaned
up under the Superfund
program. These sites repre-
sent the most serious hazard-
ous waste problems in the
Nation, and require the most
complicated and costly site
solutions yet encountered.
Each State book gives a
"snapshot" of the conditions
and cleanup progress that has
been made at each NPL site in
the State  through the first half
of 1990. Conditions change as
our cleanup efforts continue,
so these site summaries will
be updated periodically to
include new information on
progress  being made.

To help you understand the
cleanup accomplishments
made at these sites, this State
volume includes a description
of the process for site discov-
ery, threat evaluation and
long-term cleanup of Super-
fund sites. This description
— How Does the Program
Work to  Clean Up Sites? —
will serve as a good reference
point from which to review
the cleanup status at specific
sites.  A glossary also is
included at the back of the
book that defines key terms
used in the site fact sheets as
they apply to hazardous
waste management.
                                          v

-------
vi

-------
      he diverse problems posed by the Nation's hazardous
      waste sites have provided EPA with the challenge to
„, ,... establish a consistent approach for evaluating and
cleaning up the Nation's most serious sites.  To do this, EPA
had to step beyond its traditional role as a regulatory agency
to develop processes and guidelines for each step in these
technically complex site cleanups. EPA has established proce-
dures to coordinate the efforts of its Washington, D.C. Head-
quarters program offices and its front-line staff in 10 Regional
Offices  with the State governments, contractors, and private
parties  who are participating in site cleanup. An important
part of  the process is that any time during cleanup, work can
be led by EPA or the State or, under their monitoring, by
private parties who are potentially responsible for site con-
tamination.

The process for discovery of the site, evaluation of threat, and
long-term cleanup of Superfund sites is summarized in the
 following pages. The phases of each of these steps are high-
 lighted within the description. The flow diagram below pro-
 vides a summary of this three step process.
        STEP1

       Discover site
      and determine
        whether an
        emergency
         exists *
   STEP 2

Evaluate whether
a site is a serious
 threat to public
   health or
  environment
    STEPS

Perform long-term
cleanup actions on
 the most serious
 hazardous waste
sites in the Nation
      * Emergency actions are performed whenever needed in this three-step process
                                         FIGURE 1
  Although this State book provides a current "snapshot" of site progress made only by emer-
  gency actions and long-term cleanup actions at Superfund sites, it is important to understand
  the discovery and evaluation process that leads up to identifying and cleaning up these most
  serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites in the Nation. This discovery and
  evaluation process is the starting point for this summary description.
                                            vii

-------
                 -•>**,
 Htow does HFA lekm
 iFout potential  ^
 hazardous
 Wll I
 sites?
 IJPIII 1 1 1 11
              1 **
S^hafc happens if
there is an imminent;
danger?
|t' t"'r
    U t 1f  T^Rfllj!
             c»i Vs
              v V"&Mv5A«vW*.X
                  X X XK -s
low does EM,
letermine
lfi>orcieatt«|>
should be taken?
 STEP 1:  SITE DISCOVERY AND EMERGENCY
           EVALUATION

 Site discovery occurs in a number of ways. Information
 comes from concerned citizens — people may notice an odd
 taste or foul odor in their drinking water, or see half-buried
 leaking barrels; a hunter may come across a field where waste
 was dumped illegally. Or there may be an explosion or fire
 which alerts the State or local authorities to a problem. Rou- ,
 tine investigations by State and local governments, and re-
 quired reporting and inspection of facilities that generate,
 treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste also help keep EPA
 informed about either actual or potential threats of hazardous
 substance releases.  All reported sites or spills are recorded in
 the Superfund inventory (CERCLIS) for further investigation
 to determine whether they will require cleanup.
As soon as a potential hazardous waste site is reported, EPA
determines whether there is an emergency requiring an imme-
diate cleanup action. If there is, they act as quickly as possible
to remove or stabilize the imminent threat. These short-term
emergency actions range from building a fence around the
contaminated area to keep people away or temporarily relo-
cating residents until the danger is addressed, to providing
bottled water to residents while their local drinking water
supply is being cleaned up, or physically removing wastes for
safe disposal.

However, emergency actions can happen at any time an imminent
threat or emergency warrants them — for example, if leaking
barrels are found when cleanup crews start digging in the
ground or if samples of contaminated soils or air show that
there may be a threat of fire or explosion, an immediate action
is taken.
STEP 2:  SITE THREAT EVALUATION

Even after any imminent dangers are taken care of, in most
cases contamination may remain at the site.  For example,
residents may have been supplied with bottled water to take
care of their immediate problem of contaminated well water.
But now if s time to figure out what is contaminating the
drinking water supply and the best way to clean it up. Or

          viii

-------
EPA may determine that there is no imminent danger from a
site, so now any long-term threats need to be evaluated. In
either case, a more comprehensive investigation is needed to
determine if a site poses a serious but not imminent danger,
and requires a long-term cleanup action.

Once a site is discovered and any needed emergency actions
are taken, EPA or the State collects all available background
information not only from their own files, but also from local
records and U.S. Geological Survey maps. This information is
used to identify the site and to perform a preliminary assess-
ment of its potential hazards. This is a quick review of readily
available information to answer the questions:
•   Are hazardous substances likely to be present?
•   How are they contained?
•   How might contaminants spread?
•   How close is the nearest  well, home, or natural resource
    area like a wetland or animal sanctuary?
•   What may be harmed — the land, water, air, people,
    plants, or animals?

Some sites do not require further action because the prelimi-
nary assessment shows that  they don't threaten public health
or the environment. But even in these cases, the sites remain
listed in the Superfund inventory  for record keeping purposes
and future reference. Currently, there are more than 32,000
sites maintained in this inventory.
 Inspectors go to the site to collect additional information to
 evaluate its hazard potential. During this site inspection, they
 look for evidence of hazardous waste, such as leaking drums
 and dead or discolored vegetation. They may take some
 samples of soil, well water, river water, and air. Inspectors
 analyze the ways hazardous materials could be polluting the
 environment — such as runoff into nearby streams.  They also
 check to see if people (especially children) have access to the
 site.
 Information collected during the site inspection is used to
 identify the sites posing the most serious threats to human
 health and the environment. This way EPA can meet the
                           5
         ""• > '• >•      I  "   ""!
   ^ "•%"""< ^  .   %   ft ^    O %v.\v.w.>% i
^x, --  -<"-   -----  -    f"  , >'
?^--X:-<- '   ««-^"s:»™;-- ,     ™,;,,>W^
*-  -^>-^  -% %5 v - \-  x, —*•*;'-.. "• -
•., vwvv»^'^v»%%     v  - x.-^.' v     V. ••
^---^*,^  x," s%"*- X "v-^""-"5™"5" *-*'
Wv^^. «^'   •'"«>5-%v. l-K. X- XS,v -.- -I
^•* "~~*~----* -•-•-•-•-•-K^- %--  XXv1^ >        " ,.%%i
            t\*
fa* *
^^"exist/ what's the- '"^
                 '
                                            IX

-------
SUPERFUND
 ill Hi timing
 luin in'iiium^ i uh. i
 in, i
 •	i itm i n.
 llttlllJI HU LI
 UP Ml [Til Ij
 Ililhin i nun IT ^
         «lf.
         Ilf* II
'!"
it
                     \s
How do people fiatd v
out whether EPA
considers a site a    -
^Hoift! pitodfy &ff
 leanup using       ^
Super£urt<3 money?
   K
i
requirement that Congress gave them to use Superfund mo-
nies only on the worst hazardous waste sites in the Nation.

To identify the most serious sites, EPA developed the Hazard
Ranking System (HRS). The HRS is the scoring system EPA
uses to assess the relative threat from a release or a potential
release of hazardous substances from a site to surrounding
groundwater, surface water, air, and soil.  A site score is based
on the likelihood a hazardous substance will be released from
the site, the toxicity and amount of hazardous substances at
the site, and the people and sensitive environments potentially
affected by contamination at the site.

Only sites with high enough health and environmental risk
scores are proposed to be added to EPA's National Priorities
List (NPL). That's why there are 1,236 sites  are on the NPL,
but there are more than 32,000 sites in the Superfund inven-
tory. Only NPL sites can have a long-term cleanup paid for
from the national hazardous waste trust fund — the Super-
fund. But the Superfund can and does pay for emergency
actions performed at any site, whether or not it's on the NPL.
The public can find out whether a site that concerns them is
on the NPL by calling their Regional EPA office at the number
listed in this book

The proposed NPL identifies sites that have been evaluated
through the scoring process as the most serious problems
among uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites in
the U.S. In addition, a site will be added to the NPL if the
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry issues a
health advisory recommending that people be moved away
from the site.  Updated at least once a year, if s only after
public comments are considered that these proposed worst
sites are officially added to the NPL.

Listing on the NPL does not set the order in which sites will be
cleaned up. The order is influenced by the relative priority of
the site's health and environmental threats compared to other
sites, and such factors as State priorities, engineering capabili-
ties, and available technologies. Many States also have their
own list of sites that require cleanup; these often contain sites
not on the NPL that are scheduled to be cleaned up with State
money. And it should be said again that any emergency action
needed at a site can be performed by the Superfund whether
or not a site is on the NPL.

-------
STEP 3: LONG-TERM CLEANUP ACTIONS

The ultimate goal for a hazardous waste site on the NPL is a
permanent, long-term cleanup. Since every site presents a
unique set of challenges, there is no single all-purpose solu-
tion. So a five-phase "remedial response" process is used to
develop consistent and workable solutions to hazardous waste
problems across the Nation:
1.  Investigate in detail the extent of the site contamination:
   remedial investigation,
2.  Study the range of possible cleanup remedies: feasibility
   study,
3.  Decide which remedy to use: Record of Decision or ROD,

4.  Plan the remedy: remedial design, and
5.  Carry out the remedy: remedial action.

This remedial response process is a long-term effort to provide
a permanent solution to an environmental problem that
presents a serious, but not an imminent threat to the public or
environment.

The first two phases of a long-term cleanup are a combined
remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) that
determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site,
and identify and evaluate cleanup alternatives. These studies
may be conducted by EPA or the State or, under their monitor-
ing, by private parties.

Like the initial site inspection described earlier, a remedial
investigation involves an examination of site data in order to
better define the problem.  But the remedial investigation is
much more detailed and comprehensive than the initial site
inspection.

A remedial investigation can best be described as a carefully
designed field study.  It includes extensive sampling and
laboratory analyses to generate more precise data on the types
and quantities of wastes present at the site, the type of soil and
water drainage patterns, and specific human health and
environmental risks. The result is information that allows
EPA to select the cleanup strategy that is best suited to a
particular site or to determine that no cleanup is needed.
                %  N -T^ *

v. 'I-
    r -.-.,  f*- **^     "• ^ f -. v.> X •.

    •. _N'1% .  . ~~* ~ f •. % *••:•.> -.V.W.SSSV
                «"j£>e*»wwj~ vAfi
                   , '*}$$?*•'•
                                           XI

-------

 identified and
 evaluated?.,.
       the
fa say in. the final ^
'cleanup
Placing a site on the NPL does not necessarily mean that
cleanup is needed. It is possible for a site to receive an HRS
score high enough to be added to the NPL, but not ultimately
require cleanup actions.  Keep in mind that the purpose of the
scoring process is to provide a preliminary and conservative
assessment of potential risk. During subsequent site investiga-
tions, the EPA may find either that there is no real threat or
that the site does not pose significant human health or envi-
ronmental risks.
EPA or the State or, under their monitoring, private parties
identify and analyze specific site cleanup needs based on the
extensive information collected during the remedial investiga-
tion. This analysis of cleanup alternatives is called a feasibility
study.

Since cleanup actions must be tailored exactly to the needs of
each individual site, more than one possible cleanup alterna-
tive is always considered. After making sure that all potential
cleanup remedies fully protect human health and the environ-
ment and comply with Federal and State laws, the advantages
and disadvantages of each cleanup alternative are carefully
compared. These comparisons are made to determine their
effectiveness in the short- and long-term, their use of perma-
nent treatment solutions, and their technical feasibility and
cost.

To the maximum extent practicable, the remedy must be a
permanent solution and use treatment technologies to destroy
principal site contaminants. But remedies such as containing
the waste on site or removing the source of the problem (like
leaking barrels) are often considered effective.  Often special
pilot studies are conducted to determine the effectiveness and
feasibility of using a particular technology to clean up a site.
Therefore, the combined remedial  investigation and feasibility
study can take between 10 and 30 months to complete, de-
pending on the size and complexity of the problem.
Yes. The Superfund law requires that the public be given the
opportunity to comment on the proposed cleanup plan. Their
concerns are carefully considered before a final decision is
made.
          Xll

-------
The results of the remedial investigation and feasibility study,
which also point out the recommended cleanup choice, are
published in a report for public review and comment. EPA or
the State encourages the public to review the information and
take an active role in the final cleanup decision. Fact sheets
and announcements in local papers let the community know
where they can get copies of the study and other reference
documents concerning the site.

The public has a minimum of 30 days to comment on the
proposed cleanup plan after it is published.  These comments
can either be written or given verbally at public meetings that
EPA or the State are required to hold. Neither EPA nor the
State can select the final cleanup remedy without evaluating
and providing written answers to specific community com-
ments and concerns. This "responsiveness summary" is part
of EPA's write-up of the final remedy decision, called the
Record of Decision or ROD.

The ROD is a public document that explains the cleanup
remedy chosen and the reason it was selected. Since sites
frequently are large and must be cleaned up in stages, a ROD
may be necessary for each contaminated resource or area of
the site. This may be necessary when contaminants have
spread into the soil, water and air, and affect such sensitive
areas as wetlands, or when the site is large and cleaned up in
stages. This often means that a number of remedies using
different cleanup technologies are needed to clean up a single
site.
 Yes. Before a specific cleanup action is carried out, it must be
 designed in detail to meet specific site needs. This stage of the
 cleanup is called the remedial design. The design phase
 provides the details on how the selected remedy will be
 engineered and constructed.

 Projects to clean up a hazardous waste site may appear to be
 like any other major construction project but, in fact, the likely
 presence of combinations of dangerous chemicals demands
 special construction planning and procedures. Therefore, the
 design of the remedy can take anywhere from 6 months to 2
 years to complete. This blueprint for site cleanup includes not
 only the details on  every aspect of the construction work, but a
 description of the types of hazardous wastes expected at the
* ^ ^-S™'"™™ "•?•  % ••" vJ£™«*»'% «~

^  ^- V. -.V. ^ ^,. ^."^ '•'•'• f   v ,_ •?- X %"~ "• ?
 *•  ._ * ••    % %  -. v,v.%w^--%v  s v    5
W.5-.    "•*•     ^ \ x% %%<. %^ v_ ^ % Xv^. •. ^ .,
  ™«s^«< •• * f •.'  •"• ••••f' \:   ••f'-Vf &• '-I
•• -   "•   ^ «»*«'*,     |. *     '*
   ''"'• ,    y--.-. vv...       %   f, !

w^"  **  % ^^^'"'^''^ ^^*  -5-1" ~ \\\w-vv.v  f •. *•
TO" v   iXxv   ^4  jv«^JJ.. svmi" ••:
™-  -4^--x;,^ ;-ts -\
••  ^ •^-.'.'.••V %   ff        ^  v —   ,
; ^ % %^> '    '     v"%  •• ""•  '-'•*'?''' \

   *"» , ^*"   "\ \ v,VJ  * \v»^
                 ' %~   % % % V" v i
                                           xiii

-------
[Once the Design is     !
fcomplete, how long    1
rdoes it takejx>        "|
 actually clean tip the   J
*$ite and
      it cost?
iiiiiiini ill
pnce the cleanup     "• s*
Iction is complete, is   !
|he site automatically  j
^'deleted* Jfronj tiye     1
NPL?   *     " \    j
                     3£
                   v A ^
                            site, special plans for environmental protection; worker safety,
                            regulatory compliance, and equipment decontamination.
                            The time and cost for performing the site cleanup — called the
                            remedial action — are as varied as the remedies themselves.
                            In a few cases, the only action needed may be to remove
                            drums of hazardous waste and decontaminate them — an
                            action that takes limited time and money. In most cases,
                            however, a remedial action may involve different and expen-
                            sive measures that can take a long time.

                            For example, cleaning polluted groundwater or dredging
                            contaminated river bottoms can take several years of complex
                            engineering work before contamination is reduced to safe
                            levels. Sometimes the selected cleanup remedy described in
                            the ROD may need to be modified because of new contami-
                            nant information discovered or difficulties that were faced
                            during the early cleanup activities. Taking into account these
                            differences, a remedial cleanup action takes an average of 18
                            months to complete and costs an average of $26 million per
                            site.                    •
                            No. The deletion of a site from the NPL is anything but auto-
                            matic. For example, cleanup of contaminated groundwater
                            may take up to 20 years or longer. Also, in some cases the
                            long-term monitoring of the remedy is required to ensure that
                            it is effective. After construction of certain remedies, opera-
                            tion and maintenance (e.g., maintenance of ground cover,
                            groundwater monitoring, etc.) or continued pumping and
                            treating of groundwater, may be required to ensure that the
                            remedy continues to prevent future health hazards or environ-
                            mental damage, and ultimately meets the cleanup goals
                            specified in the ROD. Sites in this final monitoring or opera-
                            tional stage of the cleanup process are designated as "con-
                            struction completed".

                            It's not until a site cleanup meets all the goals and monitoring
                            requirements of the selected remedy that EPA can officially
                            propose the site for "deletion" from the NPL. And it's not
                            until public comments are taken into consideration that a site
                            can actually be deleted from the NPL.  Deletions that have
                            occurred are included in the "Construction Complete" cate-
                            gory in the progress report found later in this book.
                                      xiv

-------
Yes. Based on the belief that "the polluters should pay," after a
site is placed On the NPL, the EPA makes a thorough effort to
identify and find those responsible for causing contamination
problems at a site. Although EPA is willing to negotiate with
these private parties and encourages voluntary cleanup, it has
the authority under the Super fund law to legally force those
potentially responsible for site hazards to take specific cleanup
actions. All work performed by these parties is closely guided
and monitored by EPA, and must meet the same standards
required for actions financed through the Superfund.

Because these enforcement actions can be lengthy, EPA may
decide to use Superfund monies to make sure a site is cleaned
up without unnecessary delay. For example, if a site presents
an imminent threat to public health and the environment, or if
conditions at a site may worsen, it could be necessary to start
the cleanup right away.  Those responsible for causing site
contamination are liable under the kw for repaying the money
EPA spends in cleaning up the site.

Whenever possible, EPA and the Department of Justice use
their legal enforcement authorities to require responsible
parties to pay for site cleanups, thereby preserving the Super-
fund for emergency actions and sites where no responsible
parties can be identified.
^
        ^
*•* ^
                                                                   ~«N '
                                                                 «?

                                                                 t "
                                                                             ''£-'•'
                                                                             *,„'
                                                                                 *"*-;j ••„
                                                                                 < ^ >_--^K^

                                                                                 JJJOTW."
                                          , XV

-------
TAX

-------
T     I* he Site Fact Sheets
      "' presented in this book
       are comprehensive
summaries that cover a broad
range of information. The
fact sheets describe hazard-
ous waste sites on the Na-
tional Priorities List (NPL)
and their locations, as well as
the conditions leading to their
listing ("Site Description").
They list the types of con-
taminants that have been dis-
covered and related threats to
public and ecological health
("Threats and Contami-
nants"). "Cleanup Ap-
proach" presents an overview
of the cleanup activities
completed, underway, or
planned. The fact sheets
conclude with a brief synop-
sis of how much progress has
been made on protecting
public health and the envi-
ronment. The summaries also
pinpoint other actions, such
as legal efforts to involve pol-
luters responsible for site
contamination and commu-
nity concerns.

The following two pages
show a generic fact sheet and
briefly describes the informa-
tion under each section. The
square "icons" or symbols ac-
companying the text allow
the reader to see at a glance
which environmental re-
sources are affected and the
status of cleanup activities.
Icons in the Threats
and Contaminants
Section
       Contaminated
       Groundwater re-
       sources in the vicinity
or underlying the site.
(Groundwater is often used
as a drinking water source.)
       Contaminated Sur-
       face Water and
       Sediments on or near
the site. (These include lakes,
ponds, streams, and rivers.)
       Contaminated Air in
       the vicinity of the
       site. (Pollution is
usually periodic and involves
contaminated dust particles
or hazardous gas emissions.)
       Contaminated Soil
       and Sludges on or
       near the site.
       Threatened or
       contaminated Envi-
       ronmentally Sensi-
tive Areas in the vicinity of
the site. (Examples include
wetlands and coastal areas,
critical habitats.)
Icons in the Response
Action Status  Section
               Actions
         have been taken or
        are underway to
eliminate immediate threats
at the site.
          Site Studies at the
          site are planned or
          underway.
         Remedy Selected
         indicates that site
         investigations have
         been concluded
         and EPA has se-
lected a final cleanup remedy
for the site or part of the site.
           Remedy Design
           means that engi-
           neers are prepar-
           ing specifications
and drawings for the selected
cleanup technologies.
         Cleanup Ongoing
         indicates that the
         selected cleanup
         remedies for the
contaminated site — or part
of the site — are currently
underway.
         Cleanup  Complete
         shows that all
         cleanup goals have
         been achieved for
the contaminated site or part
of the site.
                                        xvu

-------
      Site Responsibility

 Identifies the Federal, State,
 and/or potentially responsible
 parties that are taking
 responsibility for cleanup
 actions at the site.
                                                           EPA REGION
                                                        CONGRESSIONAL DIST
                                                            County Name
SITE NAME

STATE
EPA 1D# ABCOOOOOOOO
   NPL Listing
   History

Dates when the site
was Proposed,
made Final, and
Deleted from the
NPL
       -Threats and Contaminants-
                      Cleanup Approach
                       Response Action Status
                        Site Facts:
                        Environmental Progress
                         Environmental Progress

  A summary of the actions to reduce the threats to nearby residents and
  the surrounding environment; progress towards cleaning up the site
  and goals of the cleanup plan are given here.
                                    xviii

-------
             WHAT THE FACT SHEETS CONTAIN
                           Site Description

This section describes the location and history of the site.  It includes
descriptions of the most recent activities and past actions at the site that have
contributed to the contamination. Population estimates, land usages, and nearby
resources give readers background on the local setting surrounding the site.
Throughout the site description and other sections of the site summary, technical
or unfamiliar terms that are italicized are presented in the glossary at the end of
the book. Please refer to the glossary for more detailed explanation or definition
of the terms.
                        Threats and Contaminants

     The major chemical categories of site contamination are noted as well as
     which environmental resources are affected.  Icons representing each of the
     affected resources (may include air, groundwater, surface water, soil and
     contamination to environmentally sensitive areas) are included in the margins
     of this section.  Potential threats to residents and the surrounding
     environments arising from the site contamination are also described. Specific
     contaminants and contaminant groupings are italicized and explained in more
     detail in the glossary.
                               Cleanup Approach

      This section contains a brief overview of how the site is being cleaned up.
                         Response Action Status

   Specific actions that have been accomplished or will be undertaken to clean up
   the site are described here.  Cleanup activities at NPL sites are divided into
   separate phases depending on the complexity and required actions at the site.
   Two major types of cleanup activities are often described: initial, immediate or
   emergency actions to quickly remove or reduce imminent threats to the
   community and surrounding areas; and long-term remedial phases directed at
   final cleanup at the site.  Each stage of the cleanup strategy is presented in this
   section of the summary.  Icons representing the stage of the cleanup process
   (initial actions, site investigations, EPA selection of the cleanup remedy,
   engineering design phase, cleanup activities underway and completed cleanup)
   are located in the margin next to each activity description.
                          Site Facts

 Additional information on activities and events at the site are included in this
 section.  Often details on legal or administrative actions taken by EPA to achieve
 site cleanup or other facts pertaining to community involvement with the site
 cleanup process are reported here.
                                        XIX

-------
The fact sheets are arranged
in alphabetical order by site
name. Because site cleanup is
a dynamic and gradual
process, all site information is
accurate as of the date shown
on the bottom of each page.
Progress is always being
made at NPL sites, and EPA
will periodically update the
Site Fact Sheets to reflect
recent actions and publish
updated State volumes.
HOW CAN YOU USE
THIS STATE BOOK?

You can use this book to keep
informed about the sites that
concern you, particularly
ones close to home. EPA is
committed to involving the
public in the decisionmaking
process associated with
hazardous waste cleanup.
The Agency solicits input
from area residents in com-
munities affected by Super-
fund sites. Citizens are likely
to be affected not only by
hazardous site conditions, but
also by the remedies that
combat them. Site cleanups
take many forms and can
affect communities in differ-
ent ways. Local traffic may
be rerouted, residents may be
relocated, temporary water
supplies may be necessary.

Definitive information on a
site can help citizens sift
through alternatives and
make decisions. To make
good choices, you must know
what the threats are and how
EPA intends to clean up the
site. You must understand
the cleanup alternatives being
proposed for site cleanup and
how residents may be af-
fected by each one. You also
need to have some idea of
how your community intends
to use the site in the future
and to know what the com-
munity can realistically
expect once the cleanup is
complete.

EPA wants to develop
cleanup methods that meet
community needs, but the
Agency can only take local
concerns into account if it
understands what they are.
Information must travel both
ways in order for cleanups to
be effective and satisfactory.
Please take this opportunity
to learn more, become in-
volved, and assure that
hazardous waste cleanup at
"your" site considers your
community's concerns.
                                         xx

-------
      NPL Sites  in
      State of Ne
New York, a middle Atlantic state, is bordered by the New England states, the Atlantic
Ocean, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Lakes Ontario and Erie, and Canada. The State
covers 49,108 square miles and consists of the rugged mountains of the Adirondacks in
the northeast, lowlands along the Canadian border and in the west, Appalachian High-
lands in the central region, and Atlantic Coastal Plains in the southeast. New York
experienced a 2.0 percent increase in population during the 1980s and currently has
approximately 17,909,000 residents, ranking 2nd in U.S. populations. Principal State
industries include manufacturing, finance,  communications, tourism, transportation, and
services. New York manufactures books and periodicals, clothing and apparel, instru-
ments, toys and sporting goods, automotive and aircraft components, electronic equip-
ment machinery, and Pharmaceuticals.
How Many New York Sites
Are on the NPL?
Proposed         2
Final            81
Deleted          _Q
                83
                        Where Are the NPL Sites Located?

                        Cong. District 07, 23, 31, 33, 35          1 site
                        Cong. District 03, 05, 27                2 sites
                        Cong. District 01                       3 sites
                        Cong. District 22, 26, 30, 34             4 sites
                        Cong. District 21, 25, 29                5 sites
                        Cong. District 24                      6 sites
                        Cong. District 04                      7 sites
                        Cong. District 28, 32                   8 sites
                        Cong. District 02                      9 sites

How are Sites Contaminated and What are the Principal* Chemicals ?
   80-r
        GW  Soil  SW  Seds
          Contamination Area
                    Air  Solid &
                        Liquid
                        Waste
State Overview
                                      XXI
Ground water:  Heavy metals
(inorganics), volatile organic
compounds {VOCs), and
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Soil, Solid and Liquid Waste:  Heavy
metals (inorganics), volatile organic
compounds (VOCs), and pesticides.
Surface Water and Sediments:
Heavy metals (inorganics), volatile
organic compounds (VOCs),
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),
creosotes (organics),and pesticides.
Air: Volatile organic compounds
(VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls
{PCBs), gases, and radiation.
*Appear at 10% or more sites
                           continued

-------
             Where are the Sites in the Superfund Cleanup Process*?
      Site
     Studies
Remedy .
Selected'
h Remedy
* Design
Cleanup
Ongoing
Construction
  Complete
    Initial actions have been taken at 47 site as interim cleanup measures.
                         Who Do I Call with Questions?
The following pages describe each NPL site in New York, providing specific information
on threats and contaminants, cleanup activities, and environmental progress. Should
you have questions, please call one of the offices listed below:
             New York Superfund Office
             EPA Region II Superfund Office
             EPA Public Information Office
             EPA Superfund Hotline
             EPA Region II Superfund Public
                 Relations Office
                                (518)457-5861
                                (212)264-9858
                                (202) 477-7751
                                (800) 424-9346
                                (212)264-7054
'Cleanup status reflects phase of site activities rather than administrative accomplishments.

State Overview                             xxii

-------
The JVPL Progress  Report	

 The following Progress Report lists the State sites currently on or deleted from the NPL,
 and briefly summarizes the status of activities for each site at the time this report was
 prepared. The steps in the Superf und cleanup process are arrayed across the top of the
 chart, and each site's progress through these steps is represented by an arrow (•>-) which
 indicates the current stage of cleanup at the site.

 Large and complex sites are often organized into several cleanup stages.  For example,
 separate cleanup efforts may be required to address the source of the contamination,
 hazardous substances in the groundwater, and surface water pollution, or to clean up
 different areas of a large site. In such cases, the chart portrays cleanup progress at the
 site's most advanced stage, reflecting the status of site activities rather than administrative
 accomplishments.
 •*•  An arrow in the "Initial Response" category indicates that an emergency cleanup or
    initial action  has been completed or is currently underway. Emergency or initial  actions
    are taken as an interim measure to provide immediete relief from exposure to
    hazardous site conditions or to stabilize a site to prevent further contamination.
•»•  An arrow in the "Site Studies" category indicates that an investigation to determine the
    nature and extent of the contamination at the site  is currently ongoing or planned to
    begin in 1991.
•>•  An arrow in the "Remedy Selection" category means that the EPA has selected the
    final  cleanup strategy for the site. At the few sites where the EPA has determined that
    initial response actions have eliminated site contamination, or that any remaining
    contamination will be naturally dispersed without further cleanup activities, a "No
    Action" remedy is selected.  In these cases, the arrows in the Progress Report are
    discontinued at the "Remedy Selection" step and  resume in the final "Construction
    Complete" category.
•*•  An arrow at the "Remedial Design" stage  indicates that engineers are currently
    designing the technical specifications for the selected cleanup remedies and
    technologies.
*-  An arrow marking the "Cleanup Ongoing" category means that final cleanup actions
    have been started at the site and are currently underway.
•»• A arrow in the "Construction Complete" category is used on/y when all phases of the
   site cleanup plan have been performed and the EPA has determined that no additional
   construction actions are required  at the site.  Some sites in this category may currently
    be undergoing long-term pumping and treating of groundwater, operation and
    maintenance or monitoring to ensure that the completed cleanup actions continue to
   protect human health and the environment.

The sites are listed in alphabetical order. Further information on the activities and progress
at each site is given in the site "Fact Sheets" published in this volume.
                                     XXIll

-------
Progress Toward Cleanup at
Page Site Name
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
ACTION ANODIZING AND PLATING
AMERICAN THERMOSTAT
ANCHOR CHEMICALS
APPLIED ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES
BATAVIA LANDFILL
BEC TRUCKING
BIOCLINICAL LABORATORIES, INC.
BREWSTER WELL FIELD
BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LAB.
BYRON BARREL AND DRUM
C&J DISPOSAL SITE
CARROL AND DUBIES
CIRCUITRON CORPORATION
CLAREMONT POLYCHEMICAL
CLOTHIER DISPOSAL
COLESVILLE MUNICIPAL LANDFILL
CONKLIN DUMPS
CORTESE LANDFILL
NVL, sites
County
SUFFOLK
GREENE
NASSAU
NASSAU
GENESEE
BROOME
SUFFOLK
PUTNAM
SUFFOLK
GENESEE
MADISON
ORANGE
SUFFOLK
NASSAU
OSWEGO
BROOME
BROOME
SULLIVAN
in tni
NPL
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
e axare c
Date
03/30/89
09/01/83
06/01/86
06/01/86
09/01/83
06/01/86
03/30/89
09/01/83
10/21/89
06/01/86
03/30/89
02/21/90
03/30/89
06/01/86
06/01/86
06/01/86
03/30/89
06/01/86
>i new xoris 	 — — 	
Initial Site Remedy Remedy Cleanup Construction
Response Studies Selected Design Ongoing Complete
*
+ *•***•
•*• *
* +
*
*• *
*
* * * *
•^
*• *• *• *•
*
•^
^ ^
"^ * ^ ^ "^
^ * * *
* *
*
. "^ . .
XXIV

-------
Page  Site Name
                               Initial      Site      Remedy  Remedy  Cleanup  Construction
County        NPL    Date      Response   Studies   Selected Design   Ongoing  Complete
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55
57
59
61
63
65
67
70
72
74
ENDICOTT VILLAGE WELL FIELD
FACET ENTERPRISES
FMC - DUBLIN ROAD
FOREST GLEN SUBDIVISION
FULTON TERMINALS
GE-MOREAUSITE
GENERAL MOTORS/CENTRAL FOUNDRY
GENZALE PLATING COMPANY
GOLDISC RECORDINGS, INC.
GRIFFISS AIR FORCE BASE
HAVILAND COMPLEX
HERTEL LANDFILL
HOOKER -102ND STREET
HOOKER CHEM./RUCO POLYMER
HOOKER CHEM./S-AREA
HOOKER - HYDE PARK
HUDSON RIVER PCBS
ISLIP MUNICPAL SANITARY LANDFILL
JOHNSTOWN CITY LANDFILL
BROOME
CHEMUNG
ORLEANS
NIAGARA
OSWEGO
SARATOGA
ST. LAWRENCE
NASSAU
SUFFOLK
ONEIDA
DUTCHESS
ULSTER
NIAGARA
NASSAU
NIAGARA
NIAGARA
WARREN
SUFFOLK
FULTON
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
06/01/86 •*• "*• «K •*• •*-
09/01/83 *"
06/01/86 •*•
11/21/89 *• *• *• +* +
09/01/83 •*• «*• **
09/01/83 •*• + «*- *- *- _ *•
09/01/84 •*• «*••
07/01/87 •*• •*•
06/01/86 «^-
07/01/87 "^ "*"
06/01/86 «*- «*• ^" «*• ^>
06/01/86 *•
09/01^3 *• "^
06/01/86 "K
09/01/83 "^ ^- B^" •»-
09/01/83 ^ «^ ^- B^
09/01/84 "K "^ "^ •*•
03^0/89 «^
06/01/86 "^
                                                                XXV

-------
Page  She Name
County
                                                      NPL   Date
Initial     Site     Remedy  Remedy  Cleanup Construction
Response  Studies  Selected Design   Ongoing Complete
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
91
93
95
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
JONES CHEMICALS, INC.
JONES SANITATION
KATONAH MUNICIPAL WELL
KENMARK TEXTILE CORP.
KENTUCKY AVE WELL FIELD
LIBERTY INDUSTRIAL FINISHING
LOVE CANAL
LUDLOW SAND AND GRAVEL
MALTA ROCKET FUEL AREA
MARATHON BATTERY COMPANY
MATTIACE PETROCHEMICALS COMPANY
MERCURY REFINING, INC.
NEPERA CHEMICAL COMPANY, INC.
NIAGARA CITY REFUSE
NIAGARA MOHAWK /OPERATIONS HQ
NORTH SEA MUNICIPAL LANDFILL
OLD BETHPAGE LANDFILL
OLEAN WELL FIELD
PASLEY SOLVENTS AND CHEMICAL INC.
LIVINGSTON
DUTCHESS
WESTCHESTER
SUFFOLK
CHEMUNG
NASSAU
NIAGARA
ONEIDA
SARATOGA
PUTNAM
NASSAU
ALBANY
ORANGE
NIAGARA
SARATOGA
SUFFOLK
NASSAU
CATTARAUGUS
NASSAU
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
02/21/90 "^ •*•
07/01/87 •*•
06/01/86 •»•*-*•
06/01/86 •*• •*-
09/01/83 •*" •*• "*" •** •*"
06/01/86 «*- •*•
09/01/83 +- + + +-+•
09/01/83 •*- •*• •*•
07/01/87 •*•
09/01/83 +- + + +'
03/30/89 •*• •*"
09/01/83 "*• *• "*• ^ **"
06/01/86 "^ •*•
09/01/83 •*"
02/21/90 •*•
06/01/86 •*• "^ "*" *"
09/01/83 "*• •*• •*" *"
09/01/83 •*- "^ •*" "^ • "*"
06/01/86 *^

-------
Page  Site Name
                                Initial      Site     Remedy  Remedy  Cleanup  Construction
County        NPL    Date       Response  Studies  Selected Design   Ongoing  Complete
116
118
120
122
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
148
150
152
PLATTSBURGH AIR FORCE BASE
POLLUTION ABATEMENT SERVICES
PORT WASHINGTON LANDFILL
PREFERRED PLATING CORPORATION
RADIUM CHEMICAL
RAMAPO LANDFILL
RICHARDSON HILL ROAD LANDFILL
ROBINTECH INC./NATIONAL PIPE
ROSEN SITE
ROWE INDUSTRIES GW CONTMN.
SARNEY FARM
SEALAND RESTORATION
SENECA ARMY DEPOT
SIDNEY LANDFILL
SINCLAIR REFINERY
SMS INSTRUMENTS INC.
SOLVENT SAVERS
SUFFERN VILLAGE WELL FIELD
SYOSSET LANDFILL
CLINTON
OSWEGO
NASSAU
SUFFOLK
QUEENS
ROCKLAND
DELAWARE
BROOME
CORTLAND
SUFFOLK
DUTCHESS
ST. LAWRENCE
SENECA
DELAWARE
ALLEGANY
SUFFOLK
CHENANGO
ROCKLAND
NASSAU
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Prop.
Prop.
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
11/21/89 *•
09/01/83 + •*- *- + *~
09/01/83 + + +
06/01/86 •*- ** +•
11/21/89 *• "K *•
09/01/83 •*-
07/01/87 "^ •**
06/01/86 «K
03/30/89 "K «K
07/01/87 «K *•
06/01/86 "K «K
10/26/89 "^ «^
07/14/89 «^
03/30/89 "K «K
09/01/83 ^ "^ *• «h
06/01/86 "K "^ «^ ^~
09/01/83 •*- «^
06/01/86 •*•*>*-
09/01/83 "K ^-
                                                             XXVII

-------
Pago  Site Mama
County
NPL    Date
Initial      Site     Remedy  Remedy  Cleanup  Construction
Response   Studies  Selected  Design   Ongoing  Complete
154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168
TRI-CITY BARREL
TRONIC PLATING COMPANY
VESTAL WATER SUPPLY 1-1
VESTAL WATER SUPPLY 4-2
VOLNEY MUNICIPAL LANDFILL
WARWICK LANDFILL
WIDE BEACH DEVELOPMENT
YORK OIL COMPANY
BROOME
SUFFOLK
BROOME
BROOME
OSWEGO
ORANGE
ERIE
FRANKLIN
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
10/04/89
06/01/86
09/01/83
09/01/83
06/01/86
03/30/89
09/08/83
09/01/83
^
*
+ + + + +
+ *• *• 4- *•
•K *-
*•
*• ^ ^ *• *•
*• ^- *• *•
                                                              XXVIII

-------

-------

-------
   ACTION  ANODIZIN

   AND PLATING
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD072366453
Site Description
         REGION 2
  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
          Suffolk County
1 mile east of the Nassau/Suffolk Co. line
   Action Anodizing and Plating is a 1-acre site located at 33 Dixon Avenue in a residential
   area of Copiague.  Action Anodizing has been operating as a small industrial facility
   since  1968, sealing, cleaning, anodizing, dyeing, and cadmium-plating aluminum parts.
   The facility was previously an industrial laundry. Before 1980, workers discharged
   process wastewater containing high concentrations of heavy metals into underground
   leaching pools. Wastes appear to have been spilled onto the soil in at least one area.
   Under the direction and approval of the Suffolk County Department of Health Services,
   the shop excavated the leaching pools and backfilled them with clean sand. Action
   expanded  its building over these areas in 1984. Single family homes are located across
   the street  from Action. Two schools and a hospital are located within a mile of the site
   and nine other schools are located within 5,900 feet.  Wells are the sole source of
   drinking water in the area; at least one public well field is within 1 mile of the site.
   Approximately 1 million residents of Suffolk and Nassau Counties obtain drinking water
   from public wells within 3 miles of the site. Soils on the site are permeable and
   groundwater is shallow, conditions that make it easier for contaminants to move into
   groundwater. Amityville Creek, a small tributary to Great South Bay, is 1/2 mile
   southeast  of the facility. The upper reach of the creek is designated as a freshwater
   wetland.
  site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
     NPL LISTING HISTORY

     Proposed Date: 06/24/88

      Final Date: 03/30/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The on-site leaching pool system contains heavy metals, including
               chromium, iron and zinc. Surface soil from a suspected spillage area
               contains chromium and cadmium. As of late 1989, the three public water
               supply wells within a mile of the site were clean of contaminants.
               However, the water table is at about 10 feet, so exposure could occur if
               groundwater became contaminated and seeped into adjacent basements
               or if soil vapors were to enter the residences.
   March 1990
                         NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                                         1
                    continued

-------
                                                    ACTION ANODIZING AND PLATING
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status


            Entire Site: In 1989, the EPA began an intensive study of pollution problems
            at and around the Action property. This investigation is exploring the nature
  ,	„ and extent of contamination and includes sampling of both groundwater and
  soils for metals and organic compounds. On the basis of the sampling results, the EPA
  is scheduled to recommend the best strategies for final cleanup in early 1991.
   Environmental Progress
   After listing the Action Anodizing and Plating site on the NPL, the EPA performed a
   preliminary evaluation and determined that no immediate actions were required to
   make the site safer while investigations leading to the selection of a final cleanup
   remedy are taking place.

