EPA 56-1-89-002

               An Outreach Manual for Community Groups
                              Caroline McNeil
                              Elaine Bratic Arkin
                            David McCallum, Ph.D.

                       Institute for Health Policy Analysis
                     Georgetown University Medical Center
                              Washington, DC

                              September 1989
                                Prepared for
                          Maria Pavlova, M.D., Ph.D.
                              Project Manager
                          Office of Toxic Substances
                     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                           Washington, DC 20460
The information in this document has been funded by the United States Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA)  under Cooperative Agreement CX-815190-02-0. It has been
subjected to the Agency's  peer and administrative review, and approved for publication as
an EPA document.


 Part I:    Before You Begin
  1. Know The Law
  2. Know How To Use the Information
  3. Know Your Audiences
  4. Know Who Can Help
  5. Outline A Plan
 Part IE:   Getting People Involved
  6. How To Get And Keep Volunteers
  7. How To Work With Other Groups
 Part III:   Running a Communication Program
  8. How To Talk About Risk
  9. How To Publicize The Emergency Plan
 10. How To Answer Questions
 11. How To Work With The Media
 12. How To Give A Speech
 13. How To Hold A Meeting
 14. How To Find Educational Materials
 15. How To Produce Educational Materials
 16. How To Communicate About Emergencies
Summary: The Seven Cardinal Rules Of Risk Communication
  A.  Title IE Fact Sheet
  B.  Resources                           ;
      1.  Selected List Of Materials
      2.  EPA Regional Section 313 Contacts
      3.  SERC/Title III Contacts
 - C.  Communication Research And Reports
  D.  Glossary
  E.  User Comment Form

                                       I !


       This handbook was produced by the Institute for Health Policy
       Analysis, Georgetown University Medical Center, under a coop-
       erative agreement with the Office of Toxic Substances, EPA as
       one outcome of the program, "Public Response to the Toxic Re-
       lease Inventory: Needs Assessment and  Resources Develop-
       ment." Other project products include:

          •  a summary of public opinion polling data related to atti-
            tudes toward environmental pollution;

          •  findings from focus groups conducted with citizens living
            near industries subject to Section 313 reporting require-

          •  a bibliography of public education materials related to
            toxic substances;

          •  a final project report including findings from discussions
            with local emergency planning committee members, in-
            dustry, government, and environmental representatives;
            and recommendations to EPA regarding how to encourage
            the public to become involved with the use of reported
            data in communities.

       This research was conducted May - November 1988.
      Charles L. Elkins, Director, Office of Toxic Substances, was re-
      sponsible for initiating this program, and the support and en-
      couragement of Michael M. Stahl, Director, Environmental As-
      sistance Division,  were instrumental in implementing the
      project. We also gratefully acknowledge the support of Anne
      Giesecke, Julie Winters, Charlie Osolin, and Alison Freeman as
      well as the assistance of John Borstel and Nancy Adams, who
      designed the layout of this publication.  Especially valuable
      throughout the public needs assessment program were the advice
      and support of Frederick Allen and Ann Fisher, Office of Plan-
      ning, Policy, and Evaluation, and the recommendations of Doro-
      thy McManus, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response;
      Donald G. Barnes,  now at the Science Advisory  Board; and
      Richard N. Hill from Pesticides and Toxic Substances. In addi-
      tion, special thanks are due the many reviewers of this manual,
      both in and outside the EPA, who shared their ideas and contrib-
      uted valuable suggestions.

                                      Maria Pavlova, M.D., Ph.D.
                                                Project Manager


"A basic tenet of risk communication in a democracy is that

people and communities have a right to participate in decisions
that affect their lives, their property, and the things they

                        Seven Cardinal Rules of Risk Communication
                            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

A new law gives citizens the right to know about the toxic and
other hazardous  substances in their communities. But there is a
lot more than that to Title III of the Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). Its intent is to give people
a say in deciding what to do about risks in their communities. Its
ultimate goal is public participation in these decisions.

