EPA/540/4-90/049
                                            September 1990
NATIONAL PRIORITIES LIST SITES:
                Wisconsin
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
       Office of Emergency & Remedial Response
            Office of Program Management
              Washington, D.C. 20460

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              If you wish to purchase copies of any additional State volumes or the National
              Overview volume, Superfund: Focusing on the Nation at Large, contact:
                         National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
                         U.S. Department of Commerce
                         5285 Port Royal Road
                         Springfield, VA 22161
                         (703) 487-4600
_

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                                           PAGE
INTRODUCTION:
A Brief Overview	.	iii

SUPERFUND:
How Does the Program Work to Clean Up Sites	vii

How To:
Using the State Volume	,	xvii

NPL SITES:
A State Overview	xxi

THE NPL PROGRESS REPORT	xxiii

NPL: Site Fact Sheets	 1


GLOSSARY:
Terms Used in the Fact Sheets	G-l

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11

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WHY THE SUPERFUND
PROGRAM?

       s the 1970s came to a
       close, a series of head-
     iL; line stories gave
Americans a look at the
dangers of dumping indus-
trial and urban wastes on the
land. First there was New
York's Love Canal. Hazard-
ous waste buried there over a
25-year period contaminated
streams and soil, and endan-
gered the health of nearby
residents. The result: evacu-
ation of several hundred
people.  Then the leaking
barrels at the Valley of the
Drums in Kentucky attracted
public attention, as did the
dioxin tainted land and water
in Times Beach, Missouri.

In all these cases, human
health and the environment
were threatened, lives were
disrupted, property values
depreciated. It became in-
creasingly clear that there
were large numbers of serious
hazardous waste problems
that were falling through the
cracks of existing environ-
mental kws.  The magnitude
of these emerging problems
moved Congress to enact
Comprehensive Environ-
mental Response, Compensa-
tion, and Liability Act in 1980.
CERCLA — commonly
known as the Superfund —
was the first Federal law
established to deal with the
dangers posed by the
Nation's hazardous waste
sites.
After Discovery, the Problem
Intensified

Few realized the size of the
problem until EPA began the
process of site discovery and
site evaluation.  Not hun-
dreds, but thousands of
potential hazardous waste
sites existed, and they pre-
sented the Nation with some
of the most complex pollution
problems it had ever faced.

In the 10 years since the
Superfund program began,
hazardous waste has surfaced
as a major environmental
concern in every part of the
United States. It wasn't just
the land that was contami-
nated by past disposal prac-
tices. Chemicals in the soil
were spreading into the
groundwater (a source of
drinking water for many) and
into streams, lakes, bays, and
wetlands. Toxic vapors
contaminated the air at some
sites, while at others improp-
erly disposed or stored
wastes threatened the health
of the surrounding commu-
nity and the environment.
EPA Identified More than
1,200 Serious Sites

EPA has identified 1,236
hazardous waste sites as the
most serious in the Nation.
These sites comprise the
"National Priorities List":
sites targeted for cleanup
under the Superfund. But site
discoveries continue, and
EPA estimates that, while
some will be deleted after
lengthy cleanups, this list,
commonly called the NPL,
will continue to grow by ap-
proximately 100 sites per
year, reaching 2,100 sites by
the year 2000.
THE NATIONAL
CLEANUP EFFORT IS
MUCH MORE THAN
THE NPL

From the beginning of the
program, Congress recog-
nized that the Federal govern-
ment could not and should
not address all environmental
problems stemming from past
disposal practices.  Therefore,
the EPA was directed to set
priorities and establish a list
of sites to target. Sites on the
NPL (1,236) are thus a rela-
                                          111

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 INTRODUCTION
lively small subset of a larger
inventory of potential hazard-
ous waste sites, but they do
comprise the most complex
and environmentally compel-
ling cases. EPA has logged
more than 32,000 sites on its
National hazardous waste
inventory, and assesses each
site within one year of being
logged. In fact, over 90 per-
cent of the sites on the inven-
tory have been assessed. Of
the assessed sites, 55 percent
have been found to require no
further Federal action because
they did not pose significant
human health or environ-
mental risks. The remaining
sites are undergoing further
assessment to determine if
long-term Federal cleanup
activities are appropriate.
EPA IS MAKING
PROGRESS ON SITE
CLEANUP

The goal of the Superfund
program is to tackle immedi-
ate dangers first, and then
move through the progressive
steps necessary to eliminate
any long-term risks to public
health and the environment.

The Superfund responds
immediately to sites posing
imminent threats to human
health and the environment
at both NPL sites and sites
not on the NPL. The purpose
is to stabilize, prevent, or
temper the effects of a haz-
ardous release, or the threat
of one. These might include
tire fires or transportation
accidents involving the spill
of hazardous chemicals.
Because they reduce the
threat a site poses to human
health and the environment,
immediate cleanup actions
are an integral part of the
Superfund program.

immediate response to immi-
nent threats is one of the
Superfund's most noted
achievements. Where immi-
nent threats to the public or
environment were evident,
EPA has completed or moni-
tored emergency actions that
attacked the most serious
threats to toxic exposure in
more than 1,800 cases.

The ultimate goal for a haz-
ardous waste site on the NPL
is a permanent solution to an
environmental problem that
presents a serious (but not an
imminent) threat to the public
or environment.  This often
requires a long-term effort. In
the last four years, EPA has
aggressively accelerated its
efforts to perform these long-
term cleanups of NPL sites.
More cleanups were started
in 1987, when the Superfund
law was amended, than in
any previous year.  And in
1989 more sites than ever
reached the construction
stage of the Superfund
cleanup process. Indeed
construction starts increased
by over 200 percent between
late 1986 and 1989!  Of the
sites currently on the NPL,
more than 500 — nearly half
— have had construction
cleanup activity. In addition,
over 500 more sites are pres-
ently in the investigation
stage to determine the extent
of site contamination, and to
identify appropriate cleanup
remedies.  Many other sites
with cleanup remedies se-
lected are poised for the start
of cleanup construction activ-
ity. Measuring success by
"progress through the
cleanup pipeline," EPA is
clearly gaining momentum.
EPA MAKES SURE
CLEANUP WORKS

EPA has gained enough
experience in cleanup con-
struction to understand that
environmental protection
does not end when the rem-
edy is in place. Many com-
plex technologies — like
those designed to clean up
groundwater — must operate
for many years in order to
accomplish their objectives.

EPA's hazardous waste site
managers are committed  to
proper operation and mainte-
nance of every remedy con-
structed. No matter who has
been delegated responsibility
for monitoring the cleanup
work, the EPA will assure
that the remedy is carefully
followed and that it continues
to do its job.

Likewise, EPA does not
abandon a site even after the
cleanup  work is done.  Every
                                          IV

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five years the Agency reviews
each site where residues from
hazardous waste cleanup still
remain to ensure that public
and environmental health are
still being safeguarded. EPA
will correct any deficiencies
discovered and report to the
public annually on all five-
year reviews conducted that
year.
CITIZENS HELP SHAPE
DECISIONS

Superfund activities also
depend upon local citizen
participation. EPA's job is to
analyze the hazards and
deploy the experts, but the
Agency needs citizen input as
it makes choices for affected
communities.

Because the people in a
community with a Superfund
site will be those most di-
rectly affected by hazardous
waste problems and cleanup
processes, EPA encourages
citizens to get involved in
cleanup decisions. Public in-
volvement and comment does
influence EPA cleanup plans
by providing valuable infor-
mation about site conditions,
community concerns and
preferences.

This State volume and the
companion National Over-
view volume provide general
Superfund background
information and descriptions
of activities at each State NPL
site. These volumes are
intended to dearly describe
what the problems are/what
EPA and others participating
in site cleanups are doing,
and how we as a Nation can
move ahead in solving these
serious problems.
USING THE STATE AND
NATIONAL VOLUMES
IN TANDEM

To understand the big picture
on hazardous waste cleanup,
citizens need to hear about
both environmental progress
across the country and the
cleanup accomplishments
closer to home. The public
should understand the chal-
lenges involved in hazardous
waste cleanup and the deci-
sions we must make — as a
Nation — in finding the best
solutions.

The National Overview .
volume — Superfund: Focus-
ing on the Nation at Large —
accompanies this State vol-
ume. The National Overview
contains important informa-
tion to help you understand
the magnitude and challenges
facing the Superfund pro-
gram as well as an overview
of the National cleanup effort.
The sections describe the
nature of the hazardous
waste problem nationwide,
threats  and contaminants at
NPL sites and their potential
effects on human health and
the environment, the Super-
fund program's successes in
cleaning up the Nation's
serious hazardous waste sites,
and the vital roles of the
various participants in the
cleanup process.

This State volume compiles
site summary fact sheets on
each State site being cleaned
up under the Superfund
program. These sites repre-
sent the most serious hazard-
ous waste problems in the
Nation, and require the most
complicated and costly site
solutions yet encountered.
Each State book gives a
"snapshot" of the conditions
and cleanup progress that has
been made at each NPL site in
the State through the first half
of 1990.  Conditions change as
our cleanup efforts continue,
so these site summaries will
be updated periodically to
include new information on
progress being made.

To help you understand the
cleanup  accomplishments
made at  these sites, this State
volume includes a description
of the process for site discov-
ery, threat evaluation and
long-term cleanup of Super-
fund sites.  This description
— How Does the Program
Work to Clean  Up Sites? —
will serve as a good reference
point from which to review
the cleanup status at specific
sites. A  glossary also is
included at the back of the
book that defines key terms
used in the site fact sheets as
they apply to hazardous
waste management.
                                           v

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VI

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      he diverse problems posed by the Nation's hazardous
  ***  waste sites have provided EPA with the challenge to
  it/"; establish a consistent approach for evaluating and
cleaning up the Nation's most serious sites. To do this, EPA
had to step beyond its traditional role as a regulatory agency
to develop processes and guidelines for each step in these
technically complex site cleanups. EPA has established proce-
dures to coordinate the efforts of its Washington, D.C. Head-
quarters program offices and its front-line staff in 10 Regional
Offices with the State governments, contractors, and private
parties who are participating in site cleanup. An important
part of the process is that any time during cleanup, work can
be led by EPA or the State or, under their monitoring, by
private parties who are potentially responsible for site con-
tamination.

The process for discovery of the site, evaluation of threat, and
long-term cleanup of Superfund sites is summarized in the
following pages. The phases of each of these steps are high-
lighted within the description. The flow diagram below pro-
vides a summary of this three step process.
        STEP1

      Discover site
      and determine
       whether an
       emergency
        exists *
   STEP 2

Evaluate whether
a site is a serious
 threat to public
   health or
  environment
    STEP 3

Perform long-term
cleanup actions on
 the most serious
 hazardous waste
sites in the Nation
      • Emergency actions are performed whenever needed in this three-step process

                                         FIGURE 1
 Although this State book provides a current "snapshot" of site progress made only by emer-
 gency actions and long-term cleanup actions at Superfund sites, it is important to understand
 the discovery and evaluation process that leads up to identifying and cleaning up these most
 serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites in the Nation. This discovery and
 evaluation process is the starting point for this summary description.
                                            VII

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 SUPERFUND
V*    «    v~»»* , ^ «'•• s ***s
 How does BPA leatn
"about potential     *
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hazardous waste
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What happens If
 there is am
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EPA may determine that there is no imminent danger from a
site, so now any long-term threats need to be evaluated. In
either case, a more comprehensive investigation is needed to
determine if a site poses a serious but not imminent danger,
and requires a long-term cleanup action.

Once a site is discovered and any needed emergency actions
are taken, EPA or the State collects all available background
information not only from then- own files, but also from local
records and U.S. Geological Survey maps. This information is
used to identify the site and to perform a preliminary assess-
ment of its potential hazards. This is a quick review of readily
available information to answer the questions:
•   Are hazardous substances likely to be present?

•   How are they contained?
•   How might contaminants spread?
•   How close is the nearest well, home, or natural resource
    area like a wetland or animal sanctuary?
•   What may be harmed — the land, water, air, people,
    plants, or animals?

Some sites do not require further action because the prelimi-
nary assessment shows that they don't threaten public health
or the environment. But even in these cases, the sites remain
listed in the Superfund inventory for record keeping purposes
and future reference. Currently, there are more than 32,000
sites maintained in this inventory.
 Inspectors go to the site to collect additional information to
 evaluate its hazard potential. During this site inspection, they
 look for evidence of hazardous waste, such as leaking drums
 and dead or discolored vegetation. They may take some
 samples of soil, well water, river water, and air. Inspectors
 analyze the ways hazardous materials could be polluting the
 environment — such as runoff into nearby streams. They also
 check to see if people (especially children) have access to the
 site.
 Information collected during the site inspection is used to
 identify the sites posing the most serious threats to human
 health and the environment. This way EPA can meet the
t|lth£|jfel.itttitt^ 's*\
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                                           IX

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 How do people fmd
 ,out whether EFA"rTT iCs
            a site a "k  .J
           prioti^
 ^cleanup usinig
 Supetftutd money?
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                        ,
                              requirement that Congress gave them to use Superfund mo-
                              nies only on the worst hazardous waste sites in the Nation.

                              To identify the most serious sites, EPA developed the Hazard
                              Ranking System (HRS). The HRS is the scoring system EPA
                              uses to assess the relative threat from a release or a potential
                              release of hazardous substances from a site to surrounding
                              groundwater, surface water, air, and soil. A site score is based
                              on the likelihood a hazardous substance will be released from
                              the site, the toxicity and amount of hazardous substances at
                              the site, and the people and sensitive environments potentially
                              affected by contamination at the site.

                              Only sites with high enough health and environmental risk
                              scores are proposed to be added to EPA's National Priorities
                              List (NPL).  Thaf s why there are 1,236 sites  are on the NPL,
                              but there are more than 32,000 sites in the Superfund inven-
                              tory. Only NPL sites can have a long-term cleanup paid for
                              from the national hazardous waste trust fund — the Super-
                              fund. But the Superfund can and does pay for emergency
                              actions performed at any site, whether or not it's on the NPL.
The public can find out whether a site that concerns them is
on the NPL by calling their Regional EPA office at the number
listed in this book.

The proposed NPL identifies sites that have been evaluated
through the scoring process as the most serious problems
among uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites in
the U.S. In addition, a  site will be added to the NPL if the
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry issues a
health advisory recommending that people be moved away
from the site. Updated at least once a year, it's only after
public comments are considered that these proposed worst
sites are officially added to the NPL.

Listing on the NPL does not set the order in which sites will be
cleaned up. The order is influenced by the relative priority of
the site's health and environmental threats compared to other
sites, and such factors as State priorities, engineering capabili-
ties, and available technologies. Many States also have their
own list of sites that require cleanup; these often contain sites
not on the NPL that are scheduled to be cleaned up with State
money. And it should be said again that any emergency action
needed at a site can be  performed by the Superfund whether
or not a site is on the NPL.

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STEP 3: LONG-TERM CLEANUP ACTIONS

The ultimate goal for a hazardous waste site on the NPL is a
permanent, long-term cleanup. Since every site presents a
unique set of challenges, there is no single all-purpose solu-
tion. So a five-phase "remedial response" process is used to
develop consistent and workable solutions to hazardous waste
problems across the Nation:
1.  Investigate in detail the extent of the site contamination:
   remedial investigation,
2.  Study the range of possible cleanup remedies: feasibility
   study,
3.  Decide which remedy to use: Record of Decision or ROD,
4.  Plan the remedy: remedial design, and                    \  ,

5.  Carry out the remedy: remedial action.
                                                           ^\v.  v^ir
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This remedial response process is a long-term effort to provide  $ **$ ^ ^
a permanent solution to an environmental problem that
presents a serious, but not an imminent threat to the public or
environment.                                               " "" *  - --

The first two phases of a long-term cleanup are a combined
remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) that
determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site,           ;
and identify and evaluate cleanup alternatives. These studies
may be conducted by EPA or the State or, under their monitor-
ing, by private parties.

Like the initial site inspection described earlier, a remedial
investigation involves an examination of site data in order to
better define the problem. But the remedial investigation is
 much more detailed and comprehensive than the initial site
 inspection.

 A remedial investigation can best be described as a carefully
 designed field study. It includes extensive sampling and
 laboratory analyses to generate more precise data on the types
 and quantities of wastes present at the site, the type of soil and
 water drainage patterns, and specific human health and
 environmental risks. The result is information that allows
 EPA to select the cleanup strategy that is best suited to a
 particular site  or to determine that no cleanup is needed.
                 to flie NFI* what a*e
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  alternatives      "
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  evaluated?
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                 -'  - v -"-'""'.- "?
 Does the public
 a say in ttte final *-
 cleanup decision? ;
••^s,v
 Placing a site on the NPL does not necessarily mean that
 cleanup is needed.  It is possible for a site to receive an HRS
 score high enough to be added to the NPL, but not ultimately
 require cleanup actions. Keep in mind that the purpose of the
 scoring process is to provide a preliminary and conservative
 assessment of potential risk. During subsequent site investiga-
 tions, the EPA may find either that there is no real threat or
 that the site does not pose significant human health or envi-
 ronmental risks.
 EPA or the State or, under their monitoring, private parties
 identify and analyze specific site cleanup needs based on the
 extensive information collected during the remedial investiga-
 tion. This analysis of cleanup alternatives is called a feasibility
 study.

 Since cleanup actions must be tailored exactly to the needs of
 each individual site, more than one possible cleanup alterna-
 tive is always considered. After making sure that all potential
 cleanup remedies fully protect human health and the environ-
 ment and comply with Federal and State laws, the advantages
 and disadvantages of each cleanup alternative are carefully
 compared. These comparisons are made to determine their
 effectiveness in the short- and long-term, their use of perma-
 nent treatment solutions, and their technical feasibility and
 cost.

 To the maximum extent practicable, the remedy must be a
 permanent solution and use treatment technologies to destroy
 principal site contaminants. But remedies such as containing
 the waste on site or removing the source of the problem (like
 leaking barrels) are often considered effective.  Often special
 pilot studies are conducted to determine the effectiveness and
 feasibility of using a particular technology to clean up a site.
 Therefore, the combined remedial investigation and feasibility
 study can take between 10 and 30 months to complete, de-
 pending on the size and complexity of the problem.
Yes. The Superfund law requires that the public be given the
opportunity to comment on the proposed cleanup plan. Their
concerns are carefully considered before a final decision is
made.
                                       xn

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The results of the remedial investigation and feasibility study,
which also point out the recommended cleanup choice, are
published in a report for public review and comment. EPA or
the State encourages the public to review the information and
take an active role in the final cleanup decision. Fact sheets
and announcements in local papers let the community know
where they can get copies of the study and other reference   •
documents concerning the site.                       "

The public has a minimum of 30 days to comment on the
proposed cleanup plan after it is published.  These comments
can either be written or given verbally at public meetings that
EPA or the State are required to hold. Neither EPA nor the
State can select the final cleanup remedy without evaluating
and providing written answers to specific community com-
ments and concerns. This "responsiveness summary" is part
of EPA's write-up of the final remedy decision, called the
Record of Decision or ROD.

The ROD is a public document that explains the cleanup
remedy chosen and the reason it was selected. Since sites
frequently are large and must be cleaned up in stages, a ROD
may be necessary for each contaminated resource or area of
the site. This may be necessary when contaminants have
spread into the soil, water and air, and affect such sensitive
areas as wetlands, or when the site is large and cleaned up in
stages. This often means that a number of remedies using
different cleanup technologies are needed to clean up a single
site.
 Yes.  Before a specific cleanup action is carried out, it must be
 designed in detail to meet specific site needs. This stage of the
 cleanup is called the remedial design. The design phase
 provides the details on how the selected remedy will be
 engineered and constructed.

 Projects to clean up a hazardous waste site may appear to be
 like any other major construction project but, in fact, the likely
 presence of combinations of dangerous chemicals demands
 special construction planning and procedures. Therefore, the
 design of the remedy can take anywhere from 6 months to 2
 years to complete. This blueprint for site cleanup includes not
 only the details on every aspect of the construction work, but a
 description of the types of hazardous wastes expected at the
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                                           XU1

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SUPERFUND
 jp
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              &,
              i, H
           ' "   life x>i i
 )»_      .    ,  a; • •  .  *?  ^
 j Once the design, is  x   ^
  complete, how loxig ,   I
Irdoes it take to ^ /   "1
  actually clea« tq>x the  "]
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                            site, special plans for environmental protection, worker safety,
                            regulatory compliance, and equipment decontamination.
                            The time and cost for performing the site cleanup -^ called the
                            remedial action — are as varied as the remedies themselves.
                            In a few cases, the only action needed may be to remove
                            drums of hazardous waste and decontaminate them — an
                            action that takes limited time and money. In most cases,
                            however, a remedial action may involve different and expen-
                            sive measures that can take a long time.