-------
   AMERICAN

   THERMOSTAT
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD002066330
       REGION 2
CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 24
        Greene County
         South Cairo
Site Description
   From 1954 to 1985, American Thermostat Corporation built thermostats for small
   appliances at this 8-acre site in South Cairo. Located in the Catskill Creek Valley, the
   site and much of the nearby community are bordered by Routes 23 and 23B. The
   company was the only manufacturer in the vicinity, which is a popular tourist and
   residential area. In 1981, The New York State Department of Environmental
   Conservation discovered American Thermostat employees improperly disposing of
   chemicals at the site. The State learned that workers had been pouring waste organic
   solvents down drains attached to an abandoned septic system for a number of years.
   Solvents and sludges had also been dumped on the parking lot. State health personnel
   tested wells in the vicinity in the spring of 1981 and found six to be contaminated with
   trichloroethylene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including
   tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The health department advised affected residents not to
   drink or cook with their well water. By late 1982, the company had installed carbon
   filters on its own well and on those of four affected  homes. The home located next to
   the plant was hooked up to the company water supply. The company ceased
   operations in 1985 and filed involuntary bankruptcy without completely fulfilling its
   agreements with regard  to site cleanup. Approximately 5,000 people live within a 3-
   mile radius of the site, primarily in low-density residential areas. All homes within 1/2
   mile of the site use private wells. Catskill Creek, less than 1/4 mile east of the site, is
   classified as a trout stream and has considerable recreational value to local and visiting
   fishermen.
   Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                  Threats and Contaminants
   NPL. LISTING HISTORY

   Proposed Date: 12/01/82

     Final Date: 09/01/83
               Groundwater and drinking water in the site vicinity are contaminated with
               VOCs, including PCE and TCE. An estimated 26,000 square feet of soil at
               the site is contaminated with TCE and PCE to a depth of 7 feet. In the
               early 1980s, TCE and PCE were detected in two tributaries to Catskill
               Creek, but the creek itself (near Leeds) showed no contamination.
               Adverse human health effects may occur from consuming or coming into
               direct contact with contaminated groundwater or soil.
   March 1990
                         NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                         3
                  continued

-------
                                                           AMERICAN THERMOSTAT
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in three stages: immediate actions and two long-term
  remedial phases focusing on provision of a new water supply and cleanup of the entire
  site.

  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions:  Under State orders, the owners agreed to clean up
              the site and its surroundings; provide, monitor, and maintain carbon
              filtration systems for five affected wells; and supply bottled water for
   consumption at the affected homes. However, when the company went out of
   business in May 1985, it stopped providing bottled water and abandoned the
   maintenance of carbon filtration systems at the affected homes. The State requested
   that the EPA sample other drinking wells near the site; provide bottled water and
   carbon filtration systems, where necessary; and take over maintenance of clean water
   systems at the originally affected homes. The EPA installed two air stripping systems
   at the site. The stripping systems have treated over 7 million gallons of contaminated
   groundwater to date. A system of seven extraction and reinjection wells and a soil
   vacuum extraction system were installed at the site in 1989 for the purpose of
   accelerating the treatment of the groundwater.

              Water Supply: In January 1988, the EPA selected a remedy that would
              assure a clean water supply to residents near the site. It includes
              extending the existing Catskill water district pipeline from Sandy Plains
   Road or from Rudolph Weir Road to the affected and potentially affected areas.  The
   exact route of the pipeline will be determined during design.  The EPA began the
   engineering design for this remedy in 1988; it is planned for completion in 1991.

               Entire Site: The EPA began an intensive study of the sources of site
               contamination in late 1987.  This investigation explored the nature and
               extent of groundwater pollution and its sources and recommended the
               best strategies for final correction. The study was completed in May
   1990. The actions recommended for cleanup of the site include low-temperature
   treatment of the contaminated soil, air stripping and carbon adsorption for treatment of
   the groundwater, and decontamination of the building at the site. A final decision on
   cleanup actions is expected in 1990, to be followed by the engineering design of the
   selected remedy.
   Environmental Progress
   The design for the alternate water supply to the affected residences is scheduled to
   begin soon.  Bottled water and carbon treatment systems are currently being provided
   to those needing it, reducing the potential for exposure to site contaminants until final
   cleanup actions can be taken.

-------
   ANCHOR CHEM
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD001485226
Site Description
                                                         REGION 2
                                                 CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 04
                                                         Nassau County
                                                   Hicksvllle, near Cantiaque Park
   Anchor Chemicals, later known as Anchor-Lith Kem Ko, operated on this 1  1/2-acre site
   in Hicksville from 1964 to 1984. The company blended and packed chemicals for the
   graphic arts industry. A construction company is now using the building as a
   warehouse. While Anchor was in business, workers stored chemicals above and
   below the ground; 17 underground storage tanks ranging in capacity from 550 to 4,000
   gallons lie beneath the concrete floor of the building.  Between mid-1981 and early
   1983, six leaking underground tanks were taken out of service or removed. The
   company installed three monitoring wells in 1982.  These revealed that subsurface soil
   and groundwater were contaminated with chlorinated organics.  From 1982 to 1987,
   the party potentially responsible for the site contamination conducted groundwater
   monitoring. Contamination appears to be limited to the subsurface environment.  Other
   sites nearby are under investigation by the State and may be affecting the Anchor
   Chemicals site.  The area surrounding the site is residential, and the Cantiaque Park and
   golf course is located 100 yards north of the site. Approximately 90,000 people within
   3 miles of the site draw their drinking water from municipal and private wells.
   Groundwater is also used for irrigation and industrial processes.  Approximately 12,000
   people live within a mile of the facility;  11 schools are situated within 1  1/2 miles of the
   site.
  Site Responsibility:
              This site is being addressed through
              Federal and potentially responsible
              parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
IA
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater and subsurface soils on site are contaminated with volatile
               organic compounds (VOCs), although levels observed in three monitoring
               wells have been decreasing over time. The only likely route of exposure
               is the contaminated groundwater.  Public water is available to everyone in
               the area.  However, contaminated groundwater is a potential  threat to the
               water supply wells of the Westbury, Hicksville, and Bowling Green water
               districts, which are all located less than 6,500 feet southwest of the site.
   March 1990
                  NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                  5
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                              ANCHOR CHEMICALS
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two phases: an immediate action and a long-term
  remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status


          x**  Immediate Action: The site was fenced, and access is limited to present
              tenants of the building.

              Entire Site: The party potentially responsible for contamination at the site
              signed an Administrative Order on Consent to perform a study of the site
              in April 1989.  This investigation, which began later in 1989, will map out
  the nature and extent of the problem and will recommend the best strategies for final
  cleanup. It is scheduled for completion in late 1991.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding the Anchor Chemicals site to the NPL, the EPA determined, after an initial
   evaluation, that the site does not currently pose an immediate threat to the surrounding
   community or the environment while investigations into a final cleanup remedy are
   taking place.

-------
   APPLIED

   ENVIRONME

   SERVICES
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980535652

Site Description	
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 03
                                          Nassau County
                                         Glenwood Landing

                                              Alias:
                                       Philips Petroleum Co.
   Applied Environmental Services recovered fuels from hazardous wastes at this
   4-acre'site in Glenwood Landing from 1980 to 1983. The property contains two 1-story
   buildings; 7 underground tanks; and 11 aboveground tanks, 7 of which are 30 feet
   above-grade on an earthen wall. Although all the liquid chemicals stored in the tanks
   have been removed from the site, spills, leaks, or other activities have left on-site soil,
   groundwater, and surface waters contaminated.  The current owner of the site. Shore
   Realty, purchased it in 1983 and evicted Applied Environmental Services in January
   1984. The site has been inactive since; it is fenced and access is controlled. Before
   1980, the site was leased and operated by a petrochemical company: Several spills
   occurred during its tenure, including about 3,000 gallons of the volatile organic
   compound (VOC) toluene from an overturned tank trailer. The site is on  the north shore
   of Long Island; it slopes down to Hempstead Harbor on the west and Mott Cove on the
   south. A fuel oil distributor, power plant, and public boat landing lie to the north, and
   there is a private yacht club to the east. During past site inspections, the State and the
   EPA observed leaking barrels, tanks of solvents, and an oil sheen in Mott Cove. In
   1985 and 1988, leachate was discharging into Hempstead Harbor from the bulkhead.
   Approximately 7,600 people live within a mile of the site. Homes lie 500 feet to the
   south, 800 feet to the north, and 1,500 feet west of the site. An estimated 20,000
   people within 3 miles of the site use groundwater as a  drinking source.  There are three
   public water supplies in the area, all of which are being monitored and are free of site-
   related contaminants.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
a combination of Federal, State, and
potentially responsible parties'
actions.
IMPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    7
               continued

-------
                                                 APPLIED ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES
                 Threats and Contaminants
              On-site monitoring wells revealed contamination from VOCs including
              xylene and toluene. Sediments are contaminated with polychlorinated
              biphenyls (PCBs) and VOCs.  On-site soils also are contaminated with
              VOCs. People on site could be exposed to contaminants by accidentally
              ingesting soils or drinking contaminated groundwater. If chemicals move
              off site, users of the surrounding properties and the fishing and swimming
              areas could be threatened.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase directed at cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Immediate Actions: After toluene began seeping into Hempstead Harbor,
             Applied Environmental Services installed a trench that recovers an average
   	   of 500 gallons of organic chemicals each month. The current site owner
   removed some of the drums from the site in 1984 and funded the further removal of
   218 drums in 1985; the State supervised these activities. In October 1985, the State
   hired a contractor to remove about 600,000 gallons of wastes from the on-site tanks.
   The work was completed a year later.

             Entire Site: In 1987, under State supervision, the current owner began an
             intensive study of pollution at the site.  This investigation is determining the
             nature and extent of contamination and will recommend the best options
   for final cleanup.

   Site Facts: An Administrative Consent Order was signed in October 1987 for the
   current site owner to conduct a study into the nature and extent of contamination at the
   site.
   Environmental Progress
   The drum removal activities, fencing, and liquid waste colleciton efforts have greatly
   reduced the potential for exposure to hazardous materials at the Applied Environmental
   Services site while investigations into final cleanup alternatives are continuing.

-------
BATAVIA
NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980507693
Site Description
                                                              REGION 2
                                                       CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 30
                                                              Genesee County
                                                                Near Batavla
   From the 1960s until 1980, several operations dumped industrial wastes at the 40-acre
   Batavia Landfill, which is now inactive.  Drummed and undrummed wastes disposed of
   at the site include heavy metal sludges, oils, and organic solvents. A protected
   wetland, Galloway Swamp, borders the site on the north and east.  Liquids have been
   seen seeping from the landfill into the swamp, which now contains heavy metals.
   Residential wells, a nearby trailer park's water supply well, and the Town of Oakfield's
   municipal well are all polluted. The surrounding area is rural; 200 people live within a 1-
   mile radius of the site. The underlying aquifer supplies drinking water to approximately
   6,500 people living within a 3-mile radius of the site. A total of 1,000 private and public
   wells serve the population within 3 miles of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
                  This site is being addressed through
                  Federal and potentially responsible
                  parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/81

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               On-site groundwater is contaminated with lead and other metals, phenols,
               and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).  Samples from off-site drinking
               wells show elevated iron and VOC levels. Sediment and surface water
               samples from the Galloway Swamp contain the heavy metals barium and
               lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Drinking contaminated
               groundwater may pose a threat to human health.  Wildlife that inhabits
               the swamp may also suffer ill effects from surface water contamination.
 Cleanup Approach
   The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
   the entire site.
   March 1990
                      NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                      9
                                                                      continued

-------
                                                              BATAVIA LANDFILL
Response Action Status
           Entire Site: The EPA began an intensive study of water pollution at the
           site in March 1984, but the parties potentially responsible for its
           contamination assumed responsibility for continuing the work in August
1984. Under EPA monitoring, these parties are exploring the nature and extent of
groundwater and surface water pollution at the site and will recommend the best
strategies for final cleanup.  In  1989, the parties submitted the study report, which is
currently under review, to the EPA.

Site Facts: An Administrative Order on Consent was signed and became effective in
August 1984 for the potentially responsible parties to conduct a study of contamination
at the site under EPA supervision.
 Environmental Progress
After listing the Batavia Landfill site on the NPL, the EPA determined that no immediate
actions are necessary while the investigations leading to the selection of a final cleanup
remedy are under way.
                                      10

-------
   EEC TRUCKIN
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980768675
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 28
                                          Broome County
                                              Vestal
Site Description	

   This 3 1/2-acre site on Stewart Road in Vestal was used by BEG Trucking as a truck
   body manufacturing operation. Truck body fabrication, painting, and vehicle
   maintenance operations generated hazardous wastes. The operators stored these
   materials on the site.  In 1982, alerted by municipal officials, the New York State
   Department of Environmental Conservation found about 50 improperly stored drums.
   The drums contained  waste motor oil, metal cutting oil, paint thinners, solvents,
   methanol, toluene, and petroleum distillates.  Investigators also saw stained soil where
   spills had occurred. In 1983, COGS, Inc. purchased the property.  The new owner
   removed the drums and placed stained soil into 4 drums, which remained on site.  The
   property currently is being used to store construction materials. The area around the
   site is primarily commercial and industrial.  It is bordered by Stewart Road to the south,
   industrial properties to the east and north, and the Stewart Trailer Park and wetlands to
   the west.  Prior to the mid-1960s, the site itself was unimproved marshland. The
   company that was to  become BEC Trucking filled the swamp with various materials,
   including fly ash from a local power company, to raise the ground level. Approximately
   3,000 people live within a 1-mile radius of the site.  The Vestal public water supply well
   field lies about 3/4 mile southwest of the site.  One well is contaminated with
   chlorinated organic chemicals. However, BEC Trucking is not implicated in this
   contamination problem because the direction of groundwater flow at the site is to the
   northwest. Three other hazardous waste sites listed on the NPL are located within 1
   mile of the BEC Trucking site, which complicates analysis of pollution problems in the
   area.  Residents around the site, including those in the trailer park, have been hooked
   up to the public water system.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
                  Threats  and Contaminants
               An EPA investigation in 1988 detected low levels of the volatile organic
               compound (VOC) benzene and arsenic, a heavy metal, in the
               groundwater. Sediments and surface soils contain low levels of polycyclic
               aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).  The results of the risk assessment
               performed during intensive study of the site revealed minimal risk to
               human health.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    11
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                                   EEC TRUCKING
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase directed at cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status
           Entire Site: In 1989, the EPA selected a remedy for this site. The Agency
           recommends no further action. The concentrations of PAHs in the surface
           soil are at or near the lower limits requiring cleanup.  Furthermore, these
           chemicals will undergo natural biological breakdown over time, thus reducing
  the low-level contamination even further. The EPA will develop a monitoring program
  for groundwater, surface water, and sediments that will ensure the protection of
  human and environmental health.  The site was added to the NPL because of potential
  lead contamination in the groundwater, but investigations did not yield any evidence of
  contamination.
   Environmental Progress
   Intensive investigation of the conditions at the EEC Trucking site has shown that the
   levels of contaminants in the groundwater, surface water, and sediments are within the
   accepted State and Federal guidelines. Therefore, there are no cleanup actions
   required at the site at this time. The EPA will closely monitor the site to ensure that the
   site remains safe to the public and the environment.
                                        12

-------
   BIOCLINICAL

   LABORATORI

   INC.
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980768683

Site Description	—
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                          Suffolk County
                              On Smithtown Avenue in the Hamlet of Bohemia
   The 3,000-square-foot Bioclinical Laboratories site on Smithtown Avenue in Bohemia is
   a single rental unit within a 10-unit, single-story building. Bioclinical Labs formulated,
   mixed, repackaged, and distributed chemicals from 1978 to 1981. Operators stored
   drums of hazardous wastes on site, some of which leaked. When washing chemically
   contaminated containers for reuse, workers routinely poured rinse water onto the
   ground or discharged it to sinks, a septic tank/distribution pool, and storm drains.
   Analysts sampled these structures when citizen concerns  prompted an investigation by
   the County in 1981.  They discovered a range of organic contaminants, including
   solvents. In July 1981, a fire at the site destroyed much of the firm's inventory.
   Bioclinical Labs reincorporated its operations at another location  in Bohemia, and the
   old site is now occupied by another company. In November 1981, the County sampled
   three private drinking wells about 1/4 mile south of the site and detected chloroform in
   them. According to a 1984 State investigation, the site may have contributed to area
   soil and groundwater contamination with chloroform and volatile organic compounds
   (VOCs). The site lies in an industrial setting in a major suburban  area of Long Island.
   Municipal and private wells downgradientoi the site serve 10,000 residents. The
   Suffolk County Water Authority currently draws water from an uncdntaminated aquifer.
   A nearby public water supply, the Church Street well field, is also uncontaminated.
   MacArthur Airport is located about 1/2 mile north of the site. The population within 1
   mile is 1,600, and 26,000 live within 3 miles.  Rattlesnake Brook, which is used for
   recreation, is within 3 miles of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
IMPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/01/86

  Final Date: 03/30/89
    March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    13
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                   BIOCLINICAL LABORATORIES. INC.
                 Threats and Contaminants
              The on-site groundwater contains VOCs including chloroform and
              methylene chloride and heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and
              chromium. Soil is contaminated with VOCs and chloroform.  Currently,
              the public does not appear to be exposed to contamination. However, if
              the on-site groundwater is accidentally ingested, it could pose a threat to
              people.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Entire Site:  In 1988, the EPA began an intensive study of contamination at
             the site. This investigation will explore the nature and extent of pollution
             problems and will recommend the best strategies for final cleanup. It is
  slated for completion in early 1990.
  Site Facts: In November 1981, the County issued a Consent Order requiring Bioclinical
  Labs to remove all fire-damaged containers from the site and to have all industrial
  wastes removed from the sanitary drain and septic system. It also required the owner
  to prepare and submit a plan to install on-site monitoring wells to detect any
  contamination in groundwater. Bioclinical labs removed all chemicals and pumped the
  wastewater system clean, but did not install the wells.
   Environmental Progress
  After adding the Bioclinical Labs site to the NPL, the EPA determined that no
  immediate actions were required to protect public health or the environment while the
  investigations leading to the selection of a final remedy are taking place.
                                       14

-------
   BREWSTER WELL E
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980652275
                                     REGION 2
                              CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 21
                                     Putnam County
                                    Village of Brewster
Site Description	

   The Brewster Well Field site consists of the area beneath and around the public well
   field from which Brewster draws its water supplies. Volatile organic compounds
   (VOCs), primarily tetrachloroethylene, were discovered in the water distribution system
   in 1978.  The source was a dry cleaning establishment that has been in operation since
   1958. Operators disposed of dry cleaning wastes in a dry well adjacent to the site until
   1983. Subsequent testing revealed a large plume of groundwater contamination.
   Between 1978 and 1984, Brewster used several drilling, blending, and pumping
   strategies to keep contaminant levels down. In 1984, the Village, in association with
   EPA's Office of Research and Development, installed  a packed-column air stripping unit
   to evaporate the volatile groundwater contaminants and provide safe drinking water.
   Aquifers at this site provide drinking water for approximately 2,000 area residents. The
   nearby East Branch Croton River is a significant brown trout fishery and, in combination
   with two other nearby streams, part of the Croton System contributing to New York
   City's water supply.  An intake lies 12 miles downstream of the site. Woods and
   wetlands surround the well heads, pump houses, and access  roads, and the wetlands
   connect directly with the East Branch Croton River.
   site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal and State actions.
                                  NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                 Proposed Date: 12/01/82

                                   Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater is contaminated with various VOCs including
               tetrachloroethylene and vinyl chloride. River water and ditch sediments
               also contain VOCs, but at much lower concentrations. Since the
               groundwater is currently being cleaned to drinking water standards, the
               health threat is being reduced. However, surface water needs continued
               monitoring to ensure that there are no ill effects on river life.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                15
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                             BREWSTER WELL FIELD
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two long-term remedial phases focusing on cleanup of
  the groundwater and controlling the source of contamination.
  Response Action Status
             Groundwater: The State began studying the site in early 1984.  During the
             course of this study, the Village of Brewster installed the full-scale packed
             column air stripper, which treated the entire water supply. On the basis of
             results from the State's study, the EPA selected a remedy for this site in
   1986 that included: (1) continuing to operate the existing air stripping system at the
   well field, and (2) designing and building a groundwater management system that will
   contain the plume of contamination and restore groundwater quality south of the East
   Branch Crpton River. This system extracts water from wells, treats it with another off-
   site air stripper, and reinjects the treated water to the ground. The EPA began cleanup
   activities in support of this remedy in 1987. The construction of the groundwater
   management system began in  1990 and is also scheduled for completion this year.

             Source Control: In 1988, the  EPA selected a remedy for cleaning up the
             source of the groundwater contamination that included: (1) excavating
             about 100 cubic yards of dry well sediments, sludge, and soil contaminated
             with VOCs; (2) incinerating and disposing of these materials off site; (3)
   removing the concrete dry well structure from outside the dry cleaners; and (4)
   decontaminating the dry well structure and debris and disposing of them off site. All
   disposal will be at an EPA-approved hazardous waste facility. The EPA began cleanup
   activities in 1989, which are scheduled to be completed in late 1990.
   Environmental.Progress
   The installation of an air stripper to treat the contaminated water supply has eliminated
   the potential for exposure to contaminated materials in the drinking water while
   cleanup of the source of contamination is being completed at the Brewster Well Field
   site.
                                         16

-------
   BROOKHAVEN

   NATIONAL

   LABORATORY
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NY7890008975
Site Description
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                          Suffolk County
                                             Upton
   The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) site is a research and development facility
   covering 5,265 acres in Upton, at the center of Long Island.  Much of the area is
   wooded, although commercial and residential development is under way.  The Army
   used the site as Camp Upton during World Wars I and II.  Since 1947, Associated
   Universities, Inc. has operated BNL here, under contract first to the Atomic Energy
   Commission and now to the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE).  BNL designs,
   builds, and runs high-tech installations for scientific research, such as particle
   accelerators and nuclear reactors. Most of its main facilities lie near the center of the
   site. Outlying facilities cover about 550 acres, and include the hazardous waste
   management facility (HWMF), an active landfill,  a former landfill and chemical holes
   area, a sewage treatment plant, and a former ash fill area near an old incinerator.
   Accidental contamination has occurred in a building sump, the central steam facility,
   and the HWMF. Soil in several small areas contains low levels of radioactivity from
   past landscaping activities. In 1960, workers  pumped about 5 curies of radioactive
   slurry into a drinking water well near the HWMF instead of into the fill pipe of a nearby
   underground tank.  Workers deposited 3 tons of wastes each day in the former landfill,
   which closed in 1966. A small percentage of the wastes were hazardous or radioactive
   and included laboratory debris, equipment, clothing, animal carcasses, and sanitary
   wastes. Sewage sludge was disposed of periodically. The current landfill began
   operating in  1967, accepting garbage, other solid waste, and building materials.
   Limited quantities of low-level radioactive materials were accepted until 1978. At the
   HWMF, drum rinsing and spills of volatile organic compounds  (VOCs) contaminated
   some groundwater. Monitoring indicates that the leading  edge of this plume remains
   well within the site. Approximately 15,500 people draw drinking water from BNL wells
   and from Suffolk County Water Authority wells within 3 miles of BNL. A nearby
   freshwater wetland Is the headwaters of the Peconic River, on BNL property 1,500 feet
   upgradientoi the former landfill.  Surface water within 3 miles downstream of the site
   is used for recreation.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date:. 07/13/89

  Final Date: 10/21/89
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    17
                                                                          continued

-------
                                              BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORIES
                 Threats and Contaminants
               On-site grpundwater and soil are contaminated with VOCs, radioactive
               materials including strontium-90 and tritium, and polycyclic aromatic
               hydrocarbons (PAHs). Contaminated wells have been closed, reducing the
               potential for drinking polluted water. On-site wetlands are upstream from
               the landfill and, therefore, are probably not threatened by the
               contaminants.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two long-term remedial phases focusing on cleanup of
  the landfill and the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Landfill: Air spray aeration treatment, which consisted of pumping the
             water and evaporating the volatile contaminants in air, has been halted due
             to air permit issues.  Scoping activities for the site investigation to
   determine the nature and extent of the contamination are  under way. The initial
   investigations will address contamination and cleanup strategies for the former landfill
   and the ash disposal areas. These investigations are scheduled to commence in  1990.
             Entire Site: The USDOE will begin an intensive study of soil and
             groundwater contamination at the site in 1990. This second phase of the
             cleanup will concentrate on remaining contamination sources over the
   entire site area. The investigation will explore the nature and extent of the site's
   pollution problems and will recommend the best strategies for final cleanup. It is
   scheduled for completion in 1992.
   Environmental Progress
   After listing the Brookhaven National Lab site on the NPL, the EPA performed a
   preliminary evaluation and determined that no immediate actions were required to
   make the site safer while investigations into a permanent cleanup remedy are taking
   place.
                                        18

-------
   BYRON BARREL

   AND DRUM
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980780670
Site Description
                                     REGION 2
                           :7 CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 30
                            7        Genesee County
                            /       9 miles north of Batavla
   The Byron Barrel and Drum site occupies about 2 acres of an 8-acre parcel. It contains
   an abandoned gravel pit and formerly was used as a salvage yard for heavy
   construction equipment. In 1982, it was revealed that the site had been used for
   hazardous waste disposal. Approximately 200 drums of solid and liquid chemical
   wastes were abandoned on the site without any spill control or containment provisions.
   Over 200 additional drums were ripped or crushed, mixed with soil, and covered over.
   Other drums were disposed of in a ravine. Testing by the New York State Department
   of Environmental Conservation showed hazardous, reactive, and flammable materials
   as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in many of the drums. The site is bordered
   by heavily wooded areas and is next to farmlands. Surface water is believed to drain to
   Oak Orchard Creek, which is within 1/2  mile of the site. The property lies within 2
   miles of a residential area. Approximately 20 people draw drinking water from wells
   within 1 mile of the site; 2,200 others live within a 3-mile radius.  Water supplies are
   privately provided and use both surface water and groundwater.  When residential
   wells near the site were tested in 1986, they were found to be free of site-related
   contaminants.
   Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                  IMPL LISTING HISTORY

                                  Proposed Date:  10/01/84

                                   Final Date: 06/01/86
                  Threats and Contaminants
               On-site groundwater and soil are contaminated with volatile organic
               compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals. Although on-site groundwater is
               contaminated, it does not pose a threat to people under the existing site
               conditions. Therefore, any cleanup actions will be performed to restore
               the aquiferfor future use.
 Cleanup Approach
   This site is being addressed in two stages: emergency actions and a long-term
   remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                19
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                        BYRON BARREL AND DRUM
Response Action Status
        x* Emergency Actions: In 1984, EPA emergency workers removed more
           than 200 drums and 40 cubic yards of contaminated soils and debris frojri
           the site and disposed of them. They also installed a monitoring well,
sampled soils, and tested nearby private wells.

           Entire Site:  In 1989, the EPA selected a remedy for this site that features
           both soil and groundwater cleanup including: (1) flushing contaminants
           from the subsurface soil while leaving it in place, and (2) evaporating volatile
           groundwater contaminants by air stripping and then decontaminating the
vapors with activated carbon. The EPA began the engineering design for this remedy in
1989.  Cleanup activities at the site are scheduled to begin in 1992.

Site Facts: The EPA issued an Administrative Order m 1984, requiring the property
owner to take immediate corrective actions to clean up the site. The owner has not
complied with the order. The EPA is currently negotiating the cleanup with a recently
identified potentially responsible party.
Environmental Progress
The emergency drum and soil removal actions described above greatly reduced the
potential for exposure to hazardous substances at the Byron Barrel and Drum site while
further studies and design of the final cleanup activities continue.
                                      20

-------
   C &  J DISPOSAL

   LEASING  CO.
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD981561954
Site Description
                                     REGION 2
                             CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 27
                                     Madison County
                                        Eaton
   Although the 1/10-acre C & J Disposal site was never licensed as a landfill tor waste
   disposal purposes, C & J Leasing began using the abandoned railway bed adjacent to
   its property as an access road and subsequently dumped drums of lead-based paints
   and other liquid wastes directly on the ground on State-owned land. The amount of
   material disposed is unknown. The company also left between 75 and 100 drums at
   the site, which were observed lying in a pool of stagnant waste in a trench. The trench
   was subsequently covered with fill, and it is believed that the drums were buried in the
   process. The property owner, C & J Leasing, excavated some of the waste in 1989
   without authorization.  The EPA is looking into whether the waste material was
   removed. Approximately 2,400 people live within 3 miles of the site, and the
   surrounding area is rural. The site drains to a wef/anc/that ultimately discharges to
   Woodman Pond, located 3,000 feet south of the site. Woodman Pond, which provides
   drinking water to an estimated 3,800 people, serves as the municipal reservoir for
   Hamilton Village. As many as 3,000 people are served by private wells within 3 miles
   of the site.
   site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                 NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                 Proposed Date: 06/24/88

                                  Final Date: 03/30/89
                 Threats and Contaminants
               Sediments from a pond downstream of the dump area are contaminated
               with plastics. Sediment samples collected on site and surface water
               samples collected from Woodman Pond detected low levels of a variety
               of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. On-site soils are
               contaminated with various PAHs and other aromatic compounds.
               Potential health threats include drinking and direct contact with potentially
               contaminated surface and groundwater and possible exposure through
               eating fish or other aquatic life that could be contaminated.  If
               contaminants migrate to agricultural areas near the site, there may be a
               risk associated with eating foods grown there. Drainage of chemicals
               from the disposal area threatens Woodman Pond and an ecological
               preserve known as Fiddlers Green.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

               21
                                                                        continued

-------
                                                   C & J DISPOSAL LEASING CO. DUMP
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Entire Site: The EPA currently is studying the nature and extent of soil,
             sediment, and surface water contamination at the site. The investigation
             will define the contaminants and will recommend alternatives for final
   cleanup. The investigation is scheduled to be completed in late 1990.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were needed at the C & J Disposal site while
   further studies are conducted that will lead to the selection of final cleanup remedies.
                                        22

-------
   CARROL AND D
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD010968014
Site Description
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 26*
                                          Orange County
                                     1 mile northeast of Port Jervis
   The Carrol and Dubies site is made up of several active and inactive lagoons used for
   disposal of various wastes since the 1960s.  Until 1979, waste from two nearby
   cosmetic manufacturers was deposited into two unlined lagoons.  Septic tank waste
   was also accepted at the site.  The inactive lagoons have been filled, covered, and
   graded. The only active lagoon is fenced. Piles of deteriorating debris and abandoned ,
   motor vehicles remain on site. Approximately 2,000 residents live within 1  mile of the
   site. The nearest homes are about 1/4 mile southeast of the site.  A steep slope,
   woods, a marsh, and open areas surround the facility. The City of Port Jervis is
   supplied with water from several reservoirs more than 1 mile upstream  from the site.
   Homes near the site rely on private wells. A freshwater wetland is within 1,000 feet of
   the site. A stream that passes within 100 feet of the site is used for fishing and
   swimming.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
IMPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/24/88

  Final Date: 02/21/90
                  Threats  and Contaminants
               On-site groundwater is contaminated with heavy metals including
               chromium and lead, as well as volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
               Lagoon liquids and sediments contain heavy metals including cadmium,
               copper, lead, mercury and nickel; VOCs; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
               (PAHs); and a plastic by-product, phthalates. Potential threats to human
               health include drinking contaminated groundwater, accidentally ingesting
               or touching contaminated lagoon liquids or lagoon sediments, and inhaling
               vapors from the active lagoon.
 Cleanup Approach
   This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
   of the entire site.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    23
               continued

-------
                                                             CARROL AND DUBIES
Response Action Status
           Entire Site: The EPA began an investigation into the nature and extent of
           the contamination at the site in 1989, which was taken over by potentially
           responsible parties in 1990. The investigation will define the contaminants
and will recommend alternatives for the final cleanup, The investigation is scheduled to
be completed in late 1991.

Site Facts: The EPA and two parties potentially responsible for the site contamination
entered into an Administrative Order on Consent requiring the parties to conduct a
study into the nature and extent of site contamination.
 Environmental Progress
 After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
 determined that no immediate actions were required at the Carrol and Dubies site while
 further investigations are conducted which will lead to the selection of final cleanup
 activities.
                                      24

-------
   CIRCUITRON

   CORPORATION
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD981184229
Site Description
                                                REGION 2
                                         CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                                 Suffolk County
                                                  Farmlngdale
   The 1-acre Circuitron Corporation site manufactured circuit boards from 1981 to 1986.
   The site is in a densely populated industrial and commercial area of Long Island. The
   property is owned by 82 Milbar Boulevard Corporation. Circuitron was a subsidiary of
   FEE Industries, which ADI Electronics, Inc. bought in 1984.  The circuit board process
   at the facility included drilling, screening, plating, and scrubbing processes, all of which
   generated chemical wastes. Wastes were reportedly placed in aboveground and
   underground tanks and storm drains.  Thousands of gallons of plating wastes were
   discharged to an underground leaching pool permitted under the State Pollutant
   Discharge Elimination System (SPDES) and to an unauthorized leaching pool beneath
   the floor of the plating room.  In 1986, the company vacated the facility.  In 1987, the
   EPA found potentially explosive conditions at the site. Over 100 drums, most
   unmarked, were left throughout the building.  Incompatible and reactive wastes were
   not segregated. Some drums were marked sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium
   hydroxide.and caustic soda. Other smaller containers were scattered outside.  Six
   concrete holding tanks containing unknown materials were below the floor, and three
   aboveground storage tanks were behind the building.  An important source of water for
   residents and industry lies under the site.  Located within 3  miles of the site is a
   residential community of approximately 215,000 people; approximately 1,200 people
   live within 1 mile.  Fifteen municipal wells serving local residents are also located within
   3 miles of the site  and serve 88,000 people. The nearest well is located within  1,000
   feet of the site and is in the path of the groundwater flow. A shallow well, which could
   be used for drinking water, has been closed since 1978 due to contamination.
  Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                            NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                            Proposed Date: 06/24/88

                                             Final Date: 03/30/89
       T\
                 Threats and Contaminants
The groundwater and soil are contaminated with heavy metals and volatile
organic compounds (VOCs). This site is a potential health concern
because of the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances through
accidental ingestion or touching of contaminated groundwater or soils.
  March 1990
                         NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                        25
                                                           continued

-------
                                                         CIRCUITRON CORPORATION
Cleanup Approach	

  This site is being addressed in two stages: emergency actions and a long-term
  remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.


  Response Action Status


          IX Emergency Actions: In 1987, the EPA initiated an emergency removal of
             some of the more than 100 chemical containers and storage tanks on site.
  masaamaa^   In 1988, the EPA conducted another emergency cleanup action to sample
  and remove the approximately 20 drums, 3 aboveground tanks, 7 underground storage
  tanks, 2 below-surface treatment basins, and several leaching basins still on site. The
  cleanup action involved consolidating the various waste streams, removing the tanks
  located at the rear of the property, and removing contaminated  debris inside the
  building.  In the end,  100 cubic yards of contaminated soil and debris, 50 drums of
  hazardous liquid, and an additional 2,000 to 3,000 gallons of tanked hazardous liquids
  were removed and properly disposed of off site.

             Entire Site: A site investigation began in 1988. The sampling included
             geophysical surveys to locate the leaching pool and underground storage
  ,	„  tanks, installation of shallow and deep monitoring wells, soil and sediment
  analysis, and sampling of municipal and private wells.  The draft report has been
  submitted and is currently  under review.  The EPA plans to gain access to private
   properties as part of the continuing sampling program.  A final selection of cleanup
  actions is expected in 1991.
   Environmental Progress
   The emergency actions taken to remove hazardous materials have eliminated the
   potentially explosive conditions and greatly reduced the potential for exposure to
   contamination at the Circuitron Corporation site, making it safer while further studies
   leading to the selection of final cleanup activities are completed.
                                         26

-------
   CLAREMONT

   POLYCHEMIC
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD002044584
Site Description
                                                        REGION 2
                                                CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 04
                                                        Nassau County
                                                         Old Bethpage
   The 8-acre Claremont Polychemical site is a former manufacturer of pigments for
   plastics and inks that operated from 1966 to 1980. During its operation, Claremont
   Polychemical Corporation disposed of liquid wastes in three leaching basins and
   deposited solid wastes and treatment sludges in drums or in old, aboveground metal
   tanks.  During a series of inspections in 1979, the Nassau County Department of Health
   (NCDH) found 2,000 to 3,000 drums throughout the site which contain inks, resins, and
   organic solvents. Some of the drums were uncovered, while others were reportedly
   leaking or lying on their sides. NCDH inspectors noted that an area east of the building
   was contaminated with organic solvents that resulted from accidental spills and
   discharges. Claremont sorted and removed the drums from the site in 1980. A
   subsequent investigation by NCDH revealed most of  the drums were gone, but an area
   of soil was visibly contaminated with inks and solvents. As a result, Claremont was
   directed to install groundwater monitoring wells.  Since Claremont declared bankruptcy
   in 1980, ownership of the site and management of cleanup activities shifted to the New
   York Bankruptcy Court. The closest residences are located approximately 1/2 mile from
   the site. Approximately 47,000 people draw drinking  water from wells located within 3
   miles of the site. The nearest public water supply well is 3,500 feet northwest of the
   site.
  Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                                    IMPL LISTING HISTORY

                                                   Proposed Date: 10/01/84

                                                     Final Date: 06/01/86
IA
                 Threats and Contaminants
               On-site soils and shallow groundwater are contaminated with heavy
               metals including aluminum, arsenic, copper, and lead; volatile organic
               compounds (VOCs); polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); phenols; and
               plastic by-products, called phthalates. Residents could be exposed to
               contaminants while drinking or touching affected water should the
               contaminants move into the public drinking water system.  A
               considerable amount of trespassing has occurred in the past, possibly
               exposing trespassers to contaminants by direct contact. Currently, the
               site is partially fenced, and access to the site is restricted to EPA-
               authorized personnel.
  March 1990
                        NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                        27
                                                                  continued

-------
                                                        CLAREMONT POLYCHEMICAL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in three stages:  immediate actions and two long-term
  remedial phases focusing on soil and groundwater cleanup and the removal and
  disposal of hazardous materials.

  Response Action Status
             Immediate Actions: The EPA removed 13,000 gallons of hazardous liquid
             wastes and built a fence around the site from 1988 to 1989.
             Removal and Disposal of Hazardous Materials: The cleanup strategies
             chosen by the EPA include: (1) compatibility testing and consolidation of
             over 700 containers (drums and bags) of raw materials, process wastes,
    ^_    and finished products currently stored on site; (2) transport off site of both
   organic and inorganic wastes to a treatment, storage, and  disposal facility; (3) use of
   appropriate treatment to reduce the toxicity, mobility, and  volume of the wastes before
   landfilling; and (4) handling of wastes contained in aboveground tanks and treatment
   basins in a similar fashion.  Cleanup began in 1989 and is expected be complete in
   1991.

              Soil and Groundwater Contamination: The EPA will sample
              groundwater and soils on adjacent properties. Monitoring wells will  be
   ,	„   drilled on these properties to assess off-site movement of site-related
   contaminants. This investigation began in 1988 and will continue through 1990.
   \Environmentol Progress
   The immediate removal of hazardous liquids and the construction of a security fence
   have greatly reduced the potential for exposure to hazardous materials at the Claremont
   Polychemical site while the removal, treatment, and disposal of remaining hazardous
   wastes is being completed and further studies to define final cleanup actions take
   place.
                                         28

-------
   CLOTHIER DISPOS
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD000511576
Site Description
                                        REGION 2
                                 CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 29
                                         Oswego County
                                            Granby

                                            Alias:
                                        PAS Clothier Site
   The Clothier Disposal site is a 15-acre privately owned dump site, 6 acres of which
   were used from the early 1970s to 1984 to dispose of demolition debris, household
   wastes, junk vehicles, and approximately 2,200 drums of hazardous chemical waste
   from the Pollution Abatement Services, Inc. (PAS). In 1971, the owner applied for a
   landfill permit, which was denied later that year. In 1973, the Oswego County Health
   Department observed drums containing various amounts of waste from PAS at the site
   and reported it to State authorities.  In 1985, New York State Department of
   Environmental Conservation contractors implemented a staging and sampling  plan to
   characterize the wastes and drum contents  before disposal. During these activities, it
   was discovered that approximately 80 drums were falling apart; these drums had to be
   placed in new containers immediately. It was  also reported that prior to staging and
   sampling, up to 90 drums had already fallen apart and leaked onto the ground.
   Approximately 160 people live within a 1-mile radius, with the nearest residence
   located 2,000 feet from the site.  Residents in  the area rely on private wells for drinking
   water.  A wetland passes through the site to the west of the area used for waste
   disposal. Ox Creek flows through the site, feeding into the Oswego River, and a
   portion of the site is located within a 100-year floodplain.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties'actions.
IMPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
       IV
                 Threats and Contaminants
              The groundwater is polluted with heavy metals including cadmium,
              chromium, and manganese, as well as volatile organic compounds
              (VOCs). The sediments are contaminated with barium, also a heavy
              metal. The soil is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and
              VOCs. People who accidentally ingest or come into direct contact with
              contaminated soil, groundwater, or sediments may be at risk.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   29
                                                                       continued

-------
                                                           CLOTHIER DISPOSAL SITE
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two stages: initial actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.


  Response Action Status


             Initial Actions: During 1986 drums were moved to a centralized location.
             A number of parties potentially responsible for site contamination
  _..,,,.....   subsequently removed 1,858 drums of waste. In 1987 and 1988, the EPA
   removed the remaining drums and the visibly contaminated soil and debris associated
  with the drums.

             Entire Site: The selection of cleanup activities for the site includes: (1)
             placement of a 1-foot soil cover over the contaminated areas and regrading
             and revegetation of the site; (2) installation of erosion control devices, as
     	   needed, on the embankment sloping towards Ox Creek to prevent soil
   erosion; (3) construction and post-construction air monitoring; (4) controls preventing
   the use of underlying groundwater or any land use involving significant disturbance of
   the soil cover; and (5)  long-term groundwater, soil, sediment, and surface water
   monitoring. Groundwater, surface water, and sediment samples collected from the site
   and the adjacent wetland in 1988 have shown no significant contamination has
   occurred that can be related to the site.  Long-term monitoring of groundwater, surface
   water,  and sediment will continue. The selected cleanup actions are being designed;
   actual cleanup is scheduled to begin in late 1990.

   Site Facts: In 1986, a Consent Order was signed with potentially responsible  parties to
   dispose of a number of drums in an approved landfill.
   Environmental Progress
   The initial drum removal actions described above have greatly reduced the potential for
   exposure to contaminated materials at the Clothier Disposal site while further studies
   and the cleanup design are taking place.
                                         30

-------
   COLESVILLE
   MUNICIPAL
   LANDFILL
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980768691
Site Description
       REGION 2
CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 28
       Brooms County
          Colesville
   The 30-acre Colesville Municipal Landfill site was owned and operated by the Town of
   Colesville from 1965 until 1969, when ownership was transferred to Broome County.
   The landfill accepted about 9,000 tons of municipal refuse each year. From 1973 to
   1975, industrial wastes such as organic solvents, dyes, and metals were deposited on
   the site. Two streams collect drainage from the landfill and empty into the
   Susquehanna River. The New York State Department of Health inspected the site in
   1984 and determined the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the
   grpundwater. Approximately 1,900 people live within 3 miles of the site and depend on
   private wells as their source of drinking water. The closest residence is 300 feet from
   the site. The area is rural and woodlands surround the landfill. The Susquehanna River
   is used for fishing and recreational  activities.
  site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                    Federal, State, and potentially
                    responsible parties'actions.
   NPL LISTING HISTORY

   Proposed Date: 10/01/84

    Final Date: 06/01/86
                Threats and Contaminants
              Private wells, sediments, soil, and leachate draining from the landfill are
              contaminated with VOCs.  People who touch or drink contaminated well
              water or soil may be at risk. Leachate drains into two on-site streams,
              which are tributaries of the Susquehanna River. Although the river is not
              used as a source of drinking water, it is used for fishing and recreation.
              Deer and wild turkeys forage for food on the site, and people who eat
              these animals, which may contain bioaccumulated contaminants, may
              suffer adverse health effects.
  March 1990
                        NPL HAZARDOUS WAST ESITES

                                       31
                 continued

-------
                                                     COLESVILLE MUNICIPAL LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in an initial action and a long-term remedial phase focusing
  on cleanup of the entire site.


  Response Action Status


             Initial Action:  The County is providing residents with bottled water or
             activated charcoal filters for contaminated private wells.

              Entire Site: The parties potentially responsible for the site contamination
              are conducting an investigation, under State supervision, to determine the
   ,	„   extent of contamination at the site. Once the investigation is completed  in
   1990, the results will be evaluated and alternatives for final cleanup will be
   recommended.

   Site Facts: The parties potentially responsible for contamination at the site and the
   State of New York signed a Consent Order In 1987. Under this order, the responsible
   parties will evaluate the nature and extent of contamination at the site, under State
   supervision.
   Environmental Progress
   The provision of bottled water and charcoal filters has reduced risk from contaminated
   groundwater.  After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary
   investigations and determined that no other immediate actions were required at the
   Colesville Landfill site while further studies into final cleanup remedies take place and
   cleanup activities are started.
                                          32

-------
   CONKLIN

   DUMPS
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD981486947
Site Description
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 28
                                          Broome County
                                             Conklin
  . The Conklin Dumps site consists of two inactive landfills located on a 619-acre parcel of
   land. The town owned and operated these landfills from 1964 to 1975. The lower
   landfill, which operated from 1964 to 1969, consists of three trenches, where some
   industrial and chemical wastes may have been deposited.  The upper landfill operated
   from 1969 until it closed in 1975. Most of the wastes deposited in this landfill were
   placed in six unlined cells. Additional waste material was piled on the cells. The
   majority of the waste is municipal solid waste, although some industrial and chemical
   wastes may have been deposited. Testing conducted by Broome County found the
   groundwater to be contaminated with heavy metals and volatile organic compounds
   (VOCs). Leachate from the landfills drains into Carlin Creek, a tributary of the
   Susquehanna River. Approximately 700 people live within 1 mile of the site. The
   closest residents live 1/4 mile from the landfill boundary. Approximately 2,000 people
   depend on wells within 3 miles of the site for their drinking water. The area
   immediately surrounding the landfills is proposed to be developed as an industrial park.
   The U.S. Department of the Interior has designated a large wetland on the site as an
   important biological resource.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/01/86

  Final Date: 03/30/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater and leachate from the landfills contain various VOCs and
               heavy metals. If contaminants seep from the landfills into the wetlands
               area, environmental damage could result.  People who touch or
               accidentally ingest contaminated groundwater or leachate may be at risk.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    33
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                                 CONKLIN DUMPS
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status


             Entire Site:  Under State supervision, the Town of Conklin, the party
             potentially responsible for site contamination, is conducting a study to
             determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site. Once the
  study is completed in 1991, alternatives for the cleanup will be recommended, and the
  EPA will select the most appropriate remedies for cleanup of the site.

  Site Facts: The State of New York signed a Consent Order with the Town of Conklin
  for cleanup in 1987.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the 'NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Conklin Dumps site while
   studies that will lead to final cleanup actions are taking place.
                                        34

-------
   CORTESE

   LANDFILL
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980528475
Site Description
                                                REGION 2

                                         CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 22
                                                Sullivan County
                                                    Tusten

                                                    Alias:
                                                Tusten Landfill
   The 4-acre Cortese Landfill site was operated from 1970 to 1981 by the John Cortese
   Construction Company, receiving primarily municipal wastes at a rate of 3,000 cubic
   yards each year.  In addition, industrial wastes including waste solvents, paint thinners,
   paint sludges, and waste oils were disposed of at the landfill in 1973. Approximately
   3,000 drums are estimated to be on the site.  The State has found groundwater and
   surface water to be contaminated with volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and heavy
   metals. A municipal water supply well is located about 1,500 feet from the site.
   Although it is not contaminated, the well has been taken out of service as a
   precautionary measure. The former operator and the Town of Tusten each own part of
   the property.  Approximately 550 people live within 1 mile of the site.  Five homes are
   located about 400 feet away from the landfill. The Delaware River, classified by the
   National Park Service as a Wild and Scenic River, is located 450 feet from the landfill
   and is used for fishing and recreational activities.
  Site Responsibility:
      This site is being addressed through
      Federal, State, and potentially
      responsible parties'actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
          V
                  Threats and Contaminants
The groundwater, surface water in the Delaware River, and leachate from
the on-site pond are contaminated with various VOCs and heavy metals.
Because the municipal water well closest to the site was taken out of
service as a precaution, and there are no private water wells in the area,
there is  little chance that people would drink or touch contaminated
groundwater. People who trespass on the site and touch or ingest the
contaminated waste or leachate in the collection pond may suffer adverse
health effects. In addition, if contaminants drain from the landfill into the
Delaware River, people who use the river for recreational activities may
be at risk.  Fish from the river may accumulate contaminants and,  if eaten,
may  pose a health threat.
   March 1990
          NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                          35
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                                CORTESE LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.


  Response Action Status


             Entire Site: The parties potentially responsible are conducting an
             investigation to determine the nature and extent of grpundwater and
  	surface water contamination. Once the investigation is completed in 1992,
  alternatives to address the cleanup will be recommended, and the EPA will select the
  most appropriate remedies for cleanup of the site.

  Site Facts:  In 1985, the State signed a Consent Orcterwith a potentially responsible
  party, SCA Services, Inc., which had transported wastes to the site.  The order requires
  SCA to undertake a study of contamination at the site.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Cortese Landfill site while
   further studies and planning for cleanup activities are taking place.
                                         36

-------
   ENDICOTT

   WELL FIELD
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980780746
Site Description
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 28
                                         Broome County
                                            Endicott

                                             Alias:
                                          Ranney Well
   The 100-acre Endicott Village Well Field site consists of a water supply well {Ranney
   Well) and the groundwater around it, the Endicott Sewage Treatment Plant, the open
   land area associated with the En-Joie Golf Club, the Erie-Lackawanna Railroad tracks,
   two small landfills, and the Endicott Landfill, which is identified as the probable source
   of contamination. After a 1981 chemical spill, the Ranney Well was sampled and found
   to contain vinyl chloride and trace amounts of other volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
   The Endicott Public Works Department sampled and eventually closed the Ranney
   Well.  The Village operates four wells for 45,000 people, and the Ranney well supplies
   approximately half of the total drinking water of the system.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties'actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
                 Threats and Contaminants
               The air is polluted with vinyl chloride. The groundwater is contaminated
               with VOCs as a result of chemical spills near the wells. Golf course ponds
               contain elevated levels of various VOCs. The major health threats from
               the Endicott Well Field site are drinking contaminated water from the
               wells and using the contaminated well water for bathing; direct contact
               with polluted water from the Susquehanna River, Nanticoke Creek, and
               golf course ponds; eating fish contaminated by the chemicals in the river
               or Creek; inhaling the air coming from the aeration of wells; and direct
               contact with leachate seeps.  The Susquehanna River and Nanticoke
               Creek, which run along either side of the site, as well as the golf course
               ponds, are prone to flooding, which could lead to the accumulation of
               contaminants in the water and in the sediments.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   37
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                            ENDICOTT VILLAGE WELL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in initial actions and in two long-term remedial phases
  focusing on cleanup of the public water supply and cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status

          X" Initial Action: An aeration system was installed in the well to reduce vinyl
             chloride levels. Subsequent actions undertaken included the installation of
             monitoring wells and a purge well between the Ranney Well and the
   Endicott Landfill, so the well could be used again.

              Public Water Supply: The EPA selected the following methods for
              cleanup of the Endicott Well Field site: (1) installation and operation of an
              air stripperto remove VOCs from the well; (2) treatment of contaminated
              groundwater with discharge to the Village of Endicott Municipal Water
   Distribution System; (3) continued operation of an existing purge well located between
   the well and the Endicott Landfill; (4) groundwater monitoring; and (5) operation and
   maintenance of the site after cleanup is complete.  Construction of the air stripper is
   under way.

              Entire Site: The parties potentially responsible for the site contamination
              have begun a site investigation and are determining possible alternative
   	cleanup remedies to restore the aquifer and to identify and control the
   surface sources of contamination. The study is scheduled to be completed in late
   1991.

   Site Facts: In 1988, a Consent Orcferwas signed with three of the parties potentially
   responsible for site contamination to perform a study to determine the source and
   extent of the aquifer contamination.  A Consent Decree also was signed to perform the
   cleanup of the well field.
   Environmental Progress
   Initial actions taken to treat the groundwater reduced the risk of exposure to
   contaminants through the water supply. After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA
   performed preliminary investigations and determined that no other immediate actions
   were required at the Endicott Village Well Field site while further investigations and
   cleanup activities, including construction of an air stripper, are under way.
                                         38

-------
   FACET

   ENTERPRISES
   NEW YORK
   EPAID# NYD073675514
Site Description
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 34
                                         Chemung County
                                          Elmira Heights
   From 1929 to 1976, the 39-acre Facet Enterprises site was owned and operated by
   Bendix Corporation, which manufactured various products including bicycle parts,
   automobile engine components, and small arms during World War II.  In 1976, Facet
   Enterprises,  Inc. was created to carry on the manufacturing of engine components and
   remains in operation at this site today.  Disposal of waste materials on the plant
   property is known to have occurred since at least the 1940s through 1978.  The site
   contains numerous disposal areas, including three dump sites and two open sludge
   disposal areas. Wastes disposed of at the site include cyanide salts, heavy metal
   sludges, spent solvents, and various oils. In addition to the five known disposal areas,
   the open, flat area to the northwest of Plant 2 has been used for material storage
   throughout the plant's operating history. On-site disposal of wastes was discontinued
   by Facet in 1978. The site is adjacent to a residential area and is less than 200 feet
   from the nearest home.  Nearby wells, which supply drinking water for more than
   10,000 people, have been closed due to pollution by trichloroethylene (TCE). There are
   approximately 1,000 people living within a 1/4-mile radius of the site, and 6 schools are
   located within a mile of the site.                       .           .
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties'actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/81

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats  and Contaminants
                Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in 6n-site monitoring
               wells and surface water, and the Elmira Water Board Sullivan Street public
               water supply wells have been polluted by TCE.  Heavy metals were found
               in the ditch sediments in 1981.  Sampling has detected heavy metals and
               polychlorinated biphenyls (RGBs) in the soil on site as well as in surface
               soils at an oil lagoon.  A sample of sludge taken from the inactive sludge
               disposal area showed elevated levels of the heavy metals cadmium,
               chromium and copper.  Nearby wells have been closed due to the TCE
               contamination, thereby reducing the potential for individuals to drink the
               contaminated water.  However, individuals drinking the polluted
               groundwater from either the Facet's process well or the Elmira Water
                Board's Sullivan Street supply welis may be at risk. People touching
               surface water and sediments in the ditches may also be at risk, and runoff
               from the site to the ditches may be threatening the area creeks.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    39
               continued

-------
                                                               FACET ENTERPRISES
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Entire Site: Under EPA monitoring. Facet initiated a hydrogeological
             investigation of the site in 1983, which confirmed groundwater
             contamination. In 1988, Facet and Allied initiated an investigation to
   determine the extent of contamination at the site and to identify alternative
   technologies for the cleanup.  Based on a review of this study, the EPA determined
   that additional field work was needed to determine the extent to which the disposal
   areas have contributed to the groundwater contamination. Facet is scheduled to begin
   this field work in 1990. A treatment system for the Sullivan Street public water supply
   will be installed.

   Site Facts:  Facet signed a Consent Order In 1983 to conduct a  hydrogeological
   investigation of the site. Facet and Allied entered into an Administrative Order in 1986
   to conduct an  investigation, under EPA monitoring, to determine the extent of the
   contamination and to identify alternative technologies for the cleanup.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that, with nearby wells closed, no immediate actions were required at the
   Facet Enterprises site while further investigations are taking place.
                                         40

-------
   FMC-DUBLIN  R
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD000511857
                                      REGION 2
                              CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 32
                                      Orleans County
                                Towns of Rldgeway and Shelby
Site Description
   The 30-acre FMC-Dublin Road Landfill site is an inactive waste site divided into two
   areas, also known as the north and south parcels. Since 1933, approximately 4 to 6
   acres of the south parcel were used to dispose of metals, chlorinated organics, and
   insecticides. The site also contains a waste pile area, a pond, a swampy area, and two
   inactive rock quarries.  FMC stopped disposal activity at the site in 1968. The south
   parcel of the site also was used later for the disposal of coal ash cinders, residue from
   lime sulfur filtration processing, and residues from pesticide production areas.  This
   area is fenced and posted with warning signs. The area surrounding the site is sparsely
   populated. Approximately 100 people live within a 1/2-mile radius of the site. The site
   is bounded by the New York State Barge Canal and Jeddo Creek, both of which are
   used for recreational activities.
   site Responsibility;  This site is being addressed through
                      Federal, State, and potentially
                      responsible parties'actions.
                                  NPL. LISTING HISTORY

                                  Proposed Date: 10/01/84

                                   Final Date: 06/01/86
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater, waste pile area, swamp, pond, and quarry soils are
               contaminated with heavy rnetals including lead, mercury, and arsenic, as
               well as a variety of phenols and pesticides. The site poses a potential
               health threat to area residents who use private wells located downstream
               from the site.  People who use Jeddo Creek and the Barge Canal for
               recreational purposes also  may be at risk. Potential health threats also
               include contact with or accidental ingestion of the contaminants. The
               potential exists for contaminants to bioaccumulate in locally grown food
               products and in area fish and wildlife.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                41
                                                                           continued

-------
                                                                 FMC-DUBLIN ROAD
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Entire Site: The parties potentially responsible for the site contamination,
              under State supervision, are studying the nature and extent of the
              groundwater, surface water, and soil contamination at the site. The study
              will define the contaminants and will recommend alternatives for the final
   cleanup. This study is scheduled to be completed in early 1992.

   Site Facts: The State issued a Consent Order requiring the parties potentially
   responsible to conduct an investigation into the nature and extent of contamination at
   the site, to monitor the movement of contaminants, and to take necessary cleanup
   actions to address the site contamination.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that, with site security measures in place, no immediate actions were
   required at the FMC-Dublin Road site while further studies into the final cleanup
   remedies take place.
                                        42

-------
   FOREST  GLEN

   SUBDIVISION
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD981560923
                                                           REGION 2
                                                    CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 32
                                                            Niagara County
                                                             Niagara Falls

                                                               Alias:
                                                      Forest Glen Mobile Home Park
Site Description
   The Forest Glen Subdivision site is an 11-acre mobile home park that was previously
   used as a landfill for chemical wastes.  Drums and other chemical wastes were also
   disposed of in the adjacent areas of the trailer park.  In 1980, soil contaminated with
   phenolic resins was shipped to an off-site landfill for disposal.  A synthetic plastic liner
   covers one of the spots where high concentrations of contaminants were found.
   Approximately 150  people lived in the Forest Glen Subdivision. The area surrounding
   the site is  used for residential and commercial purposes. Vacant land, which is heavily
   vegetated, is located to the north and east of the  site. The mobile home park is
   serviced by a public water system.  East Gill Creek flows along the edge of the trailer
   park.
Site Responsibility: This site is being addressed through
                  Federal actions.
                                                           NPL LISTING HISTORY
                                                           Proposed Date: 08/16/89
                                                            Final Date11/21/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Soils on site are contaminated with various phenolic resins.  Soils
               contaminated with polycydic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found
               mainly in the eastern portion of the site. There was a potential risk to
               human health from eating or touching contaminated soils. Residents of
               the trailer park could have been exposed to high levels of contamination
               through normal work or play activities.  There is also a potential for
               contamination of public water supply lines resulting from the failure or
               corrosion of the pipes and the interaction with buried chemicals. The
               trailer park floods during periods of spring snowmelt, which presents a
               moderate potential for contaminants to move to drainage ditches that
               surround the site.
    March 1990
                       NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                      43
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                          FOREST GLEN SUBDIVISION
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and two long-term
  remedial phases focusing on permanent relocation of the affected residents and
  cleanup of the entire site.

  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions: The EPA has temporarily relocated 27 families and
              has covered the site with concrete and placed a high visibility fence around
              the contaminated areas. Two hot spot areas have been identified and
              temporarily covered.

              Permanent Relocation:  In 1989, the EPA selected a remedy for the site
              that involved permanent relocation of site residents.  The remedy also
              includes a continuation of the temporary relocation program, which has
              been implemented, during the permanent relocation process.

              Entire Site:  Field work to determine the extent and the source of
              contamination at the site is scheduled to begin in late  1990. Alternative
              cleanup technologies will be selected, based on the results of this
              investigation.

  Site Facts:  Area residents are concerned about the potential health effects resulting
  from contact with chemical contamination of site  soils.  The residents have asked the
  State to conduct a study of the health effects on residents in the mobile park. The EPA
  issued an Administrative Order against three potentially responsible parties ordering
  them to perform the permanent relocation.  The effective date of the order has been
  postponed because one of the parties brought up a technical issue concerning
  hazardous substances at the site that the EPA needs to investigate.
   Environmental Progress
  The EPA immediately relocated affected families after adding the Forest Glen
  Subdivision site to the NPL and has determined that it is not safe for families to return
  to the site. The permanent relocation of families is being directed by the EPA,
  eliminating the potential for exposure to hazardous materials at the site while the EPA
  begins cleanup of the contamination sources.
                                        44

-------
   FULTON TERMIN
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980593099
                                     REGION 2
                              CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 29
                                      Oswego County
                                         Pulton
Site Description
   Up to 31,000 gallons of waste oils and sludges have been stored in tanks at the 1 1/2-
   acre Fulton Terminals site, which is now inactive.  From 1936 to 1960, the primary
   activity on the site was the manufacturing of roofing materials, which involved the
   storage of asphalt in aboveground tanks and fuel oil storage in underground tanks.
   From 1972 to 1977, the site was used for a staging and storage area for materials
   scheduled for incineration at the Pollution Abatement Services site, which is also on the
   NPL. From 1981 to 1983, Fulton Terminals removed several tanks as part of a
   voluntary cleanup program. These activities ceased in 1983 after the facility was fined
   by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for improper
   disposal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).  Oily material appeared to have spilled or
   leaked onto the ground. The site is in an urban area, with approximately 13,000 people
   living within 3 miles. The site is within 50 feet of the Oswego  River, which is used by
   local fishermen.
   site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal and potentially responsible
                     parties' actions.
                                  NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                 Proposed Date: 12/01/82

                                   Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater, soil, and sediments are polluted with heavy metals
               including arsenic, barium, chromium, and lead, as well as volatile organic
               compounds (VOCs). Trespassers face potential health threats in the
               event that direct contact with the contaminated soil or groundwater
               occurs within the restricted site.  Local residents use a municipal water
               supply and therefore are not likely to come in contact with contaminants
               in the groundwater. The Oswego River, adjacent to the site, is subject to
               contamination by runoff from the site and could pose potential health
               threats during recreational use of the water.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                45
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                                FULTON TERMINALS
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two stages: initial actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Initial Actions:  Actions conducted in 1986 by the EPA and the parties
              potentially responsible for the contamination consisted of building a 7-foot
              perimeter fence and posting warning signs, removing two aboveground
  tanks and two underground tanks, removing approximately 300 cubic yards of visibly
  contaminated soil and tar-like wastes, and excavating storm drains that were acting as a
  conduit for contaminated runoff entering the Oswego River during storms.  An
  additional removal action in 1990 involved construction of earthen barriers for the
  prevention of surface runoff from the contaminated portion of the site. As of 1990, all
  sludge had been removed and transported to an approved disposal site. In addition, all
  tanks and visibly contaminated soil had been removed from the site and disposed of at
  off-site facilities.

              Entire Site: Actions selected by the EPA for site cleanup include: (1) low
              temperature thermal extraction to remove VOC contaminants from soils,
              and (2) use of carbon adsorption to collect the pollutants from the
              groundwater followed by the reintroduction of treated water into the
              groundwater system. The engineering design of the cleanup actions is
  scheduled to begin in 1990.

  Site Facts:  In 1986, the parties potentially responsible signed a Consent Order
  requiring them to perform removal activities. Special Notice Letters requiring them to
  perform design and cleanup activities are scheduled to be sent out in 1990.
  Environmental Progress
  Removal of contaminated materials and restricting site access greatly reduced the
  potential for exposure to contaminated runoff or hazardous materials from the site,
  pending the start of final cleanup activities at the Fulton Terminals site.
                                        46

-------
   GE-MORBAU S
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980528335
                                         REGION 2

                                 CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 24
                                         Saratoga County
                                        South Glens Falls


                                             Alias:
                                       Caputo Disposal Site
Site Description
   From 1958 to 1968, an evaporative pit at the 40-acre GE-Moreau site received an
   estimated 452 tons of waste material generated by the General Electric Company.  The
   waste materials include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), spent
   solvents, oils, sludges, and other miscellaneous wastes. In 1982, elevated levels of
   TCE were found in the on-site groundwater. Soils were found to be contaminated with
   PCBs.  Contaminated groundwater discharges at Reardon Brook, which runs within
   7,000 feet of the site and feeds the Village of Fort Edward reservoir. Approximately
   14,300 people are served by the groundwater system in this semi-rural area. Nearby
   streams, rivers, and the reservoir, used as recreational areas, have been affected by the
   groundwater contamination.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties'actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 12/01/82

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
        L\
               The groundwater and surface water were contaminated with volatile
               organic compounds (VOCs).  The soil was contaminated with VOCs and
               PCBs. People could have been at risk it they touched or accidentally
               ingested contaminated soil or water.
 Cleanup Approach
    This site is being addressed in two stages:  initial actions and a long-term remedial
    phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
    March 1990
     NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    47
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                                GE-MOREAU SITE
Response Action Status
            Initial Actions:  As a result of GE's testing program, activated carbon filter
            systems were installed in homes contaminated with VOCs as a temporary
            measure. GE performed many other tasks including installation of a
 permanent alternative water supply system for approximately 100 homes, construction
 of a cap and slurry wall to contain contaminants at the source, excavation of PCB-
 contaminated soil, and treatment of contaminated groundwater. In 1985, GE installed
 treatment units in private wells downgradient of the site.

            Entire site:  The methods approved by the EPA to clean up the site
            include:  (1)  using the slurry wall constructed around the disposal area in
            1984 to contain the source of groundwater contamination; (2) continuing to
 monitor 18 downgradient wells to determine the effectiveness of the slurry wall and
 monitoring at 29 wells to determine if changes are occurring in the size and direction of
 the plume; (3) continuing treatment of the plume where it exists at Reardon Brook
 (water is currently treated by air stripping); (4) removing 8,600 cubic yards of PCB-
 contaminated soil adjacent to the disposal site and placing the soil within the slurry
 wall; (5) providing a public water supply for affected residences; and (6) reviewing the
 cleanup action at least every 5 years to assure that human health and the  environment
 are protected. Cleanup actions at the site were completed in 1990.  Monitoring will
 continue to ensure the effectiveness  of the remedy.

 Site Facts: The EPA filed a lawsuit against the Town of Moreau to gain access to
 property controlled or owned by the Town so that GE could install water mains and
 provide individual hookups to the Village of South Glens Fails public water system.  The
 alternative water supply system was completed in 1990.
Environmental Progress
All cleanup actions are completed at the GE-Moreau site. The site is now safe to
nearby residents and the environment. GE and the EPA will continue to monitor the
site to assure the effectiveness of the cleanup remedies.
                                      48

-------
   GENERAL MOT

   CENTRAL FO
   NEW YORK
   EPAID# NYD091972554
                                          REGION 2

                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 26
                                        St. Lawrence County
                                             Massena


                                              Alias:
                                           G.M.-Massena
Site Description
   The 270-acre General Motors Central Foundry Division site was originally built to
   produce aluminum cylinder heads for the Chevrolet Corvair and has been in operation
   since 1958. From 1959 to 1974, the plant used polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as a
   component of the hydraulic fluids in its die casting process.  GM no longer uses die
   casting in its processes. In the early 1960s, GM installed a reclamation system to
   recover used hydraulic fluid.  PCB sludges were periodically  landfilled in on-site areas
   and also remain in the bottoms of several lagoons.  The site  has received approximately
   850,000 cubic yards of PCB-contaminated material. It is divided into several areas
   including the North Disposal Area, the East Disposal Area, and the industrial landfill.
   The landfill was used for the disposal of foundry sand, excavated soil, and other solid
   industrial wastes. In 1971, approximately 800,000 gallons of PCB-contaminated sludge
   were removed from the lagoon and deposited in the North Disposal Area.  From 1973
   to 1975, GM again removed PCB-contaminated sludge from the lagoon and transferred
   it to a sludge settling basin in the East Disposal Area. Prior to  1976, certain PCB-
   contaminated sludges from the wastewater treatment system were placed in a ditch
   along a road leading to the industrial landfill area and several small pits located in the
   East  Disposal Area. Several of these small disposal pits were covered with soil, while
   others remain open.  The site is bordered by the St. Lawrence River, the St. Regis
   Mohawk Reservation, the Racquette River, the Reynolds Metals Company, and the St.
   Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation. The  St. Regis Mohawk Indians live
   adjacent to the plant. The City of Cornwall, Ontario, with approximately 50,000
   residents, is 2 miles north across the river, and the Village of Massena, with a
   population of 13,000, is located 7 miles to the east.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties'actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/01/83

  Final Date: 09/01/84
    March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    49
                                                                            continued

-------
                                                GENERAL MOTORS/CENTRAL FOUNDRY
      IT
                 Threats and Contaminants
PCBs were found in several monitoring wells on the east side of the
facility, on-site soils, and sediment samples from the St. Lawrence River.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and phenols were found in
groundwater directly under the site and off site. The consumption of fish
or wildlife from contaminated areas is of special concern because of the
proximity of the Mohawk Indian Reservation. Fishing is restricted by the
State Health Department and the Indian Reservation Administration.
Runoff potentially threatens the Racquette River, St.  Lawrence River, and
the St. Regis Indian Reservation, all located about 1,000 feet from the
site.  Individuals ingesting or touching contaminated surface water, and
groundwater, soil, sludges, or sediments are potentially at risk.
Residential and public water supply systems are not contaminated.
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two stages:  immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions: GM, under the EPA's monitoring, agreed to place a
              temporary cap on the industrial landfill in 1987 to prevent the migration of
              contaminants from the landfill.

              Entire Site: GM has completed an investigation to determine the type
              and extent of contamination at the site. The EPA has proposed dredging
              and excavation of PCBs in all areas except the industrial landfill. After the
              excavation, a combination of incineration and biological treatment would
  be used to destroy the PCBs. The final decision on the cleanup remedy is expected in
  1990.

  Site Facts: The EPA and GM negotiated a Consent Order In 1985 requiring GM to
  conduct an investigation into the type and extent of contamination at the site.
  Environmental Progress
  By capping the industrial landfill area, the potential for further contamination of the site
  and risk from exposure to hazardous materials have been reduced while final cleanup
  activities are selected and started.
                                       50

-------
   GENZALE PLA

   COMPANY
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD002050110
                                     REGION 2
                             CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 05
                                     Nassau County
                               Franklin Square on Long Island
Site Description
   The 1/2-acre Genzale Plating Company site comprises a two-story office/metal plating
   facility, two on-site residences, and a backyard area, which contains leaching pits,
   storage buildings, and various chemical storage facilities.  Since 1915, the facility has
   electroplated small products such as automobile antennas, parts of ball point pens and
   bottle openers, and is known to have discharged wastewater containing heavy metals
   into three leaching pools at the rear of the site. This procedure continued into the late
   1950s, when the facility was connected to the municipal sewer system; wastewater
   was then discharged into either the sewer system or the on-site leaching pits. In 1981,
   the Nassau County Health Department ordered the company to stop the discharge, and
   the company complied with this order. In 1983, the company hauled sludge from the
   pools and some contaminated soil away from the site. The New York State
   Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) conducted an investigation of
   the Genzale site in 1983 to determine the potential threat to public health posed by
   potential off-site migration of contaminants into the groundwater. As a result of this
   investigation, the site was added to the NPL.  The site is situated in a densely
   populated residential area. Soil on the site is permeable, thus threatening a Franklin
   Square Water District well located 1,700 feet downgradient of the site. The district
   supplies water to approximately 20,000 people.  Another 32,000 people are supplied  by
   West Hempstead-Hempstead Water District wells within 3 miles of the site.
   site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                 NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                 Proposed Date: 06/01/86

                                  Final Date: 07/01IQ1
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Chromium was detected in on-site groundwater; however, routine
               monitoring of public water supplies in the area has not identified any
               drinking water contamination. Soil is contaminated with heavy metals.
               The wastewater is contaminated with high concentrations of several
               heavy metals, most notably nickel and chromium.  Since no drinking water
               contamination has been identified, the pathways of concern are direct
               contact with on-site soil, sludge, and wastewater.  The site is above Long
               Island's sole-source aquifers tor municipal and private water supplies.
    March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                                                                          continued
                                         51

-------
                                                         GENZALE PLATING COMPANY
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a two stages: immediate actions and long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions: The leaching pits were backfilled with soil in 1989.
              Entire Site: The U.S. Geological Survey will submit a proposal to model
              the present location of the plume from this site.  In 1988, the EPA
              initiated the first phase of an investigation to develop data on the degree
              of contamination at the site and to determine the nature and extent of the
  problem. Three clusters of groundwater monitoring wells, each consisting of a shallow
  and deep well, will be installed on the site. Two off-site monitoring wells will be
  installed downgradient of the site to determine whether there has been any off-site
  migration of contaminants. Based on the results of this investigation, a second
  investigation is being conducted to look at off-site contamination and to develop and
  evaluate potential remedies to clean up this contamination.
  Environmental Progress
  Backfilling the leaching pits has reduced the potential for contaminants to spread. The
  EPA's preliminary investigations determined that no other immediate actions were
  required at the Genzale Plating Company site while further investigations into final site
  remedy are taking place.
                                                                             A
                                        52

-------
   GOLD ISC

   RECORDINGS,

   INC.
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980768717

Site Description —	
                                     REGION 2
                              CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                     Suffolk County
                                        Holbrook
   The Goldisc Recording, Inc. site covers 150,000 square feet on 7 acres of land in an
   industrial section of Long Island.  The company produced phonographic records from
   1968 to 1983. Wastes generated at the site include large quantities of nickel-plating
   wastes and hydraulic oil, and lesser quantities of solvents. Plating wastes were stored
   in aboveground storage tanks.  On several occasions, the Suffolk County Department
   of Health discovered chemical wastes in storm drains, holding ponds, and an on-site
   dump. In addition, the County found Goldisc was discharging plating wastes into an
   adjoining marsh.  Contaminants have seeped into the aquifer beneath the site.  Suffolk
   County found that wastes containing nickel, copper, iron, cadmium, zinc, lead, and
   chromium were spilled or leaked  onto a paved area of the site.  The former owner, First
   Holbrook Company, has cleaned the on-site holding ponds and  installed monitoring
   wells.  Approximately 19,500 people live within 1  mile of the site; 70,500 people live
   within 3 miles. There also are several schools within 1  mile of the site. Approximately
   130 wells located within 3 miles of the site serve 71,000 people. A public supply well
   is 1,000 feet downgradient of the site.  Groundwater is the only source of water supply
   in the area.
   Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal, State, and potentially
                     responsible parties'actions.
                                 NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                 Proposed Date: 10/01/84

                                   Final Date: 06/01/86
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as
               well as heavy metals including chromium and lead. Soil is contaminated
               with heavy metals including copper, cadmium, and zinc.  A waste holding
               pool on site contains VOCs.  Underground structures are contaminated
               with heavy metals as well as various VOCs. People who touch or drink
               the contaminated groundwater may suffer adverse health effects.  In
               addition, touching or accidentally ingesting the soil may pose a health
               hazard. There is a potential threat to a nearby wetlands area, the closest
               surface water discharge point to the site.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                53
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                         GOLDISC RECORDINGS, INC.
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Entire Site: Under State supervision, Goldisc Recordings, Inc. is
              conducting a study to determine the extent of groundwater, soil, and
              structure contamination at the site. Once this study is completed, planned
  for 1990, alternative measures to clean the site will be recommended, and the EPA will
  select the most appropriate remedies for site cleanup.

  Site Facts:  The State issued a number of Consent Orders to Goldisc Recordings, Inc.
  between 1979 and 1981 for violations of County and State health codes. Goldisc and
  the State signed a Consent Order in 1988 for ElectroSound Group, Inc. to conduct a
  study under State supervision to measure the extent of contamination at the site.
   Environmental Progress
  After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
  determined that no immediate actions were required at the Goldisc Recordings site
  while further investigations into the selection of final cleanup actions are taking place.
                                        54

-------
   GRIFFISS  AIR

   FORCE  BASE
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NY4571924451
Site Description
                                    REGION 2
                             CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 25
                                     Oneida County
                                 2 miles northeast of Rome
   The Griffiss Air Force Base site, in operation since 1943, covers 110 acres on a 3,900-
   acre parcel of land and is home to the 4T6th Bombardment Wing under the Strategic
   Air Command.  Various wastes, including solvents and lead from battery acids, were
   generated from research and development activities in the industrial shops and
   laboratories.  These wastes were disposed of in landfills and dry wells.  Volatile organic
   compounds (VOCs) have been detected in groundwater on the base. In 1985 and
   1986, the Air Force removed several underground storage tanks and excavated
   contaminated soil. Additional underground storage tanks were removed in 1988 and
   1989. The Air Force also modified a landfill cover. The area immediately surrounding
   the base is primarily agricultural, with a few residential areas.  The City of Rome is
   southwest of the base and has a population of 50,000. About 95% of the local
   population obtains water from the municipal water supply system.  The source of this
   supply is surface water upstream from the base; however, some private,wells are used
   to irrigate crops. The Town of Floyd, a community of over 300 homes southeast of the
   base, receives its water from private wells. The base is located in the Mohawk River
   Valley and is situated between the Mohawk River, Six Mile Creek, and the New.York
   State Barge Canal (Erie Canal).
   Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                 NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                 Proposed Date: 11/01/84

                                  Final Date: 07/01/87
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater is contaminated with VOCs.  Soil is contaminated with
               heavy metals including lead, chromium, and barium, as well as
               polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Ethylene glycol has been found in Six
               Mile Creek. Private water wells are used for irrigation and drinking water,
               and private wells in the Town of Floyd are contaminated with VOCs and
               ethylene glycol. Contaminants may accumulate in food crops and pose a
               health hazard to those who eat them. In addition, people who touch or
               accidentally ingest the contaminated soil may suffer adverse  health
               effects.  Leachate from the base landfill has seeped into Six Mile Creek.
               These pollutants may be harmful to wildlife and aquatic biota.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
               55
                                                                        continued

-------
                                                          GRIFFISS AIR FORCE BASE
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two stages: an immediate action and a long-term
  remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Immediate Action:  As an interim action in 1990, the Air Force began
              providing bottled water for residents affected by the contaminated wells
              and is planning for permanent hookups to the municipal water supply.
   Underground storage tanks were removed from the base, and contaminated soil was
   excavated between 1985 and 1989.
              Entire Site: Griffiss Air Force Base will conduct a study to determine the
              extent of contamination to the groundwater, soil, and the rest of the base.
              Forty-three areas of concern have been identified, including landfills and
  dry wells. The study is scheduled to begin in 1990 after an Interagency Agreement is
  signed. Once the study is completed, cleanup measures will be recommended, and
  the EPA will select the most appropriate remedies for site cleanup.