                            For example, cleaning polluted groundwater or dredging
                            contaminated river bottoms can take several years of complex
                            engineering work before contamination is reduced to safe
                            levels. Sometimes the selected cleanup remedy described in
                            the ROD may need to be modified because of new contami-
                            nant information discovered or difficulties that were faced
                            during the early cleanup activities.  Taking into account these
                            differences, a remedial cleanup action takes an average of 18
                            months to complete and costs an average of $26 million per
                            site.
       ttte cleatmp   x   '
ruction is complete, 1$ ^
                            No. The deletion of a site from the NPL is anything but auto-
                            matic. For example, cleanup of contaminated groundwater
                            may take up to 20 years or longer. Also, in some cases the
                            long-term monitoring of the remedy is required to ensure that
                            it is effective. After construction of certain remedies, opera-
                            tion and maintenance (e.g., maintenance of ground cover,
                            groundwater monitoring, etc.) or continued pumping and
                            treating of groundwater, may be required to ensure that the
                            remedy continues to prevent future health hazards or environ-
                            mental damage, and ultimately meets the cleanup goals
                            specified in the ROD. Sites in this final monitoring or opera-
                            tional stage of the cleanup process are designated as "con-
                            struction completed".

                            It's not until a site cleanup meets all the goals and monitoring
                            requirements of the selected remedy that EPA can officially
                            propose the site for "deletion" from the NPL. And it's not
                            until public comments are taken into consideration that a site
                            can actually be deleted from the NPL.  Deletions that have
                            occurred are included in the "Construction Complete" cate-
                            gory in  the progress report found later in this book.
                                     xiv

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Yes. Based on the belief that "the polluters should pay," after a
site is placed on the NPL, the EPA makes a thorough effort to
identify and find those responsible for causing contamination
problems at a site. Although EPA is willing to negotiate with
these private parties and encourages voluntary cleanup, it has
the authority under the Superfund law to legally force those
potentially responsible for site hazards to take specific cleanup
actions. All work performed by these parties is closely guided
and monitored by EPA, and must meet the same standards
required for actions financed through the Superfund.

Because these enforcement actions can be lengthy, EPA may
decide to use Superfund monies to make sure a site is cleaned
up without unnecessary delay. For example, if a site presents
an imminent threat to public health and the environment, or if
conditions at a site may worsen, it could be necessary to start
the cleanup right away. Those responsible for causing site
contamination are liable under the law for repaying the money
EPA spends in cleaning up the site.

Whenever possible, EPA and the Department of Justice use
their legal enforcement authorities to require responsible
parties to  pay for site cleanups, thereby preserving the Super-
fund for emergency actions and sites where no responsible
parties can be identified.

                                                                       &
                                                                                   S«S«i
                                          XV

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TAX

-------
         he Site Fact Sheets
•>->-"•%.-- £C presented in this book
    •v^"  are comprehensive
 "summaries that cover a broad
 range of information. The
 fact sheets describe hazard-
 ous waste sites on the Na-
 tional Priorities List (NPL)
 and their locations, as well as
 the conditions leading to their
 listing ("Site Description").
 They list the types of con-
 taminants that have been dis-
 covered and related threats to
 public and ecological health
 ("Threats and Contami-
 nants"). "Cleanup Ap-
 proach" presents an overview
 of the cleanup activities
 completed, underway, or
 planned. The fact sheets
 conclude with a brief synop-
 sis of how much progress has
 been made on protecting
 public health and the envi-
 ronment.  The summaries also
 pinpoint other actions, such
 as legal efforts to involve pol-
 luters responsible for site
 contamination and commu-
 nity concerns.

 The following two pages
 show a generic fact sheet and
 briefly describes the informa-
 tion under each section. The
 square "icons" or symbols ac-
 companying the text allow
 the reader to see at a glance
 which environmental re-
 sources are affected and the
 status of cleanup activities.
Icons in the Threats
and Contaminants
Section

       Contaminated
       Groundwater re-
       sources in the vicinity
or underlying the site.
(Groundwater is often used
as a drinking water source.)
       Contaminated Sur-
       face Water and
       Sediments on or near
the site. (These include lakes,
ponds, streams, and rivers.)
       Contaminated Air in
       the vicinity of the
       site. (Pollution is
usually periodic and involves
contaminated dust particles
or hazardous gas emissions.)
       Contaminated Soil
       and Sludges on or
       near the site.
       Threatened or
       contaminated Envi-
       ronmentally Sensi-
tive Areas in the vicinity of
the site. (Examples include
wetlands and coastal areas,
critical habitats.)
Icons in the Response
Action Status Section
               Actions
         have been taken or
         are underway to
eliminate immediate threats
at the site.
          Site Studies at the
          site are planned or
          underway.
          Remedy Selected
          indicates that site
          investigations have
          been concluded
          and EPA has se-
lected a final cleanup remedy
for the site or part of the site.
           Remedy Design
           means that engi-
           neers are prepar-
           ing specifications
and drawings for the selected
cleanup technologies.
         Cleanup Ongoing
         indicates that the
         selected cleanup
         remedies for the
contaminated site — or part
of the site — are currently
underway.
          Cleanup Complete
          shows that all
          cleanup goals have
          been achieved for
the contaminated site or part
of the site.
            XVll

-------
      Site Responsibility

 Identifies the Federal, State,
 and/or potentially responsible
 parties that are taking
 responsibility for cleanup
 actions at the site.
                                                          EPA REGION
                                                        CONGRESSIONAL DIST
                                                            County Name
SITE NAME

STATE
EPA ID# ABCOOOOOOOO
                      Site Description
   NPL Listing
   History
Dates when the site
was Proposed,
made Final, and
Deleted from the
NPL
       Threats and Contaminants
                      Cleanup Approach
                       Response Action Status
                         Environmental Progress
  A summary of the actions to reduce the threats to nearby residents and
  the surrounding environment;  progress towards cleaning up the site
  and goals of the cleanup plan are given here.
                                   xviii

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             WHAT THE FACT SHEETS CONTAIN
                           Site Description

This section describes the location and history of the site.  It includes
descriptions of the most recent activities and past actions at the site that have
contributed to the contamination. Population estimates, land usages, and nearby
resources give readers background on the local setting surrounding the site.
Throughout the site description and other sections of the site summary, technical
or unfamiliar terms that are italicized are presented in the glossary at the end of
the book. Please refer to the glossary for more detailed explanation or definition
of the terms.
                        Threats and Contaminants

     The major chemical categories of site contamination are noted as well as
     which environmental res9urces are affected.  Icons representing each of the
     affected resources (may include air, groundwater, surface water, soil and
     contamination to environmentally sensitive areas) are included in the margins
     of this section.  Potential threats to residents and the surrounding
     environments arising from the site contamination are also described. Specific
     contaminants and contaminant groupings are italicized and explained in more
     detail in the glossary.
                               Cleanup Approach

      This section contains a brief overview of how the site is being cleaned up.
                        Response Action Status

   Specific actions that have been accomplished or will be undertaken to clean up
   the site are described here.  Cleanup activities at NPL sites are divided into
   separate phases depending on the complexity and required actions at the site.
   Two major types of cleanup activities are often described: initial, immediate or
   emergency actions to quickly remove or reduce imminent threats to the
   community and surrounding areas; and long-term  remedial phases directed at
   final cleanup at the site.  Each stage of the cleanup strategy is presented in this
   section of the summary.  Icons representing the stage of the cleanup process
   (initial actions, site investigations, EPA selection of the cleanup remedy,
   engineering design phase, cleanup activities underway and completed cleanup)
   are located in the margin next to  each activity description.
                          Site Facts

Additional information on activities and events at the site are included in this
section. Often details on legal or administrative actions taken by EPA to achieve
site cleanup or other facts pertaining to community involvement with the site
cleanup process are reported here.
                                        XIX

-------
The fact sheets are arranged
In alphabetical order by site
name. Because site cleanup is
a dynamic and gradual
process, all site information is
accurate as of the date shown
on the bottom of each page.
Progress is always being
made at NPL sites, and EPA
will periodically update the
Site Fact Sheets to reflect
recent actions and publish
updated State volumes.
HOW CAN YOU USE
THIS STATE BOOK?

You can use this book to keep
informed about the sites that
concern you, particularly
ones close to home. EPA is
committed to involving the
public in the decisionmaking
process associated with
hazardous waste cleanup.
The Agency solicits input
from area residents in com-
munities affected by Super-
fund sites. Citizens are likely
to be affected not only by
hazardous site conditions, but
also by the remedies that
combat them. Site cleanups
take many forms and can
affect communities in differ-
ent ways. Local traffic may
be rerouted, residents may be
relocated, temporary water
supplies may be necessary.

Definitive information on a
site can help citizens sift
through alternatives and
make decisions. To make
good choices, you must know
what the threats are and how
EPA intends to clean up the
site. You must understand
the cleanup alternatives being
proposed for site cleanup and
how residents may be af-
fected by each one. You also
need to have some idea of
how your community intends
to use the site in the future
and to know what the com-
munity can realistically
expect once the cleanup is
complete.

EPA wants to develop
cleanup methods that meet
community needs, but the
Agency can only take local
concerns into account if it
understands what they are.
Information must travel both
ways in order for cleanups to
be effective and satisfactory.
Please take this opportunity
to learn more, become in-
volved, and assure that
hazardous waste cleanup at
"your" site considers your
community's concerns.
                                         xx

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      NPL  Sites
      State of Wisco
Wisconsin is bordered by Michigan and Lake Superior to the north, Lake Michigan to
the west, Iowa and Minnesota to the west, and Illinois to the south. The State covers
56,153 square miles and consists of Lake Superior Lowland plains, Northern Highlands,
a sandy Central Plain region. Western Upland in the southwest, and broad ridges with
lowlands in the southeast. Wisconsin experienced a 3.2 percent increase in population
during the 1980s and currently has approximately 4,855,000 residents, ranking 17th in
U.S. populations. Principal State industries include manufacturing, trade, services,
government, transportation, communications, dairy and agriculture, and tourism. Wis-
consin  manufactures machinery, foods, fabricated metals, transportation equipment,
paper and wood products.
How Many Wisconsin Sites
Are on the NPL?
                             Where Are the NPL Sites Located?
Proposed Sites
Final Sites
Deleted Sites
             3
            37
           _Q
            40
Cong. District 04
Cong. District 07
Cong. District 08
Cong. District 06
Cong. District 01, 02, 09
Cong. District 03
2 sites
3 sites
4 sites
5 sites
6 sites
8 sites
      How are Sites Contaminated and What are the Principal* Chemicals ?

                                               Groundwater: Volatile organic
                                               compounds (VOCs), heavy
                                               metals (inorganics) and radiation.
                                               Soil and Solid Waste: Volatile
                                               organic compounds (VOCs},
                                               heavy metals (inorganics),
                                               polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),
                                               other inorganics, and creosotes
                                               (organics).
                                               Surface Water and Sediments:
                                               Heavy  metals (inorganics), and
                                               volatile organic compounds
                                               (VOCs), creosotes (organics),
                                               polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
                                               and radiation.
                                               Air: Volatile organic compounds
                                               (VOCs) and gases.
                                               * Appear at 10% or more sites
GW   Soil   SW  Seds  Air  Solid
                       Waste
      Contamination Area
State Overview
                                     XXI
                                                                        continued

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      Where are the Sites in the Superfund Cleanup Process*?
      Site
    Studies
^ Remedy
"Selected
Remedy
 Design
Cleanup
Ongoing
Construction
  Complete
   Initial actions have been taken at 17 sites as interim cleanup measures.
                         Who Do I Call with Questions?
The following pages describe each NPL site in Wisconsin, providing specific
information on threats and contaminants, cleanup activities, and environmental
progress.  Should you have questions, please call one of the offices listed below:
      Wisconsin Superfund Office
      EPA Region V Superfund Office
      EPA Region V Public Relations Office
      EPA Superfund Hotline
      EPA Public Information Office
                                 (608) 267-7562
                                 (312)886-7456
                                 (312)353-2072
                                 (800) 424-9346
                                 (202) 477-7751
'Cleanup status reflects phase of site activities rather than administrative accomplishments.

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The NPL Progress Report	

The following Progress Report lists the State sites currently on or deleted from the NPL,
and briefly summarizes the status of activities for each site at the time this report was
prepared. The steps in the Superfund cleanup process are arrayed across the top of the
chart, and each site's progress through these steps is represented by an arrow K) which
indicates the current stage of cleanup at the site.

Large and complex sites are often organized into several cleanup stages.  For example,
separate cleanup efforts may be required to address the source of the contamination,
hazardous substances in the groundwater, and surface water pollution, or to clean up
different areas of a large site. In such cases, the chart portrays cleanup progress at the
site's most advanced stage, reflecting the status of site activities rather than administrative
accomplishments.

«*•  An arrow in the "Initial Response" category indicates that an emergency cleanup or
    initial action  has been completed or is currently underway. Emergency or initial  actions
    are taken as an interim measure to provide  immediete relief from exposure to
    hazardous site conditions or to stabilize a site to prevent further contamination.
*••  An arrow in the "Site Studies" category indicates that an investigation to determine the
    nature and extent of the contamination at the site is currently ongoing or planned to
    begin in 1991.

**-  An arrow in the "Remedy Selection" category means that the EPA has selected the
    final  cleanup strategy for the site. At the few sites where the EPA has determined that
    initial response actions have eliminated site contamination, or that any remaining
    contamination will be naturally dispersed without further cleanup activities, a "No
    Action" remedy is selected.  In these cases, the arrows in the Progress Report are
    discontinued at the "Remedy Selection" step and resume in the final "Construction
    Complete" category.

*•  An arrow at the "Remedial Design" stage indicates that engineers are currently
    designing the technical specifications for the selected cleanup remedies and
    technologies.

*•  An arrow marking the "Cleanup Ongoing." category means that final cleanup actions
    have been started at the site and are currently underway.
*- A arrow in the "Construction Complete" category is used only when all phases of the
    site cleanup  plan have been performed and  the EPA has determined that no additional
   construction actions are required  at the site. Some sites in this category may currently
    be undergoing long-term pumping and treating of groundwater, operation and
    maintenance or monitoring to ensure that the completed cleanup actions continue to
    protect human health and the environment.

The sites are listed in alphabetical order. Further information on the activities and progress
at each site is given in the site "Fact Sheets" published in this volume.
                                     XXlll

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Froj
Page
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
22
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
Ejress Toward uieanup at
She Name
ALGOMA MUNICIPAL LANDFILL
BETTER BRITE PLATING CHROME & ZINC
CITY DISPOSAL SANITARY LANDFILL
DELEVAN MUNICIPAL WELL #4
EAU CLAIRE MUNICIPAL WELL FIELD
FADROWSKI DRUM DISPOSAL
FORT HOWARD PAPER CO.
HAG EN FARM
HECHIMOVICH LANDFILL
HUNTS DISPOSAL LANDFILL
JANESVILLE ASH BEDS
JANESVILLE OLD LANDFILL
KOHLER COMPANY LANDFILL
LAUER I SANITARY LANDFILL
LEMBERGER LANDFILL, INC.
LEMBERGER TRANSPORT & RECYCLING
MADISON METRO SEWAGE SLUDGE
MASTER DISPOSAL SERVICE LANDFILL
MID-STATE DISPOSAL, INC. LANDFILL
JNJF it »ites
County
KEWAUNEE
BROWN
DANE
WALWORTH
EAU CLAIRE
MILWAUKEE
BROWN
DANE
DANE
RACINE
ROCK
ROCK
SHEBOYGAN
WAUKESHA
MANITOWOC
MANITOWOC
DANE
WAUKESHA
MARATHON
» in in
NPL
Final
Prop.
Final
Final
Final
Final
Prop.
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
e oraie 01 Wisconsin
Initial Site Remedy Remedy Cleanup Construction
Date Response Studies Selected Design Ongoing Complete
07/21/87 4-
10/26/89 4- 4-
09/21/84 •*•
09/21/84 4-
09/21/84 4-4-4-4-4-
10/15/87 4-
06/24/88 4- 4-
06/10/86 4- 4-
03/31/89 4-
07/21/87 4- 4-
09/21/84 4- 4-
09/21/84 *- "^
09/21/84 "*"
09/21/84 *-
06/10/86 4-4-
09/21/84 "^
02/15/90 4-
09/21/84 ' 4-
09/21/84 4-4-4-
XXIV

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Page     Site Name
County
                 Initial      Site      Remedy  Remedy  Cleanup  Construction
NPL    Date      Response  Studies   Selected  Design    Ongoing  Complete
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
MOSS-AMERICAN
MUSKEGO SANITARY LANDFILL
N.W. MAUTHE COMPANY, INC.
NATIONAL PRESTO INDUSTRIES, INC.
NORTHERN ENGRAVING COMPANY
OCONOMOWOC ELECTROPLATING CO.
OMEGA HILLS NORTH LANDFILL
ONALASKA MUNICIPAL LANDFILL
SAUK COUNTY LANDFILL
SCHMALZDUMP
SCRAP PROCESSING CO.; INC.
SHEBOYGAN HARBOR & RIVER
SPICKLER LANDFILL
STOUGHTON CITY LANDFILL ;
TOMAH ARMORY
TOMAH FAIRGROUND
TOMAH MUNICIPAL SANITARY LDFL
WASTE MGMT OF Wl, INC.
WASTE RESEARCH & RECLAIMATION CO
MILWAUKEE
WAUKESHA
OUTAGAMIE
EAU CLAIRE
MONROE
DODGE
WASHINGTON
LACROSSE
SAUK
CALUMET
TAYLOR
SHEBOYGAN
MARATHON
DANE
MONROE
MONROE
MONROE
WAUKESHA
.EAU CLAIRE
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
Prop.
Final
09/21/84 + •*•
09/21/84 •*• +
03/31/89 •*• +
06/10/86 •*- «*-
09/21/84 + *• «K *- +•
09/21/84 •*• *-
09/21/84 "K- +
09/21/84 <*- ***
10/04/89 <*" "*•
09/21/84 "^ "^ "^ ^ +•
09/21/84 *- ^
06/10/86 «^-
07/21/87 «^
06/10/86 «^
07/21/87 *-
07/21/87 "K
03/31/89 ^~
06/24/88 *-
09/21/84 +

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Page     Site Name
County
NPL    Date
Initial     Site     Remedy  Remedy  Cleanup  Construction
Response  Studies  Selected  Design   Ongoing  Complete
80    WAUSAU GW CONTAMINATION        MARATHON

82    WHEELER PIT                      ROCK
               Final   06/10/86

               Final   09/21/84
                                                            XXVI

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   ALGOMA
   LANDFILL
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID9806 10380
Site Description
                                          REGION 5
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 08
                                          Kewaunee County
                                             Algoma
   The 7 1/2-acre Algoma Municipal Landfill was leased from Dumman Realty and
   operated from 1969 to 1983. In 1970, the landfill received a license from the State to
   accept municipal refuse. While most of the accepted waste was municipal refuse, an
   unknown amount of finishing materials were disposed of at the landfill. When the
   landfill closed in 1983, the City covered it with clay and top soil. The landfill, which had
   no liner, is underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer and another deeper aquifer. The two
   aquifers are hydraulically connected so that water can  move between them. The City
   of Algoma wells draw on the deeper aquifer, and rural  wells draw from both aquifers.
   The site is within 3 miles of Lake Michigan.  Krohn's Lake, which is used for recreation,
   is less than 1  mile away. Approximately 5,000 people  depend on groundwater within 3
   miles of the site for drinking water. Approximately 180 people live within 1 mile^of the
   site, all using  private water supplies. The nearest residence is 1,100 feet away from
   the site boundary.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties' actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/10/86

  Final Date: 07/21/87
                  Threats and Contaminants
               In 1984, the EPA detected volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and heavy
               metals in on-site monitoring wells. Exposure to contaminated
               groundwater through touching or accidental ingestion may be a potential
               health threat. The potential exists for wetlands, located south of the site,
               to be affected by the contaminated groundwater that surfaces in the area.
               However, no release of hazardous materials into the wetlands has
               occurred.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    1
                                                                         continued

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                                                       ALGOMA MUNICIPAL LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.


  Response Action Status

              Entire Site: In 1990, the potentially responsible parties, under EPA
              monitoring, completed an investigation of the site. A draft report indicated
              that the landfill cap does not meet State standards and that the
   groundwater is contaminated. Once the EPA has completed its review of the
   investigation, alternatives will be recommended for site cleanup.

   Site Facts: Several companies and the City of Algoma, identified as parties potentially
   responsible for site contamination, have signed an Administrative Order on Consent in
   1988 with the EPA and the Wisconsin Department of  Natural Resources to perform site
   investigations.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Algoma Municipal Landfill
   site while studies are taking place and cleanup activities are being planned.

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                         m
                         i   U
   BETTER BRITE

   PLATING CO.

   CHROME AND

   SHOPS
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WIT560010118
Site Description	
       REGION 5

CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 08
        Brown County
           DePere


          Aliases:
       Better Brlte Zinc
     Better Brlte Chrome
The 2-acre Better Brite Plating Co. Chrome and Zinc Shops site consists of two
sections that are divided by a residential area. Metal plating operations were conducted
at the two shops from the early 1960s until the company filed for bankruptcy in 1985.
While the plants were in operation, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
(WDNR) documented numerous violations and spills at the facility, including a spill of
2,200 gallons of acid in 1979.  In order to remedy the situation, Better Brite installed
groundwater monitoring wells and constructed a collection system that allowed
collected water to be pumped to a central surface water holding pond. Better Brite also
constructed a slope to prevent surface water runoff. In addition, Better Brite excavated
soil from neighboring properties and deposited it on the site. A study of soil in 1979
identified chromium-contaminated soil in the areas west and south of the main building.
Although Better Brite was ordered to clean up the contamination in 1980 by the
WDNR, no action was taken.  Several subsequent inspections by WDNR from 1980 to
1985 revealed extensive on-site chromium contamination, as well as  contamination in
the building's air handling system. Shortly after operations ceased, the WDNR received
a complaint that yellow water was running from the chrome shop into the city sewer.
Subsequently, the WDNR investigated this incident and found chromium in the runoff
and soil at a neighboring residence. The City of DePere is periodically pumping a trench
on the chrome shop property and discharging the waters collected to the DePere
Wastewater Treatment Plant.  In 1988, the WDNR was notified that the site had been
sold, and the new owners planned to remove the plating building. To prevent exposure
to contaminated soil, the WDNR razed the main building, partially fenced the site,
covered the site with clay, placed topsoil on the clay cover, and seeded it. In 1988, the
EPA allocated emergency funds to the WDNR to design a treatment  system for water
being discharged from the site to the DePere Wastewater Treatment Plant.  The
owners abandoned the site in 1989.  Approximately 46,000 people obtain drinking
water from municipal wells within 3 miles of the site.  DePere Municipal Well #2 is 500
feet downslope of the zinc shop.
Site Responsibility:
                     This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
   NPL LISTING HISTORY

   Proposed Date: 10/26/89
March 1990
                         NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                                         3
                 continued

-------
                                    BETTER BRITE PLATING CO. CHROME AND ZINC SHOPS
                 Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater, surface water, and soil are contaminated with heavy metals
               including chromium and various volatile organic compounds (VOCs).  Area
               residents may be exposed to contaminants through touching or
               accidentally ingesting these contaminated materials. Contaminants have
               migrated into shallow groundwater that forms the municipal water supply
               for the town of DePere, and the villages of Allouez and Ashwaubenon.
               An explosion of the flammable liquids that were dumped directly onto the
               on-site soil is also possible.
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two stages:  initial actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status

              Initial Actions: The EPA removed over 83 tons of contaminated soil,
              9,270 gallons of chromic acid, 3,600 gallons of toxic liquids, 550 gallons of
              cyanide solution, 150 pounds of cyanide sludge, and 500 gallons of
  flammable liquids from the facility in 1986. These wastes were subsequently treated
  and disposed of in an EPA-approved landfill. In 1987, an additional drum of
  decontaminated water was removed and transported for treatment off site.  The 131
  drums containing contaminated material have been secured and staged in the building;
  the empty drums were secured and staged outside the building.  The EPA covered
  highly contaminated areas of the site with plastic to prevent further off-site migration of
  contaminants. To ensure security, the EPA is providing 24-hour surveillance until site
  contamination has been completely addressed. Surface removal of drums, vats, and
  tanks still remaining on site began in 1990. The water treatment system is to be
  completed in 1990.

              Entire Site: An investigation into the nature and extent of remaining
              contamination is planned to begin in 1991. Based on the results of this
              investigation, final site cleanup remedies will be selected.
   Environmental Progress
   The numerous removal activities described above have greatly reduced the potential for
   explosion and exposure to hazardous materials at the Better Brite Plating Chrome and
   Zinc site while final cleanup activities are being planned.  The EPA continues to review
   all remaining surface contaminants and provide security at the site.

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   CITY
   CORP.
Site Description
                                           REGIONS
                                    CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                            Dane County
                                            Town of Dunn
   LANDFM
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980610646
   The City Disposal Corp. Sanitary Landfill site covers 35 acres of a 58-acre landfill. The
   unlined landfill operated and was filled with municipal and industrial waste from 1966 to
   1977.  Waste was deposited into on-site cells.  Six of these cells were used for
   disposing municipal wastes from 11 surrounding communities in Dane County that
   were served by the landfill. The other six cells were  not used for disposal during the
   lifetime of the landfill.  From 1966 until 1975, industrial wastes and organic chemicals
   were disposed of in a small pit on the eastern side of the landfill. The site was licensed
   by the State as a solid and hazardous waste landfill in 1971. The permit expired in 1977
   and was not reissued. Reportedly, 55-gallon drums and bulk liquid waste from area-
   industries were deposited on the site and were covered periodically.  During the early
   1970s, industrial wastes such  as solvents, organics, and oily wastes were deposited.
   About 27 million gallons of potentially hazardous waste were disposed .of at the site
   from 1966 to 1975. Hazardous waste disposal at the landfill was phased out in 1975,
   and the site was closed in 1977. The site was subsequently capped.  There are an
   estimated 5,500 people living within 3 miles of the site.  The 160 people residing within
   a mile of the site depend on private wells. The surrounding area is mainly agricultural.
   A residential subdivision is located southwest of the  site, and a wooded area lies to the
   south.  Badfish Creek, which receives runoff from the site, is located 300 feet east of
   the landfill.                                                    ,           .
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
                  Threats and Contaminants
                On-site groundwater and soil are contaminated with volatile organic
                compounds (VOCs) including toluene, benzene, and xylene.
                Contamination in Badfish Creek includes VOCs such as chloroform and  .
                tetrachloroethylene. The City of Madison discharges treated wastewater
                into the creek, and there are indications that cows drink water from this
                creek.  Potential health threats  to people include drinking contaminated
                groundwater and surface water, accidental ingestion of contaminated soil,
                inhalation of contaminated dusts and air particles, and direct contact with
                contaminated groundwater, surface water, and'soils. Grass Lake, a
                habitat for sandhill cranes and other wildlife, is located about 700 feet
                northeast of the site and could  be subject to pollution from the site runoff.
    March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                     5
                continued

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                                             CITY DISPOSAL CORP. SANITARY LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the entire site.


  Response Action Status

              Entire Site: Under EPA monitoring, a party potentially responsible for the
              site contamination. Waste Management of Wisconsin, is conducting an
              investigation into the nature and extent of the contamination at the site,
   including a geophysical survey, soil sampling, providing an inventory of existing
   monitoring wells, and surface monitoring.  The investigation will define the
   contaminants of concern and will recommend alternatives for the final cleanup.  The
   investigation is planned to be completed in 1992.

   Site Facts: In 1987, an Administrative Order on Consent was entered  into between
   the EPA and City Disposal Corp., a party potentially responsible for the site
   contamination, requiring the  company to investigate the site contamination.
   Environmental Progress
   After listing the City Disposal Landfill site on the NPL, the EPA conducted preliminary
   studies and determined that the site does not pose an imminent threat to the
   surrounding communities or the environment while the investigations leading to the
   selection of final cleanup solutions for the site are taking place.

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   DELEVAN MU

   WELL  NO. 4
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980820062
                                         REGION 5
                             ^-CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                         Walworth County
                                            Delevan
Site Description
   The Delevan Municipal Well site is defined as the contaminated aquifer used by the
   Delevan Well No. 4. Well No. 4 was closed in 1982 due to contamination by volatile
   organic compounds (VOCs), but is used occasionally when another city well must be
   taken out of service. When used, the water from Well No. 4 is blended with other city
   water to reduce any concentrations of contaminants to levels below what is considered
   a health risk. The blending occurs at a common point past the inlet for Well No. 4; this
   requires Well No. 3 to pump at the same time. Recently, when Weil No. 3 was shut
   down. Well No. 4 was used continuously. During that time, unblended water from Well
   No. 4 may have been delivered to nearby residents, businesses, and a school. There
   are more than 3,000 people living within 1 mile of the site. The population of Delevan
   relies on municipal water, and no  private wells have been identified in the area.
   Surrounding the site are schools,  homes, businesses, and an industrial facility. The
   distance from the well to the closest residence is 500 feet.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and State actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Air may be contaminated with VOCs from the use of extraction wells or
               the sprayer-aerator system used at a nearby industry. Well No. 4 and the
               area soils are contaminated with VOCs including trichloroethylene (TCE).
               When Well No. 4 is used to supply water to the municipality, there is the
               possibility of a health threat to people through drinking, coming in direct
               contact with, or inhaling contaminated vapors.  When Well No. 4 is used,
               highly contaminated water from the industrial site across the street may
               be pulled toward the well, potentially increasing VOC concentrations.
    March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    7
                                                                         continued

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                                                     DELEVAN MUNICIPAL WELL NO. 4
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase directed at cleanup of
  the entire site.                                                           .
  Response Action Status
             Entire Site:  The State, under EPA monitoring, is scheduled to begin
             conducting an investigation into the nature and extent of the groundwater
             contamination at the site. The investigation will define the contaminants of
   concern and will recommend alternatives for the final cleanup.  The investigation is
   planned to be completed in late 1991.
  Environmental Progress
  The EPA determined, after initial evaluations of the Delevan Municipal Well No. 4 site,
  that no immediate actions are required to protect the surrounding community or the
  environment while the investigations leading to the selection of a final remedy for site
  contamination are taking place.

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   EAU  CLAIRE
   MUNICIPAL

   FIELD
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980820054
                                         REGION 5
                                 dgt&lpi SESSIONAL DIST. 03
                                        Eau Claire County
                                         Claire Co. Airport, east of the
                                         Chippewa River
Site Description
   The Eau Claire Municipal Well Field site covers 500 acres and consists of 14 wells that
   withdraw groundwater for the residents of Eau Claire County. In 1981, the Wisconsin
   Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) sampled groundwater from the Eau Claire
   Municipal Well Field as part of an EPA-sponsored groundwater survey of 20 Wisconsin
   cities. The WDNR's sampling detected low concentrations of volatile organic
   compounds (VOCs), primarily in the north well field. However, the level of VOCs
   delivered to homes remained below the State water quality standards. In 1982, the
   City began monitoring VOC levels in residential wells near the municipal field. In 1983,
   the City found that VOC levels in one of these wells exceeded the State's water quality
   standards and recommended that its owners use bottled water instead of groundwater.
   In 1984, five of the municipal wells in the north field also were found to be
   contaminated with VOCs. The contamination at the site has been characterized as two
   separate plumes. The EPA found that Plume #2  is  a part of the National Presto Site,
   which also is listed on the National Priorities List. The municipal well field serves
   approximately 57,600 residents of the county. Also, an unknown number of residents
   in the county pump their own groundwater from privately owned wells.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and State actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

 Final Date: 09/21/84
                 Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater at the site is contaminated with VOCs including chloroform
               and trichloroethylene (TCE). People can be exposed to VOCs if they drink
               or touch contaminated groundwater or if they inhale hazardous
               substances that the water releases into the air.  The EPA does not believe
               that the nearby Chippewa River is affected by the contamination, because
               pumping of the municipal wells prevents the groundwater from
               discharging into the river.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    9
                                                                       continued

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                                                   EAU CLAIRE MUNICIPAL WELL FIELD
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
   Response Action Status
          X*  Immediate Actions:  In 1984, the EPA conducted an initial study of the
              nature and extent of contamination at the site. The results of this study
              recommended air stripping as the preferred method to address
   contamination at the site.  In mid-1987, the EPA completed construction of an air-
   stripping unit to remove VOCs from the contaminated groundwater in the north field.
   This method treats the groundwater with the air stripper, discharges it to a municipal
   water treatment plant, and then to a distribution system.

              Entire Site: The EPA completed an additional study in 1988 to analyze the
              various alternatives that best addressed remaining contamination at the
              site. The EPA selected the following final remedies for the site:  (1)
              withdrawing water from the existing municipal wells in the north well field
   and removing VOCs from the water using the existing air stripper; (2) installing
   extraction wells in the north well field and discharging water extracted by those wells
   directly to the Chippewa River without treatment; (3) installing extraction wells in Plume
   #2 and discharging water extracted by those wells directly to the Chippewa River
   without treatment; (4) connecting to the City water system or providing individual
   treatment units to those residences within the contaminated areas; and (5) monitoring
   groundwater quality during the action to determine when the groundwater has been
   cleaned up to meet State and Federal guidelines. The EPA is continuing to treat the
   municipal groundwater supply with the air stripper and is providing municipal  water to
   users of private well water. By the end of 1990, the EPA will finish hookups to the
   municipal water supply for those residences which cannot use groundwater,  as a result
   of Plume #1 contamination.
   Environmental Progress
   The air stripping unit in use at the Eau Claire Well Field site is successfully controlling
   the level of VOCs in the groundwater being fed to the municipal wells. This action, in
   addition to hooking up affected residences to the municipal water supply, is protecting
   the surrounding population and environment while the remaining cleanup activities are
   being completed.
                                         10

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   FADROWSKI

   DISPOSAL
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980901227
Site Description
                                         REGION 5
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 04
                                        Milwaukee County
                                            Franklin

                                             Alias:
                                    Menard's Drum Disposal Site
   The Fadrowski Drum Disposal site covers 20 acres on South 27th Street, on the
   eastern edge of Franklin along its border with Oak Creek.  From 1970 until 1981,
   Edward Fadrowski, of Ed's Masonry and Trucking, operated a landfill at the site to
   dispose of demolition and construction wastes. A former employee alleged in 1981
   that the property was used for the disposal of hazardous waste and that several
   hundred drums and lubricant sludges were buried there. Early in 1983, Menard, Inc.
   purchased part of the site and began to construct a store to sell home building
   materials. Excavation of the property turned up buried drums, which the State analyzed
   and found to contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, chromium, and small
   amounts of arsenic.  One sample of oily sludge contained DDT, a pesticide no longer in
   use. The EPA and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) believe
   that the Acme Printing Ink Company generated the hazardous substances that were
   disposed of at the site.  Little is known about the amounts or type of wastes at the site.
   Environmental concerns at the site include contamination of the soil and shallow
   groundwater, which nearby residents use as their source of drinking water. About
   18 000 people depend on wells that are within 3 miles of the site as sources of drinking
   water. The nearest residence is about 1,500 feet from the site. The area  is semi-rural
   and consists of residential, commercial, and municipal uses.  There are several schools
   and parks within a 2-mile radius of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties', actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/10/86

  Final Date: 10/15/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
                Groundwater samples collected from one of the 22 monitoring wells on
                site were contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
                This well is near the southern edge of the site. Sediment samples
                collected from on-site creeks and ditches are contaminated with PAHs
                and inorganic compounds.  Subsurface soil samples collected from the
                site and off site, near the western side, are contaminated with VOCs,
                especially toluene. Samples of landfilled waste, primarily sand, collected
                at the site are contaminated with PAHs and inorganic compounds. One
                surface water sample taken from the on-site creek contained low levels of
    March 1990
     NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    11
                                                                          continued

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                                                        FADROWSKI DRUM DISPOSAL
                 Threats and Contaminants Continued
               trichloroethylene (TCE) which is a type of VOC. People could be exposed
               to hazardous substances through drinking contaminated groundwater or
               surface water or by accidentally ingesting contaminated soil. A marshy
               area borders the on-site pond on the west, where runoff from the site
               travels and extends beyond the site's boundaries. The site occasionally is
               used for recreational activities.  Local residents in the area around the site,
               especially children, use the pond located at the eastern edge of the site
               for swimming and could thus be exposed to site contamination.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Entire Site: Acme Printing Company, under the supervision of the EPA
             and the WDNR, began a study in 1987 to determine the nature and extent
             of contamination at the site. The EPA expects to complete the study in
   early 1991. At that time cleanup alternatives will be recommended.
   Environmental Progress
  After listing the Fadrowski Drum site on the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary
  evaluations and determined that the site does not pose an immediate threat to the
  surrounding community and the environment. Studies leading to the selection of a final
  remedy for the site are currently taking place.
                                       12

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FORT  HOWARp
PAPER CO.  SI
LAGOONS
WISCONSIN
EPA ID# WID006136659
                                                              REGION 5
                                                       CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 08
                                                               Brown County
                                                              City of Green Bay
Site Description
   The Fort Howard Paper Company owns and operates the 293-acre Fort Howard Paper
   Co  Sludge Lagoons site, which is located in the corporate limits of the City of Green
   Bay  The company's manufacturing plant is about 3 1/2 miles from the disposal site.
   Disposal of sludge began in 1964 in a series of lagoons separated by dikes constructed
   of on-site sands. To date, sludge has been placed in five unlined ponds; tests
   performed in 1980 showed that the sludge contained heavy metals and polychlorinated
   biphenyls (PCBs}.  An abandoned landfill operated by the Village of Ashwaubenon is
   near two of the ponds. The landfill was closed in the mid-1970s and is now owned by
   Fort Howard Paper. As much as 40% of the site is within the Oneida Indian
   Reservation, as set by a 1838 treaty. Drinking water for an estimated 34,200 people is
   potentially threatened.  Austin Straubel Airport is about 600 feet to the south of the
   site  The Village of Ashwaubenon has two drinking water distribution systems. Wells
   for both systems are within 3 miles of the site.  The City of Green Bay obtains its water
   from Lake Michigan through a pipeline but maintains a number of wells as backup, one
   being within 3 miles of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
                   This site is being addressed through
                   Federal, State, and potentially
                   responsible parties' actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/24/88
                  Threats and Contaminants
                Several monitoring wells on and around the site are contaminated with
                benzene and chlorinated organic solvents, according to a 1986 report of
                the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR).  The
                contamination, however, cannot be fully attributed to the sludge disposal.
                The sludge contains barium, lead, arsenic, dioxins, and PCBs, according to
                tests conducted by Fort Howard Paper in 1980. Potential health risks may
                exist from direct contact with or accidental ingestion of the contaminated
                sludge or groundwater. Permeable soils and shallow groundwater
                increase the potential for contamination to occur.
    March 1990
                       NPL HAZARDOUS WASTEST
                                       13
                                                        ES
                                                                         continued

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                                           FORT HOWARD PAPER CO. SLUDGE LAGOONS
Cleanup Approach
  The site Is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase directed at cleanup of the entire site.


  Response Action Status

              Immediate Actions: The Fort Howard Paper Co. installed a slurry wall/
              gradient control system in 1986 to prevent the migration of contaminants
              through the groundwater and fenced the entire property.

              Entire Site: Under EPA monitoring, the parties potentially responsible for
              the contamination are conducting an investigation to determine the type
              and extent of contamination at the site and to identify alternative
  technologies for the remedial process. Once this investigation is completed, the EPA
  will review the results and will recommend the cleanup alternatives.

  Site Facts:  In 1990, an Administrative Order on Consent was signed by the EPA, the
  WDNR, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin, and the Fort Howard Paper
  Company.  Under the order. Fort Howard is conducting an investigation of the site.
  Environmental Progress
  The Fort Howard Paper Co. took interim action to control the migration of contaminants
  through the groundwater and fenced the site to restrict access. These actions helped
  to reduce the potential for exposure to hazardous materials on the site while the
  investigations leading to the selection of a permanent cleanup remedy are being
  conducted.
                                        14

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                      JK'- '-<-,*  "  f

   HAGEN  FARM
   WISCONSI
   EPA ID# WID980i
                                           REGION 5
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                            Dane County
                                        1 mile east of Stoughton

                                               Alias:
                                   No Name Property at 2318 County A
Site Description
   The Hagen Farm site covers 10 acres and is located approximately 1 mile east of
   Stoughton. The site operated as a sand and gravel pit from the 1950s until the
   mid-1960s, when it served as a disposal site for municipal waste from the City of
   Stoughton and industrial waste from Uniroyal Plastics Corporation, as well as other
   sources. The site consists of one main disposal area and two smaller areas located in a
   former gravel quarry. During its operation as a waste disposal  site, solvents and other
   chemicals and chunks of solid vinyl were disposed of at the site. Waste disposal
   activities ceased at the site about 1966. The disposal area on the site was covered
   with a layer of soil, and the property was subsequently sold in  1977 to Orrin Hagen, a
   sheep farmer. In 1980, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR)
   received a complaint from a local resident alleging that the site had been used for the
   disposal of drummed wastes during the 1960s.  The WDNR investigated the site, then
   in use as a sheep pasture, and observed that solid vinyl was protruding through the soil.
   The WDNR sampled nearby residential wells in  1980 through 1982. During sampling,
    volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were found  in nearby residential wells. Uniroyal
   conducted a study to evaluate groundwater quality at and near the site  in 1982 and
   detected VOCs in the groundwater.  In 1987, Orrin Hagen transferred ownership of the
   site to Waste Management,  Inc. (WMI), the current owner.  Presently, the site has no
    houses or farm buildings.  The population of the city of Stoughton is estimated to be
   7,500.  The land surrounding the site is semi-rural and industrial. Homes and industries
    use private wells; several of the private wells are no longer in use. Approximately 350
    people reside within a mile of the site. The majority of Stoughton's residents draw
    water from the municipal water supply system, and an estimated 940 people depend
    on private wells located within 3 miles of the site for their drinking water supply.  The  .
    City of  Stoughton's municipal wells are located  about 2 miles to the west, and 8 private
    wells are located within 1,200 feet of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
a combination of Federal, State, and
potentially responsible parties'
actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/18/85

  Final Date: 06/10/86
    March 1990
     NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                     15
                                                                            continued

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                                                                     HAGENFARM
                 Threats and Contaminants
               VOCs have been found in the on-site air and in the area surrounding the
               site.  The highest concentrations of VOCs in the air are located near the  .
               former disposal areas. On-site groundwater is contaminated with VOCs
               including dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, and acetone. Area residents
               could have been directly exposed to site-related contaminants during the
               1980s, when protruding drums were found on the site. These drums
               were subsequently removed; therefore, they are not presently a threat to
               area residents or on-site workers. Local residents and industrial workers,
               who rely on the remaining private wells to supply drinking water, could be
               exposed to contaminants in the groundwater.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages:  interim actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.