  Site Facts: An Interagency Agreement between the EPA, the State, and Griffiss Air
  Force Base to clean up the site was signed by the Air Force in  1990. It is currently
  awaiting signatures by the State  and the EPA. The public is especially concerned over
  the contamination of the Floyd wells. The Air Force  has agreed to provide bottled
  water and to fund replacement municipal water.  Griffiss Air Force Base is participating
  the the Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Under this program, the Department of
  Defense identifies, reports, and corrects potential environmental contamination.
   Environmental Progress
   The provision of safe drinking water described above has eliminated the potential of
   exposure to hazardous substances in the water, while studies into the nature and
   extent of contamination are completed and final cleanup remedies are selected.
                                        56

-------
   HAVILAND COM
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980785661
                                                REGION 2
                                         CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 24
                                                Dutchess County
                                               Town of Hyde Park
Site Description
   The 275-acre Haviland Complex site consists of a planned development that
   contains an apartment complex, a junior high school, an elementary school, a shopping
   center, and a number of private homes.  In 1981, a local resident became concerned
   because his well water was foaming. The Dutchess County Health Department found
   the septic and sewage systems of a nearby car wash and laundromat had failed,
   contaminating the groundwater with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In 1982, the
   laundromat installed a sand filter and a new tile field to handle the laundry effluent. The
   State also began an investigation and in 1983 ordered the laundromat to disconnect the
   dry cleaning unit from the septic system and to dispose of all spent cleaning fluids off
   site at a licensed disposal facility. All residents in the area were advised to use bottled
   water.  The wells servicing the Haviland Apartments and the laundromat had water
   treatment units installed in 1984 and 1985 to remove contaminants. Hyde Park has an
   estimated population of 21,000 people. Approximately 20% of the population are
   connected to a public sewer system, and over 50% are served by a public or private
   water supply system. The remaining population, including the residences located on
   the site, obtain water from residential wells. Groundwater discharges into Fall Kill
   stream and to a nearby wetland.
  site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal and State actions.
                                            NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                           Proposed Date: 10/01/84

                                             Final Date: 06/01/86
                 Threats and Contaminants
       /
The groundwater and soil are contaminated with various VOCs. Although
some of the affected residents have been using bottled drinking water
since the contamination was discovered, untreated water is still used for
drinking water, as well as other purposes. Therefore, people who touch
or accidentally drink the polluted water may be at risk. There is little
chance the public would be exposed to any contaminants in the soil
because the contaminated materials would be several feet underground.
Pollutants have not been found in Fall Kill Creek or the nearby wetlands.
   March 1990
                         NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                        57
                                                          continued

-------
                                                              HAVILAND COMPLEX
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two stages:  immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions: The State has installed carbon adsorption units in
              seven homes in the affected area to remove contaminants from the water.
              Entire Site: In 1987, the EPA selected a remedy to clean up the
              groundwater and soil, which includes connecting the affected residents to
              the Harbour Hills water distribution system, and extracting the
    	     groundwater and removing the contaminants by forcing a stream of air
   through the water. The air will be further treated before its release into the
   atmosphere. The treated water will be discharged into Fall Kill Creek. The EPA will.
   also pump and clean out contaminated materials from the local septic disposal
   systems. Once all of these measures have been completed, the EPA will monitor the
   site to determine the effectiveness of the cleanup. The EPA began the cleanup of the
   septic systems in the summer of 1990. The design of the remedy for groundwater
   contamination is expected to be finished in late 1990.
   Environmental Progress
   The installation of carbon units in homes affected by groundwater contamination has
   protected the public water supply and significantly reduced health threats from the
   Haviland site while further cleanup activities are taking place.
                                        58

-------
                      LAN
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980780779
                                                 REGION 2
                                         CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 28
                                                  Ulster County
                                                    Plattekill

                                                    Aliases:
                                            Environmental Landfills, Inc.
                                               Dutchess Sanitation
Site Description
   The 80-acre Hertel Landfill site is an inactive waste disposal area that was established
   in 1963 as a municipal waste landfill. Ten acres of the land were used when the landfill
   was operating.  In 1970, Dutchess Sanitation Services, Inc. began hauling refuse from
   Dutchess County to the Hertel Landfill. Dutchess Sanitation purchased the landfill in
   1975. The  Ulster County Department of Health revoked the landfill permit in 1976 due
   to violations.  Among them were allegations of illegal industrial dumping. This action
   and a town ordinance prohibiting the dumping of out-of-town garbage resulted in the
   permanent closing of the site in 1977. The State detected heavy metals and volatile
   organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater. Approximately 1,350 people live within
   3 miles of the landfill.  There are about 150 buildings and 500 people living within 1 mile
   of the site.  Residents within the area obtain their drinking water from individual wells.
   The site is situated in the valley of a tributary to Black Creek and is surrounded by
   wetlands.
  Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                             NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                             Proposed Date: 10/01/84

                                              Final Date: 06/01/86
       L\
                  Threats and Contaminants
Groundwater and surface water are contaminated with various VOCs, as
well as heavy metals including arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel, zinc, and
lead. The type and extent of soil contamination is unknown, but it is
currently being investigated. People who touch or drink contaminated
well water or accidentally ingest contaminated soil may be at risk.
Pollutants are seeping into the wetlands on the site, posing a threat to
ecologically sensitive resources, wildlife, or aquatic biota.
   March 1990
          NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                          59
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                                HERTEL LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
               Entire Site: The EPA is studying the nature and extent of groundwater,
               surface water, and soil contamination at the site.  Once the study is
               completed, which is scheduled for 1991, measures will be recommended
               for the site cleanup.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Hertel Landfill site while
   further investigations leading to the final selection of cleanup activities take place.
                                        60

-------
   HOOKER  -

    102ND  STREET
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980506810
                                          REGION 2
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 32
                                           Niagara County
                                   East of Griffin Park in Niagara Falls

                                              Alias:
                                        lO2nd Street Landfill
Site Description
   The 102nd Street Landfill consists of two land parcels totalling 22 acres. Occidental
   Chemical Corporation, formerly Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation, owns 15
   acres, and the remaining 7 acres are owned by Olin Chemical Corporation. The site is
   located adjacent to the Niagara River and south of the Love Canal. A portion of the
   filled area of the site is an  extension of the original Love Canal excavation. The larger
   portion of the landfill was operated from 1943 until 1971.  During that time, about
   23,500 tons of mixed organic solvents, organic and inorganic phosphates, and related
   chemicals were deposited at the landfill.  Brine sludge, fly ash, electrochemical cell
   parts and related equipment, and 300 tons of hexachlorocyclohexane process cake,
   including lindane, were deposited at the site. The smaller portion of the site operated
   as a landfill from 1948 to about 1970, during which time 66,000 tons of mixed organic
   and inorganic chemicals were deposited.  In addition, about 20,000 tons of mercury
   brine and brine sludge, more than 1,300 tons of a mixture of hazardous chemicals, 16
   tons of mixed concrete boiler ash, fly ash and other residual materials were disposed of
   at the site. The landfill continues to discharge contaminants to the Niagara River.
   There are 94 people  living  in the 1980 Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area located
   north of the site. Griffin Park has been closed to the public.  There is only limited
   residential development to the east and west of the Love Canal Emergency Declaration
   Area.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 12/01/82

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including
               benzene and toluene; semi-volatile organics such as chlorinated
               benzenes, phenols, and chlorophenols; pesticides; chlorinated dioxins and
               furans; and heavy metals including arsenic, cadmium, and mercury.
               Niagara River sediments contain semi-volatile organics, pesticides, and
               mercury.  Soils and fill contain VOCs, semi-volatile organics, pesticides,
               chlorinated dioxins and furans, metals, and phosphorus. The storm sewer
               contains VOCs, semi-volatile organics, pesticides, and mercury. On-site
               cleanup workers risk harmful exposure through accidental ingestion of
               contaminated soils; drinking groundwater; or by inhaling and coming in
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    61
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                           HOOKER - 1O2ND STREET
              direct contact with contaminated soils, groundwater, Niagara River water,
              and sediments.  People also may be at risk by eating contaminated fish
              from the river. The most significant off-site health threat would be from
              contaminants that become airborne during site work activities. There is no
              public access to the site.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two phases: immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions:  In 1972, the site was capped, a fence was erected
              on three sides, and a bulkhead along the Niagara River was installed.

              Entire Site: The parties potentially responsible for site contamination,
              under EPA and State supervision, have conducted an investigation into the
              nature and extent of contamination at the site, including the landfill
              residues, off-site fill, shallow groundwater, liquid waste, off-site soil, river
   sediments, and storm drains.  The investigation was completed in May 1990, and the
   report is under review by the EPA.

   Site Facts:  In 1979, the U.S. Department of Justice,  on behalf of the EPA, filed a law
   suit against two parties potentially responsible for the site contamination to end the
   continuing discharges and to clean up on- and off-site contamination. The parties, with
   EPA and State guidance, agreed to conduct a study into the nature and extent of site
   contamination and to recommend alternatives for site cleanup.  The Canadian
   government has shown a special interest in the site, since it is located near the Niagara
   River. Due to the site's proximity and relationship to the Love Canal site, the selected
   remedy may be affected by the technologies being used to complete the Love Canal
   site cleanup.
   Environmental Progress
   Fencing the site to restrict access, constructing a cap over the site, and installing the
   bulkhead along the river to limit migration of contaminants off site have limited the
   potential of exposure to site contaminants while final cleanup remedies are selected.
                                         62

-------
   HOOKER  CHE

   RUCO POLYME
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD002920312
Site Description
                                           REGION 2

                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 04
                                           Nassau County
                                             Hicksville


                                              Alias:
                                         Ruco Polymer Corp.
   The Hooker Chem./Ruco Polymer site, in an industrial park area of Hicksviile on Long
   Island, has manufactured plastics, latex, and esters since 1946. Liquid wastes were
   discharged into sand sumps from 1951 to 1975. The sand sumps for Plant 2, which
   manufactured polyvinyl chloride (PVCs) and latex, received approximately
   2 million gallons per year of wastewater from  1956 to 1975. In addition, unknown
   amounts of styrene and butadiene were discharged from the latex processing.
   Reportedly, the dry well for Plant 1,  used for the manufacture of esters, received
   wastewater containing mixed glycols and alcohols.  Currently, only cooling water is
   disposed of on site while other wastes are sent off site for disposal. Some glycol
   wastes are incinerated on site.  Numerous leaks and spills of chemicals .including
   polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have occurred, and solidified latex materials are buried
   on site. Waste disposal and chemical spillage also have occurred at the adjacent
   Grumman Aerospace Corporation Plant. The Hooker plant site is fenced, and
   contaminated areas are accessible to only a few of the 90 employees at the facility.
   The site is immediately over Long Island's sole water supply aquifer.  Approximately
   20,000 people live  within a mile of the site.  One of the public supply wells located
   within 3 miles of the site serves 58,000 people. There are 4 public supply wells within
   1 mile of the site and 24 wells within 3 miles.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater underlying the site is contaminated with volatile organic
               compounds (VOCs) such as vinyl chloride and trichloroethylene (TCE).
               Several private wells located downgradientfrorr] the site are
               contaminated with vinyl chloride. On-site soils are polluted with VOCs
               and PCBs.  The greatest potential health risk is to people who eat, drink,
               inhale, or come into direct contact with contaminants during domestic use
               of groundwater.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    63
                                                                           continued

-------
                                                     HOOKER CHEM/RUCO POLYMER
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two long-term remedial phases directed at cleanup of the
  entire site and cleanup of the PCB-contaminated soils.
  Response Action Status
              Entire Site: The party potentially responsible for the site contamination
              currently is conducting an investigation into the nature and extent of soil
              and groundwater contamination at the site. The investigation will define
              the contaminants of concern and will recommend  alternatives for the final
   soil and groundwater cleanup. The investigation is planned to be completed in 1991,
   after which the EPA will evaluate recommended alternatives and select the most
   appropriate remedites for site cleanup.
              PCB-Contaminated Soils:  The potentially responsible party has
              completed an investigation and submitted a study report to address the
              PCB-contaminated soils. A remedy for this area is expected to be
   selected by the EPA in 1990.

   Site Facts:  In 1988, the EPA signed an Consent Order with a party potentially
   responsible for the contamination on the site to conduct a study into the nature and
   extent of site contamination and to recommend alternatives for final cleanup.
   Environmental Progress
   After listing the Hooker Chemical/Ruco site on the NPL, the EPA determined that no
   immediate actions were required to reduce threats to the public or the environment
   while the investigations leading to the final selection of cleanup remedies for the site
   are taking place.
                                         64

-------
   HOOKER CHEM./
   S-AREA
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980651087
Site Description
                                                REGION 2
                                         CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 32
                                                Niagara County
                                             Along the Niagara River
   The Hooker Chemical S-Area site includes an 8-acre landfill owned by the Occidental
   Chemical Corporation (OCC), which is located on the company's Buffalo Avenue plant
   in Niagara Falls. OCC disposed of approximately 63,000 tons of chemical processing
   wastes into the S-Area from 1947 to 1961. The S-Area was also used by OCC for
   disposal of other wastes and debris, a practice that ended in 1975.  Located east of the
   site is the City of Niagara Falls Water Treatment Plant (CWTP). The S-Area Landfill lies
   atop approximately 30 feet of soil, clay, till, and man-made fill on an area reclaimed from
   the Niagara River. Two lagoons for nonhazardous waste from plant operations are
   located on top of the landfill and were operated under New York State permits until
   1989, when OCC discontinued operating these lagoons. During an inspection of the
   CWTP in 1969, chemicals were found in the bedrock water intake structures. In 1978,
   sampling of the structures and of the bedrock water intake tunnel revealed chemical
   contamination. Subsequently, the City of Niagara Falls took action to safeguard its
   water processing system. The site is located in a heavily industrialized area of Niagara
   Falls. There is a residential community of approximately 700 people within 1/4 mile
   northeast of the site.  The CWTP serves an estimated 70,000 people.
  Site Responsibility:
      This site is being addressed through
      Federal and potentially responsible
      parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 12/01/82

  Final Date: 09/01/83
       L\
                  Threats and Contaminants
On- and off-site groundwater is contaminated from non-aqueous phase
liquid. On-site groundwater also is contaminated with volatile organic
compounds (VOCs).  On- and off-site soils are minimally contaminated.
The main health threat to people is the risk resulting from eating fish from
the lower Niagara River/Lake Ontario Basin. Consumption of drinking
water from the Niagara Falls Water Treatment Plant is not presenting
health risks at present. However, the site, because of its proximity to the
CWTP, presents a potential public health threat to the consumers of
drinking water from the plant.
   March 1990
          NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                          65
               continued

-------
                                                           HOOKER CHEM./ S-AREA
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in three phases: immediate actions and two long-term
  remedial phases focusing on cleaning up of the entire site and determining the effects
  of contamination in the water treatment plant.

  Response Action Status


              Immediate Actions: The City closed the contaminated main intake tunnel
              and put an emergency tunnel into service to alleviate the threat of
              contaminating drinking water.

              Entire Site: The potentially responsible party initiated site studies to
              determine how to address aqueous and non-aqueous phase chemicals
              that have migrated off site. The first part of this cleanup phase, which
     	    addresses source control for the top 30 feet of soil, is currently in the
  cleanup technology design stage and is expected  to be completed in 1992. A second
  design stage addressing the bedrock below the top 30 feet and the water treatment
  plant will begin in 1990.

              Eastern Area of Niagara Falls Water Treatment Plant: The EPA will
              study whether the presence of chemicals on the eastern portion of the
              water treatment plant poses a danger to health or the environment. The
              investigations are planned to be completed in 1991.

  Site Facts: In 1979, the U.S. Department of Justice, acting on behalf of the EPA, filed
  a complaint against the parties potentially responsible for the site  contamination. The
  State of New York joined in the suit and a Settlement Agreement was signed by the
  parties in January 1984.  It was approved and entered by the District Court of Western
  New York in April 1985.  The  Agreement called for a potentially responsible party to
  conduct an investigation into  the nature and extent of contamination at the site, to
  recommend cleanup standards for the site, and to conduct site cleanup activities.
   Environmental Progress
   The installation of an emergency intake tunnel to alleviate the threat to the main
   drinking water supply around the Hooker Chemical S-Area site greatly reduced the
   potential for exposure to contaminated water. Once the two design stages are
   completed, final cleanup activities will begin.
                                        66

-------
   HOOKER -
                 PARK
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD000831644
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 32
                                          Niagara County
                                  Northwest of the City of Niagara Falls

                                              Alias:
                                         Hyde Park Landfill
Site Description
   Hooker-Hyde Park is a 15-acre site that was used to dispose of approximately 80,000
   tons of waste, some of it hazardous material, from 1953 to 1975.  The landfill'is
   immediately surrounded by several industrial facilities and property owned by the
   Power Authority for the State of New York. The Niagara River, which flows into Lake
   Ontario, is located 2,000 feet northwest of the site. Bloody Run Creek, the drainage
   basin for the landfill area, flows from the northwest corner of the landfill. The creek
   eventually flows into storm sewers and down the Niagara Gorge Face into the Niagara
   River. The site is located a few blocks east of a 500-home residential community.
   Approximately 3,000 people are employed by the industries near the site. All of the
   industries and most of the residences are connected to a municipal water supply
   system. Three residences obtain drinking water from private wells, but these
   residences are not believed to be in the path of contaminated groundwater that is
   moving away from the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 12/01/82

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats  and Contaminants
               The groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
               and dioxin from former disposal activities. Bloody Run Creek sediments
               and surface water of the Niagara Gorge Face also are contaminated with
               VOCs, Potential health threats include breathing, direct contact, drinking
               and accidentally ingesting water from Bloody Run Creek and the Niagara
               Gorge Face. Another possible threat would be the consumption of
               contaminated fish from Lake Ontario. Although groundwater is
               contaminated, there are no known uses of groundwater within the area
               and it is unlikely that people would be exposed to groundwater
               contaminants. Access to the landfill is restricted by a fence and a 24-hour
               guard.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    67
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                               HOOKER - HYDE PARK!
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Entire Site: From 1975 to 1979, the potentially responsible party,
              Occidental Chemical Corp. (OCC) carried out activities for site cleanup.
              These actions included capping of buried waste materials to prevent
              contact with surface water and groundwater, installing a shallow tile drain,
  and beginning a groundwater monitoring program. The Niagara Gorge Face seeps have
  been diverted, and people no longer have access to the seeps  because of the security
  measures taken to prevent access to the site. Contaminated sediments also have
  been excavated. The construction of the leachate storage, handling, and treatment
  facility was completed in 1989, and the Industrial Protection  Program to protect nearby
  workers from contaminants has been completed.  The selected cleanup remedies
  which have not been ca'rried out yet include: (1) installation of a prototype purge well
  system to extract non-aqueous phase liquids for destruction  by incineration; (2)
  installation of the first stage of a bedrock non-aqueous phase liquids plume
  containment system; (3) installation of two to three purge wells as an aqueous phase
  liquid plume containment system; (4) implementation of a shallow and deep
  groundwater study; (5) implementation of a Niagara Gorge seep program; and (6)
  treatment of groundwater with activated carbon.  The on-site treatment facility will treat
  aqueous phase liquids with activated carbon and biological organisms.  The overburden
  barrier collection system, a drain around the entire landfill, is  expected to be completed
  in 1990. The source control extraction wells also are expected be installed in 1990.  A
  risk assessment will be completed in 1990 to determine the  risk of  excavating Bloody
  Run sediments. The community monitoring program has been completed. The draft
  Lake Ontario Bioaccumulation Study was completed in 1989 and  distributed for
  scientific review.  Fish and sediment samples from Lake Ontario were collected and
  analyzed, and laboratory studies were conducted.  All cleanup activities are expected to
  be completed by 1993.

  Site Facts: In 1981, the EPA, the Department of Justice, the State, and a potentially
  responsible party, Occidental Chemical Corp., signed a Consent Decree specifying
  OCC's responsibilities for cleanup of contamination at the site and maintenance of
  these remedies.  In 1985, the EPA selected the final  method to clean up the site.
  There is intense public scrutiny of activities related to this site.  Two citizens' groups
  have intervened in the lawsuit against the potentially responsible  party. The Canadian
  government is also actively reviewing all of the program activities. Many investigations
  are still ongoing and are closely related to the activities taking place at the other nearby
  Hooker Chemical sites and the Love Canal site.
                                                                         continued
                                        68

-------
                                                          HOOKER - HYDE PARK
Environmental Progress
Many of the cleanup actions at the Hooker-Hyde Park site have been started or are
completed.  The removal of contaminated soils and sediments as well as the leachate
control and treatment operations have substantially reduced potential health risks and
further environmental degradation while final cleanup actions are completed.
                                     69

-------
   HUDSON  RIV

   PCBS
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980763841
Site Description
                                      REGION 2
                               CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 24
                            Warren, Washington, and Saratoga Counties
                                 Between Fort Edward and Troy
   The Hudson River PCBs site is a 40-mile stretch of the Hudson River between Fort
   Edward and Troy in Warren, Washington, and Saratoga Counties.  The General Electric
   Co. discharged an estimated 1 million pounds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into
   the river from two capacitor manufacturing plants located in Hudson Falls and Fort
   Edward. The State has identified 40 hot spots, defined as sediments contaminated
   with greater than 50 parts per million (ppm) of PCBs. Also included in the site are five
   "remnant" areas, which are river sediments that were exposed when the level of the
   river was lowered due to the removal of the Fort Edward Dam.  The Hudson River PCB
   contamination problem potentially affects all waters, land, ecosystems, communities,
   and facilities located in or immediately adjacent to the 200-mile stretch of river from
   Fort Edward to the Battery Park in New York City. Because of the concern over the
   bioaccumulation of PCBs in fish and other aquatic organisms and their subsequent
   consumption by humans, the State of New York banned fishing in the Upper Hudson
   River between Albany and Fort Edward  in  1976 and commercial fishing of striped bass
   in the Lower Hudson.  Albany, the largest city in the basin, has a population of more
   than 100,000 people; the town of Fort Edward has a population of 6,480.  Land uses in
   the Hudson River Basin include agriculture, service, and manufacturing, in addition to
   residential. The Hudson River is an important source of hydroelectric power, public
   water supplies, transportation, and recreation.  The cities of Waterford, Poughkeepsie,
   and Rhinebeck and the Highland and the Port Ewen Water Districts obtain their water
   supplies directly from the Hudson River. In addition, a water intake near  Chelsea,
   which is north of Beacon, may be used to supplement New York City's water supplies
   during periods of drought. The Town of Waterford obtains water from the Upper
   Hudson River, which  is the only municipal water supply intake below Fort Edward and
   above the Troy Dam.
   Site Responsibility: This site is being addressed through
                     Federal and potentially responsible
                     parties' actions.
                                  NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                  Proposed Date: 09/01/83

                                   Final Date: 09/01/84
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                70
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                              HUDSON RIVER PCBS
                 Threats and Contaminants
             The sediments and water in the river are contaminated with PCBs from
             discharges originating from two capacitor manufacturing plants. Elevated
             concentrations of PCBs are found in the air and the soil at the remnant
             areas and the former dump sites for dredged sediments. Fish in the
             Hudson River have been contaminated with PCBs. The contaminated
             water, sediment, and soil could pose a health hazard to the individuals who
             may accidentally ingest or touch it.  Eating contaminated fish could also
             affect the health of individuals.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in three stages:  immediate actions and two long-term
  remedial phases directed at cleanup of the entire site, including the river sediments.

  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions: In 1977 and 1978, an estimated 180,000 cubic yards
              of contaminated sediments were dredged from the east channel at Fort
              Edward and were placed in a clay-lined containment cell. A 40-mile stretch
   of the Upper Hudson River is under a recreational and commercial fishing ban, and the
   Lower Hudson River has a ban on striped  bass and an advisory for other species.

              Entire Site:  The party potentially responsible for the contamination will
              perform the cleanup operations. The cleanup action chosen for this site is
              in-place containment of  remnant shoreline deposits.  This includes
     	    covering the affected areas with a layer of impermeable clay, contained
   between polypropylene and an 18-inch thick layer of subsoil followed by adding a 6-inch
   layer of topsoil, grading, and seeding the cover to minimize erosion, and bank
   stabilization to prevent scouring. The engineering design for the cleanup action is
   under way and is expected to be completed in 1990.                 •

              River Sediments: The  EPA will perform a study to assess data collected
              on contamination of river sediments and evaluate alternatives for cleanup.
              This study is planned to begin in 1990.

   Site Facts: Notice letters were sent out to two parties potentially responsible for the
   contamination. General Electric, one of the parties, has agreed to implement the
   cleanup activities and to reimburse the  EPA for any costs  incurred.
   Environmental Progress
   The cleanup technologies for the remnant shoreline deposits have been selected and a
   cover has been placed over the deposits to minimize erosion. The site has been
   stabilized while the cleanup activities and further site studies are taking place.
                                        71

-------
   ISLIP  SOLID

   LANDFILL
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980506901
                                          REGION 2

                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                          Suffolk County
                                    Blydenburgh Road, Long Island


                                             Alias:
                                     Blydenburgh Road Landfill
Site Description
   The Islip Solid Landfill covers approximately 65 acres in the town of Islip.  The
   surrounding area is entirely residential except for a golf course immediately east of the
   landfill. The town has operated the landfill since 1957 and has a permit from the State
   to accept municipal wastes. The methane gas within the landfill is being recovered,
   converted into electricity, flared, and vented. In  1978, Mickey Carting disposed of 50 or
   more 55-gallon drums containing a mixture of tetrachloroethylene and other liquids at
   the site. The drums were buried in the highest part of the site. In 1979, the New York
   Commissioner of Environmental Conservation fined Mickey Carting for accepting and
   disposing of the drums. According to tests conducted by the Suffolk County Health
   Department in 1980, the private wells adjacent to the landfill  are contaminated with
   volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An estimated 75,000 people  draw drinking water
   from Suffolk County Authority wells, in addition to numerous private wells. All of these
   wells are within 3 miles of the landfill. Two day care centers are located nearby.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
a combination of Federal, State, and
potentially responsible parties'
actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 01/01/87

  Final Date: 03/30/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater is contaminated with VOCs, including vinyl chloride and
               methylene chloride. The site is located above a shallow aquifer.  Site
               contaminants have been identified in the aquifer and may have
               contaminated the underlying deeper aquifer. These aquifers are the sole
               sources of water for the Suffolk County public water supplies and private
               wells used for domestic purposes. Using the contaminated water for
               drinking, bathing, or washing clothes could pose a health threat.
   Mwch 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   72
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                              ISLIP SOLID LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing,on cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status


               Entire Site: A joint effort between the party potentially responsible for
               the contamination of the site and the State to investigate the nature and
               extent of contamination and to identify alternatives for cleanup began in
               1987 and is expected to be completed in 1991.

   Site Facts:  In January 1983, a Consent Judgment was entered between the State and
   the Town of Islip to close, cap, and recover gas at the landfill.  The Town of Isiip signed
   an Interim Order of Consent with the State of New York on May 12, 1987 which
   outlined requirements for options to recycle waste, to close the landfill, or to expand
   the landfill.  The Town of Isiip was previously denied permission by the State to expand
   the landfill area to accommodate the solid waste  needs of the Town, until a Federal
   facility could be built. However, the State recently granted permission to expand the
   landfill by increasing the allowable side slope.
   Environmental Progress
   The EPA determined, based on initial evaluations, that no immediate actions were
   required at the site while investigations leading to the selection of final cleanup
   remedies are undertaken.
                                         73

-------
   JOHNSTOWN  CITY

   LANDFILL
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980506927
Site Description
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 26
                                          Fulton County
                                 11/2 miles northwest of Johnstown City
   The Johnstown City Landfill covers 68 acres. From 1947 to 1960, it was the site of an
   open municipal dump.  This unlined landfill accepted industrial wastes from local
   tanneries and textile plants from 1960 until mid-1977.  The landfill also accepted sludge
   from the city's wastewater treatment plant from 1973 to 1979.  The sewage sludge on
   site contains high concentrations of chromium,  iron, and lead. An unknown number of
   drums buried on site contain various chemicals.  Groundwater in monitoring wells on
   the site is contaminated and various seeps of leachate have occurred. Johnstown City
   still operates the site as an unlicensed municipal landfill. The City allows the landfill to
   accept a limited amount of its municipal waste.  This is a residential community of
   29,000 people,  1,000 of whom live within a 1-mile radius of the site. There are  10
   homes within 1,000 feet of the site, all of which have private wells. The closest of
   these wells is within 150 feet of the site's northern border and is contaminated.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
a combination of Federal, State, and
potentially responsible parties
actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84
  Final Date: 06/01/86
                 Threats and Contaminants
               Methane gas has been escaping into the air from the landfill. Monitoring
               wells on site contain chlorides and heavy metals including chromium,
               lead, and zinc. Wells off site also contain heavy metals as well as volatile
               organic compounds (VOCs) and phenol.  Chromium, lead, and iron
               contaminate the soils on site. Lead, copper, and benzene have been
               found in Matthew Creek. On-site workers could be at risk by inhaling air
               that contains contaminated dust particles or by touching contaminated
               groundwater, surface water, or soils. People off-site could be at risk if
               they ingest contaminated groundwater or touch contaminated surface
               water and soil, but private well contamination has not been high  enough
               to warrant an advisory. The headwaters of Matthew Creek flow  south
               from the landfill and are located within 500 feet of the site. The landfill's
               release of leachate has contributed to fish kills in the creek.
  March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   74
                                                                        continued

-------
                                                         JOHNSTOWN CITY LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status


              Entire Site:  The City of Johnstown is investigating the site under a State-
              issued order. The first phase of a field investigation was completed in
              April 1990, under the State's guidance. The study to determine the nature
   and extent of contamination at the site is expected to be completed in 1990.

   Site Facts:  The EPA sent Notice Letters to 14 parties potentially responsible for the
   site contamination and the City of Johnstown in 1987. The City has expressed a
   willingness to participate in the cleanup process. On three separate occasions,
   methane gas was detected in the air to the northeast of the site at levels that could
   cause an explosion. This  prompted local health officials in the community to test
   individual homes in the site's immediate area. Test results have shown that the
   houses were free of methane.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding the Johnstown City Landfill to the NPL, the EPA performed a preliminary
   evaluation of the site conditions and determined that no immediate actions were
   necessary to make the site safer while investigations leading to a selection of a final
   remedy are taking place.
                                                                             A
                                         75

-------
JONES

INC.
NEW YORK
EPA IDS NYD00081S428
Site Description
                                                               REGION 2
                                                        CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 35
                                                              Livingston County
                                                          100 Sunny Sol Blvd., Caledonia
   The Jones Chemicals Inc. site is a 10-acre chemical manufacturing plant that
   repackaged chlorine from bulk containers to cylinders from 1942 to 1960.  In 1960,
   Jones Chemicals repackaged solvents including trichloroethylene (TCE). As part of this
   process, the plant installed aboveground bulk storage tanks on the site.  In 1972, the
   plant converted underground tanks to store solvents. Jones Chemicals stopped
   repackaging solvents in 1985. The plant now produces sodium hypochlorite solutions
   and ammonium hydroxide.  It also repackages chlorine, ammonia, inorganic mineral
   acids, sodium hypochlorite, ammonium  hydroxide, and caustic soda. Throughout the
   plant's operating years, the company spilled many of these chemicals while
   repackaging them.  The New York State Department of Health detected TCE and
   chloroform in three on-site wells in tests conducted in 1986. These spills also
   contaminated off-site wells, including the groundwater supply for the Village of
   Caledonia, Spring Creek  is a tributary of Oatka Creek and is within 1 mile downslope
   of the site.  Local area residents use the creek for recreational activities. This
   community is primarily residential and has a population of 2,250. Between 2,500 and
   3,000 people obtain drinking water from wells within 3 miles of the site. A freshwater
   wetland is within 1  mile of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
                  This site is being addressed through
                  a combination of Federal, State, and
                  potentially responsible parties'
                  actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/21/88

  Final Date: 02/21/90
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including
               tetrachloroethene, TCE, and chloroform, as a direct result of chemical
               spills to the ground.  Soils contain VOCs including methylene chloride and
               TCE. People could become exposed to hazardous chemicals through the
               continued use of Caledonia's groundwater supply system as a source of
               drinking water.
   March 1990
                      NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                      76
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                          JONES CHEMICALS, INC.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase directed at cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
          X"  Immediate Actions:  Jones Chemicals, Inc. removed three underground
              storage tanks in 1985.


              Entire Site:  The EPA is reviewing the Administrative Order on Consent
              being prepared by the State for the Jones Chemical Company to perform
              site investigation to determine the type and extent of contamination. It is
              expected to  begin in 1990.
   Environmental Progress
   The removal of underground storage tanks has reduced the potential for further
   contamination at the Jones Chemicals Company site while detailed investigations
   leading to the selection of a final cleanup remedy are taking place.
                                        77

-------
   JONES  SANITATIO
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980534556
                                      REGION 2
                               CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 24
                                      Dutchess County
                                  Cardinal Road, in Hyde Park

                                          Alias:
                                      Jones Septic Site
Site Description
   The Jones Sanitation site occupies 10 acres in a rural part of Dutchess County. The
   owner opened the site in 1956 to dispose of septic and industrial wastes and continued
   this practice until a new owner took over the site in 1977. From the early 1960s
   through 1979, the landfill accepted industrial liquid wastes and sludges that Alfa-Laval,
   formerly known as the DeLaval Separator Co. of Poughkeepsie, generated. These
   materials mainly comprised oils and greases, acids, alkalies, solvents, metals from
   plating operations, pigments, phenol, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including
   methylene chloride, chloroform and trichloroethylene (TCE). The landfill accepted
   about 77,000 gallons of liquid industrial waste per month  from Alfa-Laval from 1972
   until 1979. As many as 30 disposal pits may have been used at one time.  The site
   now accepts only septic wastes from commercial firms.  According to the  Dutchess
   County Health Department, disposal practices on site were not adequate to control
   discharges of hazardous substances onto the ground. The current owner excavated
   the disposal pits and piled the contents on the ground without a liner. Maritje Kill and
   other associated wetlands in the area cross the property approximately 150 feet
   downgradient of the disposal area. Two springs are located west of the site. One
   spring reportedly produces 75 gallons per minute and serves Roosevelt School. The
   other serves domestic herds at the Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site. There are
   1,135  people within 1  mile of the site, and 9,485 people live within 3 miles of the site,
   all of whom obtain water from 23 wells within 3 miles of the site. The nearest water
   supply well is 1,000 feet from the site.
  site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                  NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                 Proposed Date:  01/01/87

                                   Final Date:  07/01/87
  March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                78
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                               JONES SANITATION
                Threats and Contaminants
      ZE
The groundwater and surface water contain inorganic materials from the
disposal areas including heavy metals such as chromium, copper, lead,
cadmium, and mercury as well as oils, grease, and VOCs.  Soil also
contains inorganic materials from the disposal areas, oils, grease, and
VOCs.  The supplemental water supply for Hyde Park is located 2,500 feet
from the site. Although the EPA has sampled all water supplies in the area
and has found them currently safe for all uses, the potential for people to
be exposed to contaminated groundwater exists. Access to the site is
unrestricted. People who accidentally ingest or inhale contaminated media
on the site could be exposed to hazardous chemicals.  People may also be
at risk from eating local animals or fish that come into contact with surface
waters that may have been contaminated from site runoff.  The site is
unfenced, making it possible for people and animals to come into direct
contact with hazardous substances.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Entire Site: The EPA plans to take over the managing of the site
              response and investigations from the State in the summer of 1990.
   Site Facts:  In June 1978, the owner/operator of the site submitted an application for a
   permit under the State Pollution Discharge Elimination System (SPDES). When the
   State denied the permit, the owner/operator submitted an SPDES permit application for
   subsurface discharge of septic waste.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding the Jones Sanitation site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary
   investigations and determined that the site poses no immediate threats to the
   surrounding community or environment while investigations leading to selection of the
   final cleanup remedy are undertaken.
                                        79

-------
   KATONAH

   MUNICIPAL
   NEW YORK
   EPA TJD# NYD980780795 f \
                                      REGION 2
                               CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 21
                                     Westchester County
                             Village of Katonah, In the town of Bedford
Site Description
   The Katonah Municipal Well site is located on a peninsula that extends into the
   Muscoot Reservoir, which supplies drinking water to New York City. The well, which
   has a main shaft approximately 9 feet in diameter and 32 feet deep, was designed to
   draw water from the underlying aquifer. The County Health Department first
   discovered contaminants in the Katonah Well in 1978, at which time it was taken out of
   service. By 1979, the possible sources of the contamination were traced to four nearby
   dry cleaning establishments that were served by septic systems. The County worked
   with the owners to correct the problems and to remove the sources. Several attempts
   at pumping  the well to remove the contamination from the aquifer have been
   unsuccessful. The Katonah Municipal Well is part of the Bedford Water and Storage
   System, and residences and businesses are required by ordinance to tie into the public
   supply. The Katonah Municipal Well had supplied approximately 6,000 residents with
   water for domestic use. The population of Bedford is 15,000. The residential portion of
   the village is located west of the well and extends several blocks in a north to south
   direction.
  Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal and municipal actions.
                                  NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                  Proposed Date: 10/01/84

                                   final Date: 06/01/86
                 Threats and Contaminants
              The primary contaminant of the groundwater beneath the site is the
              volatile organic compound (VOC) tetrachloroethylene, which is believed to
              have been generated by the nearby dry cleaning operations. Sediments
              and soils around the site are contaminated with chlorinated solvents,
              pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated
              biphenyls (PCBs).  Metals including nickel, lead, zinc, and copper were
              also detected in the soils and sediments.  The contaminated groundwater,
              soil, and sediments may adversely affect the health of individuals around
              the site if these media are accidentally touched or swallowed. Also, the
              two surface water bodies in the area, the  Muscoot Reservoir and Katonah
              Brook, may become contaminated from migrating pollutants.
  March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

               80
                                                                        continued

-------
                                                         KATONAH MUNICIPAL WELL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase directed at cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status


               Entire Site: The following actions have been selected by the EPA to
               clean up the site: (1) installation of a new production well adjacent to the
               abandoned well; (2) filling and sealing of the abandoned Katonah Well; (3)
               installation and operation of an on-site air stripping facility to remove
               contaminants from the aquifer with discharge of treated water to the
   Bedford consolidated water distribution system; (4)  establishment of a monitoring
   program to detect residual contamination of treated water; and (5) recommendations to
   the Town of Bedford to remove trash and debris located on the peninsula. The Town
   of Bedford completed the technical specification for the cleanup in March 1990.
   Construction for the cleanup is expected to begin later in  1990.