  Response Action Status
              Interim Actions: The neighboring land has been purchased by WMI, the
              houses on that land have been razed, and protruding drums have been
              removed. The area that comprises the site has been fenced, although an ,
   access road to an active gravel pit runs directly past the main dump site.

              Entire Site: The potentially responsible parties completed the initial study
              into the extent and nature of contamination at the Hagen Farm site.  The
              results of the completed studies indicate that the 5-acre disposal area is
   much smaller than the original estimates. The types of wastes  present in the disposal
   process were also defined and included municipal waste,  paint sludge, grease,
   industrial chemicals, and plastic sheeting. The EPA sampled private wells and did not
   detect the presence of any site-related contaminants.  The EPA will conduct a study to
  Devaluate ways to eliminate the potential threat posed by hazardous wastes from the
   disposal area.

   Site Facts:  The Wisconsin Department of Justice filed an enforcement action against
   Uniroyal, Inc. and Waste Management of Wisconsin in 1983, directing them to perform
   an investigation and to clean up the site.
   Environmental Progress
   By fencing in a major area of the Hagen Farm site and removing contaminated drums,
   the potential for exposure has been significantly reduced while investigations leading to
   the selection of final cleanup remedies are taking place.
                                         16

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   WISCONSI
   EPA ID# WID052906088
                                                                 REGIONS
                                                         CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                                                  Dane County
                                                       Williamstown, approximately 2 miles from
                                                                    Mayville
Site Description
   The Hechimovich Landfill site is situated on 20 acres and is located in Williamstown, a
   rural area located approximately 2 miles south of Mayville. The site is a former licensed
   disposal area for hazardous waste that operated from 1970 to 1980. The owner of the
   site claims that he placed hazardous waste in unlined pits from 1972 to 1980. Some of
   the types of wastes disposed of in these pits include paint sludges, cutting oils
   containing lead and chromium, and spent organic solvents. The Wisconsin Department
   of Natural Resources {WDNR) ordered the pits closed in 1980. The EPA detected
   volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in two wells downgradient of the site in 1984. The
   owner of the site violated the terms of the landfill's permit by depositing solid waste in
   areas beyond those previously approved by the WDNR. As a result, a proposal was
   made to build a separate sanitary landfill to the north of the operating site.  In 1988,
   approval for the new landfill was being sought through  the State; the new landfill has
   not yet been built.  The towns nearest to the site are Mayville, with a population of
   4,330, and Horicon, with 3,585 residents.  Approximately 5,000 people obtain their
   drinking water from private wells located within 3 miles of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
a combination of Federal, State, and
potentially responsible parties'
actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/24/88

  Final Date: 03/31/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
                Drinking water in two wells downslope of the site has been shown to be
                contaminated with VOCs including ethylbenzene and xylene.  Cutting oil
                left on the site is contaminated with significant amounts of lead and
                chromium.  Because groundwater contamination already exists in two
                wells, it is possible that other wells may also become contaminated.
                Farmland is located 20 feet from the operating portion of the facility, and a
                portion of this land is used to raise dairy cattle. The cattle could consume
                tainted grass or  leachate flowing from the site's drainage ditches. Local
                surface waters are used by residents for recreational activities. If site-
                related contaminants should migrate into the surface water, residents
                could be exposed to them when coming into direct contact with these
                bodies of water. A portion of the Hechimovich Landfill site is a wetland,
                which could be at risk from site runoff.
    March 1990
     NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                     17
                                                                           continued

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                                                           HECHIMOVICH LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase directed at cleanup of
  the entire site.
  Response Action Status
             Entire Site: The preliminary phase of the investigation into the nature and
             extent of contamination and alternative cleanup methods was started in
             1990. This study, expected to be completed in 1993, is being conducted
   by the parties potentially responsible for the site contamination, under the direction of
   the WDNR.
  Environmental Progress
  After adding the Hechimovich Landfill site to the NPL, the EPA determined, after initial
  evaluations, that the site does not pose an immediate threat to the surrounding
  communities or the environment while the investigations leading to the selection of a
  final cleanup remedy are taking place.
                                                                           A
                                       18

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   HUNTS  DISP

   LANDFILL
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980511919
                                          REGION 5
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                           Racine County
                                            Caledonia
Site Description
   The Hunts Disposal Landfill site consists of 35 acres of a 79-acre parcel and is located 8
   miles north of Racine in Caledonia. This site is an old sand and gravel pit that was first
   licensed to operate as a dump by the Racine County Board of Adjustments in 1959.
   From 1959 to 1974, the various owners of the site accepted both industrial and
   municipal wastes. In 1970, the State granted a license to the owners of 'theJandfiil that
   allowed them to accept non-combustible trash, garbage, and wooden material. In
   1974, the site was purchased by Waste Management, Inc. of Wisconsin from
   Caledonia Corporation Landfill, which had acquired it in 1972, when it was operating as
   Hunts Disposal Landfill.  During the late 1960s and early 1970s, area residents reported
   seeing people driving cars to the site and dumping garbage into the ditch near the
   railroad tracks.  Residents also complained that the site was poorly covered.  In 1964,
   four 10,000-gallon tanks containing residual arsenic acid sludge were buried at the site.
   According to files kept by Racine County, these tanks were cleaned before they were
   buried.  During  1973 to 1974, the State noted several operational problems such as
   seepage of wastes into the groundwater, lack of proper cover, and windblown paper.
   The Hunts Disposal site was closed in 1974.  An inspection conducted  by the State in
    1975 noted deficiencies in final cover and topsoil depths, severe gully erosion on some
   slopes, and the absence of vegetative cover over portions of the landfill.  The site was
    purchased by the Boundary Corporation in 1975.  In 1976, the County purchased the
   site as a part of the Root River Parkway System, a regional park concept. The Hunts
    Disposal site is located in a rural area that is sparsely populated; however, there are
    several residences located in the immediate vicinity of the site and within the
    boundaries of Caledonia. Approximately 1,500 people live within a 1-mile radius of the
    site. All of the  residences in the vicinity of the site rely on private wells for their water
    supply. A subdivision of approximately 1,000  people is located 1  to 1 1/2 miles west of
    the landfill site across the Root River. These residents obtain their water from a private
    sanitation district.  Residents of Oak Creek rely on municipal wells that draw water
    from depths of approximately 1,800 feet.
    Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and State actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/10/86

  Final Date: 07/21/87
    March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    19
                                                                           continued

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                                                           HUNTS DISPOSAL LANDFILL
                  Threats and Contaminants
               On-site soils and groundwater are contaminated with several types of
               volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy m.etals./|G round water and  ,
               surface water on the eastern side of the site are contaminated with heavy
               metals including arsenic, barium, calcium, and vanadium.  Soils, taken
               from the landfill area, are contaminated with heavy .metals and VOCs.  On-
               site workers and trespassers could be exposed to site-related
               contaminants by accidentally ingesting or coming into direct contact with
               contaminated groundwater, surface water, soils, or sediment.
               Hydrogeologic conditions favor the migration of groundwater off site.  If
               groundwater contamination migrates into private and municipal wells,
               area residents could be exposed to contaminants in the groundwater.  If
               area residents consume the wild game which has been observed on the
               site, they could be exposed to site-related contaminants that have
               bioaccumulated in these animals.  The Root River, which is used by area
               residents for recreational purposes, borders the site, and runoff from the
               contaminated soils and surface water could pollute these waters and
               sediments.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages: initial actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Initial Actions:  Waste Management and Racine County made an attempt
              to abandon the site according to proper procedures in 1982 and conducted
              several activities including repairing erosion damage, sealing leachate
   seeps, and revegetating the site. In response to a request from the State and from a
   proposal to construct a drainage channel in the vicinity of the site, the City of Oak Creek
   installed three shallow monitoring wells in 1984. The EPA conducted an inspection of
   the site in 1984 and took several samples of soils, surface waters, groundwater, and
   sediments.

              Entire Site: The EPA and the State began an investigation into the nature
              and extent of contamination and the most effective methods to clean up
              the site in 1988. Between 1988 and 1989, the following activities were
   performed as part of this investigation: (1) installation of 19 wells designed to evaluate
   the quality of the groundwater in the vicinity of the landfill; (2) installation of three wells
   into the waste material comprising the landfill; and (3) surveying the site for the
   presence of radioactivity.  In addition, several other activities performed as part of the
   investigation include sampling residential drinking water wells in the vicinity of the
   landfill, water from the Root River and the  lake on the site, and surface and subsurface
   soil; sediment from the bottom of the lake, river, and other ponds; and air from within
   the gaseous environment of the landfill. Although the findings are still being evaluated,
   it has been determined that there is no evidence suggesting local residential water
   supplies have been affected by site-related contaminants.
                                                                          continued
                                         20

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                                                      HUNTS DISPOSAL LANDMIX
Environmental Progress
Two separate sampling efforts have been performed at the Hunts Disposal site and
areas of suspected contamination near the site. The results of these sampling events
have isolated the areas of greatest contamination and will help in selecting the most
effective remedies for final cleanup once the investigations have been completed.
                                       21

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   JANESVIL:
   BEDS
   WISCONSIN
   EPA IDS WID000712950
Site Description
                                          REGION 5
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                           Rock County
                                             Janesville

                                              Alias:
                                     Janesville Disposal Facilities
   The Janesville Ash Beds site covers about 5 acres of a 65-acre parcel of land on the
   north side of Janesville. There are four Janesville Disposal Facilities (JDF) on these 65
   acres: the Janesville Ash Beds (JAB), the Old Dump Site (1963 site), the Old Landfill
   (1978 site), and the New Landfill (1985 site).  The City of Janesville is the primary
   owner of the properties and has operated land disposal activities at the site since the
   1950s. The JAB began operating in 1974 and consisted of five separate ash beds.  The
   facility accepted an assortment of industrial liquids and sludges.  Approximately 1 1/2 to
   3 million gallons of industrial sludges were accepted annually.  Fly ash and the resultant
   dried sludges were sent to the Old Landfill for disposal from 1974 to 1978 and then to
   the New Landfill. From 1974 to 1982, the ash beds were unlined, with only a plastic
   liner beneath a small portion of the bed to serve as a leachate sampling system. In the
   fall of 1982, beds #3, #4, and #5, were excavated, contaminated ash and soils were
   removed, and the beds were reconstructed with clay liners and equipped with leachate
   collection systems. Industrial wastes were still being accepted at beds #1 and #2 while
   the other three beds were being reconstructed.  Bed #1 was closed, and the sludge
   was removed in 1983.  Wastes were not accepted at bed #2 after 1983, and the sludge
   was removed in late 1984.  In 1985, the remaining three beds (#3, #4, and #5) were
   cleaned and closed, and the entire JAB area was covered with clay and graded.  The
   Old Dump Site is an abandoned sand and gravel pit that was used as a municipal landfill
   from 1950 until 1963. The Old Dump Site does not  have a leachate collection system
   or clay liner, and the exact type of wastes are unknown. After reaching capacity in
   1963, the dump was closed by placing a cover over  the wastes.  The New Landfill was
   used as a municipal landfill from 1978 until 1985.  It  was constructed with a clay liner
   and leachate collection system to prevent leachate from reaching the groundwater.
   Over 1,000 tons of ash from the JAB had been disposed of in the New Landfill.  After
   reaching  capacity, the site was covered with  2 feet of compacted clay and closed in
   compliance with Wisconsin regulations. (For further information on the Old Landfill,
   seethe separate listing under Janesville Old Landfill.) Janesville has a population of
   approximately 51,000 people. Residential areas are located within a few hundred feet
   of the Janesville disposal facilities. A number of parks are within 2 miles of the sites
   and two schools are within 1 mile. The Rock River about 1,500 feet away from the
   sites.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties' actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    22
               continued

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                                                             JANESVILLE ASH BEDS
                 Threats and Contaminants
              In most instances, all four facilities have contributed to contamination in
              the air, groundwater, sediments, soil, and surface water. Methane gas
              has been detected in the air at the site.  The methane is caused by the
              decomposing material stored in the landfill. Groundwater is contaminated
              with'vo/atf/e organic compounds (VOCs) including benzene, acetone, and
              vinyl chloride and heavy metals  including arsenic, barium, lead, iron, and
              manganese. Sediments in the pond southeast of the Old Landfill contain
              acetone and magnesium. Sediments in the Rock River also contain
              magnesium. Soil is contaminated with VOCs including chloroform,
              ethylbenzene, and tetrachloroethene and the heavy metals manganese
              and cadmium.  Surface water in the  Rock River contains low levels of
              VOCs. Contaminated groundwater currently is not considered to be a
              concern, because no private drinking water wells are contaminated or
              appear to be threatened. Small amounts of contaminants in the Rock
              River and the on-site pond pose a very low health risk.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the five components of the entire site.

  Response Action Status

              Entire Site:  The potentially responsible parties, under EPA monitoring,
              completed a study of the four Janesville Disposal facilities.  The EPA
              selected the remedies for the site in December 1989, breaking down the
              site into five cleanup components.  The remedies include: (1) New
   Landfill: Access restrictions by the use of deed and land use restrictions, installation of
   a landfill gas extraction and flaring system that may later be converted into an energy
   converting system, improvements to the landfill cap including upgrading it, continued
   monitoring of the groundwater and air, and repairing and/or improving the leachate
   collection system. (2) Old Landfill: Access restrictions through deed and land use
   restrictions, installing a landfill gas extraction and flaring system, containment of wastes
   and subsurface soils by upgrading the landfill cover, and continued groundwater and air
   monitoring. (3) Old Dump: Access restrictions through deed and land use restrictions
   and continued groundwater monitoring. (4) JAB: Access restrictions through deed and
   land use restrictions; containment of wastes and subsurface soils by maintaining the
   present cap and upgrading the cap and site drainage, as needed; and removing and
   properly disposing of the remaining ash pile. (5) JDF Groundwater:  Installation of
   groundwater extraction wells to intercept the groundwater contamination prior to its
   reaching the Rock River, development and implementation of groundwater treatment
   system with treatment by air stripping, and continued groundwater monitoring.

   Site Facts: In 1986, the EPA, the State, and the parties potentially responsible for site
   contamination reached an agreement whereby the parties will conduct an investigation
   of the contamination at the Janesville facilities.  The Old Landfill and JAB sites are
   being addressed under Superfund, while the other two sites are being cleaned up
   under the authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
   regulations. These two RCRA sites were included in the National Priorities List
   investigation because of their close proximity to the Old Landfill and JAB areas.
                                                                          continued
                                         23

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                                                           JANESVILLE ASH BEDS
Environmental Progress
The complexity of the separate areas at the Janesville Ash Beds site required extensive
studies into the extent of contamination prior to the selection of final cleanup remedies.
These investigations have resulted in the selection of final remedies for all the areas of
contamination, with actual cleanup activities scheduled to begin soon.
                                      24

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   JANESVIL
   LANDFILL
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980614044
                                                REGIONS
                                         CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                                 Rock County
                                                  Janesville
                                                    Alias:
                                           Janesville Disposal Facilities
Site Description
   The 18-acre Janesville Old Landfill site is on a 65-acre parcel of land that contains four
   different sites: the Janesville Ash Beds (JAB), the Old Dump Site, the Old Landfill, and
   the New Landfill. The city of Janesville is the owner of the properties and has operated
   land disposal activities at the sites since the 1950s.  The Janesville Old Landfill site is
   an abandoned sand and gravel pit that was used as a municipal sanitary landfill
   beginning in 1963.  Industrial wastes such as solvents, used oils, paints, paint thinners,
   and other industrial wastes were accepted drummed for disposal. The site also
   received the sludge-ash mixture when the ash beds were cleaned out.  The landfill
   does not have any bottom or side liners, but was covered with clay when it reached
   capacity in 1978. The landfill does not have a leachate collection system or clay liner.
   The City of Janesville has a population of approximately 51,000 people. Residential
   areas are located within a few hundred feet of the Janesville Disposal Facilities. The
   Rock  River is  1,500 feet from the site.
   Site Responsibility:
      This site is being addressed through
      Federal, State, and potentially
      responsible parties'actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
         L\
                  Threats and Contaminants
Methane gas from the decomposing material stored in the landfill has
been detected in the air at the site. Groundwater is contaminated with
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals including arsenic,
barium, lead, iron, and manganese. Sediments in the pond southeast of
the Old Landfill contain acetone and magnesium. Sediments in the Rock
River also contain magnesium. Soils are contaminated with various VOCs
and heavy metals including manganese and cadmium. Surface water in
the Rock River contains low levels of VOCs. Contaminated groundwater
is not considered a health threat because no private drinking water wells
are contaminated or appear to be threatened. Small amounts of
contaminants in  the Rock River and the on-site pond pose a very low
health risk.
    March 1990
          NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                          25
                                                                          continued

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                                                          JANESVILLE OLD LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the Old Landfill site.


  Response Action Status

              Old Landfill Site: The parties potentially responsible for site
              contamination, under EPA monitoring, completed a study of all of the
              Janesville Disposal Sites. The EPA selected a remedy for the site in 1989
              which includes: (1) access restrictions by the use of deed and land use
   restrictions; (2) installation of a landfill gas extraction and flaring  system that may later
   be converted into an energy converting system; (3) improvements to the landfill cap; (4)
   continued monitoring of the groundwater and air; (5) repairing and improving the
   leachate collection system; (6) removing and properly disposing of the remaining ash
   pile; (7) installation of groundwater extraction wells to intercept  the groundwater
   contamination prior to reaching the  Rock River; and (8) development and
   implementation of a groundwater treatment system with treatment by air stripping.

   Site Facts:  In 1986, the EPA, the State, and the parties potentially responsible for site
   contamination reached an  agreement, whereby the parties conducted an investigation
   of the nature and extent of contamination at the Janesville Disposal sites. (For further
   information on the JAB,  Old Dump Site, and New  Landfill, see the separate listing
   under Janesville Ash Beds.)
  Environmental Progress
  After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
  determined that no immediate actions were required at the Janesville Old Landfill site
  while the selected cleanup activities are being planned.
                                         26

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   KOHLER CO

   LANDFILL
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID006073225
                                          REGIONS
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 06
                                          Sheboygan County
                                              Kohler
Site Description
   The 82-acre Kohler Company Landfill site has been in operation since the 1950s,
   primarily for the disposal of foundry and manufacturing wastes produced by Kohler's
   manufacturing facilities. From 1972 to 1976, wastes were disposed of in an old waste
   pit, two burn pits, and a liquids disposal pit.  Wastes included hydraulic oils, solvents,
   paint wastes, enamel powder, lint from brass polishing, and plating sludges. Oils were
   commonly used for dust control measures.  The company also operates two lagoons
   west of the landfill that reduce the total suspended solids in the company's process
   wastewater before it is discharged into the Sheboygan River. Since 1980, all federally
   regulated wastes have been shipped off site for disposal. In 1977 and 1981, sludges
   from the lagoons were buried at the site. The landfill was not scheduled to close until
   2035; however, the State landfill license is being modified, and the closure of the
   landfill will occur much sooner. Approximately 1,600 people live within 3 miles of the
   landfill.  The nearest residence is 1/4 mile away. The Sheboygan River is within 300
   feet of the site.  Residential wells within 3 miles draw water from aquifers that could
   become contaminated.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties'actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84 '
                 Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater and surface water are contaminated with various volatile
               organic compounds (VOCs), heavy metals, phenols, and phthalates.
               Runoff sediments contain various heavy metals, phenols, and coal tar
               compounds.  Waste samples from the old waste pit contain VOCs,
               phenols, coal tar compounds, and heavy metals.  People who touch or
               accidentally ingest contaminated groundwater, leachate, or runoff
               sediment may be at risk. If leachate or groundwater from the site seeps
               into the Sheboygan River, wildlife in and around the river may be harmed.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   27
                                                                         continued

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                                                       KOHLER COMPANY LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status

             Entire Site:  In 1985, the Kohler Company, under EPA monitoring, began
             investigating the contamination at the site. Two phases of investigations
  	have been completed, with the third phase under way. Once the entire
   investigation is completed in 1991, alternative measures will be recommended for site
   cleanup.                                                            ,

   Site Facts: In 1985, the EPA, the State, and the Kohler Company signed an
   Administrative Order on Consent, whereby the company agreed to study the type and
   extent of contamination at the site. The company will also assess potential and actual
   risks to human health and the environment and evaluate potential cleanup alternatives.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Kohler Company Landfill
   site while investigations are under way.
                                        28

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                             fff
                             I "^
   LAUERISANI

   LANDFILL

   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID058735994
Site Description
                                          REGION 5
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 09
                                         Waukesha County
                                          Menomonee Falls

                                             Aliases:
                                      Waste Management Lauer I
                                       United Waste Systems
   From the mid-1950s to 1972, the 56-acre Lauer I Sanitary Landfill .accepted a variety of
   municipal and industrial wastes. In 1973 and 1974, State inspectors revealed holes in
   the berm around the site that allowed leachate from a collection pond to escape into a
   drainage ditch that drains into the Menomonee  River. In 1974, the State issued an
   order for the owner to close the site. In 1981, the owner installed an underground wall
   of clay materials between the landfill and the pond to stem the flow of leachate.
   Presently, leachate accumulating behind the cutoff wall is sent to a municipal
   wastewater treatment plant. Approximately 23,500  individuals reside within a
   3-mile radius of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties' actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Soils and leachate are contaminated with benzene, cyanide, toluene, and
               zinc. People may be exposed to contaminants through accidental
               ingestion or by touching contaminated soil or leachate. Although the
               landfill has been covered and seeded for recreational use, leachate
               continues to threaten groundwater and nearby surface waters. Also,
               contaminants may enter the food chain by way of locally raised meats and
               vegetables.
 Cleanup Approach
   This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
   of the entire site.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    29
               continued

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                                                      LAUER I SANITARY LANDFILL
Response Action Status

           Entire Site: An investigation to determine the extent and nature of
           contamination and to identify alternative long-term remedial methods is
           scheduled to begin in late 1990, under State guidance.

Site Facts: In 1974, the State issued an order for the owner to close the site properly.
Negotiations between the State and one potentially responsible party, Waste
Management of Wisconsin, began in 1988. An agreement between the State and
Waste Management is expected to be signed in 1990, requiring the company to take
responsibility for investigating site contamination.
Environmental Progress
After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
determined that no immediate actions are required at the Lauer I Sanitary Landfill site
while investigations are being planned.
                                      30

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   LEMBERGE

   LANDFILL, I
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980901243
Site Description
                                                            REGION 5
                                                     CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 06
                                                            Manitowoc County
                                                               Whitelaw
                                                                Alias:
                                                        Lemberger Fly Ash Landfill
   The 21-acre Lemberger Landfill, Inc. site is located approximately 1/4 mile from
   Lemberger Transport and Recycling, also a National Priorities List site.  The two sites
   operated under the same license from 1970 through 1976. The Township of Franklin
   used the site, an old  gravel pit, as an open dump from 1940 to 1970. Lemberger
   Landfill, Inc. operated the site as a sanitary /anc/f/7/with permission to accept hazardous
   wastes under a license from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR)
   from 1970 to 1976. From 1976 to 1977, Wettencamp and Brunner Excavating
   Company transported fly ash from Manitowoc Public Utilities to the Lemberger facility.
   An estimated 1,750 to 2,500 cubic yards of fly ash were disposed of monthly.  Past
   WDNR inspections showed that Lemberger used fly ash and bottom ash as cover
   instead of burying them along with the refuse.  Lemberger placed a second cap on the
   landfill in 1981.  In 1985, volatile organic compound(VOC) contamination was found in
   residential wells at levels that exceeded standards. New wells were provided to
   residents with contaminated wells. Part of the site is bordered by a marsh. Wetland
   vegetation occupies  low-lying areas of the site. The nearby Branch River is used for
   swimming, fishing, and canoeing, and the area  is commonly used for hunting.
   Approximately 2,700 people live within 3 miles of the site. The residents depend on
   public and private wells within 3 miles of the site as a source of drinking water.
Site Responsibility: This site is being addressed through
                  Federal actions.
                                                          NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                                          Proposed Date: 09/18/85

                                                           Final Date: 06/10/86
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater is contaminated with VOCs including vinyl chloride and
               methylene chloride. Surface water is contaminated with phenols, VOCs,
               and heavy metals including cadmium and lead. Potential health threats
               exist if contaminated groundwater is ingested or touched. Contaminants
               have entered the food chain; therefore, ingesting milk or livestock and fish
               taken from the river may also be a potential health threat.  The Branch
               River has shown signs of contamination, and exposure to these
               contaminants may occur when coming into direct contact with polluted
               surface water. The site is not fenced or posted with signs to restrict
               access.
   March 1990
                      NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                                      31
continued

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                                                         LEMBERGER LANDFILL, INC.
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two stages: initial actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.


  Response Action Status

              Initial Actions: New wells were drilled to provide water to residences
              having contaminated wells.

              Entire Site: In 1984, the EPA sampled monitoring wells and leachate at
              the site. The results showed elevated levels of several contaminants. In
  	1987, the EPA began an investigation to determine the extent and nature
   of contamination and to identify cleanup alternatives. A draft investigation report is
   expected to be completed in 1990.

   Site Facts: In 1982, Lemberger signed a Consent Order with the WDNR that required
   identification of the source of leachate controls, followed by groundwater monitoring.
   Drilling and testing was done until the owner filed for bankruptcy.
   Environmental Progress
   By providing an alternate water supply to affected residents, the potential for exposure
   to contaminants in the groundwater has been eliminated while investigations leading to
   the selection of final cleanup remedies are taking place at the Lemberger Landfill, Inc.
   site.
                                         32

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                          •jcr

   TRANSPORT l&OTJ

   RECYCLING,
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID056247208

Site Description	
                                      REGION 5
                              CONGRESSIONAL DIST.  06
                                     Manitowoc County
                                        Whitelaw
   The 16-acre Lemberger Transport and Recycling, Inc. site operated as an unlined
   landfill. From 800,000 to 1 million gallons of tars and paint sludges were buried at the
   site.  Heavy metals and phenols have leached into groundwater. Large quantities of
   aluminum dust are also buried on the site, as are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from
   the cleanup of a spill. The owner of the farms adjoining the landfill has plowed portions
   of the site, exposing bulk wastes and drums. Alfalfa currently is being grown on the
   site.  This site is located less than 1/4 mile away from the Lemberger Landfill, also a
   National Priorities List site. The Branch River, 1/2 mile west of the site, is used for
   swimming, fishing, and canoeing. Hunting occurs in the area, and site access is
   unrestricted. Approximately 2,700 individuals live within 3 miles of the site and obtain
   their potable water supply from a shallow aquifer.
  Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal and State actions.
                                 NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                Proposed Date: 09/08/83

                                  Final Date: 09/21/84
                 Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater underlying the site has been shown to be contaminated
               with various volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenols, and heavy
               metals including lead, chromium, and aluminum. Potential health threats
               include drinking or touching contaminated groundwater.
 Cleanup Approach
   This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
   of the entire site.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
               33
                                                                        continued

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                                       LEMBERGER TRANSPORT AND RECYCLING, INC.
Response Action Status

           Entire Site:  In 1987, the EPA began an investigation to determine the
           extent and nature of contamination and to identify alternative long-term
           cleanup methods. A draft investigation report is expected to be completed
           in late 1990.

Site Facts: In 1982, the State signed a Consent Order with the company requiring it to
report on site conditions, including an analysis of the extent of groundwater
contamination and recommendations for cleanup actions.
Environmental Progress
After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
determined that no immediate actions were required at the Lemberger Transport and
Recycling, Inc. site while investigations are taking place and cleanup activities are
planned.
                                       34

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                   WAV. VA "   V*.W.  -.

METROPOlLmUlf

SEWERAckELSLJID
   DISTRICT  LAGOO
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID078934403
Site Description —	
                                                            REGION 5
                                                     CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                                             Dane County
                                                               Madison
   The 135-acre Madison Metropolitan Sewerage Sludge District Lagoons site is owned by
   the City of Madison, which has been depositing sludge from its Nine Springs Sewer
   Treatment Plant in the two lagoons since 1942. In 1970, a section of the new lagoon's
   dike broke, releasing 85,000 gallons of liquid from the lagoons into an old effluent
   channel that runs north to Nine Springs Creek,-which empties into the Yahara River. A
   large number of fish were killed.  A second dike broke in 1973. The lagoons are in a
   low-lying area bordered by wetlands.  Approximately 94,000 people reside near the site
   and obtain drinking water from wells within 3 miles of the site. A mobile home park of
   about 250 units is 1,000 feet from the site.
   Site Responsibility:
                  This site is being addressed through
                  Federal and State actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/24/88
  Final Date: 02/15/90
                Threats and Contaminants
              The sludge in the lagoons is contaminated with polychorinated biphenyls
              (PCBs) and is a potential health concern to people living near the site, and
              those working on the cropland where sludge is applied may be exposed
              to PCBs.  Hunting occurs in the wetland adjacent to the site. The lagoons
              are feeding areas for many species of waterfowl. In addition, surface
              water in the old effluent channel is tainted from the PCB-contaminated
              sludge.
 Cleanup Approach
   This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
   of the entire site.
   March 1990
                     NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                                                                     continued

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                        MADISON METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE SLUDGE DISTRICT LAGOONS
Response Action Status
           Entire Site:  The State is planning to conduct an investigation of the site to
           determine the nature and extent of contamination. Alternative cleanup
           remedies will be evaluated, based on the findings of this investigation.
Environmental Progress
After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
determined that no immediate actions were required at the Madison Metropolitan
Sewerage Sludge District Lagoons site while investigations and cleanup activities are
being planned.
                                       36

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   MASTER DISPOSAL

   SERVICE  LA
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980820070
Site Description
                                          REGION 5
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 09
                                         Waukesha County
                                          CityofBrookfield
   Master Disposal Service, Inc. operated a 40-acre landfill on the western edge of
   Brookfield. The site was licensed by the State to receive wastes in 1977. From 1962
   until early in 1982, the company filled a 26-acre wetland near the banks of the Fox River
   with over 1 1/2 million gallons of industrial wastes including solvents, paints, adhesives,
   oils, and foundry wastes.  A ditch drains from the site into the Fox River. In addition to
   its landfill operations, the facility also began burning disposed material in 1966. No
   wastes have been accepted at the site for about 2 years.  State sampling established
   that groundwater near the site is contaminated with heavy metals and polychlorinated
   biphenyls (PCBs). Approximately 5,000 people reside and depend on 10 municipal
   wells within 3 miles of the site for their potable water.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
                 Threats and Contaminants
               The air and groundwater are contaminated with volatile organic
               compounds (VOCs) including benzene, toluene, and xylenes. The
               groundwater also is contaminated with heavy metals such as iron,
               manganese, and barium, as well as PCBs. Accidental ingestion, direct
               contact with, and inhalation of contaminated airborne dusts may be a
               potential health threat. The site is essentially a raised plateau in the
               middle of a marshy flood plain, which could be contaminated from site
               runoff.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   37
                                                                        continued

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                                                 MASTER DISPOSAL SERVICE LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase directed at cleanup of
  the entire site.


  Response Action Status

              Entire Site: The potentially responsible party began an investigation to
              determine the nature and extent of contamination and to identify
              alternatives for site cleanup. The investigation is expected to be completed
   in late 1990. The EPA will review the results of the study and select the final cleanup
   strategy for the site.

   Site Facts:  In 1977, the State signed an agreement requiring Master Disposal Service
   to develop and implement a proper site abandonment plan.
   Environmental Progress
   After listing the Master Disposal Service Landfill site on the NPL, the EPA performed
   preliminary evaluations and determined that the site does not pose an imminent threat
   to the surrounding population or the environment while the investigations leading to the
   selection of the final cleanup remedy are taking place.
                                         38

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                                                             REGION 5
                                                      CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                                             Marathon County
                                                    '4 miles northeast of the Village of Stratford
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980823082
Site Description
   The Mid-State Disposal, Inc. Landfill (MSD) site is a 160-acre parcel of land located four
   miles northeast of Stratford and 18 miles southwest of Wausau. There are two landfills
   on the site, the 22-acre "Old Mound" landfill and the 5-acre "Interim Expansion" area,
   each covered with soil and vegetation.  The site also contains a 3-acre sludge lagoon
   covered with soil and vegetation, and a former leachate pond area.  MSD conducted
   landfilling operations from 1970 to 1979, receiving municipal, industrial, and commercial
   wastes as well as construction and demolition debris. Specific wastes received
   included paper mill sludges, asbestos dust, solvents, pesticides, paint sludges, and
   metals. Over the years, the covers of the Old Mound landfill, Interim Expansion area,
   and sludge lagoon have not been properly maintained.  Numerous environmental
   problems and permit violations were noted by the Wisconsin Department of Natural
   Resources (WDNR) during a site inspection in 1974, while evaluating whether MSD
   was in compliance with the newly enacted State Solid Waste Disposal Regulations. In
   early 1977, the WDNR approved a plan to close the Old Mound landfill. Later that year,
   MSD was fined for improper closure of the landfill, and another order was issued. A
   leachate containment pond on the western edge of the site ruptured, releasing 150,000
   to 200,000 gallons of leachate into Rock Creek during the late 1970s. In 1979, a
   lawsuit was filed by the State, ceasing operations  at the site. The Weyerhaeuser
   Company, a generator of waste disposed at the facility, agreed to properly close the
   site in 1979. The pond leachate was removed, and the three waste disposal areas
   were covered. Leachate collection systems were installed in late 1979 for both the
   sludge lagoon and the interim expansion area; only the leachate collected from the
   latter has been removed and treated off site. The site is surrounded by abandoned
   railroad tracks; two sludge disposal lagoons owned by Weyerhaeuser, Inc. on the
    northeast; and private property on the east.  Ten residences are located within a 1-mile
    radius of the site.  Most land near the site is devoted to dairy and cash crop farming,
   though a few small businesses are scattered throughout the area.  Surface water from
   west of the Old Mound landfill drains to an unnamed tributary of Rock Creek, and
    surface water from east of the Old Mound landfill drains to an unnamed tributary of the
    Big Eau  Pleine River.
   Site Responsibility:
The site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83
  Final Date: 09/21/84
    March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    39
                                                                            conffnued

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                                                   MID-STATE DISPOSAL, INC. LANDFILL
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Several heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including
               benzene, vinyl chloride, and methylene chloride were detected in the '
               groundwater. Leachate samples contained metals and VOCs above
               drinking water standards. On-site samples taken from the sludge lagoon,
               Interim Expansion area, and the Old Mound landfill were found to be
               contaminated with heavy metals.  Samples containing VOCs were
               collected from the tributary to Rock Creek. Soil samples from an area
               along the western edge of the site were found to be contaminated with
               heavy metals, phthalates (plastic by-products), and dieldrin, a pesticide.
               One off-site sample taken near a tributary to Rock Creek contained iron
               and copper at concentrations exceeding Federal  water quality standards
               designed to protect aquatic animals.  Direct contact with and accidental
               ingestion of contaminated soil, surface water, groundwater, leachate, or
               sediments may pose risks to public health, and aquatic organisms.
               Nearby wildlife is potentially threatened by site contaminants.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of
  the entire site.


  Response Action Status

              Entire Site:  In 1988, the EPA selected the following cleanup actions:  (1)
              impose deed restrictions on the site to ensure that future site owners do
              not cause new releases from the site by building on or excavating soil from
              the site (restrictions also would be placed on large off-site groundwater
  withdrawals in the site vicinity to prevent the use of contaminated groundwater); (2)
  constructing a fence around the site to prevent potential trespassing; (3) reconstructing
  on-site roads to accommodate truck traffic during the cleanup; (4) groundwater, surface
  water, and residential well monitoring to  evaluate the effectiveness of the cleanup
  actions; (5) landfill gas monitoring; (6) off-site groundwater monitoring; (7) provision of
  an alternate water supply for nearby residences; (8) improvement of surface water
  drainage;  (9) leachate  and ponded water collection and off-site treatment; (10)
  institutional controls to prevent well installation on site; and (11) solidifying sludge to
  reduce water content in it and capping the sludge lagoon to reduce rainfall seepage into
  the sludge lagoon. Under EPA monitoring, the parties potentially responsible for the
  site contamination began designing the cleanup remedies in late 1989. The actual
  cleanup work is scheduled to begin in 1991. The Mound and Interim areas also will be
  capped. The alternate water supply is scheduled to be installed in spring 1991.

  Site Facts: In early 1980, a group of citizens filed suit against Mid-State Disposal, Inc.,
  Weyerhaeuser, and the WDNR for past improper handling and disposal of hazardous
  waste at the site.
                                                                           continued
                                         40

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                                               MID-STATE DISPOSAL, INC. LANDFILL
EnvironmentdtProgress
After placing the site on the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary evaluations and
determined that the site does not pose an imminent threat to the surrounding
population or the environment while the design of final site remedies are being
completed at the Mid-State Disposal, Inc. Landfill site.
                                      41

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   MOSS-AME

   (KERR-MCG

   CO.)
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID039052626

Site Description	
                                                            REGION 5
                                                     CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 04
                                                           Milwaukee County
                                                              Milwaukee

                                                                Alias:
                                                  Kerr McGee Chem. Corp. Forest Prod. Div.
 The 88-acre Moss-American site is located in northwestern Milwaukee. Operations at
 the site began in 1921, when the Moss Tie Company began to treat railroad ties with
 creosote, a wood preservative. The site operated from 1921 until 1976, when it was
 closed by Kerr-McGee, a former owner.  During the facility's period of operation, liquid
 wastes were discharged to settling ponds that drained into the Little Menomonee
 River.  Between 1963 and 1965, the Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation purchased both
 companies and formed the Moss-American Company. Contamination at the site was
 first reported during the late 1960s. In 1971, several people received creosote-related,
 chemical burns from wading in the Little Menomonee River. The EPA filed an
 injunction against Kerr-McGee in 1974, ordering the cleanup of contaminated river
 sediments. Following the site's closing in 1976, the EPA continued to investigate the
 site and gather evidence for its suit. The case, however, was dismissed in 1978
 because of erroneous field data. Milwaukee County dropped its  pending lawsuit
 against Kerr-McGee that same year in exchange for 65 acres of the site.  Kerr-McGee
 sold the remaining 23 acres of the site to the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad
 Company in 1980. The site is surrounded by a mix of urban and rural uses. The railroad
 company now uses the  parcel as an automobile loading and storage area.  Total
 population within a 1-mile  radius of the site is estimated at 9,500 people, ail of whom
 depend on public wells. The Little Menomonee  River crosses the site area and is used
 for recreational purposes.
Site Responsibility:
                     This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
March 1990
                         NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                                        42
               continued

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                                               MOSS-AMERICAN (KERR-MCGEE OIL CO.)
        II
                 Threats and Contaminants
Groundwater samples have shown elevated levels of volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Free-
standing creosote or an oil sheen was observed in 3 monitoring well
samples; similar observations were noted in 8 test pits. The primary
contaminants detected in the river sediments are PAHs. Contaminants
found in the soil in the processing area and vicinity, the treated wood
storage area, and the northeast and southeast landfills jnclude PAHs and
BTX compounds, both components of creosote. PAHs were detected in
a ditch that drains water from the site to the river. The Little Menomonee
River has been negatively impacted by surface water runoff and sediment
from the site. Potential health risks may exist for individuals inhaling
volatilized chemicals or ingesting or making direct contact with the
contaminated sediments, soil, groundwater, or surface water.
Cleanup Approach	

  The site is being addressed in two stages: interim actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
   Response Action Status

              Interim Actions: Contaminated sediment along 1,700 feet of the riverbed
              adjacent to the site was excavated and landfilled near the northeastern
   	    corner of the site.  In 1973, the EPA financed the dredging  of
   approximately 5,000 feet of the river. The plant facilities were demolished in 1978, and
   some oil-saturated soil was excavated and shipped to the Nuclear Engineering Landfill
   in Sheffield, Illinois.

              Entire Site: The EPA completed an investigation in May 1990 to: (1)
              identify the key physical features of the site; (2) locate on-site sources of
              creosote and other contaminants or hazardous wastes; (3) determine the
   extent of contaminated soil, groundwater, and river sediment; (4) identify and evaluate
   the potential pathways for contaminant movement; and (5) estimate the potential short-
   and long-term hazards to the public health and the environment. The proposed
   alternative for site cleanup involves bioremediation of soils and river sediments and
   groundwater treatment. The EPA is now awaiting public comments on the proposed
   plan before making final cleanup selections.
   Environmental Progress
   By removing contaminated,sediment from the Little Menomonee River, the EPA has
   reduced the potential for exposure to hazardous materials in the river while the final
   cleanup remedies are being planned.
                                         43

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   MUSKEGO
   LANDFILL
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WED000713180
Site Description
                                          REGION 5
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 09
                                         Waukesha County
                                             Muskego

                                              Alias:
                                          Wauer Landfill
   The 56-acre Muskego Sanitary Landfill site is a former rendering plant with associated
   wastewater lagoons located northeast of the site. The site is defined by two areas
   known as the old fill and the southeast fill. Prior to landfill operations, the site was run
   as a farm by the Alfred Wauer family.  The Wauers, who also ran the off-site animal
   rendering plant and associated waste lagoons, used an inactive sand and gravel pit
   located on the farm for the disposal of animal carcasses and blood. The quarry pit
   evolved into an open dump, and in 1954, Mr. Wauer obtained a permit from the City of
   Muskego. The old fill was operated as a public dumping ground. During the 1960s, the
   Wauers allegedly accepted waste oils and paint products as part of a drum salvage
   operation. The drums were emptied at or near the old fill and their contents were
   burned in open fires. The drums were then reclaimed and resold. In 1969, Acme
   Disposal, a subsidiary of Waste Management of Wisconsin, Inc. (WMWI), leased the
   property and continued operations at the dump. The old fill was licensed by the
   Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) in 1971 as a sanitary landfill. By
   1976, the landfill had been renamed the Muskego Sanitary  Landfill and was operated
   directly by WMWI.  In 1975, the WDNR determined that the quality of groundwater
   was deteriorating in the vicinity of the site and subsequently ordered WMWI to cap and
   close the old fill. The southeast fill was approved as a sanitary landfill by the WDNR in
   1977 and remained active until it was filled to capacity and closed in 1981.
   Groundwater contamination was discovered in  1982 when the WDNR reviewed data in
   its response to a request from WMWI for approval to do repair work on  both fill areas.
   The Town of Waukesha, with  a population of 51,000, is to the east of the landfill. The
   Fox River and associated wetlands are in the area.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties'actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
                 Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater underlying the site has been shown to be contaminated
               with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals including lead
               and chromium. Potential health risks may exist for individuals who drink
               the contaminated groundwater. The wetlands also may be threatened.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   44
               continued

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                                                       MUSKEGO SANITARY LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach	

  This site is being addressed in two stages: initial actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.