   Site Facts:  In June 1988, the EPA entered into a Consent Order with the Town of
   Bedford to implement the technical design for the cleanup remedies. In September
   1988, the EPA issued  a unilateral Administrative Orc/erto the other four potentially
   responsible parties. In July 1989, the EPA entered into a Consent Decree with the
   Town of Bedford to clean up the site.
   Environmental Progress
    Based on preliminary investigations, the EPA determined that the Katonah Municipal
    Well site posed no immediate threats to the surrounding community and environment
    that would require action before the final cleanup begins.
                                         81

-------
   KENMARK  TEXT!

   CORP.
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD075784165
Site Description
                                          REGION 2
                                   .CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                           Suffolk County
                                            Farmlngdale
   The 5-acre Kenmark Textile Corp. site, formerly known as Jayne Textile Printing
   Corporation and Mitchel Screening Printing Corporation, conducts screen
   manufacturing and fabric handling and washing. Wastes generated in the
   manufacturing process were disposed of in a leaching pond and in waste drums. A
   wide range of chemical dyes and washing chemicals including base dyes, acetic acid,
   citric acid, and chromate solutions ihave been used in site operations since 1972. The
   State issued a permit requiring Kenmark to treat its wastewater before discharging it to
   the municipal sewer. In 1981, the Suffolk County Department of Health temporarily
   closed the Kenmark Textile Corp. for illegal storage of hazardous waste.  The site
   currently is occupied by the Susquehanna Textile Corp., which discharges its wastes
   into the municipal sewer system. About  10,000 people living within a mile of the site
   depend on groundwater as the only source of drinking water. The nearest residential
   area is located within 650 feet of the site. Public water supply is available for most
   residents in the area. A man-made pond  located on Broad Hollow Road is about 500
   feet southeast of the site.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
a combination of Federal, State, and
potentially responsible parties'
actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
                 Threats and Contaminants
              Chromium was detected in groundwater in concentrations exceeding
              New York State groundwater standards.  Heavy metals including lead and
              mercury were identified in solid sludge and in hydroxide sludge.  Heavy
              metals including chromium were detected in leaching pond samples.  The
              greatest health threat to people is exposure to contaminated groundwater
              by drinking it or making direct contact with it.  There is a potential health
              threat to site employees through exposure to contaminated soils and
              groundwater.
  Mocchl990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                                                                         continued
                                        82

-------
                                                           KENMARK TECTIU5 CORP.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status


              Immediate Actions: Susquehanna Textile, a tenant at the site, has
              removed some of the contaminated materials from the surface.  More
              than 50 drums containing hydroxide sludge were stored on site but have
              since been removed.

              Entire Site: The party potentially responsible for the site contamination,
              under State supervision, currently is conducting a study into the nature and
              extent of contamination at the site.  The study will define the contaminants
              of concern and will be the basis for recommending alternatives for final
   cleanup. The investigation is expected to be completed in 1992, after which the EPA
   will select the most appropriate remedies for site cleanup.

   Site Facts: The State is negotiating with Kenmark to properly treat its wastes,
   discharge them into the  municipal sewer system, and remove drums containing
   hazardous wastes. In October 1987, the State and potentially responsible parties
   signed an order requiring the parties to conduct a study at the site.
   Environmental Progress
   By removing drums containing contaminants and other visible contaminated materials
   from the surface, the Kenmark Textile site has been made safer to the surrounding
   public and the environment while further investigations leading to the selection of a
   final cleanup remedy are taking place.
                                         83

-------
   KENTUCKY AVE.

   WELL FIELD
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980650667
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 34
                                         Chemung County
                                         Near Horseheads
Site Description
   The Kentucky Avenue Well Field was developed in 1962 as part of the Elmira Water
   Board system, which supplies water to over 60,000 residents in Elmira, Elmira Heights,
   and Horseheads. The site is at the confluence of two major valleys within the
   Chemung River Basin in the south-central part of the county. The well field overlies the
   Newtown Creek aquifer arid includes three test wells and a production well. The well
   field was closed in 1980 because it was found to be contaminated with
   trichloroethylene (TCE). Private water wells in the area also were found to be
   contaminated. Although the sources of contamination are not known, several industrial
   facilities in the area are suspect. The Elmira Water Board is using temporary alternative
   water supplies instead of the Kentucky Avenue wells to supply residents. Two
   remaining residences have refused connection. There are an estimated 11,000 people
   living within 1 mile of the site. The area surrounding the site is a combination of
   residential, commercial, and industrial areas, with little or no agricultural activity.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 07/01/82

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                 Threats and Contaminants
              TCE was found throughout the Newton Creek Aquifer. Private wells near
              the site are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
              including TCE, benzene, and chloroform. Sediment samples from the
              ponds and streams south of the Old Horseheads Landfill showed high
              concentrations of inorganic contamination and heavy metals such as zinc,
              cadmium, and chromium.  Concentrations of VOCs were detected in
              discharge waters (surface runoff) to Newtown Creek. Potential health
              threats include drinking, inhaling VOCs, or direct contact with
              contaminated groundwater by users of private wells.  Contamination of
              the ponds and streams may harm the wildlife inhabiting the area.
  March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   84
              continued

-------
                                                        KENTUCKY AVE. WELL FIELD
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in three stages:  immediate actions and two long-term
  remedial phases directed at cleanup of the groundwater and determining the source of
  the site contamination.

  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions:  In 1985,1986, and 1989, the EPA provided alternate
              water supplies to residences that were affected by groundwater
              contamination. These actions involved temporarily supplying 25
              residences with bottled water and connecting 95 affected residences to
   the public water distribution system. Disconnected wells were closed to prevent
   further use.

              Groundwater: The selected remedy to address groundwater
              contamination includes installing monitoring wells upstream of the Sullivan
              Street wells to follow the movement of the contaminant plumes in the
              Newtown Creek aquifer and quarterly sampling of these wells. These
   activities are expected to be completed in 1990.

              Source Identification:  The EPA is conducting a supplemental site
              investigation to identify sources of contamination, to evaluate risks to
              health, and to determine whether any source control measures would be
              feasible. The supplemental investigation includes the following activities:
   sequential soil gas and soil borings investigations to identify potential sources of
   contamination; placement of monitoring wells and the use of groundwater sampling to
   characterize the chemical nature of the Newtown Creek aquifer; and evaluation of soil
   and groundwater treatment technologies. The investigation is planned to be completed
   in 1990. Sources of groundwater contamination at the Kentucky Avenue Well Field are
   also being investigated at the nearby Facet Enterprises NPL site.
   Environmental Progress
   Providing a safe drinking water source to the residents affected by the contaminated
   well water has greatly reduced the risk of exposure to hazardous materials in the
   groundwater while final cleanup actions continue and further investigations into the
   source of the pollution  are taking place.
                                                                             A
                                         85

-------
   LIBERTY INDU

   FINISHING
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD000337295
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 04
                                          Nassau County
                                           Farmingdale
Site Description
   Liberty Industrial Finishing is an abandoned site covering less than an acre on a
   7 1/2-acre tract of land in an industrial park. From 1948 to 1978, the company carried
   out electroplating, dyeing,  and painting operations at the site.  The contaminated areas
   consist of three acid vats, a s/uc/ge-drying lagoon, two leaching basins, a number of
   finishing vats, and a basin for holding stormwater.  In 1977, the State found Liberty in
   violation of the discharge limits of its permit. Liberty was ordered to clean up the site in
   1978, but did not do so. As an initial action, the company, under State supervision,
   removed contaminated soils and sludges from the leaching basins, the stormwater
   basin, and the sludge  lagoon. In 1984, Four J's Company acquired title to the site from
   Liberty Industrial. Approximately 20,200 people live within 1 mile of the  site. About
   90,000 people draw drinking water from wells within 3 miles of the site. Fifty homes
   are 400 yards away, and Bethpage State park is 1 mile away.  Massapequa Creek is
   3,000 feet downgradient of the site and is  used for recreational activities.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
a combination of Federal, State, and
potentially responsible parties'
actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater and soils are contaminated with heavy metals including
               cadmium and chromium and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as
               dichloroethene and dichloromethane. Massapequa Creek is contaminated
               with cadmium and chromium.  People who drink water from
               contaminated wells may be at risk. Accidentally ingesting or touching
               contaminated soil also may pose a health hazard.  Pollutants from the site
               have migrated into Massapequa Creek.  Wildlife in or near the creek may
               be harmed by the contaminated runoff from the site.  In addition, people
               who use the creek for recreation may suffer adverse health effects by
               touching or accidentally ingesting the water.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   86
               continued

-------
                                                     LIBERTY INDUSTRIAL FINISHING
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions: The potentially responsible party removed
              contaminated soils and sludges from the leaching basins, stormwater
              basin, and the sludge lagoon.

              Entire Site: The Four J's, under State supervision, conducted an
              investigation to determine the extent of contamination on the site.
              However, additional studies measuring the extent of off-site
              contamination will be needed before remedies are selected for the site
              cleanup.

   Site Facts:  In 1985, the State and Four J's signed a Consent Order.  Under this order,
   the owner conducted a study of site contamination. The study was determined to be
   inadequate because it did not address off-site contamination. The order was
   subsequently amended to include the study of off-site contamination.  The owner has
   failed to comply fully with the Order. The extent of the off-site contamination has not ,
   yet been determined.
   Environmental Progress
   Investigations leading to the selection of a cleanup remedy for the site are currently
   being conducted. Until these investigations are completed and the actual cleanup
   activities are started, the EPA has determined that the site poses no immediate threats
   to the surrounding community or the environment.
                                        87

-------
   LOVE CANAL
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD000606947
                                                REGION 2
                                         CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 32
                                                Niagara County
                                                  Niagara Falls

                                                    Alias:
                                           Hooker Chemicals Love Canal
Site Description	

   The 16-acre Love Canal site is a landfill located in an area that was excavated in the
   1890s to provide hydroelectric power. Beginning in 1942, it was used by Hooker
   Chemicals and Plastics (now Occidental Chemical Corporation) for the disposal of over
   21,000 tons of various chemical wastes, including dioxins.  Dumping ceased in 1952,
   and the following year the area was covered and deeded to the Niagara Falls Board of
   Education.  The area near the site was extensively developed, which included the
   construction of an elementary school and numerous homes.  Problems with odors and
   residues, first reported in the 1960s, increased in the 1970s as the water table rose,
   bringing contaminated groundwater to the surface. Studies indicate that  numerous
   toxic chemicals migrated into the surrounding area directly adjacent to the original
   disposal site. Runoff drained into the Niagara River approximately 3 miles upstream of
   the intake tunnels for the Niagara Falls water treatment plant. Dioxin and other
   contaminants migrated from Love Canal to the sewers, which have outfalls into nearby
   creeks.  Approximately 950 families were evacuated from a ten-square-block area
   surrounding the canal.  Approximately 10,000 people are located within 1  mile of Love
   Canal; 70,000 live within 3  miles.  The Niagara Falls water treatment plant serves
   77,000 people.  The site is  1/4 mile north of the Niagara  River.
   Site Responsibility:
      This site is being addressed through
      Federal, State, and potentially
      responsible parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY
Proposed Date: 10/01/81
  Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
       II
The groundwater is contaminated with various volatile organic
compounds (VOCs). Creek and sewer sediments were contaminated
with dioxins; however, these contaminants have been removed. Soil is
contaminated with VOCs including toluene and xylenes; other organics
including dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and
pesticides; and heavy metals including arsenic.  The Niagara River and
Black, Bergholtz, and Cayuga Creeks are contaminated with VOCs and
other organics.  People who touch or ingest contaminated water,
sediments,  or soil may be at risk. Contaminants have leached into the
Niagara River and people who use it for recreational activities may be
exposed to  pollutants.  In addition, the wildlife in or near the river may be
harmed.
   March 1990
          NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                          88
               continued

-------
                                                                      LOVE CANAL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in seven stages: initial actions and six long-term remedial
  phases focusing on: (1) landfill containment; (2) sewers, creeks, and berms; (3) thermal
  treatment of creeks and berms; (4) cleanup of the 93rd Street School; (5) home
  maintenance; and (6) buyout of homes.
  Response Action Status
             Initial Actions:  In 1978, the State installed a system to collect leachate
             from the site. The landfill area was covered, fenced, and a treatment plant
             was constructed. In 1981, the EPA erected a fence around Black Creek and
   conducted environmental studies.

             Landfill Containment:  In 1982, the EPA selected a remedy to contain the
             landfill by constructing a slurry wall; covering the temporary clay cap with a
             synthetic material to prevent rain from coming into contact with the buried
   wastes; demolishing the contaminated houses and a nearby school; conducting more
   studies to determine the best way to proceed with cleanup; and monitoring to make
   sure the cleanup activities are effective.  The State covered  approximately 3 acres of
   the landfill and improved the leachate collection system. Some of the sewers also
   were cleaned. These cleanup activities were completed in 1985.

             Sewers, Creeks, and Berms: In 1985, the EPA selected a remedy to clean
             up the sewers and the creeks by hydraulically cleaning sewers, removing
             and disposing of the contaminated sediments, and inspecting the sewers
             for defects that could allow contaminants to migrate; repairing a damaged
   floodgate; limiting access, dredging, and hydraulically cleaning the Black Creek culverts;
   and erecting a berm to temporarily stabilize the contaminated sediments until the
   source of contamination could be resolved.  All the waste has been stored within the
   Love Canal containment system. The State cleaned 62,000 linear feet of storm and
   sanitary sewers in 1986. An additional 6,000 feet were cleaned in 1987. In 1989, Black
   Creek and Bergholtz Creek were dredged of 12,000 cubic yards of sediments, and the
   State installed a sediment erosion berm. Black Creek and Bergholtz Creek were
   fenced. Sediments and other Love Canal wastes are awaiting incineration. The
   remaining cleanup of the staging area is scheduled to be completed in 1990.

             Thermal Treatment of Sewers and Creeks: In 1987, the EPA selected a
             remedy to treat the contaminants in the sewers and  creeks by constructing
             an on-site facility to c/ewaferand contain the sediments, plus constructing a
             separate facility to treat the dewatered contaminants by heat; treating the
   residuals stored on the site from the leachate treatment facility; and disposing of non-
   hazardous residuals from the treatment on the site. The State currently is designing
   the technical specifications for treating the contaminated sediments in the sewers and
   creeks. The cleanup, to be performed by Occidental, is expected to begin in 1992.
                                                                         continued
                                        89

-------
                                                                   LOVE CANAL
           93rd Street School: The remedy selected by the EPA in 1988 to clean up
           the 93rd Street School involves excavating about 7,500 cubic yards of
           contaminated soil adjacent to the school. If study results are favorable, the
           soil will be mixed with a hardening agent, such as cement or lime, to form
a solid. The solidified material will then be placed back onto the site and covered with
clean soil. Monitoring of the soil will ensure the remedy has been effective. The State
is designing the technical specifications to excavate and treat the soil. At present, the
remedy selected is being reevaluated to determine the feasibility of disposing of the
treated soil off the site. No final cleanup action is planned until the reevaluation is
complete.

           Home Maintenance: As a result of the contamination at Love Canal, the
           Federal government and the State of New York purchased the affected
           homes. These properties need to be maintained to prevent their
           deterioration prior to resale, which is on hold pending a study and a land
use plan. The Love Canal Area Revitalization Agency (LCARA) is conducting the upkeep
of the homes under an EPA Cooperative Agreement until 1992. LCARA will be the
coordinating agency in charge of the home sales.

           Buyout of Homes: The Love Canal Revitalization Agency is buying homes
           that were previously ineligible. The buyout is scheduled to  be completed in
           1991.
 Environmental Progress
 Many cleanup activities, including landfill containment, home relocation, and treatment
 of contaminants in sewers and creeks, have been completed at the Love Canal site.
 These completed actions have eliminated all surface contamination at the site making
 the site safer to.nearby residents and the environment while final cleanup activities are
 being completed.
                                      90

-------
   LUDLOW  SAND

   AND  GRAVEL
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYDO13468939
Site Description
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 25
                                          Oneida County
                                              Paris
   The 18-acre Ludlow Sand and Gravel site is a landfill and gravel pit located on a 130-
   acre parcel of land. Disposal at the site began in the early 1960s, and included domestic
   wastes, septic tank effluent, industrial wastes such as dyes and waste oils, and animal
   parts from a meat processing plant. Area residents expressed concern in 1966 when
   large areas of the site were left uncovered and a strong odor could be detected at a
   considerable distance. In 1982, trace quantities of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
   were detected in the leachate pools located at the southern portions of the property.
   The District Court of Binghamton ordered the landfill closed and dumping ceased in
   1988, although the gravel pit is still in operation. A New York State designated wetland
   is located to the southeast of the site.  The landfill is in a groundwater recharge zone to
   an aquifer along Sauquoit Creek, which serves as a major discharge  point for
   groundwater flowing from this aquifer and is a tributary of the Mohawk River. The
   residents east of the landfill obtain their drinking water supply from the aquifer. The
   municipal water supply for the community of Clayville is obtained from groundwater.
   The nearest residence is 1/2 mile from the landfill. Three residential wells are located
   within 1,000 feet of the site, and eight additional wells are 1,000 to 3,000 feet away.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties' actions.
     IMPL LISTING HISTORY

    Proposed pate: 12/01 /82
      Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater and landfill wastes are contaminated with volatile
               organic compounds (VOCs),  heavy metals including chromium and nickel,
               PCBs, and phenols.  Sediments contain VOCs and PCBs. The soil and
               surface water are contaminated with PCBs.  Leachate pools contain PCBs
               and phenols.  Residents near the site rely on private wells for drinking
               water.  Although these wells are  not contaminated, chemicals migrating
               from the landfill may pollute  them.  Sediment from the wetlands is
               contaminated. People who touch or accidentally ingest the sediments
               may suffer adverse health effects,  In addition, the contaminants may
               harm the wildlife in and around the  wetlands.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SI
                    91
TES
continued

-------
                                                          LUDLOW SAND AND GRAVEL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two long-term remedial phases-focusing on source
  control and the cleanup of groundwater and surface water.
  Response Action Status
             Source Control:  In 1988, the EPA selected a remedy to contain the source
             of the contamination by: (1) consolidating approximately 10,000 cubic yards
             of contaminated soil and sediment adjacent to the landfill and disposing of it
             in the landfill, and then placing either a clay or synthetic cover over it to
   prevent rain water from coming into contact with the buried materials; (2) collecting the
   leachate from seepage areas; (3) dewateringlhe landfill, if necessary, by using either a
   passive drain system or using groundwater extraction wells; (4) lowering the water
   table to prevent groundwater from coming into contact with the waste material; (5)
   treating the contaminated leachate and groundwater at an on-site facility, or if the
   volume of water is small, transporting the water and leachate to an approved federal
   facility; (6) fencing the site, including the wetlands; (7) controlling future  use of the
   property by deed restrictions; and (8) monitoring the groundwater, private wells, and
   surface water to ensure the cleanup has been .effective.  A plan was approved in 1990
   for the cleanup of the site and the wetlands.  Also, a preliminary design report was
   completed for the development of a final remedy for the site.  The final design is
   expected to be completed in 1991.

             Groundwater and Surface Water: The EPA is also studying the nature
             and extent of off-site contamination.  The State is currently reviewing data
             from the study.  Once the study is completed, cleanup of the groundwater
   and surface water will be selected.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Ludlow Sand and Gravel
   site while further studies are completed and cleanup activities are started.
                                         92

-------
   MALTA ROC

   FUEL AREA
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980535124
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 24
                                          Saratoga County
                                     Towns of Malta and Stillwater
                                             Aliases:
                               Saratoga Research and Development Center
                                         Rocket Fuel Site
Site Description
   The 445-acre Malta Rocket Fuel Area site consists of the 165-acre Malta Test Station
   and 280 acres of undeveloped forest used as a safety easement for the Test Station.
   The Test Station was established in  1945 by the U.S. Government for rocket engine
   and fuel testing and was first leased by various ageqejes, including several departments
   of the military, and then purchased by a predecesso'rof the Department of Defense in
   1955. The site was also leased to NASA and used for research and development
   projects conducted on behalf of the  Department of Energy. The General Electric
   Company operated the Test Station as a government contractor from 1945 to 1964. In
   1964, the Test Station and the easement were acquired by a predecessor of the New
   York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The General
   Electric Company continued as operating contractor while NYSERDA and its
   predecessor conducted similar atomic and space research and development at the Test
   Station.  In 1984, NYSERDA sold approximately 81 acres of the Test Station, including
   most of the original buildings, test areas, rocket gantries, and other facilities  to the
   Wright-Malta Corporation. Operations at the site involved the use of hazardous
   substances.  Investigations of soil, sludge, surface water, and groundwater at the site
   have confirmed the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polychlorinated
   biphenyls (RGBs). Numerous potential source areas have been identified at the site,
   including scrap metal storage, chemical storage, solid waste disposal, drum  disposal,
   and fuel mixing  areas; a burning pit; the rocket gantries and associated cooling pits;
   septic tanks  and leach fields; aboveground and underground storage tanks and piping
   systems; and the magazine area. The population within a 2-mife radius of the site is
   approximately 10,000,  which includes all of the Luther Forest housing development.
   Water is supplied to area residents through the public system which draws
   groundwater from wells 6,000 feet from the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/01/86

  Final Date: 07/01/87
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUSWASTE SITES
                    93
               continued

-------
                                                        MALTA ROCKET FUEL AREA
                 Threats and Contaminants
              Groundwater at the site is contaminated with VOCs, PCBs, and boron
              from former site activities. Off-site surface water is contaminated with
              VOCs, and soils are contaminated with VOCs and PCBs. On-site cleanup
              workers may be exposed to health hazards if contaminated groundwater
              is accidentally ingested. Direct contact with the contaminated
              groundwater or surface water may also be a threat to the health of the
              workers. Residents living around the site may be exposed to
              contaminants by way of polluted groundwater, but testing shows the
              public water supply wells are not contaminated.  Discharges from the site
              are entering the creeks and streams that flow toward the housing
              development.
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Entire Site: In 1989, some of the parties potentially responsible for the
              site contamination began an extensive investigation to determine the
              nature and extent of contamination and its sources and to identify
              alternatives for cleanup. The investigation is scheduled to be completed in
              1992.

   Site Facts:  In 1989, the EPA issued a Unilateral Order tor the performance of site
   studies to eight potentially responsible parties. There is concern among the residents
   of the Luther Forest residential development over the potential for contaminants to
   reach the water supply wells that are approximately 6,000 feet from the site perimeter.
  Environmental Progress
  After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
  determined that no immediate actions were required at the Malta Rocket Fuel site
  while further studies are completed and cleanup activities are started.
                                        94

-------
   MARATHON BATTE

   COMPANY
   NEW YORK
   EPAID# NYD010959757
Site Description
                                          REGION 2
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 21
                                          Putnam County
                                            Cold Spring
   The 60-acre Marathon Battery Company site includes a former nickel-cadmium battery
   plant and 11 surrounding acres, the Hudson River around the Gold Spring Pier, and a
   series of river backwater areas known as Foundry Cove and Constitution Marsh. The
   facility operated from 1952 to 1979, producing military and commercial batteries.
   During this time, the plant changed ownership several times, finally operating as the
   Marathon  Battery Company from 1969 to 1979.  Before 1965, the plant's wastewater
   treatment system discharged into the Hudson River at the Cold Spring Pier.through the
   use of the municipal sewer system, except during periods of overload or system
   shutdown, when the wastewater was discharged directly into East Foundry Cove
   Marsh.  In 1965, however, the State Department of Health concluded that the new
   sewage system being designed for Cold Spring could not handle the  plant's industrial
   discharge, and operators began channeling the discharge into East Foundry Cove
   Marsh.  Although Marathon and other potentially responsible parties for the
   contamination dredged parts of Foundry Cove and surrounding areas  in 1972 and 1973,
   studies of the wetlands still revealed high levels of cadmium and nickel in the late
   1970s. The EPA has divided the site into three geographical subsites to speed cleanup
   activities:  the East Foundry Cove Marsh and Constitution Marsh (Area I); the 11-acre
   plant property, including the plant itself, a production well, a 500,000-gallon water
   tower, building debris, a clay- and asphalt-lined underground vault containing dredged
   material, a parking lot, and nearby residential yards (Area II); and East and West Foundry
   Cove and the portion of the Hudson River near Cold Spring Pier (Area III).  The
   warehouse was used as a book warehouse, but all business activities at the site have
   ceased.  The books still remain on site. The surrounding area is residential and includes
   an historic tourism area.  Approximately 400 people live within a mile of the site. A
   school, a mobile home park, and a number of residences are served by groundwater
   within a 3-mile radius of the site. Local surface water is used for both recreation and
   commercial fishery.                                       '
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/81

  Final Date: 09/01/83
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    95
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                     MARATHON BATTERY COMPANY
                Threats and Contaminants
              The State found high levels of cadmium, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt both
              inside and outside the plant facility.  High concentrations of
              trichloroethylene (TCE) have been detected in groundwater.  A State-
              supervised sampling program in 1984 and 1985 revealed widespread
              heavy metal contamination of the sediments and marsh soils of Foundry
              Cove. The highest levels were found in East Foundry Cove next to the
              Kemble Avenue outfall. Cadmium was found in soils uphill from the plant
              on the fence line between the former battery facility and neighboring back
              yards. Tidal action has slowly been flushing remaining cadmium deposits
              from the wetlands into the Hudson River.  High levels of cadmium are
              present in on-site sediments, and cadmium is accumulating in the biota,
              threatening the marsh that supports several surface and underwater plant
              species and the surrounding wildlife. An endangered species, the
              shortnose sturgeon, migrates up and down the Hudson and  enters East
              Foundry Cove to feed. Since this fish feeds on insect larvae, it is likely to
              eat contaminated sediments. Public health may be adversely affected by
              inhaling, accidentally ingesting, or touching contaminated soils or dusts,
              drinking contaminated groundwater, or eating foods grown in
              contaminated media.
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in four stages:  immediate actions and three long-term
  remedial phases focusing on cleanup of each of the three subsite areas.
  Response Action Status
          X* Immediate Actions: In 1972 and 1973, under orders from the EPA, the
             owners dredged the channel connecting East Foundry Cove Marsh to
             Constitution Marsh. Workers removed about 90,000 square meters of
  sediment About 4,000 cubic meters of dredge material were then retained in a diked
  enclosure constructed over a parking lot on the site property.  Sediments were allowed
  to settle and the watery component was returned to Foundry Cove. Workers placed
  the dredge spoils in a clay- and asphalt-lined underground vault on  plant property.
  However, studies in Foundry Cove between 1976 and 1980 continued to detect high
  cadmium and nickel concentrations in the sediments.  In 1989, Marathon placed
  fencing and screens over the building's entrance to limit access.
                                                                        continued
                                        96

-------
          	MARATHON BATTERY COMPANY

           Area I Cleanup: The EPA selected a remedy for cleaning up East Foundry
           Cove Marsh and Constitution Marsh in 1986. The remedy features: (1)
           dredging highly contaminated sediments from East Foundry Cove Marsh;
           (2) chemically fixating the sediment and properly disposing of the watery
components; (3) disposing of the treated sediments off site; (4) restoring the marsh by
adding clean fill and clay and replanting the restored area; and (5) diverting storm
sewers. Long-term sediment and water monitoring, a public awareness program, and
site access restrictions also will be undertaken at the-marsh. The EPA has completed
the engineering design for this remedy.  Prior to marsh cleanup actions, workers will
construct a dike to keep sediments from migrating and will install a train switch to ease
removal of the sediment. Cleanup of Area  I will  be done concurrently with Area III.

           Area II Cleanup: In 1989, the  EPA selected a remedy for cleaning up Area
           II that features:  (1) decontaminating the inside surfaces and contents of
           the former battery facility to remove dust containing heavy metals; (2)
           excavating the cadmium-contaminated soil on the plant grounds and
neighboring yards; (3) excavating the on-site vault containing dredge spoils from the
1973 cleanup; (4) fixating the excavated soil, dust, and vault sediments and disposing of
them at an EPA-approved facility off site; (5) excavating the hot spots of VOC-polluted
soil, and then cleaning and replacing the treated material on site; (6) backfilling
excavated areas with clean fill; (7) placing groundwater use controls and monitoring the
aquifer until it is cleaned; and (8) consideration of minor repairs to the inoperable
sprinkler and heating systems inside the building. The work has been divided into three
parts: (1) excavation and treatment of all contaminated soil on the battery plant's
grounds including the vault and neighboring yards, (2) conducting a pilot study on
cleaning up the books in the warehouse, and (3) cleaning the interior of the former
battery facility including the books currently stored inside.  The EPA began engineering
design work on all three components in 1989. Soil and yard cleanup and vault removal
and cleanup are scheduled for 1991.

           Area III Cleanup:  In 1989, the EPA selected a remedy for this area which
           features dredging 1 foot of sediments from East Foundry Cove and the
           Cold  Spring Pier area and removing them from the site.  No action will be
           taken at West Foundry Cove, but the EPA will continue to monitor it. The
EPA began the engineering design for this  remedy in 1989; it is scheduled for
completion in 1991.

Site Facts: The EPA entered into a Consent Decree with Marathon in  1972 to perform
dredging operations
 Environmental Progress
The dredging operation and site access restrictions described above have reduced the
potential for exposure to hazardous materials at the Marathon Battery site while
remedy designs are completed and final cleanup activities are taking place.
                                       97

-------
   MATTIACE

   PETROCHEMIC

   COMPANY
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD000512459

Site Description	
                                               REGION 2
                                        CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 04
                                               Nassau County
                                                 Glen Cove
   The 2 1/2-acre Mattiace Petrochemical Company site is an inactive chemical distribution
   facility located on Long Island. From the mid-1960s until 1987, Mattiace received
   chemicals by tank truck and redistributed them to its customers. The company also
   operated the M&M Drum Cleaning Company on the site until 1982. The site is now a
   graded, unpaved lot with a trailer, shed, and concrete platform with 40 storage tanks,
   most of which are underground.  In 1980, the New York State Department of
   Environmental Conservation discovered that drums containing volatile organic
   compounds (VOCs) were buried on the site and that wastewater from the drum-
   cleaning operations was being discharged into subsurface leaching pools. State
   investigators found VOCs in soil and shallow groundwater, the local drinking water
   source.  In 1987, after 7 years of failed negotiations and litigation, the State of New
   York seized the property. At that time, many drums and tanks of organics, acid, and
   alkali liquids remained. The  EPA has since secured the site and removed more than
   120,000 gallons of bulk or waste liquids.  Surrounding the site are industrial areas,
   Garvies Point Preserve (designated by the State as a  significant natural habitat), and
   tidal wetlands. Glen Cove Creek is 500 feet south of the site. Surface water within 3
   miles downstream of the site is used  for recreation.
  Site Responsibility:
      This site is being addressed through
      Federal actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/24/88

  Final Date: 03/30/89
                 Threats and Contaminants
       L\
The groundwater and soil at the site are contaminated with VOCs.
Exposure to contaminated water and soil through direct contact or
ingestion may be a health hazard. Habitats at the Garview Point Preserve
and the tidal wetlands may also be threatened by contamination.
   Mwch 1990
          NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                         98
              continued

-------
                                                MATTIACE PETROCHEMICAL COMPANY
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in three stages: emergency actions and two long-term
  remedial phases focusing on soil and groundwater cleanup and removal of buried
  drums.

  Response Action Status
           * Emergency Actions: In 1988, EPA emergency workers secured the site,
             collected samples, and removed 100,000 gallons of flammable liquids,
             20,000 gallons of contaminated water, and 1,800 gallons of liquids
   containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Lab packs were crushed and sent to an
   off-site incineration facility^ Owners reclaimed cylinders and some empty tanks.  All
   other hazardous materials were transported to EPA-approved disposal facilities.
             Soil and Groundwater:  The EPA began a comprehensive study of soil
             and groundwater pollution at the site in 1988. This investigation is
             exploring the nature and extent of contamination problems and will result in
   recommendations on strategies for final cleanup. A recommendation outlining the
   selected remedy for soil and groundwater cleanup is scheduled for 1991.

             Buried Drums: After a geophysical survey that was conducted during field
             work to determine soil contamination, the EPA found several buried drums
             on the site. The EPA initiated field work in 1990 specifically geared to
   investigate the contents of the drums. Recommendations outlining the remedy
   selected to clean up the buried  drums are scheduled to be submitted in late 1990.
   By securing the site and removing contaminated liquids, the EPA has eliminated
   immediate threats to nearby residents and the environment while further investigations
   leading to the selection of final cleanup remedies are taking place at the Mattiace
   Petrochemical Company site.
                                        99

-------
   MERCURY

   REFINING,  INC.
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD048148175     /
Site Description
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 23
                                          Albany County
                                             Albany
   Since 1956, the 1/2-acre Mercury Refining, Inc. site has been reclaiming mercury from
   batteries.  Operators dumped waste batteries behind the furnace building until 1980,
   when these wastes were stored in drums on wooden pallets on paved areas of the
   site. Tests in the early 1980s indicated that waste was at least 3 feet below the site
   surface. The State's Fish and Wildlife Service tested soil in this area in the early 1980s
   and discovered high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury in soils and
   stream sediments. The source of the PCBs is not clear,  although the nearby Owasco
   River Railroad Company has assumed legal responsibility. The site has been cleaned
   up, and the waste disposal methods of the company have been modified. The site lies
   in a light industrial and commercial area. The closest residents  are about 1/4 mile to the
   north of the site. Approximately 20,000 people live within a 1 1/2-mile radius of the
   property; 100,000 live within 3 miles. Local surface water is used for recreation and as
   a drinking water supply. The nearest downstream supply intake is 1 mile away from
   the site. A tributary to Patroon Creek, which flows to the Hudson River, runs next to
   the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 12/01/82

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater, surface water, sediments, and soil were contaminated with
               heavy metals including mercury, zinc, nickel, and arsenic.  In addition, soil
               was contaminated with PCBs. Because the site has been cleaned up, the
               areas of concern are limited to contaminants that may remain in the
               stream or fish.  The risk to personal health is restricted to eating
               contaminated fish.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   100
               continued

-------
                                                           MERCURY REFINING, INC.
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.                                                .
  Response Action Status
             Entire Site: Under orders from the State, the owner excavated about
             2,100 cubic yards of mercury-contaminated soil and debris and 300 cubic
             yards of PCB-contaminated soil and removed them from the site. An
   unknown amount of waste was found beneath the furnace building, and was left in
   place after being sealed with plastic sheets. The site was regraded with clean fill and
   capped to keep rainwater from spreading any remaining contaminants.  After these
   cleanup actions, the State started a fish monitoring program in the  nearby stream
   system to determine if there are any potentially adverse health effects associated with
   the remaining residuals of mercury.  Groundwatef monitoring is under way to ensure
   the effectiveness of the remedy.

   Site Facts: In 1985, a Consent Order was issued by the State to the parties potentially
   responsible for the site contamination requiring them to conduct cleanup activities at
   the site.  In 1989, the State issued another Consent Order that required Mercury
   Refining  to curtail any further chemical releases from plant operations to the
   environment. The company must also perform additional cleanup of adjacent soils, and
   pay for a wildlife impact study being conducted by the State.
   Environmental Progress
   The removal and containment of contaminated materials from the Mercury Refining site
   have achieved the primary goals established for the cleanup of sources of
   contamination. Completion of the adjacent soils cleanup is pending, and groundwater
   and fish monitoring will be conducted to ensure cleanup effectiveness of the site
   cleanup work.
                                        101

-------
   NEPERA CHEMIC

   COMPANY, IN-
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD000511451
Site Description
                                               REGION 2
                                        CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 21
                                                Orange County
                                        11/2 miles southwest of Maybrook
   The 23-acre Nepera Chemical Company site was once an industrial waste disposal
   facility. Between 1953 and 1968, Nepera Chemical Company, Inc. used the property to
   dispose of wastes from its Harriman plant, which produced pharmaceutical and other
   industrial chemicals. In 1953, the State issued a permit to the site owners allowing
   them to discharge sewage or wastes into the nearby waters.  Nepera started waste
   disposal processes with two lagoons and expanded to six. Discharge began at 50,000
   gallons each week and declined to 7,000 gallons a week in 1967.  State inspectors
   detected leakage from the lagoons in 1958 and 1960. The owners and the EPA found
   heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and phthalates in on-site test wells.
   Because of the State's continuing concern about proper containment of the waste and
   the threat to a local well field, Nepera discontinued operation of the  lagoons in 1968.
   The last lagoon was filled in 1974. The lagoons were situated in a narrow valley
   between two rock ridges. The property is now covered with grass and completely
   fenced.  Approximately 6,500 people  live within a 3-mile radius of the site.  Public water
   supply wells for Maybrook lie 800 feet north of the site; the system  consists of three
   wells and an infiltration gallery.  Most residents outside the village rely on private wells,
   which tap local groundwater, for household uses. The nearest residential well is about
   500 feet west of the site. Beaverdam Brook runs through the site.
  Site Responsibility:
      This site is being addressed through
      Federal, State, and potentially
      responsible parties' actions.
IMPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
       I
                 Threats and Contaminants
Pyridines, a plastic by-product, and other compounds from chemical
wastes have been detected in groundwater monitoring wells on site and
in sludges, in addition to VOCs and heavy metals such as lead, arsenic,
cadmium, and mercury. Surface water and sediment samples also
contain pyridines and VOCs. People could be potentially harmed if they
ingest contaminated water or come into direct contact with contaminated
water or soil.
   March 1990
          NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                         102
              continued

-------
                                                   NEPERA CHEMICAL COMPANY, INC.
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status


             Immediate Actions: All lagoons were filled by 1974 and a fence was
             constructed to restrict access to the site.