  Response Action Status

              Initial Actions:  In 1982, the WDNR found elevated levels of contaminants
              in four residential wells.  The four affected homes were purchased by
              WMWI.  In 1985, the City of Muskego created a public water utility and
   constructed a system to serve area homes that may be using contaminated wells.
              Entire Site: Approximately 19,820 pounds of liquid solvents and 1,735
              tons of contaminated soil and old drums are planned to be removed from
              the site by the potentially responsible parties in 1990.  Under EPA
   monitoring, WMWI initiated an investigation in 1987 to determine the nature and extent
   of contamination at the site and to identify alternative cleanup methods. The
   investigation is scheduled to be completed in late 1990.  The EPA will evaluate the
   study findings and select the final cleanup strategy for site contamination.

   Site Facts: WMWI entered into an agreement to finance and conduct the investigation
   at the site.  The Administrative Order was signed in 1987 by WMWI, the EPA, and the
   WDNR.
   Environmental Progress
   The purchase of the four homes with contaminated wells and construction of a public
   water supply have reduced the potential for exposure to contaminated groundwater
   while site studies are being conducted and cleanup activities are being planned at the
   Muskego Sanitary Landfill site.
                                         45

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   N.  W. MAUTf

   COMPANY,
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ED# WID083290981
                                         REGION 5
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 08
                                         Outagamie County
                                            Appleton
Site Description
   The 2-acre N. W. Mauthe Company, Inc. site operated as a chromium electroplating
   facility from 1946 to 1976. The building was leased during this time by Wisconsin
   Chromium Corporation. Norbert Mauthe owned the facility from 1966 to 1976, when
   he sold it to Southern Plating.  Southern Plating only used the building for storage.  The
   facility was a generator of hazardous waste, which has severely contaminated the site
   with chromium. The chromium leaked through the floor and from a vent directly onto
   the ground. The EPA conducted tests in 1985 and detected  chromium  and volatile
   organic chemicals (VOCs) in the soil and groundwater. In 1982, contaminated
   groundwater from the site entered the basement of a home  and was discharged to
   storm sewers that lead to the Fox River, 1/2 mile from the site. The river drains into
   Lake Winnebago, which provides drinking water to 60,000 people. The river flows
   toward the City of Green Bay and empties into the Green Bay. Approximately 11,000
   people obtain drinking water from public and private wells within 3 miles of the site.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and State actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/24/88

  Final Date: 03/31/89
                 Threats and Contaminants
         L\
               Groundwater and soils contain various VOCs and heavy metals including
               chromium. People who touch or accidentally ingest contaminated
               groundwater or soil may be at risk. If contaminants leach into the river or
               lake, wildlife in or around the water may be harmed.
 Cleanup Approach
   This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
   of the entire site.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   46
                                                                       continued

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                                                     N. W. MAUTHE COMPANY, INC.
Response Action Status

           Initial Actions: In 1982, the State installed a system to collect shallow
           groundwater to prevent puddles from forming. A portion of the site was
           covered with asphalt to limit rainwater from coming into contact with the
           soil.

           Entire Site: The State has begun an investigation to determine the extent
           of groundwater and soil contamination at the site. Once this investigation
           is completed in 1991, the EPA will review the recommended measures for
site cleanup and select the final strategy to address site contamination.
Environmental Progress
Installing a shallow groundwater collection system and paving a portion of the site with
asphalt have reduced the threat of public exposure to contaminants from the N.W.
Mauthe Company, Inc. site while studies are underway and cleanup activities are being
planned.
                                      47

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   NATIONAL P

   INDUSTRIE
   WISCONSIN
   EPA rJD# WID006196174
Site Description
                                          REGION 5
                                      ^NGRESSIONAL DIST. 03
                                          Eau Claire County
                                             Eau Claire
   The 325-acre National Presto Industries (NPI) site was originally owned by the U.S.
   Government and operated as a small arms loading plant and manufacturing facility for
   radar tubes during the 1940s.  NPI purchased the property in 1947 and has maintained
   sole ownership of the facility.  From 1948 until 1954, NPI manufactured consumer
   goods. During this same period, the facility also was used for defense-related activities
   including the manufacturing of fuses for the Army and parts for military aircraft.  Since
   1954, NPI has dedicated the plant for the production of projectile metal parts under
   contracts with the Army. The company ceased operations at the facility by 1980.
   While the facility is currently inactive, it is maintained in a state of readiness by the
   Army.  Wastewater generated at the facility was originally discharged to seven on-site
   seepage pits.  By 1952, the seepage pits could no longer handle the high volume of
   water flow from the plant, and the wastewater was pumped to a former sand and
   gravel pit, which may have been used as a disposal  area before 1948.  From 1967 to
   1969, wastewater lagoons were constructed to provide additional treatment and
   disposal capacity.  Up to 2 1/2 million gallons of wastewater were discharged into the
   lagoons each day. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were disposed  of in one  of the
   lagoons and in an area northeast of the plant known as the Melby Road site from 1967
   to 1969.  In 1986, an additional disposal area was discovered on the eastern end of the
   NPI property line, following a complaint to the Wisconsin Department  of Natural
   Resources (WDNR). Drums containing a variety of waste materials were found and
   later removed and stored on an unused loading dock at the plant by  NPI. The City of
   Eau Claire has a population of 51,500 people. All nearby residences use private wells.
   The Eau Claire municipal well field is within 3 miles  of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties'actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/15/84

  Final Date: 06/10/86
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    48
               continued

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                                                 NATIONAL PRESTO INDUSTRIES, INC.
        7TV
                Threats and Contaminants
Groundwater and soils are contaminated with various VOCs and heavy
metals.  Low levels of VOCs were detected in Lake Hallie, approximately
1 mile north of the site.  Potential health threats include accidentally
ingesting or touching contaminated soil or groundwater. Access to the
main plant area is restricted by fencing and is checked by security guards
throughout the day and night. Access to the remainder of the site is not
restricted, although much of the site is surrounded by a fence.
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in three stages: immediate actions and two long-term
  remedial phases focusing on cleanup of the entire site and selection of a permanent
  water supply.

  Response Action Status
           *  Immediate Actions:  NPI is providing bottled water to the Town of Hallie
              residents. Bottled water is being distributed to homes and businesses
              with contaminated wells and those that may be threatened with
   contamination by VOCs from the site. Fences have been erected to restrict access to
              Entire Site:  Under EPA monitoring, NPI initiated an investigation in 1986
              to determine the type and extent of contamination at the site. The EPA
   ,	„   and the WDNR ordered NPI to distribute bottled water and initiate, a study
   to identify and evaluate alternatives for a permanent water supply. The company also
   was ordered to initiate a study to identify and evaluate cleanup alternatives for control
   of the contamination source at the Melby Road site and East Disposal Area.
   Completion of the studies is scheduled for 1991.                      ,   '

              Permanent Water Supply: Under EPA monitoring, NPI conducted a study
              to identify and evaluate alternatives for a permanent, uncontaminated
   .	,   drinking water supply for the area. The recommended remedy is for the
   City of Eau Claire to supply water to its residents in the affected area through water line
   hookups; a decision by the EPA is expected in 1990.

   Site Facts: In 1986, NPI signed a Consent Order with the EPA and the State to
   conduct an investigation to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the
   site and to identify alternative cleanup remedies. A Unilateral Order was issued in 1989
   for bottled water to be distributed to affected residents.
   Environmental Progress
   Providing bottled water to those affected by site contaminants has eliminated the
   potential for exposure of the surrounding community to hazardous substances in the
   drinking water and will continue to protect residents near the National Presto
   Industries, Inc. site until final cleanup activities are initiated.
                                         43

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   NORTHERN

   ENGRAVING

   COMPANY
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID006183826

Site Description	
                                          REGION 5
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 03
                                          Monroe County
                                             Sparta
   The Northern Engraving Corporation (NEC) owns and operates a manufacturing facility
   at this site. The company produces metal nameplates, dials, and decorative trim for the
   auto industry. Four separate areas of contamination at the NEC facility have been
   identified including the sludge lagoon, seepage pit, sludge dump site, and lagoon
   drainage ditch. The contaminants found in these areas are from past wastewater
   treatment and disposal practices used at the site. Since the 1960s, wastewaters and
   by-products of the metal finishing process have been treated on site. An on-site
   wastewater treatment lagoon was installed in 1967.  Rinse water from the plant was
   collected and treated with sodium hydroxide for precipitation to metal hydroxide solids.
   The treated rinse water was discharged to the sludge lagoon to allow solids to settle.
   The treated lagoon effluent was discharged to the LaCrosse River by way of a storm
   drainage ditch. Between 1968 and 1976, the sludge lagoon accumulated solids from
   the treated wastewater. On two occasions, sludge was removed from the lagoon and
   landfilled in an on-site dump area. The sludge lagoon was eventually removed from
   service in 1980, and an on-site seepage pit was used to neutralize spent acid waste.
   The pit was removed from service, filled with clean material, and graded in 1981. A
   new aboveground wastewater treatment system was installed in 1976 and modified in
   1984. The nearby LaCrosse River is used for recreational  activities.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
                 Threats and Contaminants
               The on-site drainage ditch was contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE)
               from metal finishing wastes.  Groundwater and sludge were
               contaminated with heavy metals including copper, chromium, iron, zinc,
               nickel, and fluoride. Site cleanup has eliminated the potential for health
               risks.
   Morch 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   50
                                                                         continued

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                                                    NORTHERN ENGRAVING COMPANY
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status


              Entire Site: In 1988, under EPA monitoring, the parties potentially
              responsible for the contamination excavated and solidified approximately
              4,400 cubic yards of sludge and soil, installed a cover over the lagoon to
  prevent further site contamination, imposed access and deed restrictions to the
  seepage pit property, and implemented groundwater monitoring. A full year of
  groundwater sampling has  been completed, and results indicate that contamination
  levels have been reduced as a result of the surface cleanup; further groundwater
  monitoring will continue.

  Site Facts:  A Consent Decree was signed by the potentially responsible parties and
  the EPA, under which the company was to conduct site cleanup activities.
   \Envirorimental Progress
   The removal activities described above have addressed surface wastes and
   contaminated material and halted further groundwater impacts. The goals for cleanup
   of the Northern Engraving Company site have been fully achieved and the site no
   longer poses a threat to human health or the environment.  No further cleanup activities
   are required at the site; however, groundwater monitoring will continue to ensure the
   long-term effectiveness of the remedies.
                                        51

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   OCONOMOWO
   ELECTROPLAT

   COMPANY,  INC
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID006100275
                                  REGION 5
                           CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 09
                                   Dodge County
                                     Ashippln
Site Description
   The 5-acre Oconomowoc Electroplating Company, Inc. site is adjacent to 300 acres of
   wetlands.  The shop has been in operation since 1957, using heavy metals in
   electroplating operations. The wastes generated from the process were discharged
   into the adjacent wetland.  Degreasing operations were also performed in conjunction
   with the process. In 1972, the company built two unlined settling lagoons to increase
   wastewater treatment capacity. Sludges have accumulated in the lagoons and may
   have been removed throughout the 1970s. During this time, the company constructed
   a wastewater treatment plant. Inefficient operation of the lagoons and the treatment
   plant, as well as discharges of untreated wastewater, have resulted in an accumulation
   of metal sludge in a wetland adjacent to Davy Creek, a tributary to the Rock River 1
   mile downstream of the site. Plant operations also may have contaminated the
   groundwater in the area. Plating wastes have eaten through the concrete waste
   troughs in the plant floor and also have seeped out of the ground near the plant walls.
   Drums of wastes are leaking on site and sludges have spilled from lagoon
   impoundments. Approximately 1,400 people live within 3 miles of the site. The
   nearest house is 150 feet from the site.
   site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                               NPL LISTING HISTORY

                               Proposed Date: 09/08/83

                                Final Date: 09/21/84

                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater is contaminated with heavy metals, cyanide, and volatile
               organic compounds (VOCs) from electroplating activities. The sediment
               and surface water are contaminated with heavy metals including arsenic,
               cadmium, copper, and lead.  The soil is contaminated with heavy metals
               including aluminum, cadmium, copper, arsenic, calcium, iron, lead, nickel,
               and manganese. Metal sludges have accumulated in the wetlands.
               Accidentally ingesting or touching the contaminated soil, groundwater,
               and sediments may cause a potential health threat.
   March 1990
PL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

              52
                                                                        continued

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                                        OCONOMOWOC ELECTROPLATING COMPANY, INC.
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in two stages: an immediate action and a long-term
  remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Immediate Action:  In 1987, the EPA installed a fence around the entire
              site to restrict access.

              Entire Site: In 1987, the EPA began an investigation into the extent of
              contamination and alternative remedies that could be used to clean up the
              site.  Completion of the investigation is scheduled for late 1990.  At that
              time, the EPA will review the study findings and select the final strategy
   for cleanup of the site contamination.

   Site Facts:  In 1981, the State ordered the company to restrict its discharge of heavy
   metals into the wetlands.
   Environmental Progress
   The fencing of the site has greatly reduced the potential for exposure to contaminated
   materials at the Oconomowoc Electroplating Company, Inc. site while investigations
   are taking place and cleanup activities are being planned.
                                                                            .A
                                        53

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   OMEGA HIL

   NORTH LA
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WED000808568
                                          REGIONS
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 09
                                        Washington County
                                           Germantown
                                             Aliases:
                                       Germantown Landfill 1
                                   Chem. Waste Mgmt. of Wisconsin
                                          Lauer Landfill II
Site Description
   The Omega Hills North Landfill Site covers 83 acres in the extreme southeastern part of
   Wisconsin, near metropolitan Milwaukee.  The State of Wisconsin licensed this landfill
   to accept hazardous wastes from 1977 to 1982. The facility accepted about 5,000 tons
   of hazardous waste each year, compared to the 2,000 tons of non-hazardous waste the
   facility now accepts.  The State estimates there are over 150,000 cubic yards of waste
   now on the site. This estimate includes 3,300 cubic yards of heavy metals and 350
   cubic yards of solvents.  Large amounts of asbestos have been and still are being
   disposed of at the site. More than 15 million gallons of liquid wastes were disposed of
   at this site each year until it stopped accepting such wastes; this includes an estimated
   6 million gallons of hazardous liquid waste. The site stopped accepting hazardous
   wastes in 1982 and liquid wastes in 1983.  About 250 Wisconsin industries have used
   the site for hazardous waste disposal. The facility was originally built below the level of
   groundwater under the site. This allows leachate to flow away from the landfill and into
   an extensive network that collects the waste material before it reaches the
   groundwater. However, the system for collecting leachate  has not operated as it was
   designed, which resulted in 200 million gallons of liquid waste accumulating under the
   site.  Approximately 42,000 people live within a 3-mile radius of the site.  There are 874
   private wells within 3 miles of the site. The nearest municipal well is  1 1/2 miles away,
   and the nearest residences are 150 yards from the site.  Several office buildings are
   located within 100 yards of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
a combination of Federal, State, and
potentially responsible parties'
actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
    March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    54
               continued

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                                                      OMEGA HILLS WORTH LANDFILL
                 Threats and Contaminants
      IT
Leachate has been migrating from the site and has contaminated the
shallow groundwater under several private wells in the area with volatile
organic compounds (VOCs) including benzenes, toluene, and vinyl
chloride.  Leachate contains heavy metals such as zinc, nickel, arsenic,
and cadmium, as well as phthalates and VOCs including trichloroethylene
(TCE).  Leachate on site also contains cyanide, gases, petrochemicals, and
pesticides.  Surface water in off-site streams contains VOCs.  People
could be exposed to hazardous chemicals from the site by drinking
contaminated groundwater, eating crops grown with contaminated water
or soil,  or by inhaling contaminated dust particles,  Dairy farms and
orchards are adjacent to the site, and crops such as corn, soybeans,  and
apples  could be contaminated if they are irrigated with contaminated
groundwater.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages:  immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase directed at cleanup of the entire site. ,  '.
  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions: Currently, a number of low fences surround the site,
              and signs have been posted warning people not to trespass onto the
              landfill property. The site is closed and covered with clay. Under state
              monitoring, the owner of the site installed additional perimeter slurry or
   compacted clay cut-off walls and systems to collect leachate, preventing it from
   entering the groundwater under the site. The owner also installed a pre-treatment plant
   for the leachate and more devices to intercept and collect gases that escape from the
   landfill.

              Entire Site: The State is now studying the site to determine more clearly
              the nature and extent of contamination at the site. Once the investigation
              has been completed and all site contamination has been identified, the
              State and the  EPA will select the final cleanup strategy for the site.

   Site Facts:  In 1984, the owner of the site entered into a stipulated agreement with the
   State to decrease the levels of  leachate under the site. The State closed the facility in
   1989.
  \Envirqnmental Progress
   Collecting and treating leachate, fencing the site, and the other immediate actions
   described above have substantially reduced exposure to contaminants while
   investigations leading to the selection of final remedies are taking place.
                                        55

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   ONALASKA
   MUNICIPAL
   LANDFILL
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ED# WID980821656
                                     REGION 5
                             CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 03
                                     LaCrosse County
                                       Onalsska
Site Description
   The Onalaska Municipal Landfill covers 7 acres of an 11-acre parcel located in a rural,
   agricultural area near homes and a sportsman's club.  The landfill area was originally
   mined as a sand and gravel quarry in the early 1960s. From 1969 to 1980, the Town of
   Onalaska was licensed to operate a municipal landfill at the former quarry. Municipal
   trash and industrial chemical wastes including naphtha, toluene, and paint residues
   were disposed of at the site. Open burning was also carried out until 1971, when the
   Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) banned this practice after it
   received complaints of heavy smoke and odors.  After 1971, barrels containing waste
   were emptied into, pre-excavated holes, and,  occasionally, full barrels were buried.  In
   one case, 300 barrels were buried, and in another case, a 500-gallon tank truck partially.
   filled with paint residues was buried at the site. The EPA estimates that the equivalent
   of 2,500 drums of liquid wastes were disposed of at the site. The WDNR closed the
   landfill in 1980. The closest residence is within 300 feet of the site, and the population
   within a 1-mile radius is 320. The nearby Black River is a major recreational resource
   for residents in the surrounding area.
   Site Responsibility:  This site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
                                 NPL LISTING HISTORY

                                 Proposed Date:  09/08/83

                                  Final Date: 09/21/84
                  Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including
               trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene, naphtha, and barium. Th&
               groundwater in the sand and gravel aquifer below the site is believed to
               be in contact with the buried waste at least part of the time during a
               normal year. Chemicals in the landfill are leaching into the groundwater,
               which may eventually reach an adjacent wetlands area and the nearby
               Black River. People could be exposed to contaminants from the site by
               drinking contaminated groundwater and by breathing in vapors that
               escape from contaminated groundwater when used for washing and
               showering. Groundwater flows from the site into the upper Mississippi
               River Wildlife Refuge, which also borders the Black River and  Lake
               Onalaska.  Contaminated runoff from the site could affect these surface
               waters, as well as the aquatic plants and animals and wildlife residing in
               these areas.
   March 1990
NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

               56
continued

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                                                      ONALASKA MUNICIPAL LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages:  initial actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Initial Actions: The Town of Onalaska placed a clay cap over the landfill
              in 1982 to prevent seepage from spreading contaminants. A residential
              well was replaced due to contamination that exceeded the Federal
   drinking water and State groundwater quality standards.

              Entire Site: The EPA began studying the nature and extent of
              contamination at the site in 1988. The field work includes  sampling of
              groundwater, soil, surface water, and sediments. The geology and
   groundwater of the site also are being evaluated. The EPA will use the results of the
   field studies to consider various technologies that will address contamination at the
   site, with recommendations planned for 1990.
   Environmental Progress
   By placing a cover over the landfill, the possibility of direct contact with hazardous
   materials has been virtually eliminated while investigations are being conducted and
   cleanup activities for the Onalaska Landfill site are being planned.
                                         57

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   SAUK COUNT;
   LANDFILL
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980610141
                                       REGIONS
                                CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                        Sauk County
                                    10 miles west of Baraboo
Site Description
   The 10-acre Sauk County Landfill site operated as a landfill, accepting municipal and
   foundry wastes. In 1973, the County received a permit from the State to accept
   municipal waste, which was hauled in from several small municipalities and placed on
   the site until 1983.  The landfill also accepted foundry wastes from Grede Foundry, Inc.
   Foundry sand formed berms within the landfill area. An estimated 2% of the wastes
   were baghouse dusts containing lead and cadmium.  The landfill was closed in 1983,
   and clay was placed on the top and sides of the facility. An EPA inspection in 1985 led _
   to the discovery that methane gas is being generated from site wastes and that volatile
   organic compounds (VOCs) and metals are present in on-site monitoring wells.
   Approximately 900 people obtain drinking water from private wells within 3 miles of the
   site.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and State actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/24/88

 Final Date: 10/04/89
                 Threats and Contaminants
              Groundwater is contaminated with the VOCs toluene and benzene and
              heavy metals including arsenic, chromium, and barium. The greatest
              potential health threat to people is drinking contaminated groundwater or
              inhaling vapors from the groundwater. Inhaling air contaminated with
              methane gas is also a potential health threat.
   Cleanup Approach
     The site is being addressed in two stages: initial actions and a long-term remedial
     phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                   68
                                                                     continued

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                                                          SAUK COUNTY LANDFILL
Response Action Status
            Initial Actions: When the landfill was closed in 1983, clay was placed
            over it to prevent water from entering the landfill.
           Entire Site: The State, under EPA monitoring, will begin an investigation
           into the nature and extent of soil, groundwater, and other contamination at
           the site in late 1990.  The investigation will define the contaminants of
           concern and will recommend alternatives for the final site cleanup. The
investigation is planned to be completed in 1993.
Environmental Progress
By initially covering the landfill with clay, the potential for hazardous materials moving
into the groundwater or the surrounding area has been greatly reduced while
investigations leading to the final selection of cleanup remedies are under way.
                                                                           A
                                      59

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   SCHMALZ
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980820096
                                        REGION 5
                                 CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 06
                                        Calumet County
                                        Town of Harrison
Site Description
   The 7-acre Schmaiz Dump site is located on the northern shore of Lake Wmnebago and
   was the location of unauthorized industrial dumping during the 1960s and 1970s.  The
   previous site owner began filling the property in 1968. Records show that the wastes
   disposed of included car bodies, stone, trees, pulp chips, mash, fly ash, bottom ash,
   and demolition debris. Adjacent property to the north and west of the site also was
   used for waste disposal. Reportedly, these wastes included ashes and a white sludge.
   Evidently garbage was deposited in a marshy area that once existed immediately
   beyond the southern property line.  In 1972 and 1973, the site accepted fly ash and
   bottom ash from a utility company. In 1978 and 1979, the site accepted
   polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated building demolition debris that was later
   used to fill a wetland area.  In 1979, in response to residents' complaints, the State
   ordered the transportation of demolition materials to the site to cease.  There are about
   60 residences and businesses within 1,000 feet of the property, and the site is about
   500 feet from Lake Winnebago, a source of public water supply. All water users in the
   area are connected to the Menash water system, although some have retained wells
   for auxiliary purposes. The neighboring city of Appleton, with a population of 60,000,
   has its drinking water intake approximately 1,200 feet from the shore of Lake
   Winnebago.  The present property owner intends to convert the property into a
   residential development.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
                   Threats and Contaminants
                Groundwater was contaminated with heavy metals including lead and
                chromium. Sediment and surface water samples collected from a pond
                near the disposal area and from the drainage ditches leading into the pond
                indicate the presence of PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),
                and heavy metals. Soil was contaminated with heavy metals, PCBs, and
                PAHs.  Potential health threats to people include drinking contaminated
                surface water and coming into direct contact with contaminated
                sediments.  Eating contaminated fish from the polluted waters could also
                present a health threat.
    March 1990
     NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    60
                                                                          continued

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                                                                    SCHMALZ DUMP
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial
  phase directed at cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Immediate Actions: In 1985, the EPA constructed a 6-foot high security
              fence and warning signs around the entire site boundary to restrict access.
              More than 4,500 cubic yards of PCB-contaminated materials have  been
              removed.

              Entire Site: The cleanup activities at the site have been divided into two
              parts.  The first part, involving the excavation and off-site disposal of 3,500
              cubic yards of PCB-contaminated debris and sediment, was completed in
              1989.  The second part of the cleanup primarily involves the treatment of
  contaminated water.  The selected cleanup technologies include: (1) installation of a
  soil cap to contain the contaminated soil and debris; (2) operation and maintenance of a
  groundwater monitoring program; and (3) implementation of a voluntary well
  abandonment program for nearby wells. The EPA is preparing the technical
  specifications and design for the long-term cleanup action. The cleanup activities will
  begin once the design, phase is completed in late 1990.

  Site Facts:  In 1989, the EPA and one of the eight parties potentially responsible for the
  site contamination .reached a settlement wherein the party agreed to pay for site
  cleanup activities.
  Environmental Progress
  Much of the contaminated material has been removed from the Schmalz Dump site
  and has been disposed of at a federally approved facility. To date, completed cleanup
  actions have achieved site goals for soil and surface water contamination at the site.
  Therefore, no further cleanup actions related to soil or surface water are needed.
  These actions, along with the construction of a security fence surrounding the site,
  have greatly reduced the potential for exposure to hazardous materials while the
  technical specifications and design are being completed for the long-term groundwater
  cleanup of the entire site.
                                        61

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   SCRAP PRO

   CO.,  INC.
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID046536785
                                        REGION 5
                                 CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 07
                                         Taylor County
                                            Medford
Site Description
   The 2-acre Scrap Processing Co. site, located approximately 1 mile northwest of
   Medford, currently operates as a gas station and salvage yard. From 1955 until 1974,
   the company cracked lead and acid batteries to reclaim the lead that was smelted on
   site. During the battery crushing operation, the equivalent of 399,000 gallons of acid
   wastes contaminated with heavy metals from the batteries ran from the crushing area,
   along an unlined ditch, into an unlined pond. The pond has intermittently overflowed
   into the Black River, located along one side of the site, contaminating it with heavy
   metals and acid.  Old cars, car parts, and other materials commonly found in scrap
   yards are present on the site. A company that manufactures machine parts is located
   next to the scrap yard. The building that was used for battery cracking is still standing
   and is located on the western end of the site. The site is bordered by a residential area,
   a few older homes, and a mobile home park. Two of the older homes across the street
   from the site use private wells.  The residents in the subdivision to the east of the site
   and people in the mobile home  park use water from Medford municipal wells. One of
   these municipal wells is located directly across the river and downstream from the site.
   Reportedly, this particular well,  and a few others in the area surrounding the site, are no
   longer in use.  Fishing is common along the river, and several parks are located along
   the western side of the river, across from the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
                  -Threats and Contaminants
                Groundwater, soils, and sediments are contaminated with heavy metals
                including lead, barium, copper, and zinc. Elevated levels of
                polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were also found in soil samples.
                Surface water in the on-site pond and at the point of entry into the Black
                River is contaminated with heavy metals and acids. Potential health
                threats to people include drinking, accidental ingestion, and coming in
                direct contact with contaminated sediment, soil, surface water, and
                groundwater. The main contaminant of concern at this site is lead, to
                which  pregnant women and children are highly sensitive.
    March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                    62
                                                                           continued

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                                                         SCRAP PROCESSING CO., INC.
Cleanup Approach
  The site is being addressed in two stages: initial actions and a long-term remedial
  phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
  Response Action Status


              Initial Actions: In 1984, the potentially responsible party drained the
              unlined pond and disposed of the liquid in the municipal storm sewer.  A
              total of 7,200 gallons of water from the pond were transported to a
  manhole in the city park that is located on the eastern side of the river. The first 6
  inches of lead-contaminated soil and sediment were excavated and hauled away for off-
  site disposal at a hazardous  waste landfill.  Remaining contaminated soil was classified
  as solid waste and was disposed of at the Medford Municipal Landfill. Excavation and
  removal of wastes were completed in 1986.
              Entire Site: The EPA is planning to begin an investigation into the nature
              and extent of remaining contamination at the site in 1991. The
              investigation will define the contaminants of concern and will recommend
              alternatives for the final cleanup.  The investigation is planned to be
  completed in 1993.

  Site Facts:  In 1983, the State brought an enforcement action against Scrap
  Processing, the party potentially responsible for the site contamination, which resulted
  in the company being ordered to perform initial cleanup actions at the site.
   Environmental Progress
  Much of the contaminated materials, including soil and liquids, have been excavated
  and properly disposed of away from the site, significantly reducing the potential of
  exposure to hazardous materials.  Investigations leading to the selection of a final
  cleanup remedy for the remaining site contamination currently are being planned.
                                        63

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   SHEBOYGAN

   &  RIVER
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WTJD980996367
                                               REGION 5
                                        CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 06
                                              Sheboygan County
                                           55 miles north of Milwaukee
Site Description
   The Sheboygan Harbor & River site extends approximately 14 miles through the
   communities of Sheboygan Falls, Kohler, and Sheboygan. The site area
   includes Sheboygan Harbor, located on Lake Michigan, and the lower Sheboygan River,
   which discharges into the Sheboygan Harbor.  In 1977, the State detected
   polychlorinated blphenyls {PCBs} during routine sampling of fish.  Since then, PCBs
   have been detected in fish, wildlife, surface water, and sediments in the harbor and
   river.  The highest concentrations of PCBs have been detected in sediments
   immediately downstream fronrLa die-casting plant in Sheboygan Falls. Concentrations
   decline farther downstream from the plant. Tecumseh Products Company excavated
   contaminated soils from its property along the river and disposed of them off site in
   1978.  The Sheboygan River drains into Lake Michigan, the source of drinking water for
   approximately 58,000 people within the Sheboygan/Sheboygan Falls/Kohler
   metropolitan area.  The EPA has detected PCBs in sediments within 1 mile of the
   drinking water intakes. Both the Sheboygan Harbor and River are used for recreation.
   Site Responsibility:
      This site is being addressed through
      Federal and potentially responsible
      parties'actions.
NPL. LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/18/85

  Final Date: 06/10/86
        L\
                  Threats and Contaminants
Sediments are contaminated with PCBs, a wide variety of heavy metals,
volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs), and phthalates.  Soils and surface water are contaminated with
PCBs and heavy metals  including arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and
zinc. People who touch  or accidentally ingest contaminated soil,
sediments, or surface water may be at risk.  Because fish and wildlife are
contaminated with PCBs, people who eat contaminated fish or waterfowl
also may suffer adverse  health effects. In 1978, the State advised
residents not to eat fish  from the Sheboygan River and two tributaries,
the Mullet and Onion Rivers, because of PCS contamination. In 1987, the
State also issued an advisory not to eat wildlife from the area. The
advisories are still in effect.
    March 1990
          NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

                          64
                                                                          continued

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                                                       SHEBOYGAN HARBOR & RIVER
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status
              Entire Site: Tecumseh Products Company, Inc. began an investigation in
              1986 to determine the nature and extent of site contamination. The
              investigation is assessing risks to human health and the environment and
              will result in the evaluation of potential cleanup alternatives. The
   investigation has included sediment sampling of the river and harbor, floodplain soil
   sampling, and river and harbor water sampling.  Tecumseh is conducting an alternative
   investigation to test and evaluate potential cleanup technologies that may be used in
   treating PCB-contaminated sediments.  A Confined Treatment Facility was built on site
   and is being used to study the effectiveness of enhanced biodegradation for the
   treatment of PCBs in sediments. Investigations are scheduled to be completed in late
   1991.

   Site Facts:  In 1986, the EPA and the State signed a Consent Order with Tecumseh
   Products, requiring the company to conduct an investigation at the site.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Sheboygan Harbor & River
   site while investigations are taking place and cleanup activities are being planned.
                                                                            A
                                        65

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   SPICKL
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980!
                                          REGION 5
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 07
                                          Marathon County
                                              Spencer
Site Description
   The 80-acre Spickler Landfill site is a former landfill now used as a tree nursery. The
   landfill began operations under private ownership in 1970, disposing of both municipal .
   and industrial wastes.  The facility was sold to Mid-State Disposal, Inc., which operated
   the facility from 1972 to 1973. In  1975, Mid-State Disposal sold the site back to the
   original owner, who subsequently resold the property in 1976 to the present owner.
   The landfill received municipal waste and asbestos dust at a time when the landfill had
   no liner or leachate controls. The area was subsequently capped with clay.  In 1971,
   with State approval, approximately 1,280 cubic yards of mercury sludge were deposited
   at the site in a clay-lined pit. Later that year, the pit was capped with clay. The landfill
   closed in 1976.  A site inspection in 1984 led the EPA to observe that the pit had
   subsided and water had ponded on top.  Leachate was seeping into a ditch adjacent to
   the site, threatening local surface water. Approximately 75 people live within 1 mile of
   the site, and an undetermined number of private wells are located within 1/4 mile. The
   sandstone agu/fer provides drinking water to private wells serving 2,000 people within
   3 miles of the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties'actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 01/22/87

  Final Date: 07/21/87
                  Threats and Contaminants
                Groundwater in both the upper and lower aquifers is contaminated with
                heavy metals including mercury and barium, as well as volatile organic
                compounds (VOCs) including toluene.  Potential health threats to people
                include drinking or touching contaminated groundwater.
 Cleanup Approach
    This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
    of the entire site.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    66
                                                                          continued

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                                                              SPICKLER LANDFILL
Response Action Status

           Entire Site: The potentially responsible parties, BASF and Weyerhaeuser,
           currently are conducting an investigation into the nature and .extent of site
           contamination, under EPA monitoring. The investigation will define the
contaminants and recommend alternatives for the final cleanup. The investigation is
planned to be completed in late 1991.
Environmental Progress
After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
determined that no immediate actions were required at the Spickler Landfill site while
investigations are continuing and cleanup activities are being planned.
                                       67

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r
             STOUGHT

             LANDFILL
             WISCONSIN
             EPA DD# WID980901219
         Site Description
                                          REGIONS
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                            Dane County
                                             Stoughton

                                              Alias:
                                       Stoughton Landfill # 113
             The 27-acre Stoughton City Landfill was purchased by the City of Stoughton in 1952 for
             landfill operations.  Between 1952 and 1969, the site was operated as an uncontrolled
             dump. In 1969, the site began operating as a State-licensed landfill. The landfill
             originally was established for the disposal of commercial and municipal wastes. Local
             residents also used the landfill for household waste disposal. Uniroyal, Inc., a plastics
             and rubber products manufacturer, disposed of wastes at the site from 1953 to 1962.
             The wastes primarily consisted of solvents, other liquid chemicals, and vinyl plastic
             scrap. During this time, open burning of the liquid wastes was common, and soil was
             used to cover up the smoldering residue.  Liquid wastes were also  reported to have
             been disposed of in boreholes on a portion of the landfill.  A 1972 Wisconsin
             Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) license prohibited the disposal of hazardous
             waste at the site. In 1978, the site was capped, seeded, and closed according to
             WDNR regulations. As part of closure plans, six wells were installed to monitor
             groundwater conditions at and near the site. The landfill was officially closed in 1982,
             and plans were developed by Stoughton to establish a park on top of the revegetated
             site. The WDNR sampled the monitoring wells in 1983 and found that two of the six
             wells contained elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Routine
             sampling conducted by the City of Stoughton also indicated the presence of VOCs in
             water collected from the monitoring wells. Approximately 10,000 people live within a
             3-mile radius of the site.
            Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties' actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 10/15/84

  Final Date: 06/10/86
                           Threats and Contaminants
                         The groundwater is contaminated with various VOCs and could be
                         hazardous to the health of individuals if it is ingested over a long period of
                         time. The municipal wells in the City of Stoughton have a potential of
                         being contaminated by the hazardous materials at the site; however,
                         because of their depth and location, the risk is extremely low.
             March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    68
               continued

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                                                          STOTJGHTON CITY LANDFILL
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.                                    ....  .•:  ;  :-•.-;:.  (.;.:! ?^


  Response Action Status

              Entire Site: The parties potentially responsible for the contamination are
              conducting an investigation to determine the nature and extent of the
              contamination. The study is expected to be completed in 1991. The:'•• •"•.*•. -^
   purpose of the investigation is to:  (1) identify the amounts and types of VOCs present;
   (2) define the process through which contaminants may be released into the v •'--••   ^"?
   environment; (3) define the direction in which contaminants may travel; (4) define the -;
   boundaries of the contamination; and (5) determine the routes of exposure and
   potential environmental and public health threats.  Once the study is completed in late
   1990, the EPA will review the findings and alternative cleanup remedies to'select the-';
   final strategy for addressing site contamination.              ;'•-      ' .: : .   .:    x  -;:

   Site Facts:  Uniroyal, Inc. and the City of Stoughton signed a Consent Order in 1-988 for
   the company to conduct an investigation of the site under EPA and WDNR oversight.  '•-
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Stoughton City Landfill site
   while investigations are taking place and cleanup activities are being planned. ,.,., . ,, ,-
                                         69

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   TOMAH
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980610299
                                          REGION 5
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 03
                                           Monroe County
                                              Tomah
Site Description
   The 10-acre Tomah Armory site was operated by the City of Tomah as an open unlined
   dump accepting both municipal and industrial wastes from the early 1950s to 1955.
   During part of this period, the City had a similar operation 2 miles to the south, which is
   now known as the Tomah Fairgrounds, also an NPL site.  Both Tomah sites accepted
   primarily municipal refuse.  However, Union Camp Corporation notified the EPA that its
   polyethylene plant in Tomah had sent to the sites 23,770 gallons of solvents and heavy
   metals, including lead and chromium components. The city sold part of the land to the
   Wisconsin National Guard for construction of an Armory.  Homes were built on the rest
   of the land. According to the City's Director of Public Works, a portion or all of the
   dump was excavated and filled with sand before the buildings were constructed.
   Approximately 9,500 people draw drinking water from public and private wells within 3
   miles of the site. The nearest well is 1 mile from the site. The Lemonweir River is  .
   approximately 500 feet away from the site. This river and Lake Tomah are used for
   recreation.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
    NPL LISTING HISTORY

   Proposed Date: 01/22/87

     Final Date: 07/21/87
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater, soil, and surface water are contaminated with volatile
               organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals including chromium and
               lead.  The contaminated groundwater, soil, and surface water could pose
               a health hazard to individuals if they are accidentally touched or
               swallowed. The contamination at the site could affect the wetland
               adjacent to the site.  Nearby Deer Creek also could be polluted by the
               contamination from the site, and the trout living in the stream could
               bioaccumulate the toxic substances present in the site.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE S
                    70
TES
                   continued

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                                                                 TOMAH ARMORY
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
   Response Action Status
             Entire Site: The EPA plans to conduct an investigation of the site to
             determine the nature and extent of the contamination and to evaluate
             alternative remedies' for site cleanup. The investigation is expected to
   begin in late 1990.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Tomah Armory site while
   investigations and cleanup activities are being planned.
                                        71

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r
           TOMAH

           FAIRGROUN
           WISCONSIN
           EPA ID# WTJD980616841
                                          REGIONS
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 03
                                          Monroe County
                                             Tomah
        Site Description
            From 1953 to 1959, the 10-acre Tomah Fairgrounds site was operated by the City as an
            open unlined dump, accepting both industrial and municipal wastes. During this period,
            the City had a similar operation 2 miles away, where the Tomah Armory is now located;
            this site is also listed on the NPL.  Both Tomah sites accepted primarily municipal
            refuse. However, Union Camp Corporation notified the EPA that its polyethylene  plant
            in Tomah had sent 23,770 gallons of solvents and heavy metals, including lead and
            chromium components, to the sites. After the dump in the southwest stopped
            operating, the City covered the area, which then became part of the Tomah
            Fairgrounds. Approximately 9,500 people draw drinking water from the public and
            private wells within 3 miles of the site. The closest residence is within 1/4 mile of the
            site, and approximately 4,100 people live within a 1-mile radius. The site is actively
            used as a fairgrounds; therefore, access is unrestricted. The nearest downslope water,
            Lake Tomah, is approximately 400 feet away from the site and is used for recreational
            purposes.  Because the wastes were inadequately covered and there were no
            diversion structures, contaminated runoff could have reached nearby surface waters.
           Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 01/22/87
  Final Date: 07/21/87
                          Threats and Contaminants
                       The groundwater, soil, and surface water are contaminated with volatile
                       organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals including chromium and
                       lead.  The contaminated groundwater, soil, and surface water could be a
                       health hazard to individuals if it is accidentally touched or swallowed.  In
                       an inspection conducted in 1984, the EPA observed areas where erosion
                       had worn away some of the soil;  thus, people and animals could
                       potentially come into direct contact with hazardous substances.
            March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    72
                                                                                 continued

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                                                             TOMAH FAIRGROUNDS
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
  Response Action Status

             Entire Site:  The EPA plans to begin an investigation of the site in late
             1990 to determine the nature and extent of the contamination.  The results
             of the investigation will be used to evaluate various cleanup alternatives
  and to select final cleanup remedies.
  Environmental Progress
  After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
  determined that no immediate actions were required at the Tomah Fairgrounds site
  while investigations and cleanup activities are being planned.
                                       73