             Entire Site:  In 1988, under State monitoring, the site owner began an
             intensive study of soil and water pollution at the site. This investigation will
  	explore the nature and extent of contamination problems at the site and will
   result in recommendations for final cleanup. The EPA and the State approved the study
   work plan submitted by the owner in  1990. The study is scheduled for completion in
   1991, after which the EPA will select the most appropriate remedies for the site
   cleanup from the recommended cleanup alternatives.
   Environmental Progress
   By filling the waste lagoons and restricting access, the Nepera Chemical site has been
   made safer while further investigations leading to the selection of final cleanup
   remedies are taking place.
                                        103

-------
   NIAGARA CITY

   REFUSE
   NEW YORK
   EPAID# NYD000514257
Site Description
                                                REGION 2

                                         CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 32
                                                 Niagara County
                                                  Wheatfleld


                                                    Alias:
                                       Niagara County Refuse Disposal District
   The 50-acre Niagara City Refuse site is an inactive landfill that was operated by the
   Niagara County Disposal District from 1968 until 1976, when it was officially closed.
   Large amounts of industrial solid and chemical wastes are buried on the site. Exposed
   refuse was covered with about 20 inches of dirt and clay, and the site was graded. The
   Town of Wheatfield acquired it in 1976. About 1/2 mile southeast of the site lies the
   town of North Tonawanda, with a population of 36,000. Wheatfield's population is
   approximately 9,600. The marshy wetlands to the north of the site form the
   headwaters of Black Creek, which flows into the Niagara River. Contaminated runoff
   flows north into the creek or south into the river. The Niagara River is the drinking
   water source for the City of Niagara Falls; its water supply intake is about 3 miles
   downstream from the landfill.  No known public or private wells exist in the area; water
   supply comes from outside the site vicinity.  Local surface waters are used
   recreationally.
  Site Responsibility:
      This site is being addressed through
      Federal and potentially responsible
      parties'actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/81

  Final Date: 09/01/83
       II
                  Threats and Contaminants
Groundwater and surface water are polluted with volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals. Leachate discharging to the
Niagara River contains heavy metals.  Sediment samples have high levels
of phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and low levels of
polychlorinated biphenyls (RGBs). There is evidence that the site cap is
deteriorating, raising the potential for release of VOCs and possible
surface water erosion of wastes. The principal mode of human exposure
to contaminants is through drinking or coming into direct contact with
water from the Niagara River and Black Creek.
   March 1990
          NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE  SITES
                          104
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                             NIAGARA CITY REFUSE
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status


              Entire Site: The EPA began an intensive study of water pollution at the
              site in 1987. A party potentially responsible for contamination at the site
              took over the study in 1989. These investigations are exploring the extent
              and nature of pollution problems and will result in recommendations for
   final cleanup. The EPA plans to select a remedy for the site in early 1992, once the
   study is completed.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Niagara City Refuse site   ^
   while further studies leading to the selection of final cleanup remedies are taking place.
                                         105

-------
   NIAGARA MO

   OPERATIONS
   HEADQUART
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980664361
                                          REGION 2
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 29
                                          Saratoga County
                                          Saratoga Springs
Site Description
   The 7-acre Niagara Mohawk/Operations Headquarters site was used for coal gas
   manufacturing by the Saratoga Gas Light Company, a predecessor company of Niagara
   Mohawk, and then by various other companies from 1853 until the late 1940s.  By-
   product materials containing hazardous substances were disposed of at various
   locations at the site, and the site's subsurface contains numerous coal tar waste
   deposits from these operations. Niagara Mohawk has operated the site since 1950 as
   a multi-purpose service center including an electric substation, natural gas facilities, and
   offices, as well as vehicle and equipment repair, maintenance, and storage facilities.
   Transformers and other electrical equipment that may contain oil contaminated  with
   polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are periodically stored outside the southwestern
   corner of the shop building at the site. The site is located in a primarily  residential area
   of Saratoga Springs.  Approximately 10,000 people live within a 1-mile radius of the site
   and receive their drinking water supply from the city of Saratoga Springs.  Loughberry
   Lake is the drinking water supply reservoir for the city of Saratoga Springs, and  is
   located 2,000 feet upgradientofthe site. Approximately 1,300 people in trailer  parks
   and other residents near the site obtain their drinking water from private wells located
   within 3 miles of the site.
  Site .Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
IMPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/24/88

  Final Date: 02/21/90
                 Threats and Contaminants
               On-site groundwater is contaminated with polycyclic aromatic
               hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated
               with coal tars. Sediments contain PAHs, low levels of the pesticide DDT,
               and petrochemicals. On-site soils are contaminated  with PAHs and VOCs.
               Should site-related contaminants migrate into sources of drinking water,
               area residents could be exposed to contaminants when drinking or using
               that water. Village Brook crosses the site and runs underground once it
               leaves the site, until it  meets Spring Run, approximately 500 feet
               southeast.  It is possible  that area residents could be exposed to
               contaminants located in the sediments of these two streams.
  March 1990
   NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   106
                                                                         continued

-------
                                       NIAGARA MOHAWK/OPERATIONS HEADQUARTERS
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status


              Entire Site:  In 1989, Niagara Mohawk Corporation began an investigation
              into the nature and extent of site contamination. This investigation is
              scheduled for completion in 1991, after which final cleanup technologies
              will be selected by the EPA.

   Site Facts: The EPA and  Niagara Mohawk Corp. signed a Consent Order In 1987
   which specifies Niagara Mohawk's responsibilities for performing an investigation of
   site contamination.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Niagara Mohawk
   Operations Headquarters site while further investigations are taking place.
                                        107

-------
   NORTH  SEA

   MUNICIPAL LA
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980762520
                                      REGION 2
                              .CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                      Suffolk County
                                       Southampton
Site Description
   The 130-acre North Sea Landfill is an active municipal landfill thai is owned and
   operated by the town of Southampton. It has been accepting refuse, construction
   debris, and septic system waste since 1963.  The site is separated into four areas:  Cell
   #1, Cell #2, Cell #3, and former sludge lagoons. Cell #1 was used for the disposal of
   municipal solid waste, refuse, and debris. Cell #2 is permanently closed, and Cell #3 is
   currently receiving municipal waste.  Fourteen scavenger lagoons were
   decommissionedin 1986 and have subsequently been filled with clean fill. There is a
   plume of groundwater contaminated with heavy metals in an aquifer designated as a
   sole source of drinking water in the area.  The area within  1 mile of the landfill is
   residential, with a population of 1,500 people.  In 1979, about a dozen private wells
   located within the area of groundwater contamination were closed by the State. The
   site is located near the southern shore of Little Peconic Bay in an area with extensive
   ponds, coves, and wetlands. Groundwater ultimately discharges into Fish Cove of the
   Peconic Bay. The Peconic Bay system is a major recreational resource in this region.
  site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal and potentially responsible
                     parties' actions.
                                  NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                 Proposed Date: 10/01/84

                                   Final Date: 06/01/86
                 Threats  and Contaminants
              The groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
              and heavy metals. Water samples taken from Fish Cove showed the
              presence of cadmium, a heavy metal. Off-site groundwater
              contamination may pose a health threat to people who drink or touch
              contaminated groundwater. The potential on-site health threats of
              primary concern are direct contact with or accidental ingestion of
              contaminated soil. People could also be exposed to contaminants
              through participation in recreational activities at Fish Cove.  Wetlands are
              possibly threatened by contamination.
  Mofch 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
               108
                                                                        continued

-------
                                                     NORTH SEA MUNICIPAL 1ANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in initial actions and two long-term remedial phases
  focusing on cleanup of Cell #1 and the former sludge lagoon area and cleanup of off-
  site contamination.
  Response Action Status


             , Initial Action:  Temporary emergency water was provided until 1981,
              when affected homes were connected to the public water supply.

              Cell #1 and Former Sludge Lagoon Area: Cleanup actions to address
              site contamination include closure of Cell #1 and sludge and soil sampling
              to assure that no hazardous materials are leaching from the sludge
              lagoons. The parties potentially responsible for contamination of the site
   have started designing the technical specifications for closure of Cell #1  and sampling
   of the sludge and soil. The design phase is scheduled to be completed in 1991.

              Off-Site Contamination: The Town of Southampton currently is
              conducting an investigation into the nature and extent of the off-site
              contamination. The investigation will define the contaminants, which will
   result in recommendations for final off-site cleanup activities.  The investigation is
   scheduled to be completed in 1991.

   Site Facts: In 1987, the EPA and the Town of Southampton executed an order
   requiring the Town to conduct a study into site contamination and to recommend final
   site cleanup actions. Cell #2 has been  closed as required in the State Administrative
   Order.
    Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that, with the provision of alternative water to residents formerly using
   contaminated private wells, no other immediate actions are required at the North Sea
   Municipal Landfill site while further investigations are completed and cleanup activities
   are being planned.
                                         109

-------
   OLD BETHPAG

   LANDFILL
   NEW YORK
   EPAID# NYD980531727
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 04
                                          Nassau County
                                            Oyster Bay
Site Description
   The 65-acre Old Bethpage Landfill is an inactive municipal /ancff/7/that is part of a
   sanitary landfill complex, which was active until 1986. The Town of Oyster Bay began
   operations at the Old Bethpage Landfill in 1957, primarily for disposing of incinerator
   residue. In 1967, the town began accepting garbage and trash and allowed home
   owners to dump trash.  From 1968 through 1978, liquid and solid industrial process
   wastes and damaged drums containing organic residues were disposed of at the site.
   Since 1978, metal hydroxide sludges have been the only industrial  waste disposed of at
   the landfill. The landfill was closed to further disposal in 1986. There are several
   groundwater recharge basins used to dispose of scrubber water from incinerators. A
   methane gas collection system was installed to prevent further off-site migration of
   landfill gas. Partial landfill capping provides some barrier against groundwater
   contaminant migration.  There are approximately 10,000 people living within 1 mile of
   the site. The site is located above the Magothy Aquifer, which supplies many public
   wells.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/81

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Air is polluted with methane gas and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
               The groundwater on site and leachate from the landfill are contaminated
               with heavy metals including iron and manganese. The off-site
               groundwater is contaminated with VOCs. The main health risks
               associated with this site are drinking contaminated groundwater and
               inhaling contaminated air. The Village of Farmingdale uses the public
               drinking water wells directly downstream of the landfill and could be
               threatened by the contaminants.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   110
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                           OLD BETHPAOE LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status


              Entire Site:  In 1982, a methane gas collection system was installed by
              the Town of Oyster Bay to monitor and prevent migration of gas beyond
              the boundary of the site. A leachate collection system has been operating
    	     at the landfill since 1983. It is designed to collect, store/treat, and dispose
   of the leachate generated by the landfill. A clay cap was also applied to 29 acres of the
   65-acre site. Technologies selected to clean up groundwater contamination coming
   from the landfill and source control of the landfill include: (1) installation, operation, and
   maintenance of a system of groundwater recovery wells and treatment of the
   recovered water by an air stripper, and if necessary, carbon treatment, (2)  completing
   the covering of the landfill to prevent water from entering and thus spreading
   contaminants; and (3) monitoring to determine the effectiveness of the cleanup actions.
   The Town of Oyster Bay and the State, under EPA monitoring, are preparing the
   technical specifications and designs for the last portion of the capping program.
   Construction of the groundwater treatment system began in 1990.

   Site Facts: In 1984, the Town of Oyster Bay signed a Consent Order agreeing to
   conduct an investigation into the groundwater contamination at the site and to
   recommend alternatives for cleanup of both  on- and off-site contamination. The final
   Consent Decree covering the design and construction of the remedies selected by the
   EPA was approved by the court in 1988.
    Environmental Progress
   The completed cleanup actions described above have greatly reduced the potential for
   exposure to contaminated air, leachate, and groundwater at the Old Bethpage Landfill
   site while further cleanup activities are taking place.

-------
   OLEAN  WELL

   FIELD
   NEW YORK
   EPAED# NYD980528657
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 34
                                       Cattaraugus County
                                             Clean
Site Description
   The 1-square-mile Olean Well Field site is comprised of three public wells, 50 private
   wells, and municipal and industrial dumps that contain high levels of trichoroethylene
   (TCE). Much of the groundwater contamination is believed to be the result of industrial
   operations at several nearby commercial  establishments. Contamination of the areas
   was discovered in 1981. The public wells were constructed in the 1970s to alleviate
   the need for the surface water treatment plant on Olean Creek. After Olean city
   officials detected contamination of the public wells, the City discontinued their use and
   reopened the surface water treatment plant on Olean Creek. Site-related contaminants
   have migrated from shallow groundwater to deeper-lying levels.  The groundwater
   located in the upper level flows toward and discharges into the Allegheny River.
   Approximately 18,200 people live in the City of Olean.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties'actions.
IMPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/81

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                 Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds
               (VOCs). Three public wells and most residential wells also are
               contaminated. On-site soil at the manufacturing facilities is contaminated
               with TCE and other VOCs. Area residents may have been exposed to
               contaminants in their drinking water and through direct contact.
 Cleanup Approach
   This site is being addressed in three stages: immediate actions and two long-term
   remedial phases focusing on cleanup of the groundwater and controlling the source of
   site contamination.
  March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   112
                                                                       continued

-------
                                                              CLEAN WELL, FIELD
Response Action Status
            Immediate Actions: A total of 28 home carbon treatment units for
            drinking water were installed on private wells and subsequent monitoring
-—~—.     services were performed by the EPA between 1983 and 1985.  The New
York State Department of Environmental Conservation {NYSDEC) and the EPA
developed an interim cleanup action that provided for regular monitoring and the
installation of additional carbon adsorption units as necessary, until a permanent
remedy was put in place.

           Groundwater: Based on the results of the site investigation, the remedies
           selected to clean up the site include: (1) re-activating the municipal wells
           and treatment of the water using an air stripping process to reduce the
           TCE contamination to a level that protects human health; (2) extending the
city water lines from the Town of Clean to connect approximately 93 residences
currently served by wells; (3) inspecting the McGraw-Edison industrial sewer and
analyzing repair and replacement options; and (4) recommending institutional controls
restricting withdrawal  of contaminated groundwater for drinking purposes. Five
thousand feet of sewer lines have been replaced or cleaned. The water main extension
work was completed in 1989. These new water mains will also provide hydrants and
fire protection to the targeted areas. Air strippers were constructed at the municipal
wells in 1989, which were reactivated in 1990.

            Source Control: The purpose of the second investigation is to further
            define contaminant sources, and to provide the information necessary to
	select and design appropriate source control cleanup actions. A work plan
for the source control  study was developed by the EPA in 1989, in addition to a field
operations plan. The goal of the investigation will be to fully describe characteristics  of
known contaminant source areas, investigate other potential source areas, and
determine appropriate cleanup actions.  Selection of final cleanup actions is scheduled
for 1992.

Site Facts: The NYSDEC issued an order invoking an Administrative Hearing in 1981.
A Notice Letter was sent by the EPA to the parties potentially responsible for
contamination of the site in 1982. in 1984, the EPA issued Unilateral Administrative
 Orders to six individuals that currently or formerly owned and operated commercial
establishments suspected of contributing to site contamination.  In 1984,  the parties
 potentially responsible submitted a report highlighting investigative studies required
 under the Order to the EPA and the NYSDEC.
 Environmental Progress
The immediate actions described above have eliminated the potential of exposure to
hazardous substances in the drinking water and will continue to protect affected
residences until remaining cleanup activities are undertaken at the Clean Well Field
site.
                                       113

-------
   PASLEY SOLVENT

   CHEMICAL INC
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD991292004
Site Description
                                        REGION 2
                                 CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 05
                                         Nassau County
                                          Hempstead

                                            Alias:
                                     Pasley Sales Corporation
   The 1/2-acre Pasley Solvents and Chemicals site was a chemical distribution facility
   from 1969 to 1982, occasionally storing waste chemicals.  Prior to this, Commander Oil
   used the site for gasoline storage and fuel oil distribution.  The Nassau County Health
   Department (NCDH) investigated the site in 1981 and found the on-site soil and
   groundwater to be contaminated with organic solvents and petroleum products.  NCDH
   ordered Pasley to  clean up the site in 1982, but the company went bankrupt and
   indicated they could not take responsibility for any cleanup actions. Approximately 50
   homes are located within 1,000 feet of the site. These homes are supplied with water
   from the public distribution system. Approximately 19,000 people live within 1 mile of
   the site.  Over 110,000 people are served by municipal wells located within 3 miles of
   the site.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties'actions.
IMPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date:  10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
                 Threats and Contaminants
              The groundwater is contaminated with various volatile organic
              compounds (VOCs). Chlorinated solvents are contaminating the soil.
              The contaminated groundwater and soil, if they are accidentally
              swallowed or touched, could be a health hazard to individuals.
Cleanup Approach
   This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
   of the entire site.
  Morch 1990
   NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                  114
                                                                      continued

-------
                                               PASLEY SOLVENT AND CHEMICAL INC.
Response Action Status
           Entire Site:  In 1988, one of the parties potentially responsible for the site
           contamination assumed the responsibility of conducting a study to
	determine the nature and the extent of the contamination. Monitoring
wells have been drilled to investigate the contaminants in the soil and the groundwater.
The study is scheduled to be completed in 1991.

Site Facts:  In 1988, the EPA sent out Notice Letters to the potentially responsible
parties, informing them of their responsibility in the site cleanup operations. One of the
parties has filed for bankruptcy and has indicated that they would be unable to take
responsibility for the site cleanup.
 Environmental Progress
 After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
 determined that no immediate actions were required at the Pasley Solvents and
 Chemical Inc. site while further studies leading to the selection of final cleanup
 remedies are completed.
                                       115

-------
   PLATTSBURGH

   AIR FORCE BAI
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NY4571924774
                                      REGION 2
                              CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 30
                                      Clinton County
                                        Plattsburgh
Site Description
   The 3,440-acre Plattsburgh Air Force Base site has served as a tactical wing in the Air
   Force Strategic Air Command since 1955.  From 1955 to 1987, hazardous wastes we're
   generated from such activities as aircraft maintenance and painting, fire fighting
   exercises, spills and the discharging of munitions.  Hazardous wastes were deposited
   in unlined landfills and burned in unlined pits.  Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were
   found in two shallow monitoring wells downgradient of the drum storage area during
   tests conducted by the Air Force in 1987.  The Air Force conducted preliminary field
   investigations into site contamination, which included sampling of soil, groundwater,
   and surface water at several areas. Approximately 2,000 people obtain drinking water
   from private wells located within 3 miles of the Base landfill.  The site is located in a
   mixed use area consisting of industries, commercial enterprises, and private
   residences, and is bordered on the north by the Saranac River and the city of
   Plattsburgh. Lake Champlain is located to  the east of the site, and the Salmon River
   borders the base to the south.
  Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                  NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                  Proposed Date: 07/14/89

                                   Final Date: 11/21/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater located in two shallow monitoring wells downgradient of the
               site's drum storage area and soils surrounding the drainage ditch areas
               are contaminated with various VOCs. Runoff of leachate from the landfill
               areas is contaminated with VOCs, jet fuel, and pesticides. Area residents
               could be exposed to contaminants in their drinking water supply if runoff
               migrates into nearby private wells. However, this is unlikely since
               contaminated groundwater flow is toward Lake Champlain and not toward
               private water wells. Another potential area of exposure is direct contact
               with contaminants located in soil, groundwater, and surface water runoff.
               If migration of the contaminated leachate is not stopped, Lake Champlain,
               the Salmon River, and the Saranac River all could be affected.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
               116
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                      PLATTSBURGH AIR FORCE BASE
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.


  Response Action Status


             Entire Site: The Air Force is in the process of preparing a report
             summarizing the findings of its investigation into site contamination and the
             most effective ways to clean up 24 identified areas of contamination at the
   site. The site will be divided into at least eight subsites when cleanup activities begin.
   Cleanup is scheduled to begin in some areas in 1991.

   Site Facts: Plattsburgh Air Force Base is participating in the Installation Restoration
   Program (IRP).  The Department of Defense (DOD) established this program in 1978 in
   order to identify, investigate, and clean up contamination caused by hazardous
   materials on  military or DOD installations.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Plattsburgh Air Force Base
   site while cleanup activities are being planned.
                                         117

-------
   POLLUTION

   ABATEMENT

   SERVICES
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD000511659
Site Description
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 29
                                         Oswego County
                                            Oswego
   The 15 1/2-acre Pollution Abatement Services (PAS) site served as the location for a
   chemical waste incineration facility from 1970 to 1977. The site consisted of three
   lagoons containing over 1 million gallons of oil and mixed hydrocarbons, several large
   storage tanks containing contaminated waste oil, and more than 15,000 leaking and
   deteriorating drums.  Throughout the operation of the facility, PAS experienced
   operational problems and was cited for numerous air and water quality violations by
   State and Federal agencies. During this time, liquid wastes were  collected and stored
   on site in drums, open lagoons, and in aboveground and underground tanks.  From
   1973 to 1976, lagoon overflows and liquid waste spills were common, releasing wastes
   into Wine Creek.  During this period, the U.S. Coast Guard, the EPA, and the New York
   State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) became involved in a
   number of immediate cleanup activities.  Following the closure of the site, all hazardous
   wastes were removed from the site. Approximately 24,000 people reside within 3
   miles of the site.  The immediate area is sparsely populated and is zoned primarily for
   commercial and industrial activity. The site lies 1/2 mile from the  shores of Lake
   Ontario. To the north of PAS, two streams come together to form Wine Creek, which
   flows into Lake Ontario.  The Oswego municipal water treatment  plant has a surface
   water intake system on Lake Ontario approximately 1 mile from the point where Wine
   Creek enters the lake. Municipally supplied water has been made available to
   residents, but several have opted to continue using private wells.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and State actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/81

 Final Date: 09/01/83
                 Threats and Contaminants
              The on-site groundwater was contaminated with various heavy metals
              and volatile organic compounds {VOCs).  The on-site soil was
              contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).  Sludges were
              contaminated with PCBs and heavy metals. Contaminants in the surface
              water include such VOCs as methylene chloride, toluene, and vinyl
              chloride. The potential existed for health risks if contaminated
              groundwater was accidentally ingested or touched.  Wine Creek and a
              wetland area, which lie immediately northeast of the site, were
              threatened by the contaminants.
  March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   118
                                                                        continued

-------
                                                    POLLUTION ABATEMENT SERVICES
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in four stages: immediate actions and three long-term
  remedial phases focusing on cleanup of surface contamination, the entire site, and
  cleanup of off-site contamination.                          ,

  Response Action Status                     .
             Immediate Actions:  Over a 10-year span, the EPA performed many
             cleanup activities to make the site safer to the public and the^environment.
             In 1976, the EPA constructed a dike to prevent an overflow of
  contaminants from entering the groundwater and soil in the surrounding area. In 1977,
  the EPA treated and discharged the contaminated groundwater from the lagoons. A
  fence with a locked gate was constructed surrounding the site in 1980 to keep
  unauthorized individuals from entering. That same year, the EPA overpacked and
  relocated 500 drums on site. An additional 1,200 drums were overpacked in 1981, and
  surface runoff controls were installed. The site was covered with a clay cap, topsoil,
  and vegetation.                                                    ,

             Surface:  In 1982, the EPA removed superstructures and 10,000 drums of
             contaminants from the site.  In 1987, 500,000 gallons of contaminated
             groundwater were pumped from the site and disposed of off site for
             treatment.

             Entire Site: Based on the results of the site investigation, the EPA
             selected the following methods for site cleanup:  (1) limited excavations
             and removal of contaminated soil, as well as the removal of subsurface
  tanks and drums to a federally approved  landfill; (2) construction of a perimeter slurry
   wall; (3) site grading followed by installation of an impermeable cap; (4) groundwater
   recovery; (5) leachate collection; (6) removal of groundwater and leachate for off-site
  treatment; and (7) groundwater monitoring.  The State has excavated and removed
  approximately 1,000 drums and all of the buried tanks. In addition, they have also
   installed leachate and groundwater collection systems and completed the perimeter
  slurry wall and cap. As of 1989, 400,000 gallons of leachate were disposed of in off-
  site federally approved facilities. The State completed the disposal of waste sludges,
   installed additional monitoring wells, and pumped and  disposed of contaminated
   leachate in 1990.

             Off-Site Contamination: The EPA has prepared a work plan for an
             investigation  to determine the nature and extent of off-site contamination
             and to identify alternatives for cleanup  of the area outside of the slurry wail.
  The investigation is scheduled to be completed in 1991.
   Environmental Progress
   The numerous immediate and long-term cleanup actions described above have
   successfully met the established goals for cleanup of surface and groundwater
   contamination at the site, while further studies into off-site contamination are taking
   place.
                                        119

-------
   PORT WASHING

   LANDFILL
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980654206
Site Description
                                          REGION 2
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 03
                                          Nassau County
                                          North Hempstead
                                              Alias:
                                 Town of North Hempstead L-4 Landfill
   The Port Washington Landfill site is an inactive portion of a municipal landfill. The
   landfill is located on a 139-acre lot including a 54-acre inactive section. The site was
   used since the 1880s as a sand and gravel mining operation. Subsequent to mining
   activities, the property was used as a disposal area for construction debris.  In 1973, the
   Town of North Hempstead purchased the property and operated it as a municipal
   landfill until closing it in  1983. Operation of the landfill during the 1970s resulted in the
   generation of an off-site soil gas plume composed of methane and volatile organic
   compounds (VOCs). In  1981, Southport Water District Well No. 5, located about 1,500
   feet west of the landfill, was closed due to evidence of organic chemical contamination.
   There are approximately 4,500 people living within  1 mile of the landfill. Residential
   areas adjacent to the landfill are served by the Port Washington Water District.  The
   closest public water supply well is located 2,000 feet south of the landfill. The aquifers
   of primary concern are the upper glacial, the Magothy, and the Lloyd aquifers. The
   landfill is bordered to the east by Hempstead Harbor. Site access is limited  by fencing
   and the typical security associated with an active municipal landfill.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties'actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 12/01/82

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Vinyl chloride is of special concern because it has been detected in the
               pn-site soil gas at high concentrations. Other VOCs have been detected
               in off-site ambient air and on-site subsurface air. Groundwater and
               leachate are contaminated with various VOCs. People may be at risk by
               drinking, inhaling, and coming in direct contact with contaminated
               groundwater. As a result, the nearest public water supply well
               (Southport)  has been taken out of service as a precaution against possible
               contamination, although no contaminants have been detected in this well.
               The potential health threat to people resulting from recreational use of
               contaminated water or eating contaminated fish is minimal.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   120
               continued

-------
                                                        PORT WASHINGTON LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a  long-term
  remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Immediate Actions: The Town has taken the following response actions:
             (1) installed numerous gas vents on the western edge of the landfill; (2)
             installed a manifold system to collect the vented gas; {3} flared the
   collected gas; (4) improved the existing leachate collection system; and (5) improved
   the dispersion of flared gases through addition of a stack.  In 1987, the Town removed
   and sampled about 60 drums that were discovered buried  near the site.  In 1989, the
   EPA completed installing landfill gas and groundwater monitoring wells on and near the
   site. The EPA also conducted limited testing using devices known as  "flux boxes" to
   measure the amount of gases emitted from the landfill surface.

             Entire Site:  The final selection of groundwater, leachate,  and air cleanup
             technologies to address site contamination includes:  (1) closure of the
             landfill; (2) rehabilitation of the active gas collection system; and (3)
             additional perimeter venting. Possible reactivation of the Southport well
   with air stripping and installation of additional groundwater extraction wells are
   proposed for the purpose of restricting further migration of contaminants in the
   groundwater. The Town of North Hempstead will begin designing the technical
   specifications for the landfill closure, rehabilitation of the gas collection system, and
   perimeter venting once the Consent Decree is signed. The engineering design of the
   remedy is scheduled to be completed in 1991.

   Site Facts: The EPA and the Town of North Hempstead are negotiating a Consent
   Decree for the Town to clean up the site. The decree is expected to be signed in 1990.
   Environmental Progress
   The numerous immediate actions described above have greatly reduced the potential
   for exposure to hazardous substances at the Port Washington Landfill site while further
   cleanup activities are planned.
                                        121

-------
   PREFERRED PLATI

   CORPORATION
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980768774
Site Description
                                     REGION 2
                              CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                     Suffolk County
                                        Babylon
   The 1/2-acre Preferred Plating Corporation site was the location of plating operations
   from 1951 until 1976, when the company filed for bankruptcy.  The property was
   subsequently sold and in 1982 the new owner filled in the leaching pits and
   constructed a building over them. The leaching pits had been severely cracked and
   leaking, allowing discharges into groundwater. The primary activities at the site
   included chemically treating metal parts to increase corrosion resistance and to provide
   a cohesive base for painting. The plating processes used included degreasing,
   cleaning, and surface finishing of metal parts. These processes involved the use of
   various chemicals and resulted in the generation, storage, and disposal of hazardous
   waste. Untreated wastewater, produced by rinsing the metal parts between each
   process, was discharged to four concrete leaching pits directly behind the original
   building.  An automobile repair shop, among other businesses, now occupies the site.
   There are approximately 4,500 people within 1 mile of the site. Approximately 15,000
   people draw drinking water from wells within 3 miles of the site.
   site Responsibility:  T(-,[s sjte is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                 NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                 Proposed Date: 10/01/84

                                  Final Date: 06/01/86
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater underlying the site is contaminated with heavy metals
               including cadmium, chromium, lead, and nickel. Low levels of chlorinated
               organics and cyanide also were detected in a few samples. People risk
               harmful health effects by drinking or coming into direct contact with
               contaminated groundwater and by inhaling contaminated groundwater
               vapors.
 Cleanup Approach
   This site is being addressed in two long-term remedial phases focusing on groundwater
   cleanup and off-site contamination cleanup.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
               122
continued

-------
                                                 PREFERRED PLATING CORPORATION
Response Action Status


          Groundwater: The EPA installed eight on-site wells and six angle borings
          to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site.  The
          groundwater cleanup technologies selected include: (1) pumping out
          groundwater; (2) precipitating the metals contaminating the groundwater;
and (3) reinjecting the purified groundwater into the aquifer. The EPA is preparing the
technical specifications and design for the selected groundwater cleanup technologies.
Groundwater cleanup activities will begin once the design phase is completed in 1991.
It is expected that the groundwater system will be operable in 3 years.
                                                       v
           Off-site Contamination: The  EPA is conducting a study into the nature
           and extent of groundwater contamination upgradient of the site to
	determine sources contributing to the contamination.  The investigation
includes analysis of on-site soil and will result in recommendations for final cleanup.
The study is scheduled to be completed in late 1991.

Site Facts: The EPA sent Notice Letters to the parties potentially responsible for the
site contamination to clean up the groundwater in 1988, but received no reply. A
Special Notice Letter was issued to an additional party in 1990 for the off-site
contamination.  Negotiations are under way with these parties to take over the
investigation into the extent of the off-site contamination.
iSnuirpriineritot Progress
After adding the site to the NPL, the EPA conducted preliminary investigations that
showed the site posed no immediate threats to human health or the environment while
further studies and the design of cleanup remedies are taking place. Although there is
no present danger to the drinking water, the EPA will ensure the safety of the water
supply for nearby homes through the use of monitoring wells around the site.
                                      123

-------
   RADIUM  CHEMICAL
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYDOO1667872
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 07
                                          Queens County
                                         Wbodside/Queens
Site Description
   The Radium Chemical Company (RCC) site consists of one abandoned building on
   approximately 1/3-acre of land at 60-06 27th Avenue in Queens. From the mid-1950s
   through 1983, the company leased specially packaged radium to hospitals for use in the
   treatment of cancer. When it was abandoned, the facility contained a large quantity of
   radium-226 sealed in small metal tubes or rods referred to as "needles," totalling
   approximately 110 to140 curies. In  1983, the State ordered the company to stop its
   business operations due to a series of violations of regulations. State inspections
   disclosed violations involving lost shipments of needles, radiation levels exceeding
   allowable standards within the plant, and elevated radon levels, indicating microscopic
   defects in the needles.  The company ceased any further leasing of radioactive sources,
   but the missing needles were not accounted for, and conditions at the plant did not
   improve. In 1987, the State ordered RCC to remove its inventory of radioactive sources
   and to decontaminate the work site. In 1988, a State judge declared the RCC site
   officially abandoned. Although an emergency cleanup action has taken place, residual
   radioactive contamination and mixed waste remain in the building. Approximately
   300,000 people reside within 3 miles of the site.  The majority of the surrounding area
   is composed of light industry and small businesses, with some residential areas within
   1/2 mile of the site. The Brooklyn-Queens Expressway is less than 10 feet from the
   site. A large health club is located within 100 feet of the RCC facility.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 08/16/89

  Final Date: 11/21/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The air is contaminated with radium and radon gas from the former site
               operations. A potential threat exists from inhalation of radon gas and
               exposure to gamma radiation if people should enter the interior of the
               building on the site. Water at the site has been turned off, and bottled
               water is being used.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   124
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                                 RADIUM CHEMICAL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages:  immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Immediate Actions: Over a 9-month time period, a cleanup effort by the
             EPA was completed. During the months of July and August 1989, all of the
             needles on site were repackaged to prevent the release of radioactivity and
   were removed in five shipments to a facility in Nevada dedicated to the disposal of
   radioactive wastes.  In August 1989, approximately 200 containers of non-contaminated
   flammables, poisons, and other reactive chemicals were sent for incineration and
   disposal.  In September 1989, one shipment of highly contaminated debris, tools, and
   other materials found in the building was also sent to,the Nevada facility. In total, 118.6
   curies of radium have been safely removed and disposed of at the  Nevada facility. In
   addition, in September and October 1989, four shipments of low-activity contaminated
   debris were sent to a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Hanford,
   Washington.  Five hundred pounds of elemental mercury found in the building were
   recycled and sent to a facility in Pennsylvania. Stringent operating  and monitoring
   procedures to maintain public safety have been followed throughout the immediate
   cleanup process. Twenty-four hour security at the site was maintained throughout the
   cleanup action.  A foam fire suppressant system was also in place  to reduce the risk of
   explosions and fires.  These removal actions resulted in the greatest hazards being
   removed from the site.
             Entire Site: In early 1990, the EPA prepared a study that outlines the
             nature and extent of contamination remaining at the site and describes the
             various cleanup alternatives evaluated. The EPA selected the final site
             remedy, which consists of partial decontamination of the building, followed
   by its complete removal and disposal in appropriate facilities. Cleanup actions are
   planned to begin in 1990.

   Site Facts: In July 1988, at the request of the State, the Supreme Court in Queens
   issued an order finding that the company and its president could not perform their
   obligations and duties to secure the plant adequately. The Attorney General also
   prosecuted the company for criminal violations of the State labor law.  In February
   1989, the company was convicted of four violations and was fined the maximum
   amount permitted by statute.
   Environmental Progress
  The removal operations described above have greatly reduced the potential for
  exposure to radioactive materials at the Radium Chemical site until final cleanup is
  completed.
                                        125

-------
   RAMAPO  LANDF
   NEW YORK
   EPA ED# NYD000511493
Site Description
                                     REGION 2
                              CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 22
                                     Rockland County
                                        Route 59,
                             1 mile northeast of the Village of Hillburn
   The Ramapo Landfill, covering 96 acres, opened in 1972. In 1978, the New York State
   Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) denied the landfill operators an
   operating permit because of an incomplete permit application and violations of State
   codes. The facility received sludge from a cosmetic company, and unauthorized
   dumping may have occurred.  In 1980, about 50 drums containing an unknown waste
   were found on the site. Most of the landfill now is covered and graded. The brush
   disposal area appears to be well maintained, and the lagoon is fenced.  An existing
   leachate collection system diverts surface and subsurface leachate from the landfill to a
   treatment pond. Historical groundwater quality data shows the presence of various
   metals and organics. Wells providing water for the  Spring Valley Water Company are
   close to the site. Although the landfill is legally closed, the Town of Ramapo still
   disposes of brush  and debris on the site. Approximately 50,000 people reside within 3
   miles of the site, while only about 200 people live within one mile. Several public water
   supply wells serving the Spring Valley Water Authority systems, which potentially affect
   200,000 users, are located 1,000 feet west of the site just across the Ramapo River.
   Site Responsibility:
                                  NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                  Proposed Date: 12/01/82

                                   Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
               including benzene, toluene, and xylene, and heavy metals including
               mercury, lead and cadmium. Surface water is contaminated with heavy
               metals and phenols. Health risks may occur if contaminated groundwater
               or surface water are accidentally ingested or touched. Leachate from the
               site is contaminating Torne Brook, a tributary of the Ramapo River, leading
               to the further spread of contamination. Breathing airborne contaminated
               vapors from surface water and particulates from on-site soils may also
               pose a potential health threat. Use of contaminated groundwater for
               bathing, showering, or cooking may cause inhalation of VOCs that
               evaporate from contaminated groundwater.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
               126
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                                 RAMAPO LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Entire Site:  The party potentially responsible for the site contamination,
             under State authority, has begun an investigation to determine the nature
             and extent of contamination and to identify alternatives for cleanup of the
             entire site.

   Site Facts: The NYSDEC entered into an Administrative Order on Consent on February
   4, 1985 with the Town of Ramapo to clean up the site. The State signed an order for
   site cleanup with the party potentially responsible for site contamination on April 11,,-
   1988.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding the Ramapo Landfill site to the NPL, the EPA conducted a preliminary
   evaluation and determined that no immediate cleanup actions were required at the site
   while further investigations leading to final remedy selection are taking place.
                                        127

-------
   RICHARDSON
   HILL ROAD
   LANDFILL SI
   NEW YORK
   EPAID# NYD980507735
                                         REGION 2

                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 25
                                         Delaware County
                              Richardson Hill Road, 2 1/4 miles southwest of
                                          Sidney Center


                                             Alias:
                                  Bendix Waste Oil and Disposal Site
Site Description
   The Richardson Hill Road Landfill Site covers 8 acres and contains a /anc/f/7/that is
   composed of two sections. The first part is in the northern section of the site; it
   contains two trenches. The second part, located to the south of the first, contains a
   waste oil pit From 1964 through 1969, the Bendix Corporation disposed of hazardous
   wastes and unknown amounts of waste oil and equipment at the site. The EPA
   discovered polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), trichloroethylene (TCE), and vinyl chloride
   on the site when they inspected it in 1982. A shallow ditch intercepts surface water
   that runs off from the southern part of the site. The ditch empties into culverts that
   drain into two beaver ponds at the northern end of Herrick Hollow Creek. This creek
   contributes water to the Cannonsville Reservoir.  Approximately 100 people live within
   1 mile of the site. Three  seasonal homes are directly downslope from the site, and five
   other seasonal homes are downstream from the site.  However, none of these homes
   use water supplies that the site appears to affect. Also, approximately 1,000 people
   who depend on surface water or groundwater for their drinking water supply live within
   3 miles of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
IMPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/01/86

  Final Date: 07/01/87
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PCBs are contaminating the soil.
               Groundwater at the site contains oily wastes and VOCs including
               dichloroethene and TCE.  PCBs and solvents are found in the surface
               water and sediments throughout the beaver ponds in Herrick Hollow
               Creek. The site does not contain barriers to prevent people from gaining
               access to the site; therefore, people could be exposed to hazardous
               chemicals through direct contact.  People could also come into contact
               with contaminants from the area's drainage system, the two beaver
               ponds near the site, and the other creeks that surround it.  Also, fish in
               local streams and animals that depend on those surface water resources
               could be contaminated.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   128
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                    RICHARDSON HILL LANDFILL SITE
Cleanup Approach —
  The site is being addressed in two stages:  immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase directed at cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Immediate Actions: Allied, one of the parties potentially responsible for
             the site contamination, will provide bottled water to residents in the area
             who cannot use their water supply due to contamination from the site.
   Also, Allied put a temporary cap on the waste oil pond in the southern part of the
   landfill to keep contaminants from migrating from the site.
             Entire Site: Allied/Amphenol started a study of site contamination in 1987,
             which is expected to be completed in 1991.  The study will include
             evaluations of alternative cleanup remedies.  The EPA will then select the
   most appropriate remedies for site cleanup.

   Site Facts: Allied/Amphenol signed an order in 1987 in which they agreed to complete
   an investigation determining the nature and extent of site contamination.
   Environmental Progress
   By providing bottled water to those residents affected by contaminated groundwater,
   the potential for exposure to hazardous materials will be greatly reduced. The site does
   not pose an immediate threat to the surrounding community or the environment while
   the investigations leading to the selection of a final cleanup remedy are taking place.
                                         129

-------
   ROBINTECH IN

   NATIONAL PIP
   NEW YORK
   EPAID# NYD002232957
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 28
                                          Broome County
                                          Town of Vestal
Site Description
   The Robintech, Inc./National Pipe Company site is an inactive filled lagoon,
   approximately 1 acre in size, in the Town of Vestal. The site was owned by Robinson
   Technical Products from 1966 to 1970; Robintech, Inc. from 1970 to 1982; and the
   National Pipe Co. from 1982 to the present.  The facility manufactures polyvinyl chloride
   (PVC) pipe from inert PVC resin and assembles plastic-coated cable. The lagoon was
   used from 1968 to 1974 for the disposal of chromic acid plating solution, caustic
   reverse plating etch, machine cutting oils, and toluene.  More than 1,500 gallons of
   liquid waste were dumped into the lagoon, which formerly had been a small swamp.  It
   has been almost completely filled with clean dirt and paved or covered with gravel.  It is
   being used as a storage yard for PVC pipe. The site is situated at the southern edge of
   an area that is an active gravel pit located on the bank of a stream flowing into the
   Susquehanna River. The area immediately north of the site is marshy.  The Town of
   Vestal Water District No. 4 Well is on the Susquehanna floodplain about 2,500 feet
   northwest of the site. Well 4-2 was  placed as a separate site on the National Priorities
   List in 1983.  A nearby recreational facility, Skate Estate, receives surface drainage from
   the National  Pipe Co. site. Three municipal wells, serving the Vestal public water
   supply, are located less than 3,000 feet from the site. An estimated 27,000 people
   reside within 3 miles of the site. The groundwater in the area is used for municipal well
   water, with approximately 7,300 people dependent on the well. A wet/anc/area
   surrounds the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
                 Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater and soil are contaminated with volatile organic
               compounds (VOCs) including benzene, toluene, and methylene chloride.
               The soil also is contaminated with heavy metals including lead, cadmium,
               chromium, and iron. Contaminants in the surface water and sediments
               include heavy metals and VOCs. Potential harmful health effects include
               drinking contaminated water and direct contact with contaminated water
               or soil. Surface water runoff leaving the site may overflow onto Skate
               Estate. Children playing at this facility can come into direct contact with
               soil contamination or contaminated runoff water.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                                                                         continued
                                        130

-------
                                                     ROBINTECH INC./NATIONAt, PIPE
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status


              Entire Site: The EPA negotiated an agreement with the potentially
              responsible responsible party to investigate the extent of contamination.
              The study, along with recommendations for cleanup of the site, is
              scheduled for completion-in early 1991.  The EPA will then select the
   most appropriate remedies for site cleanup.