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   TOMAH  MUN
   SANITARY L
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980610307
                                         REGIONS
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 03
                                          Monroe County
                                             Tomah •
Site Description
   The 40-acre Tomah Municipal Sanitary Landfill site was owned and operated by the City
   of Tomah from 1960 to 1979 and was licensed by the State to accept municipal
   wastes. In 1979, the site was covered with sand and planted with red pines. The
   landfillls unlined. One local facility, the Union Camp Corporation, notified the EPA that ;
   it had sent to the landfill approximately 1,514 drums of wastes containing, barium, '
   chromium, lead, spent solvents, ethyl acetate, and trichloroethylene (TCE). In 1984, the
   EPA inspected the site and sampled the groundwater and sediments in Deer Creek,
   which runs through the property 250 feet north of the filled area.  On-site groundwater
   is contaminated with heavy metals and volatile organic compounds {VOCs). The City of
   Tomah has a population of approximately 7,300 people. Municipal wells serving the
   City of Tomah are located within a 3-mile radius of the site. Approximately 2,000
   people live within a 1-mile radius of the site and use private wells for drinking water
   supplies. Deer Creek is used by local residents as a trout stream.  A freshwater
   wetland is located within 1,000 feet of the  site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/10/86
  Final Date: 03/31/89
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater is contaminated with VOCs and heavy metals including
               cadmium, chromium, and lead. The contaminated groundwater could
               pose a health threat to individuals if it is accidentally touched or
               swallowed. Also, contamination could enter the food chain through the
               fish in Deer Creek, which may be polluted.
  Cleanup Approach
    This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
    of the entire site.
    March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    74
                                                                         continued

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                                              TOMAH MUNICIPAL SANITARY LANDFILL
Response Action Status
           Entire Site: The EPA plans to begin an investigation in late 1990 to
           determine the nature and extent of the contamination.  The results of the
           investigation will be used to evaluate various cleanup alternatives and also
 to select a final cleanup method.
I Environmental Progress
After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
determined that no immediate actions were required at the Tomah Municipal Sanitary
Landfill site while investigations and cleanup activities are being planned.
                                       75

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   WASTE
   MANAGEME]
   WISCONSIN, rare;-
   (BROOKFIELD SANITARY
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID980901235
                                       REGION 5
                                CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 09
                                      Waukesha County
                                         Brookfield
Site Description
   Waste Management of Wisconsin operated a 20-acre sanitary landfill at this site from
   1969 to 1981.  Prior to 1969, the site had been a sand and gravel pit.  In 1976, Waste
   Management received a permit from the Wisconsin Department of Natural
   Resources (WDNR) to accept municipal waste. According to EPA tests in 1985, the
   groundwater is contaminated with cyanide. Approximately 11,000 people obtain
   drinking water from public and private wells within 3 miles of the site; the nearest well
   is within 1,000 feet of the site. Poplar Creek, 3,600 feet southwest of the site, is used
   for recreational activities. A freshwater wetland is located 1,800 feet from the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 06/24/88
                 Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater is contaminated with various volatile organic
               compounds (VOCs), vinyl chloride, and cyanide from site landfilling
               operations. Potential health risks include touching or accidentally
               ingesting contaminated groundwater. The wetland also may be
               threatened.
  Cleanup Approach
    This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
    of the entire site.
    March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   76
                                                                     continued

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               WASTE MANAGEMENT OF WISCONSIN, INC. (BROOKFIELD SANITARY LANDFILL]
Response Action Status
           Entire Site: An investigation into the type and extent of contamination is
           scheduled to begin in late 1990.  This investigation will be the basis for
           evaluating alternative cleanup remedies.
Environmental Progress
After proposing this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
determined that no immediate actions were required at the Waste Management of
Wisconsin site at Brookfield while studies and cleanup activities are being planned.
                                      77

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   WASTE RESE

   RECLAMATI

   COMPANY
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WDD990829475
                                        REGION 5
                                       iRESSIONAL DIST. 03
                                        Eau Claire County
                                           Eau Claire
Site Description
   The 9-acre Waste Research & Reclamation (WRR) site was occupied by a roofing
   company from the 1970s to 1981.  WRR has occupied the site since 1981.  WRR is
   primarily a reclamation and recycling business for hazardous liquid wastes, fuel
   blending, and transportation of hazardous waste for incineration or disposal. Waste
   materials handled include chlorinated and fluorinated solvents and flammables.
   Approximately 160 people live within a 1-mile radius of the site. The site is 1/2 mile
   east of Lowes Creek, a tributary of the Chippewa River.  The closest residence is 1/4
   mile from the site. A private well is located 1,500 feet from the site.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal, State, and potentially
responsible parties' actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
                 Threats and Contaminants
         IT
               The groundwater, soil, and surface water are contaminated with various
               volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from site waste handling procedures.
               People who accidentally ingest or touch contaminated materials may at
               risk.
 Cleanup Approach
    This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
    of the entire site.
    March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                   78
                                                                       continued

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	.	WASTE RESEARCH & RECLAMATION COMPANY

Response Action Status

           Entire Site:, The site has been divided into six solid waste management
           units for investigation and cleanup purposes: (1) drum storage sheds; (2)
           trailer parking, product warehouse, and abandoned drum storage area; (3)
the pole barn cooling water discharge area and abandoned drum storage area; (4)
abandoned lagoon, existing holding tank, and existing collection sump for surface water
runoff, (5) the LUWA reclamation area located in the central and western portions of
the site; and (6) the KONTRO reclamation area located in the south-central portions of
the site. The parties potentially responsible for site contamination currently are
conducting an investigation into the nature and extent of groundwater, surface water,
and soil contamination at the site.  The investigation will define the contaminants and
recommend alternatives for the final cleanup. The studies are scheduled for
completion in late 1990.

Site Facts: In 1983, the State signed a Consent Order with the potentially responsible
parties to implement a long-term monitoring program.
Environmental Progress
After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
determined that no immediate actions were required at the Waste Research &
Reclamation Company site while studies are taking place and cleanup activities are
being planned.
                                       79

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   WAUSA
   CONTAM
   WISCONSIN
   EPA J£># WID980993521
                                          REGION 5
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 07
                                          Marathon County
                                             Wausau

                                              Alias:
                                       Wausau Water Supply
Site Description
   The City of Wausau provides drinking water for approximately 33,000 people from
   groundwater wells located on both sides of the Wisconsin River. In 1982, three of the
   city's wells were found to be contaminated with high levels of volatile organic
   compounds (VOCs).  Affected city wells were removed from service.  In 1984, an
   interim carbon filter system was installed until two air strippers could be constructed.
   The air strippers, installed at the municipal water facility in 1984, replaced the carbon
   filters as a long-term solution for providing acceptable drinking water to city residents.
   Uncontaminated water from two wells is blended with treated water from
   contaminated wells to reduce VOC concentrations in the water supply distribution
   system. Approximately 32,000 people live within a 3-mile radius of the site. The
   Wisconsin River, which bisects the area, is used for commercial and recreational
   purposes.
   Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties'actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 04/10/85
  Final Date: 06/10/86
                  Threats and Contaminants
               The groundwater and soil are contaminated with various VOCs.  Potential
               health risks include accidentally ingesting or touching contaminated
               groundwater.
 Cleanup Approach
   This site is being addressed in three stages:  immediate actions and two long-term
   remedial phases focusing on cleanup of the West Side contamination plume and
   cleanup of the other contamination plumes.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    80
               continued

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                                           WAUSAU GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION
Response Action Status
           Immediate Actions: In 1984, the EPA installed carbon filters to remove
           VOCs from the contaminated groundwater. Air strippers were installed in
           two wells.

           West Side Contaminant Plume: In 1988, the EPA selected the following
           cleanup actions for this phase of the cleanup:  (1) groundwater pumping
           and treatment using air stripping with discharge to the Wisconsin River; (2)
           groundwater monitoring; and (3) provision for implementation of an
additional extraction wellas necessary. The treatment system is being designed by the
potentially responsible parties; it is expected to be operational in 1990.

           Other Contamination Plumes: In  1989, the EPA selected the following
           remedies for two plumes: (1) installation of soil vapor extraction systems
           to remove VOCs from soils at each  of the three identified source areas; (2)
           treatment of gases produced by the soil vapor extraction operation using
vapor phase carbon units which will be regenerated at an off-site facility; and (3)
pumping of the municipal supply wells to speed  removal of the groundwater
contaminant plumes affecting these wells. The design of the remedies is scheduled to
be completed in late 1990.

Site Facts: A Consent Decree was signed in 1989 with the parties potentially
 responsible for site contamination to finance a portion of past cleanup costs.
 Environmental Progress
 The installation of carbon filters and air strippers in the drinking water supply has
 reduced the potential of exposure to hazardous substances in the drinking water and
 will continue to protect residents near the Wausau Ground Water Contamination site
 until the planned groundwater pumping and treatment facility is operational and has
 reduced contamination to safety levels.  Soil cleanup technologies currently are being
 designed.
                                       81

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   WHEELER
   WISCONSIN
   EPA ID# WID9806106M
                                           REGION 5
                                    CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                            Rock County
                                      11/2 miles east of Janesville
Site Description
   The 3 3/4-acre Wheeler Pit site, a former disposal area, lies within a 15-acre abandoned
   gravel pit. Wheeler Pit was originally mined for sand and gravel by the Chicago,
   Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific Railroad Company. In 1956, General Motors
   Corporation (CMC) leased a portion of the pit from the railroad for waste disposal.
   From 1960 to 1974, CMC used Wheeler Pit to dispose of paint and wastewater
   sludges from its Janesville auto assembly plant as well as coal ashes from power plant
   boilers. The sludge and ash were contained by a dike at the pit.  In 1971, a liquid was
   found seeping onto the ground from the CMC disposal area.  Disposal at Wheeler Pit
   ended in 1973, and the site was covered in 1975 at the request of La Prairie Township.
   From 1974 to 1981, the site was intermittently monitored for groundwater
   contamination. Elevated  levels of trichloroethylene (TCE), chromium, zinc, and barium
   were found in site groundwater samples collected in 1981  by CMC and the Wisconsin
   Department of Natural Resources (WDNR).  Approximately 25,000 people live within 3
   miles of the site. The Rock River is approximately 2 miles west of the site. The City of
   Janesville operates five groundwater wells within 3 miles of the site. Three of the
   wells supply virtually all of the Janesville water supply. Five private wells are located
   within 1/4 mile of the site.
  Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties'actions.
 NPL LISTING HISTORY

Proposed Date: 09/08/83

  Final Date: 09/21/84
                 Threats and Contaminants
               Groundwater resources underlying the site were found to be
               contaminated with heavy metals including iron, manganese, chromium,
               and arsenic, as well as low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
               Potential health risks include accidental ingestion of contaminated
               groundwater.
   March 1990
    NPL HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES
                    82
                                                                         continued

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                                                                   WHEELER PIT
Cleanup Approach
  This site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup
  of the entire site.
   Response Action Status

             Entire Site: A field investigation of the site has been completed to
             determine the type and extent of contamination.  Monitoring wells were
             installed and test pits were excavated.  A study is now being conducted to
   determine the most effective measures to clean up the site. These recommendations
   are scheduled to be issued in late 1990.
   Environmental Progress
   After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA performed preliminary investigations and
   determined that no immediate actions were required at the Wheeler Pit site while
   studies are taking place and cleanup activities are being planned.
                                                                             A
                                         83

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        his glossary defines the italicized terms used in the
    .*,, >  site fact sheets for the State of Wisconsin. The terms
     -  and abbreviations contained in this glossary are often
defined in the context of hazardous waste management as
described in the site fact sheets, and apply specifically to work
performed under the Superfund program. Thus, these terms
may have other meanings when used in a different context.


Acids: Substances, characterized by low pH (less than
7.0) that are used in chemical manufacturing. Acids in
high concentration can be very corrosive and react with
many inorganic and organic substances. These reactions
may possibly create toxic compounds or release heavy
metal contaminants that remain in the environment long
after the acid is neutralized.

Administrative Order On Consent: A legal and enforceable agreement between EPA
and the parties potentially responsible for site contamination. Under the terms of the
Order, the potentially responsible parties agree to perform or pay for site studies or
cleanups. It also describes the oversight rules, responsibilities and enforcement options
that the government may exercise in the event of non-compliance by potentially respon-
sible parties. This Order is signed by PRPs and the government; it does not require
approval by a judge.

Administrative Order [Unilateral]: A legally binding document issued by EPA direct-
ing the parties potentially responsible to perform site cleanups or studies (generally,
EPA does not issue unilateral orders for site studies).

Aeration: A process that promotes breakdown of contaminants in soil or water by
exposing them to air.

Air Stripping: A process whereby volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) are removed from
contaminated material by forcing a stream of air through it in a pressurized vessel. The
contaminants are evaporated into the air stream. The air may be further treated before
it is released into the atmosphere.
                                        G-l

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Aquifer: An underground layer of rock, sand, or gravel capable of storing water within
cracks and pore spaces, or between grains. When water contained within an aquifer is
of sufficient quantity and quality, it can be tapped and used for drinking or other pur-
poses. The water contained in the aquifer is called groundwater.

Berm: A ledge, wall, or a mound of earth used to prevent the migration of contami-
nants.

Bioaccumulate: The process by which some contaminants or toxic chemicals gradually
collect and increase in concentration in living tissue, such as in plants, fish, or people as
they breathe contaminated air, drink contaminated water, or eat contaminated food.

Bioremediation: A cleanup process using naturally occurring or specially cultivated
microorganisms to digest contaminants naturally and break them down into nonhaz-
ardous components.

Borehole: A hole drilled into the ground used to sample soil and groundwater.

Cap:  A layer of material, such as clay or a synthetic material, used to prevent rainwater
from penetrating and spreading contaminated materials. The surface of the cap is
generally mounded or sloped so water will drain off.

Cell:  In solid waste disposal, one of a series of holes in a landfill where waste is
dumped, compacted, and covered with layers of dirt.

Closure: The process by which a landfill stops accepting wastes and is shut down
under Federal guidelines that ensure the public and the environment is protected.

Consent Decree: A legal document, approved and issued by a judge, formalizing an
agreement between EPA and the parties potentially responsible for site contamination.
The decree describes cleanup actions that the potentially responsible parties are re-
quired to perform and /or the costs incurred by the government that the parties will
reimburse, as well as the roles, responsibilities, and enforcement options that the gov-
ernment may exercise in the event of non-compliance by potentially responsible parties.
If a settlement between EPA and a potentially  responsible party includes cleanup ac-
tions, it must be in the form of a consent decree.  A consent decree is subject to a public
comment period.

Consent Order: [see Administrative Order on Consent].
                                      G-2

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Containment:  The process of enclosing or containing hazardous substances in a struc-
ture, typically in ponds and lagoons, to prevent the migration of contaminants into the
environment.

Creosotes: Chemicals used in wood preserving operations and produced by distillation
of tar, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocar-
bons [see PAHs and PNAs]. Contaminating sediments, soils, and surface water, creo-
sotes may cause skin ulcerations and cancer with prolonged exposure.

Degrease: To remove grease from wastes, soils, or chemicals, usually using solvents.

Downgradienb A downward hydrologic slope that causes groundwater to move
toward lower elevations. Therefore, wells dozungradient of a contaminated groundwater
source are prone to receiving pollutants.

Downslope: [see Downgradient].

Effluent: Wastewater, treated or untreated, that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer,
or industrial outfall. Generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters.

Fly ash: Non-combustible residue that results from the combustion of flue gases. It can
include nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, water vapor, sulfur oxides, as well as many
other chemical pollutants.

Generator:  A facility that emits pollutants into the air or releases hazardous wastes into
water or soil.

Hydrogeology: The geology of groundwater, with particular emphasis on the chemis-
try and movement of water.

Impoundment: A body of water or sludge confined by a dam, dike, floodgate, or other
barrier.                            .

Intake: The source where a water supply is drawn from, such as from a river or water-
bed.     ..'".'..".''         ,   "      '. ,

Lagoon: A shallow pond where sunlight, bacterial action, and oxygen work to purify
wastewater. Lagoons are typically used for the storage of wastewaters, sludges, liquid
wastes, or spent nuclear fuel.

Landfill: A disposal facility where waste is placed in or on land.
                                      G-3

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   GLOSSARY:
f stffffSJpSSfSfffffffffffff,f fff ff
  -Ur"   v''
, ..-.sssv, s  ^    S-OAS-C' "•
Leachate [n]: The liquid that trickles through or drains from waste, carrying soluble
components from the waste. Leach, Leaching [v.tj: The process by which soluble
chemical components are dissolved and carried through soil by water or some other
percolating liquid.

Long-term Remedial Phase: Distinct, often incremental, steps that are taken to solve
site pollution problems. Depending on the complexity, site cleanup activities can be
separated into a number of these phases.

Migration: The movement of oil, gas, contaminants, water, or other liquids through
porous and permeable rock.

Petrochemicals:  Chemical substances produced from petroleum in refinery operations
and as fuel oil residues. These include fluoranthene, chrysene, mineral spirits, and
refined oils. Petrochemicals are the bases from which volatile organic compounds
(VOCs), plastics, and many pesticides are made. These chemical substances are often
toxic to humans and the environment.

Phenols: Organic compounds that are used in plastics manufacturing and are by-
products of petroleum refining, tanning, textile, dye, and resin manufacturing. Phenols
are highly poisonous and can make water taste and smell bad.

Plume: A body of contaminated groundwater flowing from a specific source. The
movement of the groundwater is influenced by such factors as local groundwater flow
patterns, the character of the aquifer in which groundwater is contained, and the den-
sity of contaminants.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): PAHs,
such as pyrene, are a group of highly reactive organic compounds found in motor oil.
They are a common component of creosotes and can cause cancer.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs):  A group of toxic chemicals used for a variety of
purposes including electrical applications, carbonless copy paper, adhesives, hydraulic
fluids, microscope emersion oils, and caulking compounds.  PCBs are also produced in
certain combustion processes. PCBs are extremely persistent in the environment be-
cause they are very stable, non-reactive, and highly heat resistant. Burning them pro-
duces even more toxins.  Chronic exposure to PCBs is believed to cause liver damage. It
is also known to bioaccumulate in fatty tissues.  PCB use and sale was banned in 1979
with the passage of the Toxic Substances Control Act.
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Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PNAs): PNAs, such as naphthalene, and biphen-
yls, are a group of highly reactive organic compounds that are a common component of
creosotes, which can be carcinogenic.

Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs): Parties, including owners, who may have
contributed to the contamination at a Superfund site and may be liable for costs of
response actions. Parties are considered PRPs until they admit liability or a court makes
a determination of liability.  This means that PRPs may sign a consent decree or admin-
istrative order on consent [see Administrative Order on Consent] to participate in site
cleanup activity without admitting liability.

Runoff: The discharge of water over land into surface water. It can carry pollutants
from the air and land into receiving waters.

Sediment:  The layer of soil, sand and minerals at the bottom of surface waters, such as
streams, lakes, and rivers that absorb contaminants.

Seeps: Specific points where releases of liquid (usually leachate) form from waste
disposal areas, particularly along the lower edges of landfills.

Seepage Pits: A hole, shaft, or cavity in the ground used for storage of liquids, usually
in the form of leachate, from waste disposal areas.  The liquid gradually leaves the pit
by moving through the surrounding soil.

Sludge: Semi-solid residues from industrial or water treatment processes that may be
contaminated with hazardous materials.

Slurry Wall: Barriers used to contain the flow of contaminated groundwater or subsur-
face liquids. Slurry walls are constructed by digging a trench around a contaminated
area and filling the trench with an impermeable material that prevents water from
passing through it. The groundwater or contaminated liquids trapped within the area
surrounded by the slurry wall can be extracted and treated.

Sumps: A pitor tank that catches liquid runoff for drainage or disposal.

Trichloroethylene (TCE):  A stable, colorless liquid with a low boiling point. TCE has
many industrial applications> including use-as a solvent and as a metal degreasing
agent. TCE may be toxic to people when inhaled, ingested, or through skin contact and
can damage vital organs, especially the liver [see also Volatile Organic Compounds].

Unilateral [Administrative] Order: [see Administrative Order on Consent].
                                      G-5

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Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): VOCs are made as secondary petrochemicals.
They include light alcohols, acetone, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, dichloroeth-
ylene, benzene, vinyl chloride, toluene, and methylene chloride. These potentially toxic
chemicals are used as solvents, degreasers, paints, thinners, and fuels. Because of their
volatile nature, they readily evaporate into the air, increasing the potential exposure to
humans. Due to their low water solubility, environmental persistence, and widespread
industrial use, they are commonly found in soil and groundwater.

Wetland: An area that is regularly saturated by surface or groundwater and, under
normal circumstances, capable of supporting vegetation typically adapted for life in
saturated soil conditions. Wetlands are critical to sustaining many species of fish and
wildlife. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, and bogs. Wetlands may be
either coastal or inland. Coastal wetlands have salt or brackish (a mixture of salt and
fresh) water, and most have tides, while inland wetlands are non-tidal and freshwater.
Coastal wetlands are  an integral component of estuaries.
                                      G-6

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