   Site Facts:  In October 1987, the EPA signed an order with the parties potentially
   responsible for site contamination to complete an investigation to determine the extent
   and nature of contamination and to identify alternatives for cleanup.
   Environrfientdl ^Progress
   After listing the Robintech, Inc. site-on the NPL, the EPA conducted a preliminary
   evaluation of the conditions at the site and determined that no immediate actions were
   required to make the site safer while investigations leading to the final selection of a
   cleanup remedy are taking place.
                                         131

-------
   ROSEN  SITE
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD982272734
                                                 REGION 2

                                         CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 25
                                                 Cortland County
                                                 City ofCortland

                                                    Aliases:
                                                 Rosen Brothers
                                                 Scrap King, Inc.
Site Description
   The Rosen Site covers 20 acres adjacent to a residential/commercial area in Cortland.
   The site is an abandoned industrial facility that formerly manufactured wire screens.
   Before the facility burned to the ground in 1970, Wickwire Brothers, Inc. produced    '
   small metal items and disposed of industrial waste on the site.  From 1971 to 1985, the
   site was operated as a scrap yard, car crushing, and scrap metal processing facility by
   Philip and Harvey Rosen.  Municipal waste, industrial  waste, construction waste,
   timbers, and drums were disposed of in an unlined open dump  approximately 100 feet
   long, 50 feet wide, and 15 to 20 feet deep. Approximately 500  drums, their contents
   unknown and many of them leaking, were on the surface, and drums had been buried
   in two areas.  Also on the surface were crushed cars  and refrigerators; 5,000-gallon
   steel tanks; approximately 10 fuel truck tanks; and an open pit containing water with an
   oily surface.  In 1972, 1984, and 1985, the Cortland County Health Department cited
   the Rosen brothers for violating State and County laws concerning waste handling.  In
   1985, the Department ordered Philip Rosen to take some needed safety and cleanup
   measures, but the order was not complied with. Also in 1985, the New York State
   Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) found that a building and a 150-
   foot smoke stack were structurally unsound.  The site overlies the Cortland-Homer-
   Premble Aquifer, a glacial outwash sand and gravel deposit.  Public and private wells
   tapping the aquifer within 3 miles of the site are the sole source of drinking water for an
   estimated 24,000 people.  The population is approximately 15,000 within a 1-mile
   radius of the site. Perplexity Creek borders the site and discharges about 2 miles
   downstream to the Tioughnioga River, which is used for recreational activities. The v*
   southern border of the site abuts Cortland City High School, and the Rosen Site was ,;
   used as a natural travel route for students walking to school.
  Site Responsibility:
       I
   March 1990
      This site is being addressed through
      Federal and 'potentially responsible
      parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/24/88

  Final Date: 03/30/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
In 1986, NYSDEC detected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in on-site
wells and soil samples.  On-site sediments contain pesticides, cyanide,
chromium, and lead.  An oily film was observed on the Tioughnioga River.
The installation of a fence around the site, together with the presence of a
24-hour security guard, has eliminated the possibility of individuals, except
for those doing the cleanup work,  making contact with on-site wastes.
          NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                          132
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                                      ROSEN SITE
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages:  immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
          x* Immediate Actions: In 1987, the potentially responsible parties, under
             monitoring by the EPA, fenced the site, secured and segregated containers
             of hazardous materials, removed a number of gas cylinders, and sampled
   wastes.  Beginning in late 1989, all surficial hazardous wastes and drums were
   removed from the site. This action was completed in April 1990.
             Entire Site: Under EPA monitoring, the parties potentially responsible for
             the contamination began an investigation in 1990 to determine the type and
   	   extent of contamination remaining on site and to identify alternative
   technologies for the cleanup. The study is scheduled to be completed in early 1992.
   The EPA will then review the alternatives and select the most appropriate remedy for
   site cleanup.

   Site Facts: In September 1988, the EPA issued an order requiring Dallas Corp.,
   Keystone Consolidated Industries, Inc., and Monarch Machine Tool Co. to secure the
   site and to transport hazardous wastes to an EPA-approved facility.  In January 1990,
   the EPA signed an Administrative Order on Consent with Dallas Corp., Monarch
   Machine Tool Company, and Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. to perform an investigation
   into the nature and extent of contamination at the site. In February 1990, the EPA
   issued a unilateral order requiring Agway, Inc., Cooper Industries, Inc., Keystone
   Consolidated Industries, Inc., Potter Paint Company, Inc., Harvey M.  Rosen, and Smith
   Corona Corp. to participate in the investigation.
   Envirtmitien iol progress
   By fencing the site, posting a guard, and removing many of the hazardous materials
   visible on the surface of the site, the EPA has greatly reduced the potential for
   exposure to contaminants at the Rosen site. The potentially responsible parties are
   conducting investigations into final cleanup solutions for the remaining contamination at
   the site.
                                         133

-------
   ROWE INDUST

   GROUNDWAT^

   CONTAMINA
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD981486954

Site Description	
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                          Suffolk County
                               1.500 feet south of the Village of Sag Harbor
                                             Alias:
                              Sag Harbor Groundwater Contamination Site
   The Rowe Industries Groundwater Contamination site is located on the eastern side of
   the Sag Harbor Bridgehampton Turnpike and consists of approximately 5 acres. From
   the 1950s through the early 1960s, the site was owned and operated by Rowe
   Industries, Inc. During that time, the company manufactured small electric motors and
   transformers. Rowe Industries was purchased by Aurora Plastics, Inc. in the late 1960s
   and by Nabisco, Inc. in the early 1970s. In 1980, the site was sold to Sag Harbor
   Industries, which uses the facility to manufacture electronic devices. Reports from
   former workers indicated that spent solvents were discharged through drains leading
   from the building into cesspools, directly onto the land surface, or to a small pond
   farther east. Groundwater contamination was first discovered in the Sag Harbor area in
   1983. The Suffolk County Department of Health Services (SCDHS) stated that water
   samples taken from a private well revealed contamination by solvents and iron. As a
   result of these findings, the SCDHS and the EPA conducted further investigations.  The
   results of monitoring studies of 46 private wells and 21 observation wells in 1984
   indicated that the contaminated  groundwater plume was approximately 500 feet wide,
   flowed northeast of the site, and contained chlorinated hydrocarbons.  Approximately
   6,000 people within a 3-mile radius of the site use groundwater as their primary source
   of drinking water.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/01/86

  Final Date: 07/01/87
                 •Threats and Contaminants
               Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including tetrachloroethene and
               trichloroethene were detected in on-site monitoring wells.  Health threats
               may exist from the migration of contaminants via the groundwater or
               chemical vapors in the air.  Potential contact with contaminated
               groundwater through drinking well water is no longer a concern, because
               a public water supply was made available to the affected residences in
               late 1984, and public water was installed for all homes in the area in 1985.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   134
                                                                         continued

-------
                                     ROWE INDUSTRIES GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION
Cleanup Approach
 ;:The site is being addressed in two stages:  immediate response actions and a long-
   term remedial phase focusing onf cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status


              Immediate Response: In response to the contaminated drinking water,
              the EPA extended the public water supply mains to the 25 affected homes
              in 1985.'

              Entire Site: Under EPA monitoring, Nabisco, Inc. and Sag Harbor
              Industries, Inc.  initiated an investigation to determine the type and extent
              of groundwater contamination and to identify alternatives for the cleanup.;
              Field work was completed in February 1990.  The EPA is reviewing the
   draft report on the results of the investigation.

   Site Facts: In February 1988, the EPA sent letters to potentially responsible parties
   notifying them of their possible involvement. In September 1988, Nabisco, Inc. and
   Sag Harbor Industries, Inc. signed an Administrative Order on Consent requiring the
   companies to investigate the extent of contamination on the property and in the vicinity
   of the site.
    Environmental Progress
    By providing a safe drinking water supply to those residences affected by contaminated
    groundwater, the EPA greatly reduced the potential of exposure to contaminants in the
    well water.  The EPA is currently reviewing the results of a study conducted by the
    potentially responsible parties and soon will recommend the final cleanup remedy.
                                         135

-------
   SARNEY  FARM
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980535165
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 21
                                         Dutchess County
                                             Amenia
Site Description
   The Sarney Farm site is an open dump in farmland located in Amenia. Several small
   villages are located nearby. A former owner used a 5-acre section of the property as a
   dump for municipal and industrial wastes. The site received ethylene dichloride in 55-
   gallon drums, cleaning solvents, inks, acids, water-base glue, and machine oil from
   1965 until 1969.  Some drums are on the surface and others are buried. Groundwater
   contamination was confirmed by the Dutchess County Department of Health in  1982
   and,  by New York State in 1984. The site is 500 feet from Cleaver Swamp, which has
   provided water for farm livestock in the past.  There are 22 residential wells utilizing the
   bedrock agu/ferwithin 3,000 feet of the site. There are no public water supplies located
   within the area. Approximately 3,000 people live within 1 mile of the site; 10,000 live
   within 3 miles of the site.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
                 Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater beneath the site is contaminated with volatile organic
               compounds (VOCs) including toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and vinyl
               chloride. Leachate analysis has identified VOCs including acetone,
               toluene, and xylenes. Contaminant migration is  probably limited to
               Cleaver Swamp, which receives surface water runoff from the disposal
               areas and is a local groundwater discharge area. The major health
               concern is the use of contaminated groundwater for domestic uses.
               Potential risks also may exist to individuals eating wildlife from Cleaver
               Swamp. There has been a decrease in agricultural use of the area,
               including pasturing of domestic livestock. Therefore, exposure to
               contaminants through the consumption of livestock has been essentially
               eliminated.
 Cleanup Approach
   The site is being addressed in two stages:  immediate response actions and a long-
   term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   136
                                                                        continued

-------
                                                                  SARNEYFARM
Response Action Status


           Immediate Response:  In an effort to reduce the levels of organic
           pollutants and to reduce the migration of contaminants to Cleaver Swamp,
„___   the EPA began developing a biodegradation/aerat/on treatment system in
1987. The system is used to treat leachate and wastes from the original dump site and
migratory areas. The reactor consists of a grid of french drains with perforated drain
piping flowing into a concrete pit, aeration equipment in the pit, a control building, a
nutrient batching system, pumps, electrical power supply, and process controls.

           Entire Site: The EPA has completed an investigation into the type and
           extent of contamination at the site. A decision regarding the treatment for
,	^  the final cleanup is expected in 1990. The proposed cleanup action plan
includes on-site low-temperature thermal treatment of contaminated soils and the off-
site disposal of drums.
 Environmental progress
 A treatment system for the contaminated leachate and wastes from the Sarney Farm
 site is currently operative, greatly reducing migration of and exposure to contaminants
 at the site while the selection of a final cleanup remedy is pending.
                                       137

-------
   SEALAND

   RESTORATIO
   NEW YORK
   EPA TJD# NYD980535181
Site Description
       REGION 2
CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 30
      St. Lawrence County
          Lisbon
   The Sealand Restoration site covers 210 acres and is located in the Village of Lisbon.
   The site, formerly a dairy farm, was acquired by Sealand Restoration in 1977 and was
   operated as a waste disposal site. Petroleum wastes were landfilled in a disposal cell
   near the southern site boundary or spread on the ground surface in the central and
   northern parts of the site.  Three areas are being addressed as part of the cleanup
   work: a landspread area, an empty drum storage area, and a disposal cell located 100
   yards from a wetland Approximately 1,000 people reside  within 3 miles of the site.
  Site Responsibility: This site is being addressed through
                    Federal and State actions.
   IMPL LISTING HISTORY
   Proposed Date: 10/26/89
                 Threats and Contaminants
              Groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
              including benzene and acetone, and heavy metals. Trace amounts of
              polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticide compounds were found in
              the landspread area. Low-level concentrations of phenols and heavy
              metals were also found. Potential health risks exist to those who come
              into direct contact with the contaminants, accidentally ingest
              contaminated vegetation, or drink the contaminated groundwater.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a single long-term
  remedial phase directed at cleanup of the entire site.
  March 1990
                        NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                      138
                continued

-------
                                                           SEALAND RESTORATION
Response Action Status
           Immediate Actions: Aboveground wastes were removed from the cell
           disposal area in 1984 and from the empty drum storage area in 1987 by the
           County of St. Lawrence, using funds appropriated by the New York State
            _ .   . .   . * i  r*. .  .   f^  _ _ _,. __ _ ___ i_ — - -C r"* ^— .. .!«•«•. M HHIA *•* *»•»+« I f* r* m r* s\r\ t^^if\Y*\ r\ I tT^f^
semmsusmis    Vjuuiuy ui 01. i_awic.i iv^w, v^ouiy ,^,.^*~ «^r.— ^.—— _,..._ —  ^
Legislature. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation hired
contractors to remove the source of contamination from the disposal cell area.
           Entire Site: A study to determine the type and extent of remaining
           contamination and to develop methods for site cleanup is planned to begin
           in 1990.
 Environmental Progress
 By removing the visible wastes from the two areas of the Sealand Restoration site, the
 possibility of being directly exposed to hazardous materials at the site has been greatly
 reduced. Further investigations are planned to determine the extent of the remaining
 contamination and to select the final cleanup remedies for the site.
                                                                             A
                                        139

-------
   SENECA ARMY DEPOT
   NEW YORK
   EPA K># NY0213820830
       REGION 2
CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 33
        Seneca County
    Near the Town of Romulus
Site Description
   The Seneca Army Depot site encompasses 10,600 acres.  It lies between Cayuga and
   Seneca Lakes in the Finger Lakes region and abuts the Town of Romulus;  The Army
   has stored and disposed of military explosives at the facility since 1941.  There is an
   unlined 13-acre landfillln the central portion of the depot, where solid waste and
   incinerator ash were disposed of intermittently for 30 years, until 1979. The site also
   has two incinerator pits adjacent to the landfill where refuse was burned at least once a
   week from 1941 to 1974, and a 90-acre area in the northwest portion of the depot
   where explosives and related wastes have been burned and detonated during the past
   30 years.  There is  also an APE-1236 Deactivation Furnace in the central portion of the
   depot, where small arms are destroyed.  Seneca Army Depot employs about 700
   civilian and 300 to 400 military employees. People live in a farmhouse near a field
   where seeps occur. Approximately 1,350 people obtain drinking water from private
   wells within 3  miles of the depot.
  Site Responsibility: This site is being addressed through
                    Federal actions.
   NPL LISTING HISTORY

   Proposed Date: 07/14/89
                 Threats and Contaminants
              The groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
              including trichlomethylene (TCE), vinyl chloride, and chloroform. Soils are
              contaminated with heavy metals, buried metal turrets, and VOCs.  People
              who accidentally ingest or come into direct contact with contaminated
              groundwater or soil may suffer adverse health effects.
Cleanup Approach		

  The site is being addressed in two long-term remedial phases focusing on cleanup of
  the ash landfill and the open burning areas.
  March 1990
                        NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                       140
                 continued

-------
                                                            SENECA ARMY DEPOT
Response Action Status
           Ash Landfill:  The Army is conducting an investigation to determine the
           nature and extent of contamination in the ash landfill area. The EPA has
	provided the Army with comments, which are being incorporated into the
investigation work plan. Field work is scheduled to begin in fall 1990.

           Open Burning/Open Detonation Area: The Army is planning an
           investigation to determine the extent of contamination in the open burning/
,	„   detonation area. This investigation is planned to begin in 1991.  An
additional 56 Solid Waste  Management Units (SWMU) have been identified. The EPA,
the Army, and the State will address some of these areas through the normal permit
process and other areas of concern through cleanup actions. Areas of concern will be
added on an ongoing basis by the three parties involved and will later be grouped into
specific cleanup phases.  It is expected that 10 to 1.5 separate contaminated areas will
be addressed.

Site Facts: The Seneca Army Depot is participating in the Installation Restoration
 Program (IRP), a program specially funded through the Department  of Defense (DOD)
that investigates, controls, and  addresses contamination at military and other DOD
facilities.  Interagency Agreements were completed in July 1990.
 Environmental Progress
 After adding the Seneca Army Depot site to the NPL, the EPA determined, after an
 initial evaluation, that the site did not require immediate actions to make it safer to the
 surrounding communities or the environment, while investigations leading to the
 selection of final cleanup remedies are under way.
                                       141

-------
    SIDNEY LANDFILL
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980507677
Site Description
                                                 REGION 2
                                          CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 32
                                                 Delaware County
                                                     Sidney
   The Sidney Landfill site covers 50 acres- of a hilltop located on the eastern side of
   Richardson Hill Road, approximately 1 mile from Route 27 in the Town of Sidney. This
   landfill is located in a sparsely populated area of steep hills, woods, and farmland.
   Richardson Hill Landfill, also a hazardous waste site on the National Priorities List is
   located on the side of a hill directly across from the Sidney Landfill. The Sidney Landfill
   operated from 1964 until 1972 and accepted municipal and commercial waste and
   possibly waste oils. Waste streams from the landfill may have contained organic
   solvents and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Groundwater and surface water in the
   area could become contaminated, because the landfill is located on a hilltop and slope,
   where water can flow in different directions at the same time.  A wetland area and
   Herrick Hollow Creek are immediately downslope from the site.  A private well at the
   base of the hill was closed because of a high iron content. Organic solvents are
   present in the bedrock and soil off site. This poses a threat to local springs that feed
   into nearby drainages.  The site is covered, but is not properly capped'to prevent water
   from seeping through it.  Leachate seeps have been associated with this landfill since
   the 1960s.  This is a sparsely populated area of woods and farmlands, where 1,700
   people obtain drinking water from private wells within 3 miles of the site.  Chemical
   analysis of the residential water supply shows that the shallow groundwater supplying
   three homes is contaminated with organic compounds. These wells were sealed off
   and the residents are using bottled water provided by the Amphenol Corporation.
  Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                 Threats and Contaminants
                                             NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                            Proposed Date: 06/24/88

                                              Final Date: 03/30/89
      L\
The groundwater on and off site contains volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) including solvents, and PCBs. The leachate, sediments, and
surface water on site contain VOCs. Solvents and PCBs are in the on-site
soils.  The site is not completely fenced, which makes it possible for
people and animals to come into direct contact with hazardous
substances in the soils on site. People would be more likely to come into
direct contact with hazardous chemicals at leachate seeps and drainage
ditches along Richardson Hill Road. Exposure to hazardous chemicals
also could occur if the soil or bedrock off site contaminates the springs
and groundwater that local area residents use for bathing and drinking.
  March 1990
                         NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                        142
                                                           continued

-------
                                                                 SIDNEY LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach	—	—	—-


  The site is being addressed in two stages:  immediate actions and a \ong-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.

  Response Action Status
             Immediate Actions: Three contaminated residential wells have been
             sealed off and bottled water was provided to affected residents.

             Entire Site: The EPA started-a study of this site in 1989 to determine what
             chemicals have contaminated the area and how far that contamination
             extends on and off the site. The EPA'plans to complete the study in 1992,
   at which time it will select the final remedy for cleaning up the site.
   Site Facts: The EPA has sent 53 letters notifying potentially responsible parties of their
   liability and requesting them to initiate cleanup actions.
    Environmental Progress
    Sealing contaminated wells and providing an alternate water source to affected
    residents have reduced exposure to contaminants in the water. The EPA's preliminary
    evaluations determined that no other immediate cleanup actions were needed while
    the investigations leading to the selection of a final remedy are taking place.
                                         143

-------
    SINCLAIR

    REFINERY
    NEW YORK
    EPA ID# NYD980535215
Site Description
       REGION 2
CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 34
       Allegany County
  S. Brooklyn Avenue in Wellsville
   The Sinclair Refinery site covers 103 acres where the Wellsville Refining Company
   refined oil from the late 1800s until 1924. The Sinclair Refining Company (now ARCO)
   purchased the property in 1924 and operated it until 1958, when a fire ended
   operations. The property changed ownership during the next few years, including the
   Town and Village of Wellsville, the State University of New York, and the various
   companies now owning and occupying the site. Various types of wastes including
   cloth filters, oil sludges, contaminated soil, pesticides, heavy metals, and fly ash were
   disposed of in a 12 1/2-acre landfill over a 30-year period. The landfill consists of a 9-
   acre Central Elevated Landfill Area, a 2-acre South  Landfill Area, and a 1-acre sand and
   gravel area between the two landfills. The landfill part of the site is located along  the
   west bank of the Genesee River, about 1  1/4 miles upstream from the Village of
   Wellsville's original water supply intake pipe. The EPA, the State, and ARCO relocated
   the town s river water intake farther upstream of the landfill in 1985, so contaminants in
   that part of the river no longer threaten the water supply. The river is eroding the
   ground under the landfill, and surface waters off site could become contaminated if the
   river's flood waters are high enough to reach the landfill. Approximately 6,000 people
   live within 1 mile of the landfill. Several businesses and the State University of New
   York's Alfred Campus are located on the refinery portion of the Sinclair property
   Approximately 500 people use the  buildings located on this part of the site.
  Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     a combination of Federal, State,
                     municipal, and potentially
                     responsible parties' actions.

           	Threats and Contaminants-
  March 1990
   NPL LISTING HISTORY

   Proposed Date: 07/01/82

    Final Date: 09/01/83
              Wastes from drums on site contain volatile organic compounds {VOCs)
              including trichloroethylene (TCE) and methylene chloride, arsenic, and heavy
              metals. Groundwater, soils, and surface water contain VOCs,
              petrochemicals, and heavy metals.  Potential human exposure from drinking
              water has been essentially eliminated as a result of the relocation of the
              Wellsville Water Treatment Plant intake pipe. On-site workers who inhale or
              touch contaminated surface water, groundwater, or soil could be at risk.
              The potential also continues to exist for environmental contamination of
              groundwater and surface waters. Continuing discharges to the Genesee
              River could contaminate plants, animals, and soil near the site.
                        NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                                       144
                 continued

-------
                                                                SINCLAIR REFINERY
Cleanup Approach
                                                                              f,.
  The site is being addressed in three stages: immediate actions and two long-term
  remedial phases focusing on stabilization of the landfill and source control in the refinery
  area of the site.

  Response Action Status

             Immediate Actions: In 1983, ARCO removed approximately 10 loose drums
             from the Genessee River. In 1983, the State of New York diverted the   j;,.;:
  	    Genesee River away from the  eroding face of the landfill and placed dredged
  material there as temporary protection against erosion. Later in 1983, the Village of
  Wellsville, Allegany County, and  the State of New York stabilized the berm constructed to
  divert the Genesee River to protect the eroding landfill. In 1985, the Town's river water
  intake was relocated upstream from the landfill.

            Stabilization of the  Landfill: The EPA selected the following remedies to
            stabilize the eroding landfill:  (1) remove approximately 300 drums from the
            landfill and dispose of them off site; (2) excavate wastes from the 2-acre -
            landfill area; (3) place clean fill in the excavated area; (4) consolidate excavated
  wastes to the central landfill area; (4) cap consolidated wastes in the central landfill area;
  (5) partially channelize the Genesee River to protect the landfill from erosion or flooding;
  and (6) construct a fence around the entire landfill to secure it. The designs and project
  plans to implement the river channelization portion of  the remedy were approved by the
  EPA in February 1990. Work to  channelize the river is expected to begin in the fall of
  1990.  Landfill cleanup also is expected to  begin in 1990.

             Source Control/Refinery Site: The EPA is studying the site, the sources of
             contamination, and various methods for cleaning up the site. Containment
             and excavation are being explored as possible solutions to the contamination.
  The EPA is scheduled to select a strategy to carry out the final cleanup effort in 1990.

  Site Facts: An agreement was  signed between the Village of Wellsville, the  State of
  New York, and ARCO, which detailed how ARCO would finance the plan to stabilize the
  diversion berm constructed by the State in 1983. The EPA sent a Letter of Acceptance to
  ARCO in April 1988 accepting their proposed work on the Genesee River. The EPA held
  several meetings to keep the public informed about progress at the site.
   Environmental Progress
   The removal of many sources of contamination and actions taken to ensure a safe
   drinking water supply have made the site safer while work to stabilize the landfill is
   under way. Further investigations into controlling the source of contamination at the
   refinery site are in process.
                                         145

-------
   SMS  INSTRUME

   INC.
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD001533165
                               CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                       Suffolk County
                                         Deer Park
Site Description
   SMS Instruments, Inc. is located in a light industrial area in Deer Park. The site consists
   of a one-story 34,000-square-foot masonry building on 1  1/2 acres. Approximately 80%
   of the lot is paved with asphalt. From 1971 to 1983, SMS Instruments, Inc. overhauled
   military aircraft components.  Industrial wastes generated from degreasing and other
   refurbishing operations were  routinely discharged to a leaching pool on site. Another
   source of waste disposal was a 6,000-gallon underground storage tank used for jet fuel
   storage. In 1979 to 1980, the Suffolk County Department of Health detected solvents
   in the pool. The County installed monitoring wells, and subsequent investigations at
   the site during 1981  revealed 70 drums stored outdoors in an unprotected area, some
   showing evidence of corrosion and leakage. More than 50 industrial facilities are
   located within a 1-mile radius of the site, and a large groundwater recharge basin  is
   located adjacent to the eastern side of the site. The basin is located in the recharge
   zone of the Magothy aquifer,  a sole source aquifer for Long Island. The Magothy
   aquifer is the only source of drinking water for the estimated 124,000 residents in the
   vicinity of the site. Approximately 17,000 residences are located within a mile of the
   site.  Several schools are situated to the south of the site. The headwaters of
   Sampawams Creek, which feeds into Guggenheim Lakes, lie 1 mile southeast of  the
   site.  Belmont Lake State Park is less than 2 miles to the southwest.
  Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                  NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                  Proposed Date: 10/01/84

                                    Final Date: 06/01/86
                 Threats and Contaminants
               Industrial waste from the metal degreasing and refurbishing operations
               caused groundwater contamination with volatile organic compounds
               (VOCs) including xylene, toluene, and benzene. The on-site leaching
               pools were contaminated with heavy metals including chromium, zinc,
               lead, and cadmium. Soil is contaminated with chlorinated solvents.
               Potential health risks may exist for individuals drinking, touching, or
               inhaling vapors from the contaminated groundwater. The Suffolk
               Department of Health Services has indicated that residents in the vicinity
               of the site may maintain private wells for irrigation purposes but not as a
               source of drinking water.
  March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                146
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                            SMS INSTRUMENTS INC.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in three stages: immediate actions and two long-term
  remedial phases focusing on cleanup of the entire site and cleanup of the off-site
  contamination.

  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions: The leaching pool was pumped out, filled with sand
              and sealed in 1983.  the underground storage tank was removed in" 1988.

              Entire Site:  The EPA's plan to clean up the site includes extracting and  r
              treating groundwater at the site and discharging it back to the ground.    .
              Soils will be treated on site by steam stripping to remove contaminants.
              The EPA is in the process of preparing the engineering specifications for
              these cleanup technologies. The design is expected to be completed in
              1991.

              Off-Site Contamination: In May 1990, the EPA began an investigation to
              determine the type and extent of contamination off site.  Based on the
   result of this investigation, a plan to control and clean up the source of this
   contamination will be developed.
   {Environmental Progress
   The immediate actions described above have reduced the spread of on-site
   contamination pending the start of final cleanup actions, while further investigations
   leading to a final cleanup solution for off-site contamination are taking place.
                                         147

-------
   SOLVENT

   SAVERS
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980421176
Site Description
                                          REGION 2
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 25
                                          Cfyenango County
                                             Lincklaen
   The Solvent Savers site covers 13 acres in the Town of Lincklaen. Industrial solvents
   and other wastes were brought to the facility for reprocessing or disposal from 1967
   until 1974.  Operations included distillation to recover solvents for reuse, drum
   reconditioning, and burial of liquids, solids, sludges, and drums in several on-site areas.
   The quantities and types of wastes disposed at the site and their locations are not fully
   known. Three residences are located within 300 feet of the site.  Public water supplies
   do not exist in the general area; therefore, the residents rely on private wells. The
   Town of Lincklaen has a population of approximately 500 people. Fifteen dairy farms
   are located in the town. Pastures for dairy cows are located 2 miles from the facility
   along a portion of Mud Creek, which is downstream of the site.  Mud Creek is classified
   as a trout stream by the State and is used for recreational activities and livestock
   watering.  In addition, alfalfa, corn, and other crops for human and livestock
   consumption are grown in the area.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 12/01/82

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater, surface water, and soil are contaminated with volatile
               organic compounds (VOCs) including benzene, toluene, chloroform,
               phenol, and vinyl chloride; and heavy metals such as lead, cadmium/and
               zinc. The soil also is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
               Sediments are contaminated with heavy metals.  People who touch or
               accidentally ingest contaminated groundwater, surface water, soil, or
               sediments may be at risk.  Cows grazing in nearby pastures may be
               harmed if contaminants migratelo the fields.  Wildlife in and around Mud
               Creek may be exposed to pollutants seeping from the site  into the water.
  March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   148
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                                SOLVENT SAVERS
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Immediate Actions: The EPA has excavated over 100 drums, some badly
             corroded, and overpackedthem into leakproof outer drums. These drums
             and the remaining drums on the site, which are to be,excavated and
   overpacked, will be disposed of at a federally approved facility. The EPA expects to
   have all the drums removed by the end of 1990.
             Entire Site: The EPA is studying the nature and extent of the
             contamination at the site.  Once the study is completed in 1990, measures
             will be recommended to clean up the site and the area surrounding it.

   Site Facts:  In 1989, the EPA issued an Administrative Orderlo the parties potentially
   responsible for the site contamination, directing them to take responsibility for cleaning
   up the site.
   Eiwironmentol Progress
   The excavation and stabilization of many of the drums stored on the site have greatly
   reduced the risk of people being exposed to hazardous materials while further
   investigations leading to the selection of a final cleanup remedy for the Solvent Savers
   site are taking place.
                                                                             A
                                         149

-------
   SUFFERN VILLA

   WELL FIELD
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980780878
S£te Description
                                        REGION 2
                                 CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 22
                                        Rockland County
                                        Village of Suffern
   The Suffern Village Well Field site covers 30 acres in the Village of Suffern. The village
   operates four production wells that provide water to approximately 12,000 people at a
   rate of almost 2 million gallons per day. In 1978, the State detected trichloroethane, a
   volatile organic compound (VOC), in the municipal water distribution system. Currently,
   wells 1, 2, and 4 are shut down due to the contamination.  The Tempcon Corporation, a
   small oil burner reconditioning business, was identified as the source of the
   contamination. The company is located 2,500 feet uphill of the well field.  Until 1979,
   the company used a seepage disposal pit and trichloroethane-based solvents. During
   investigations, coal gasification wastes were found at the Eeorio-Body Truck and
   Equipment Corporation, located approximately 400 feet away from the well field. The
   amount of waste material left by the coal gasification facility, which operated from 1902
   to 1935, has not been determined. Approximately 10,800 people live in the Village of
   Suffern. All of the residents in the  area use municipally treated water.  The well field is
   adjacent to the Ramapo River.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and State actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date:  10/10/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
                 Threats and Contaminants
              Groundwater was contaminated with VOCs, primarily trichloroethane, and
              lesser amounts of dichloroethane, and napthalene.  Soils were also
              contaminated with VOCs.
Cleanup Approach
   The site is being addressed in two phases: immediate actions and a long-term remedial
   phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                                                                      continued
                                      150

-------
                                                     SUFFERN VILLAGE WELL FIELD
Response Action Status
           Immediate Actions: In 1979, the contaminated soil was excavated,
           aerated, and then backfilled. In 1979, the Village installed a system to
           remove pollutants in the municipal water supply by exposing the water to
air to evaporate contaminants. This system was operated intermittently and is currently
not in service.

            Entire Site: The State completed an investigation of the site
            contamination in 1987. Based upon the study results, the State and the
            EPA decided that due to the presence of only moderate levels of
            contaminants, and predicted low levels in the future, that no further
            cleanup actions were warranted. However, the State is monitoring the
site to ensure the site cleanup, has been effective.          •'-.*;
 Environmental Progress
 The cleanup actions at the Suffern Village Well Field site have Ipeen completed to both
 the EPA's and the State's satisfaction, therefore protecting the public health and the
 environment.  The State will continue to monitor the site to ensure the long-term
 effectiveness of the remedy.                           .••.•:.'. •'.-.
                                       151

-------
   SYOSSET LAND
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD000511360
                                          REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 04
                                          Nassau County
                                            Oyster Bay
Site Description
   The Syosset Landfill, in the Town of Oyster Bay, is approximately 45 acres in size. The
   landfillls bordered by the Long Island Railroad to the northwest and the Cerro Wire and
   Cable Company plant to the southeast.  Single family residences and an elementary
   school are located to the north of the site. Offices and storage yards for the Town of
   Oyster Bay Sanitation and Highway Departments occupy the south end of the site.
   From 1936 to 1974, the landfill received mixed municipal refuse, cesspool pump-out
   wastes, and industrial wastes from such sources as Cerro Wire and Cable Corp.,
   Columbia Corrugated Container Corp., and the Hooker Chemical Company located in
   Hicksville. Investigations revealed high concentrations of heavy metals in the industrial
   sludges being deposited, as well as in wastes discharged from scavenger plant
   operations. In addition,  volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in two private wells and one
   Jericho Water District well are substantially above safe drinking levels. In 1974, the
   public water well located 600 feet from the landfill was closed due to taste and odor
   problems allegedly resulting from the leachate plume coming from the landfill.  Gas
   migration from the landfill to the South Grove School, which is located along one side of
   the site, was documented on several different occasions in the early 1980s. A
   permanent ventilation trench was subsequently constructed along the school landfill
   border. Approximately 59,000 people depend on groundwater from public, municipal,
   and private wells for drinking water in the area. The nearest well is 2,000 feet from the
   site.  There are approximately 1,200 homes, 12 public schools,  and one hospital
   complex located within 1 1/4 miles from the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 12/01/82

  Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater contains low levels of VOCs including vinyl chloride,
               benzene, toluene, and xylene; heavy metals including lead, arsenic,
               chromium, cadmium, manganese, and iron; and polychlorinated biphenyls
               (PCBs).  Accidental ingestion and direct contact with contaminated
               groundwater are potential health threats for individuals living near the site.
               Health threats associated with gas migration from the landfill have been
               eliminated.
  March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   152
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                                 SYOSSET LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in three steps: immediate actions and two long-term
  remedial phases focusing on cleanup of the on- and off-site contamination.
  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions:  A permanent ventillation trench has been
              constructed to reduce gas migration from the site to the school area. Air
              analysis performed in 1983 indicated that the gas concentrations in the
   area north of the ventilation trench were reduced to non-detectable levels.

              On-Site Contamination:  The party potentially responsible for the site
              contamination has begun an investigation to determine the extent and
              nature of on-site contamination and to identify alternatives for cleanup.
              The investigation is expected to be completed in late 1990. The EPA will
   evaluate the alternatives and select the most appropriate remedies for on-site cleanup.

              Off-site Contamination: The  potentially responsible parties plan to
              address the possible migration of contaminants from the landfill. This
              investigation is planned to begin in late 1990 and will measure the extent
   of off-site contamination and identify alternatives for the cleanup.
   Environmental Progress
   Elimination of gas vapor migration from the landfill has made the air around the site
   safe to breathe. The EPA's preliminary evaluations showed that the site does not pose
   any other immediate threats to the neighboring community or the environment while
   investigations leading to the selection of final cleanup remedies are taking place.
                                         153

-------
   TRI-CITY BARRE
   NEW YORK
   EPATJD# NYD980509285,,
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 27
                                         Broome County
                                   Adjacent to Old Route 7 in Fenton
Site Description
   Tri-City Barrel is a 3 1/2-acre site in the Town of Fenton where, since 1955, used drums
   were reconditioned. The drums were washed with a strong caustic agent as part of the
   reconditioning process.  The wastewater from this process then was discharged into
   unlined lagoons and allowed to evaporate.  This process continued until 198(3.  The
   company cleaned out.and backfilled'the lagoons and now stores the wastewater in a
   holding tank before it is disposed of off site.  Osborne Creek crosses the northern part
   of the site and local residents use s.urface water downstream and within 3 miles of the
   site for recreation. Approximately 3,500 people obtain drinking water from wells within
   3 miles of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 05/05/87

  Final Date: 10/04/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater contains polychlorinated biphenyls (RGBs) and
               chlordane, a pesticide.  The soil is contaminated with a variety of organic
               compounds.  Direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated
               groundwater or soils may pose a health threat. The site is unfenced,
               making it possible for people and animals to come into direct contact with
               hazardous substances.
 Cleanup Approach
   The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
   the entire site.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   154
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                                TRI-CITY BARREL
Response Action Status
            Entire Site: The EPA began to study the nature and extent of
            contamination of the site starting in 1990. The EPA will use this study to
            recommend the best way to clean up the site.

Site Facts:  In 1984, the EPA fined the Tri-City Barrel Company for failure to label
hazardous wastes properly.
After adding the Tri-City Barrel site to the.NPL, the EPA conducted an initial evaluation
and determined that no immediate cleanup actions were necessary while the
investigations leading to the selection of a final cleanup remedy are taking place.
                                       155

-------
   TRONIC PLATING

   COMPANY
   NEW YORK
   EPAID#  NYD002059517
                                          REGION 2
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                           Suffolk County
                                            Farmingdale
Site Description
   The Tronic Plating Company site comprises 1/2 acre of a 2 1/2-acre lot and is located in
   a relatively flat area of Farmingdale.  Tronic Plating Company occupied the southeast
   corner of a long building in an industrial park area from 1968 to 1984, where it provided
   electroplating and metal protective coating services for the electronics industry.  The
   site consists of the long building, 2 inside aboveground storage tanks, 4 underground
   leaching pools, and a storm drain in the paved area to the northeast of the building.
   During its operation, the facility discharged industrial wastes into a sanitary pit and the
   four underground leaching pools.  The storm drains, which were located approximately
   40 feet from the northern rear door of the operation, were also allegedly utilized  by
   Tronic Plating Company to dispose of potentially hazardous  effluent. New York  State
   issued a Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit to Tronic in 1980. Tests
   conducted by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) in 1985 detected
   heavy metals including copper, silver, iron, zinc, lead and cadmium in the leaching pools
   and in the storm drain. Tronic Plating Company now is operating in another location.
   The building space where it formerly operated is occupied by three small companies.
   About 16,000 people in the area use groundwater as their sole source of drinking
   water. The population within a 1-mile radius of the site is estimated to be about 1,800
   people.  The closest residences are located approximately 1,000 feet east of the site.
   An industrial school is located 3/4 miles northeast of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   156
                                                                          continued

-------
                                                          TRONIC PLATING COMPANY
                 Threats and Contaminants
               On-site groundwater is suspected to be contaminated with cyanide and
               heavy metals.  Surface water located in industrial process and waste
               streams (storm drains, sanitary pools, leaching pools, piping to industrial
               pools, and the cooling water pool) are contaminated with cyanide and
               heavy metals including nickel and lead.  It is assumed that the dissolved
               contaminants can migrate through the on-site soils into the groundwater
               because of the sandy, highly permeable soil native to Long Island. If •
               migration should occur, area residents'could be exposed to site-related
               contaminants by drinking or touching the groundwater.  Another potential
               source of exposure to site-related contaminants is direct contact with
               contaminated soils or inhalation of contaminants that have become
               airborne.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase directed at cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status


              Entire Site:  The party potentially responsible for the site contamination
              started an investigation defining the site contamination and effective
              cleanup methods in 1988 and anticipates completing it in 1991. The EPA
  will evaluate alternatives and select the most appropriate remedies for cleanup of the
  site.

  Site Facts: Commerce Holding Company signed an Administrative Order on Consent
  that obligates the company to conduct an investigation of site contamination under EPA
  supervision.
   Environmental Progress
   After listing the Tronic Plating site on the NPL, the EPA performed a preliminary
   evaluation and determined that the site does not pose an immediate threat to the
   community or the environment while investigations to determine final cleanup
   remedies are taking place.
                                        157

-------
   VESTAL  WATE

   SUPPLY  1-1
   NEW YORK
   EPAID# NYD980763767
                                     REGION 2
                              CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 28
                                     Broome County
                                         Vestal
Site Description
   The Vestal Water Supply Well 1-1 is located on the southern bank of the Susquehanna
   River in Vestal. An industrial park is located immediately to the southeast of the well,
   along Stage Road. Several marshy areas and drainage ditches encompass and interlace
   the industrial park. The western portion of the site includes a water district well field, a
   soccer field, a fire department training center, and a residential area.  Well 1-1 is one of
   three production wells in Water District 1 intended to provide drinking water to several
   water districts in the Vestal area.  The well is moderately contaminated with several
   volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). Well 1-1 was the
   main source of water for District 1 until 1978, when it was closed. Well 1-2 was the
   main source of water until 1988, but now it is permanently incapacitated as a result of
   wellscreen problems. Well 1-3 now is the primary supplier of drinking water to the
   service area. The original Vestal Water Supply Site also contained Well 4-2 in District 4.
   However, this well was separated into its own NPL site, Vestal Water Supply 4-2, when
   it was discovered that the District 1 and 4 wells were contaminated by two separate
   sources.  Well 1-1 has pumped contaminated groundwater into the Susquehanna River
   ever since contamination was discovered in 1978, in order to prevent the contaminant
   p/i/me from affecting other District 1 wells. In  late 1982, a preliminary investigation
   was  conducted to find the source of contamination. The industrial park along Stage
   Road was implicated as a possible source. Approximately 27,000 people reside in the
   Town of Vestal, and approximately 17,000 rely on public water supplies to provide them
   drinking water.
   Site Responsibility: This site is being addressed through
                     Federal and State actions.
                                  NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                  Proposed Date: 12/01/82

                                   Final Date: 09/01/83
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Pollution from the Stage Road Industrial Park has apparently caused the
               groundwater to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
               and heavy metals. The use of untreated water from Well 1-1 by the
               residents of Vestal could have exposed a significant portion of the town's
               population to contaminants before it was closed in 1978. The western
               portion of the site includes several wetlands and a State-owned forest.
               The site also borders the Susquehanna River and Choconut Creek, which
               face potential pollution from contaminant migration from the groundwater.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

               158
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                         VESTAL WATER SUPPLY 1-1
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in three stages:  immediate actions and two long-term
  remedial phases focusing on cleanup of the groundwater and source remediation.
  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions: Well.1-1 was removed from service in 1978.
              Groundwater: Based on the result of the site investigation performed by
              the State, the following cleanup methods were selected:  (1) restoration
              of District 1 water supply capacity to the level that existed prior to the loss
              of Well 1-1; (2) provision of a water supply to the district that provides a
              high level of public health protection; (3) hydraulic containment oi the
  plume contaminants by pumping Well 1-1, thereby protecting other District 1 water
  supply wells; and (4) treating groundwater from Well 1-1 by air stripping to stop the
  discharge of contaminated water to the  Susquehanna River. A packed  column air
  stripping system to remove VOCs from the groundwater is scheduled to go online later
  in 1990.                                                                   -..:•;:

              Source Remediation: The EPA has recently completed an investigation
              that evaluated possible contaminant source control measures to eliminate
              further pollution of the groundwater. The EPA's final remedy, scheduled !
              to be selected in 1990, will address source cleanup as well as possible   ;
  wellhead treatment for heavy metal contamination discovered in the groundwater.   -:
  | Environmental Progress
  By closing down the contaminated well and making Well 1-3 the primary supplier of
  drinking water, residents are no longer being exposed to contaminated drinking water.
  Well 1-1 will be used again for the public water supply and will no longer be pumped
  into the Susquehanna River as soon as the treatment system is operational, thus
  protecting the public health and the environment. The EPA is conducting further
  investigations to determine the source of the groundwater contamination.
                                       159

-------
   VESTAL WATER

   SUPPLY WELL
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980652267
                                    REGION 2
                             CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 28
                                    Broome County
                          5 miles southwest of the City of Binghamton
Site Description
   The Vestal Water Supply Well 4-2 site is a municipal well contaminated by a bulk
   chemical handling facility. Contamination was discovered in 1983, and the well was
   taken out of service.  The well has been contaminated with trichlproethene,
   trichloroethylene (TCE), and other solvent-related compounds.  Similar contaminants
   were detected in other wells located in Water District 1.  The original "Vestal Water
   Supply Site" was separated into two sites; the other site is known as Vestal Water
   Supply Site Well 1-1.  This was done as a result of discovering that two separate
   plumes of contaminated groundwater emanate from two different sources.
   Approximately 27,000 people reside within 3 miles of the site, and 17,000 people rely
   on public water supplies to serve them for drinking water.
   Site Responsibility:  j^[S sjte js being addressed through
                     Federal and State actions.
                                NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                Proposed Date:  12/01/82

                                 Final Date: 09/01/83
                 Threats and Contaminants
               Public Well 4-2 is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
               including chloroform.  Drinking or using the contaminated groundwater
               from Well 4-2 or using the water for bathing or other domestic uses could
               be a potential health threat. However, Well 4-2 is currently not in use,
               thus reducing the likelihood of this occuring.
 Cleanup Approach
    The site is being addressed in an initial action and a long-term remedial phase focusing
    on cleanup of the entire site.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

               160
                                                                        continued

-------
                                                   VESTAL WATER SUPPLY WELL 4-2
Response Action Status
           Initial Action: To protect public water supplies, Well 4-2 was removed
           from service in 1983.
            Entire Site: Since early 1989, the site has been undergoing cleanup
            through the use of carbon filtration, flushing, and an air stripping process
            which removes volatile contaminants by exposure to air. These ongoing
            treament activities are designed to decontaminate the well supply by
cleaning up the groundwater resources.
Site Facts: The State signed a settlement agreement with three potentially
responsible parties in July 1985, which outlined cleanup actions and a series of
groundwater standards that must be achieved.  Discovery of contamination in Well 4-2
in 1983 led to its removal from service.
 Envirprimental Progress
 By closing Well 4-2 exposure to contaminants has been greatly reduced, thereby
 protecting the public health. Since 1989 groundwater treatment systems have been
 operating at the site and continue to reduce contamination levels. Groundwater
 decontamination will continue until safety levels set for the site have been attained.
                                      161

-------
   VOLNEY MUNICIR

   LANDFILL
   NEW YORK
   EPAID# NYD980509376
Site Description
                                               REGION 2
                                        CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 2,9
                                               Oswego County
                                              Silk Road in Volney


                                                   Alias:
                                              Silk Road Landfill
   The Volney Municipal Landfill covers 58 acres in the Town of Volney, which is in a rural
   area of Oswego County. The Oswego Valley Solid Refuse Disposal District Board
   (OVSRDDB) owned and operated the landfill from 1969 to 1975, when Oswego County
   bought it.  From 1969 to 1983, the unlined landfill accepted municipal wastes from
   homes, businesses, and light industries. The landfill expanded in the mid-1970s to
   include a system for collecting leachate and a drainage system in the central and
   northern sections. In 1974 and 1975, the landfill accepted up to 8,000 barrels of
   chemical sludge from a local hazardous waste treatment facility.  Of these, between 50
   and 200 drums contained liquids of unknown content and condition. The County
   ceased disposing wastes at the site in 1983, and by the fall of 1985, the County
   completed its operations to close the site. Leachate from the landfill has contaminated
   sediments, groundwater, and surface water in the area. Approximately 225 residents in
   this rural area use groundwater from private wells within 3 miles of the site.  Twenty-
   five households within  1,000 feet of the landfill rely on groundwater as a primary supply
   of drinking water.
   Site Responsibility:
      This site is being addressed through
      a combination of Federal, State, and
      County actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/01/84

  Final Date: 06/01/86
       L\
                  Threats and Contaminants
The groundwater contains heavy metals including arsenic, selenium, lead,
and manganese. Sediments, surface water and leachate from the landfill
contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including benzene.  Potential
pathways of exposure to the contaminants at the site include drinking
contaminated groundwater and surface water and accidental ingestion of
contaminated sediments and soil. Eating contaminated fish or animals
could pose a health threat. Geologic conditions at the site make it
possible for wastes in the deteriorating drums on site to contaminate
groundwater that serves as the drinking water supply for local residents.
   March 1990
          NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                         162
                                                                         continued

-------
                                                        VOLNEY MUNICIPAL LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two long-term remedial phases focusing on controlling
  the source of contamination and cleaning up the entire site.
  Response Action Status
               Source Control: The County ceased operations at the landfill in 1983,
               and it completed closure of the landfill in the fall of 1985.  The EPA
               proposed the following methods to prevent the landfill from polluting the
               surface water and groundwater: (1) construct a cap on the side slopes of
               the landfill; (2) install a system for collecting leachate around the northern
   and southern sections of the landfill with accompanying slurry walls, collection wells,
   and drain segments; and (3) construct a system to treat the leachate in an on-site
   treatment plant or transport it to an off-site facility for treatment.  The EPA will
   determine the specific treatment method when the treatability studies that will be
   performed during the design phase are completed.

               Entire Site: The EPA is currently studying the nature and extent of
               groundwater and surface water pollution from the landfill. This study,
               which will lead to the selection of final cleanup remedies is expected to be
               completed in 1992.

   Site Facts:  The State signed a Cooperative Agreement with Oswego County in
   December 1984 to clean up the landfill. The State of New York entered into a Consent
   Order with Oswego County for control of the leachate problem and closure of the site.
   The landfill was closed in the fall of 1985 in compliance with the municipal landfill
   closure regulations of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
   Environmental Progress
   The EPA has selected the cleanup technologies to control the source of contamination,
   but investigations into the groundwater and surface water cleanup are still under way.
   The EPA is also re-evaluating the proposed cleanup remedy for the source of the
   contamination. After adding the site to the NPL, the EPA conducted an initial evaluation
   and determined that the area does not pose an immediate threat to the surrounding
   community or the environment while further studies are under way and final cleanup
   actions are being planned.
                                         163

-------
   WARWICK  LANDE
   NEW YORK
   EPAID# NYD980506679
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 22
                                          Orange County
                                            Warwick

                                             Alias:
                                         Penaluna Landfill
Site Description
   The Warwick Landfill site is an unlined, L-shaped landfill that occupies roughly 13 acres
   of a 25-acre parcel fronting on Penaluna Road.  The surrounding area is hilly, with
   interspersed residential areas and woods. Both wetlands and rock outcroppings lie
   next to the landfilled areas. In about 1957, the town started to take in municipal wastes
   at the site under a permit from the county health department. Industrial chemical
   wastes also may have  been disposed of at the site over an undetermined period of
   time.  The site is now privately owned. In 1977, the owner leased it to Grace Disposal
   and Leasing, Ltd. In 1979, the State sampled leachate seeping from the site and
   detected volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The State then issued a restraining order
   and closed the landfill.  Surface water is threatened because drainage from the site
   enters a stream that flows into Greenwood Lake, a major recreational resource located
   about 1/2 mile from the landfill. Groundwater contamination is the main concern,
   because  residents depend upon it for drinking supplies. The groundwater in the area is
   as shallow as 1 to 2 feet.  Approximately 2,100 residents  within 2 miles of the site
   depend on private wells for drinking water. The closest home is 1,200 feet south of
   the site, along Penaluna Road. Greenwood Lake, a recreational community, lies about
   1 mile southwest of the site.  Although residents of this community are hooked up to a
   public water supply, dwellings outside the village rely on  private wells.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
IMPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/01/85
  Final Date: 03/30/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
                On-site groundwater contains low level of VOCs including acetone and
                methylene chloride. Leachate, surface water, and sediments at the site
                contain low levels of VOCs, as well as phenol and heavy metals including
                chromium, mercury, lead, and copper. The exposure of greatest concern
                is from coming into contact with contaminated leachate and surface
                water. Sampling has indicated that private wells near the landfill are clean
                of site contaminants.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   164
               continued

-------
                                                               WARWICK LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Entire Site: In 1988, the EPA began an intensive study of groundwater,
              surface water, and soil contamination at the site. This investigation is
              exploring the nature and extent of pollution problems at the site and will
              result in the selection of remedies for finalsite cleanup. The study is
   slated for completion in 1991.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding the Warwick Landfill site to the NPL, the EPA conducted an initial
   evaluation and determined that no immediate actions are needed while the
   investigations leading to selection of the final cleanup remedies are taking place.
                                        165

-------
   WIDE  BEACH

   DEVELOPMENT
   NEW YORK
   EPA ID# NYD980652259
Site Description
                                         REGION 2
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 31
                                           Erie County
                                             Brant
   Wide Beach Development is a 55-acre suburban development of 60 homes located in
   Brant, a small community on Lake Erie, north of the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation.
   From 1968 to 1978, the Wide Beach Homeowners Association applied about 155 cubic
   meters of waste oil to the local roadways to control dust.  Some of the oil was
   contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).  Roads, driveways, parking
   spaces, storm drains, and homes thus were contaminated from the oil applications. In
   1980, workers excavated soil from around the roadways while installing a sanitary
   sewer line in the development. Unaware that a PCB problem existed, residents used
   this soil as fill in their yards and in a community recreation area.  Subsequent sampling
   revealed PCBs in the air, road dust, soil, vacuum cleaner dust, and water samples from
   private wells. Lake Erie is the western boundary of Wide Beach. The site drains
   through a system of swales and ditches into a stream and marsh south of the
   development. This stream flows into Lake Erie, as does surface runoff from the site.
   The area around the site is residential and agricultural.  All  residents of the development
   receive their water from private wells. Approximately 5,000 people within a 3-mile
   radius of the site depend upon municipal and private wells for drinking supplies.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
IMPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 12/30/82

  Final Date: 09/08/83
                 Threats and Contaminants
       L\
               PCBs have been detected in the air, groundwater, sediments, soil, and in
               the surface water.  Wetlands near the site have also been contaminated
               with PCBs.  Health hazards include coming into direct contact with
               contaminated soils, ingesting contaminated water, or inhaling
               contaminated vapors.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   166
                                                                        continued

-------
                                                         WIDE BEACH DEVELOPMENT
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages: emergency response actions and a long-
  term remedial phase directed at cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Emergency Actions:  In June and July of 1985, in response to the levels
              of PCBs found in Wide Beach homes, the EPA acted to protect residents
              from contaminated runoff and dust until a long-term remedy could be
   applied.  This emergency action included paving the roadways, driveways, and drainage
   ditches; decontaminating homes by vacuuming, rug shampooing, and replacement of
   air conditioner and furnace filters; installing particulate carbon filters on individual wells
   to protect the population from the sporadic PCB contamination of groundwater; and
   repairing a storm drain to alleviate flooding problems. EPA workers also conducted
   field sampling to support design of the final cleanup.

              Entire Site: The EPA selected a remedy for this  site in 1985, which
              includes: (1) excavating the PCB-contaminated soils in the roadways,
              drainage ditches, driveways, yards, and wetlands; (2) disposing of the
              contaminated asphalt and recycling uncontaminated asphalt to paving
   operations; (3) chemically treating the PCB-contaminated soils; (4) backfilling excavated
   areas with treated soils; (5) repaving roadways and driveways; (6) treating the water in
   the sewer trench and building a hydraulic barrier at the end of  it; and (7) sampling in
   other areas of the development to better define the extent of the pollution. The EPA
   demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed soil treatment process at the site in
   1988 as part of a treatability study to determine if the proposed approach for chemically
   neutralizing the PCB-polluted soils would be effective. The technical specifications for
   the cleanup were completed in 1989. Final cleanup actions are underway and
   scheduled for completion in 1991.
   Environmen tal Progress
   The EPA performed numerous emergency response actions at the Wide Beach
   Development to make conditions safer for the residents while the investigations
   leading to the selection of cleanup actions took place. Final cleanup actions are
   currently under way to permanently address contamination from the site.
                                         167

-------
   YORK OIL CO
   NEW YORK
   EPA ED# NYD000511733
                                           REGION 2

                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 26
                                           Franklin County
                                 Next to the Town Hall and the Moira Town
                                           Highway Garage

                                              Alias:
                                            Pierce Dump
Site Description
   The York Oil Company recycled waste oil at this 17-acre site on County Road #6, 1 mile
   northwest of Moira from 1962 until 1975.  In 1975, the facility was sold to another
   registered industrial waste collector. In 1980, the property was transferred to two
   Moira residents, who salvaged the metal storage tanks and sold a portion of the site
   later that year.  In 1982, the County assumed title because of unpaid property taxes.
   Operators collected crankcase industrial oils, some containing polychlorinated biphenyls
   (RGBs), from sources throughout New England and New York.  They stored or
   processed the oils at the site in eight aboveground storage tanks, a series of three
   earthen-dammed settling lagoons,  and at least one underground storage  tank.  The
   recycled PCB-contaminated oil was either sold as No. 2 fuel oil or was used in dust
   control for the unpaved roads in the vicinity of the site. During heavy rains and spring
   thaws, the oil-water mixture from the lagoons would often overflow onto surrounding
   lands and into adjacent wetlands which the company purchased in 1964.
   Contamination at the site was first reported by a State road crew in 1979. Wetlands
   and woodlands are the principal land uses near the site. Homes lie along the main
   roads, interspersed with active and inactive agricultural and pasture land.
   Approximately 1,700 people live within a 3-mile radius of the site; 400 live within 1 mile.
   Residents rely on  private wells for drinking water; 13 wells exist within 1/2 mile of the
   site, supplying water to about 40 people. Extensive sampling of well water has
   revealed no site-related contaminants.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and State actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 07/01/82

  Final Date: 09/01/83
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    168
                                                                           continued

-------
                                                               YORK OH, COMPA2Vr
                 Threats and Contaminants
              Groundwater, soils, sludge, sediments, and surface water are
              contaminated with phenolics, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds
              (VOCs), and RGBs.  The groundwater used by area residents for drinking
              water is not currently contaminated. However, there is a potential that
              pollutants may migrate and reach the private wells. People who touch or
              accidentally ingest contaminated surface water, sediments, soil, or sludge
              may be at risk. Wetlands near the site are sensitive environments that
              may be threatened by contaminants. Despite some cleanup actions, PCS
              contamination remains at the site and in the wetlands. The wildlife
              inhabiting the wetlands also may be harmed by the site pollutants.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in three stages: emergency response actions and two
  long-term remedial phases focusing on source control and off-site contamination
  pathways.

  Response Action Status
              Emergency Actions: The EPA began emergency cleanup activities at the
              site in 1980.  Workers secured the site to limit access and to reduce the
              threat of coming into contact with hazardous substances.  Workers
   removed oil and contaminated water from the lagoons, which then were filled with a
   concrete by-product and sand. The top 3 feet of oil-soaked soil were excavated from
   the neighboring wetlands. Contaminated oil was transferred to aboveground storage
   tanks, and contaminated soil was contained on the site. Contaminated water from one
   of the lagoons was treated and discharged into the wetlands. An interceptor trench
   was dug to alter the flow of surface water and groundwater. The EPA conducted
   additional emergency actions in 1983. Workers collected oil seeping into drainage
   ditches, installed a new filter fence system, and posted warning signs.  The EPA
   developed a schedule for collecting oily leachate and replacing sorbent pads and began
   monitoring the site.

              Source Control:  The EPA selected a remedy for controlling the source of
              the contamination in 1988.  It features:  (1) excavating 30,000 cubic yards
              of contaminated soils and solidifying this material on the site;  (2) installing
     	    deep groundwater drawdown wells at the edges of the site to collect the
   sinking contaminated plume; (3) installing shallow dewatering wells to collect
   contaminated groundwater and oil during excavation; (4) treating these liquids and
   discharging the clean groundwater in accordance with State environmental rules; (5)
   removing about 25,000 gallons of contaminated tank oils, as well as other oils collected
   at the site, to an EPA-approved facility to be safely burned; (6) cleaning and demolishing
   the empty storage tanks; (7) grading over the solidified soil; and (8) inspecting the site
   every 5 years to assure that human health and the environment continue to be
                                                                          continued
                                        169

-------
                                                              YORK OIL COMPANY
protected.  During the design of the remedy, the EPA will study the proposed
solidification process to ensure its effectiveness. Should this approach prove
inadequate, the EPA will investigate the feasibility of incinerating the soils on site. The
EPA began negotiating with the potentially responsible parties to perform the
engineering design for this remedy in September 1988. Cleanup activities will begin
once the remedial design is completed, scheduled for 1991.

            Off-Site Contamination: The first stage of the long-term cleanup dealt
            only with the site proper.  This second phase will study off-site
            contamination pathways, particularly the PCB-contaminated wetlands.
            The State began an  intensive study of the problem in 1986, which was
completed by the EPA in September 1988.  The second phase of this investigation,
planned for completion in late  1990, is exploring the nature and extent of pollution
problems around the site and will recommend the best strategies for final cleanup.

Site Facts: The EPA and the Department of Justice are negotiating with the parties
potentially responsible for contamination at the site to take responsibility  for site
cleanup actions.
Environmental Progress
The EPA performed numerous emergency removal actions and erected a security
fence to limit access to the site, which significantly reduced the potential for exposure
to hazardous materials at the York Oil Company site while cleanup actions for on-site
contamination are designed and further studies of off-site contamination are taking
place.
                                      170

-------
        This glossary defines the italicized terms used in the site
        fact sheets for the State of New York. The terms and
      -  abbreviations contained in this glossary are often
defined in the context of hazardous waste management as de-
scribed in the site fact sheets, and apply specifically to work per-
formed under the Superfund program. Therefore, these terms
may have other meanings when used in a different context.

Acids: Substances, characterized by low pH (less than
7.0) that are used in chemical manufacturing. Acids in
high concentration can be very corrosive and react with
many inorganic and organic substances. These reactions
may possibly create toxic compounds or release heavy
metal contaminants that remain in the environment long
after the acid is neutralized.

Administrative Order On Consent: A legal and enforceable agreement between EPA
and the parties potentially responsible for site contamination. Under the terms of the
Order, the potentially responsible parties agree to perform or pay for site studies or
cleanups. It also describes the oversight rules/responsibilities and enforcement options
that the government may exercise in the event of non-compliance by potentially respon-
sible parties. This Order is signed by PRPs and the government; it does not require
approval by a judge.

Administrative Order [Unilateral]: A legally binding document issued by EPA direct-
ing the parties  potentially responsible to perform site cleanups or studies (generally,
EPA does not issue unilateral orders for site studies).

Aeration:  A process that promotes breakdown of contaminants in soil or water by
exposing them to air.

Air Stripping: A process whereby volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) are removed from
 contaminated material by forcing a stream of air through it in a pressurized vessel. The
 contaminants are evaporated into the air stream. The air may be further treated before
 it is released into the atmosphere.

 Alluvial: An area of sand, clay, or other similar material that has been gradually depos-
 ited by moving water, such as along a river bed or the shore of a lake.

 Ambient Air:  Any unconfined part of the atmosphere. Refers to the air that may be
 inhaled by workers or residents in the vicinity of contaminated air sources.
                                        G-l

-------
    GLOSSARY
 Aquifer: An underground layer of rock, sand, or gravel capable of storing water within
 cracks and pore spaces, or between grains. When water contained within an aquifer is
 of sufficient quantity and quality, it can be tapped and used for drinking or other pur-
 poses. The water contained in the aquifer is called groundwater.

 Arroyo: A dry gully; a rivulet or streambed.

 Artesian (Well): A well made by drilling into the earth until water is reached which,
 from internal pressure, flows up like a fountain.

 Backfill: To refill an excavated area with removed earth; or the material itself that is
 used to refill an excavated area.

 Bases: Substances characterized by high pH (greater than 7.0), which tend to be corro-
 sive in chemical reactions. When bases are mixed with acids, they neutralize each other,
 forming salts.

 Berm: A ledge, wall, or a mound of earth used to prevent the migration of contami-
 nants.

 Bioaccumulate: The process by which some contaminants or toxic chemicals gradually
 collect and increase in concentration in living tissue, such as in plants, fish, or people as
 they breathe contaminated air, drink contaminated water, or eat contaminated food.

 Bioremediatioru  A cleanup process using naturally occurring or specially cultivated
 microorganisms to digest contaminants naturally and break them down into nonhaz-
 ardous components.

 Borehole: A hole drilled into the ground used to sample soil and groundwater.

 Borrow Pit: An excavated area where soil, sand, or gravel has been dug up for use
 elsewhere.

 Cap: A layer of material, such as day or a synthetic material, used to prevent rainwater
 from penetrating and spreading contaminated materials. The surface of the cap is
 generally mounded or sloped so water will drain off.

 Carbon Adsorption: A treatment system in which contaminants are removed from
 groundwater and surface water by forcing water through tanks containing activated
 carbon, a specially treated material that attracts and holds or retains contaminants.

 Carbon Disulfide: A decreasing agent formerly used extensively for parts washing.
This compound has both inorganic and organic properties, which increase cleaning
efficiency. However, these properties also cause chemical reactions that increase its
hazard to human health and the environment
                                      G-2

-------
Carbon Treatment: [see Carbon Adsorption].

Cell: In solid waste disposal, one of a series of holes in a landfill where waste is
dumped, compacted, and covered with layers of dirt.

Chromated Copper Arsenate: An insecticide/herbicide formed from salts of three toxic
metals: copper, chromium, and arsenic.  This salt is used extensively as a wood pre-
servative in pressure-treating operations. It is highly toxic and water soluble, making it
a relatively mobile contaminant in the environment.

Closure:  The process by which a landfill stops accepting wastes and is shut down
under Federal guidelines that ensure the public and the environment is protected.

Confluence: The place where two bodies of water, such as streams, come together.

Consent Decree: A legal document, approved and issued by a judge, formalizing an
agreement between EPA and the parties potentially responsible for site contamination.
The decree describes cleanup actions that the potentially responsible parties are re-
quired to perform and/or the costs incurred by the government that the parties will
reimburse, as well as the roles, responsibilities, and enforcement options that the gov-
ernment may exercise in the event of non-compliance by potentially responsible parties.
If a settlement between EPA and a potentially responsible party includes cleanup ac-
tions, it must be in the form of a consent decree. A consent decree is subject to a public
comment period.

Consent Order: [see Administrative Order on Consent].

Containment: The process of enclosing or containing hazardous substances in a struc-
ture, typically in ponds and lagoons, to prevent the migration of contaminants into the
environment.

Cooperative Agreement:  A contract between EPA and the states wherein a State agrees
to manage or monitor certain site cleanup responsibilities and other activities on a cost-
sharing basis.

Creosotes: Chemicals used in wood preserving operations and produced by distillation
of tar, including polycydic aromatic hydrocarbons and polynudear aromatic hydrocar-
bons [see PAHs and PNAs]. Contaminating sediments, soils, and surface water, creo-
sotes may cause skin ulcerations and cancer With prolonged exposure.

Culvert: A pipe under a road, railroad track, path, or through an embankment used for
drainage,     ,               (       ,

De minimis: This legal phrase pertains to settlements with parties who contributed

                                      G-3

-------

 small amounts of hazardous waste at a site. This process allows EPA to settle with
 small, or de minimis contributors, as a single group rather than as individuals, saving
 time, money, and effort

 Decommission: To revoke a license to operate and take out of service.

 Degrease: To remove grease from wastes, soils, or chemicals, usually using solvents.

 Dewaten To remove water from wastes, soils, or chemicals.

 Downgradient: A downward hydrologic slope that causes groundwater to move
 toward lower elevations. Therefore, wells downgradient of a contaminated groundwater
 source are prone to receiving pollutants.

 Downslope: [see Downgradient].

 Effluent: Wastewater, treated or untreated, that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer,
 or industrial outfall. Generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters.

 Emulsifiers: Substances that helps in mixing materials that don't normally mix; e.g., oil
 and water.

 Estuary (estuarine):  Areas where fresh water from rivers and salt water from nearshore
 ocean waters are mixed. These areas may include bays, mouths of rivers, salt marshes,
 and lagoons. These water ecosystems shelter and feed marine life, birds, and wildlife.

 Fly ash: Non-combustible residue that results from the combustion of flue gases. It can
 include nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, water vapor, sulfur oxides, as well as many
 other chemical pollutants.

 French Drain System: A crushed rock drain system constructed of perforated pipes,
 which is used to drain and disperse wastewater.

 Gasification (coal): The conversion of soft coal into gas for use as a fuel.

 Generator: A facility that emits pollutants into the air or releases hazardous wastes into
 water or soil.

 Good Faith Offer: A voluntary offer, generally in response to a Special Notice letter,
made by a potentially responsible party that consists of a written proposal demonstrat-
ing a potentially responsible party's qualifications and willingness to  perform a site
study or cleanup.

Halogens: Reactive non-metals, such as chlorine and bromine. Halogens are very good
oxidizing agents and, therefore, have many industrial uses. They are  rarely found by
                                      G-4

-------
themselves; however, many chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), some
volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and dioxin are reactive because of the presence of
halogens.

Hot Spot: An area or vicinity of a site containing exceptionally high levels of contami-
nation.

Hydrogeology: The geology of groundwater, with particular emphasis on the chemis-
try and movement of water.

Impoundment: A body of water or sludge confined by a dam, dike, floodgate, or other
barrier.

Influent: Water, wastewater, or other liquid flowing into a reservoir, basin, or treat-
ment plant.

Installation Restoration Program: The specially funded program established in 1978
under which the Department of Defense has been identifying and evaluating its hazard-
ous waste sites and controlling the migration of hazardous contaminants from those
sites.

Intake: The source where a water supply is drawn from, such as from a river or water-
bed.

Interagency Agreement:  A written agreement between EPA and a Federal agency that
has the lead for site cleanup activities (e.g. the Department of Defense), that sets forth
the roles and responsibilities of the agencies for performing and overseeing the activi-
ties. States are often parties to interagency agreements.

Lagoon: A shallow pond where sunlight, bacterial action, and oxygen work to purify
wastewater. Lagoons are typically used for the storage of wastewaters, sludges, liquid
wastes, or spent nuclear fuel.

Landfarm: To apply waste to land and/or incorporate waste into the surface soil, such
as fertilizer or soil conditioner. This practice is commonly used for disposal of com-
posted wastes.

Landfill: A disposal facility where waste is placed in or on land.

Leachate [n]: The liquid that trickles through or drains from waste, carrying soluble
components from the waste. Leach, Leaching [v.t.]:  The process by which soluble
chemical components are dissolved and carried through soil by water or some other
percolating liquid.

Long-term Remedial Phase: Distinct, often incremental, steps that are taken to solve
                                       G-5

-------
 site pollution problems. Depending on the complexity, site cleanup activities can be
 separated into a number of these phases.

 Migration: The movement of oil, gas, contaminants, water, or other liquids through
 porous and permeable rock.

 Mine (or Mill) Tailings: A fine, sandy residue left from ore milling operations.  Tail-
 ings often contain high concentrations of lead and arsenic or other heavy metals.

 Mitigation: Actions taken to improve site conditions by limiting, reducing, or control-
 ling toxicity and contamination sources.

 Neutrals: Organic compounds that have a relatively neutral pH, complex structure
 and, due to their organic bases, are easily absorbed into the environment. Naphthalene,
 pyrene, and trichlorobenzene are examples of neutrals.

 Nitroaromatics: Common component of explosive materials, which will explode if
 activated by very high temperatures or pressures; 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a ni-
 troaromatic.

 Notice Letter: A General Notice Letter notifies the parties potentially responsible for
 site contamination of their possible liability. A Special Notice Letter begins a 60-day
 formal period of negotiation during which EPA is not allowed to start work at a site or
 initiate enforcement actions against potentially responsible parties, although EPA may
 undertake certain investigatory and planning activities. The 60-day period may be
 extended if EPA receives a good faith offer [see Good Faith Offer] within that period.

 Outfall: The place where wastewater is discharged into receiving waters.

 Overpacking: Process used for isolating large volumes of waste by jacketing or encap-
 sulating waste to prevent further spread or leakage of contaminating materials. Leak-
 ing drums may be contained within oversized barrels as an interim measure prior to
 removal and final disposal.

 Pentachiorophenol (PCP): A synthetic, modified petrochemical that is used as a wood
 preservative because of its toxicity  to termites and fungi. It is a common component of
 creosotes and can cause cancer.

 Perched (groundwater): Groundwater separated from another underlying body of
 groundwater by a confining layer, often day or rock.

 Percolation: The downward flow or filtering of water or other liquids through subsur-
face rock or soil layers, usually continuing downward to groundwater.

Petrochemicals: Chemical substances produced from petroleum in refinery operations
and as fuel oil residues. These include fluoranthene, chrysene, mineral spirits, and
                                     G-6

-------
refined oils. Petrochemicals are the bases from which volatile organic compounds
(VOCs), plastics, and many pesticides are made. These chemical substances are often
toxic to humans and the environment.

Phenols:  Organic compounds that are used in plastics manufacturing and are by-
products of petroleum refining, tanning, textile, dye, and resin manufacturing. Phenols
are highly poisonous and can make water taste and smell bad.

Plume: A body of contaminated groundwater flowing from a specific source. The
movement of the groundwater is influenced by such factors as local groundwater flow
patterns, the character of the aquifer in which groundwater is contained, and the den-
sity of contaminants.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): PAHs,
such as pyrene, are a group of highly reactive organic compounds found in motor oil.
They are a common component of creosotes and, can cause cancer.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): A group of toxic chemicals used for a variety of
purposes including electrical applications, carbonless copy paper, adhesives, hydraulic
fluids, microscope emersion  oils, and caulking compounds. PCBs are also produced in
certain combustion processes. PCBs are extremely persistent in the environment be-
cause they are very stable, non-reactive, and highly heat resistant. Burning them pro-
duces even more toxins. Chronic exposure to PCBs is believed to cause liver damage.  It
is also known to bioaccumulate in fatty tissues. PCB use and sale was banned in 1979
with the passage of the Toxic Substances Control Act.

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PNAs): PNAs, such as naphthalene, and biphen-
yls, are a group of highly reactive organic compounds that are a common component of
creosotes, which can be carcinogenic.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): A plastic made from the gaseous substance vinyl chloride.
PVC is used to make pipes, records, raincoats, and floor tiles. Health risks from high
concentrations of vinyl chloride include liver cancer and lung cancer, as well as cancer
of the lymphatic and nervous systems.

Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs):  Parties, including owners, who may have
contributed to the contamination at a Superfund site and may be liable for costs of
response actions. Parties are considered PRPs until they admit liability or a court makes
a determination of liability. This means that PRPs may sign a consent decree or admin-
istrative order on consent [see Administrative Order on Consent] to participate in site
cleanup activity without admitting liability.

Radionudides: Elements, including radium, and uranium-235 and -238, which break
down and produce radioactive substances due to their unstable atomic structure. Some
                                     G-7

-------

 are man-made and others are naturally occurring in the environment.  Radon, which is
 the gaseous form of radium, decays to form alpha particle radiation, which can be easily
 blocked by skin. However, it can be inhaled, which allows alpha particles to affect
 unprotected tissues directly and thus cause cancer.  Uranium, when split during fission
 in a nuclear reactor, forms more radionuclides which, when ingested,  can also cause
 cancer. Radiation also occurs naturally through the breakdown of granite stones.

 Remedial: A course of study combined with actions to correct site contamination
 problems through identifying the nature and extent of cleanup strategies under the
 Superfund program.

 Retention Pond: A small body of liquid used for disposing wastes and to contain
 overflow from production facilities. Sometimes retention ponds are used to expand the
 capacity of such structures as lagoons to store waste.

 Runoff: The discharge of water over land into surface water. It can carry pollutants
 from the air and land into receiving waters.

 Sediment:  The layer of soil, sand and minerals at the bottom of surface waters, such as
 streams, lakes, and rivers that absorb contaminants.

 Seeps: Specific points where releases of liquid (usually leachate) form from waste
 disposal areas, particularly along the lower edges of landfills.

 Seepage Pits: A hole, shaft, or cavity in the ground used for storage of liquids, usually
 in the form of leachate, from waste disposal areas. The liquid gradually leaves the pit
 by moving through the surrounding soil.

 Septage: Residue remaining in a septic tank after the treatment process.

 Sinkhole:  A hollow depression in the land surface in which drainage collects; associ-
 ated with underground caves and passages that facilitate the movement of liquids.

 Sludge:  Semi-solid residues from industrial or water treatment processes that may be
 contaminated with hazardous materials.

 Slurry Wall:  Barriers used to contain the flow of contaminated groundwater or subsur-
 face liquids. Slurry walls are constructed by digging a trench around a contaminated
 area and filling the trench with an impermeable material that prevents water from
passing through it.  The groundwater or contaminated liquids trapped within the area
surrounded by the slurry wall can be extracted and treated.

Stabilization: The process of changing an active substance into inert, harmless mate-
rial, or physical activities at  a site that act to limit the further spread of contamination
without actual reduction of toxicity.
                                      G-8

-------
Stillbottom: Residues left over from the process of recovering spent solvents.

Stripping:  A process used to remove volatile contaminants from a substance [see Air
Stripping].

Sumps: A pit or tank that catches liquid runoff for drainage or disposal.

Surge Tanks: A holding structure used to absorb irregularities in flow of liquids, in-
cluding liquid waste materials.

Trichloroethylene (TCE):  A stable, colorless liquid with a low boiling point. TCE has
many industrial applications, including use as a solvent and as a metal degreasing
agent.  TCE may be toxic to people when inhaled, ingested, or through skin contact and
can damage vital organs, especially the liver [see also Volatile Organic Compounds].

Unilateral [Administrative] Order: [see Administrative Order on Consent].

Upgradient: An upward slope; demarks areas that are higher than contaminated areas
and, therefore, are not prone to contamination by the movement of polluted groundwa-
ter.                                               .

Upslope: Upstream; often used relative to groundwater [see Upgradient].

Vegetated Soil Cap: A cap constructed with graded soils and seed for vegetative
growth to prevent erosion [see Cap].

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): VOCs are made as secondary petrochemicals.
They include light alcohols, acetone, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, dichloroeth-
ylene, benzene, vinyl chloride, toluene, and methylene chloride. These potentially toxic
chemicals are used as solvents, degreasers, paints, thinners, and fuels. Because of their
volatile nature, they readily evaporate into the air, increasing the potential exposure to
humans.  Due to their low water solubility, environmental persistence, and widespread
industrial use, they are commonly found in soil and groundwater.

Watershed: The land area that drains into a stream or other water body.

Wetland: An area that is regularly saturated by surface or groundwater and, under
normal circumstances, capable of supporting vegetation typically adapted for life in
saturated soil conditions.  Wetlands are critical to sustaining many species of fish and
wildlife. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, and bogs. Wetlands may be
either coastal or inland. Coastal wetlands have salt or brackish (a mixture of salt and
fresh) water, and most have tides, while inland wetlands are non-tidal and freshwater.
Coastal wetlands are an integral component of estuaries.
                                      G-9

-------

-------