How  do communities get from emissions and inventory data to
participation in decisions? The answer lies in public informa-
tion, education, dialogue—in short, communication. If you are a
member of a local emergency planning committee (LEPC), an
LEPC information subcommittee, or other community group
concerned with Title III, part of your job is communication.

About this manual:

This manual was prepared for State and local government offi-
cials, LEPCs, and other community groups that want to make
Title III work. It is intended as a practical guide for those who
have little or no previous experience  in the field of communica-
tion, whose time must be snatched from home and office, and
whose resources are limited.

As a guide to the process of communication, this manual should
be used.in conjunction with other resources. Another EPA publi-
cation, Risk Communication About Chemicals in Your Commu-
nity, discusses ways to develop substantive responses to ques-
tions  about the information  becoming available under Title HI.
Technical experts within each community are valuable resourc-
es, as are State health and environmental agencies. Also see the
Resources listed at the end of each chapter and in Appendix B.

The manual has three major sections:

   •  Part I discusses planning, which is vital to the success of
      a communication program.

   •  Part II suggests ways to get and keep people involved, es-
      pecially important because Title III affects so many differ-
      ent sectors  of the community.

   »  Part III, a  how-to-do-it section, talks about specific tasks,
      such as giving a speech or writing a press release.


Appendices include a detailed explanation of the law, a glossary,
a list of recent studies related to Title III communications, a list
of educational materials, and a list of State contacts.

Title HI offers a new opportunity to address and resolve old
problems. Worn out patterns of confrontation between industry,
government, and the public can give  way, over  time, to more
productive patterns of cooperation. But cooperation requires in-
formed, participating communities. A two-way communication
program can help make the difference.


 Part  h   Before  You  Begin
Part I is about planning, the first step in a communication pro-
gram. But'even before undertaking this first step, ask yourself
three questions.

    •  Why conduct a communication program about toxic and
      other hazardous substances?

    •  What are the goals of a communication program?

    °  Why is planning important?

Why conduct a communications program?

Is it really a good idea to communicate about toxic substances?
Isn't the information too technical? Won't people get too emo-
tional? Isn't it too difficult to do anything about toxic risks any-

These, in fact, are reasons to communicate.

Technical information does pose a challenge. This is why it is
vital to take the  time and care to communicate it well. Rather
than worry about your audience's ability to understand, worry
about how to make the information as clear as possible. Help on
technical matters is available from State Emergency Response
Commissions (SERCs), regional EPA offices, local universities,
and other sources.

Second, it is true that environmental issues are often emotional
issues. But research shows that people are not alarmed by envi-
ronmental information so much as by environmental incidents.
And when incidents happen in an information vacuum, alarm
easily turns to anger and distrust.

Third, it is  difficult for  communities to manage risks, but it is
impossible without communication. People must understand a
situation before they can come to  grips with it. For  example, a
high volume of toxic emissions may actually pose a small risk
because human exposure is low. A seemingly low volume may
pose a higher risk if a vulnerable population, such as school chil-
dren or the elderly, is exposed  to the emissions regularly at cer-
tain concentrations.

Finally,  communication may not eliminate conflict but  it can
minimize conflict based on misunderstanding. With a good com-
munication  program, discussions can be based on facts  rather
than vague fears,  resentments, or knee-jerk reactions. Communi-
cation can help turn conflict into constructive dialogue.
Why Communicate?

                    Part I:  Before You Begin
What do you want to
          Why plan?
What are your goals ?

Your overall mission may be to increase public awareness of Ti-
tle III and toxic and other hazardous substances, but a communi-
cation program needs a more specific focus. What that focus is
depends on your group's particular concerns and your communi-
ty's needs, but here are some possibilities:

    »  to make people aware of the existence of the LEPC and
      the emergency plan               ;

    •  to encourage people to use the information available under
      Title IE

    •  to encourage the industrial community to reduce emis-
      sions that cause the greatest risks

    •  to prepare emergency personnel to respond to potential

    •  to help local officials respond to questions from the public

    •  to encourage public participation by recraiting volunteers
      for LEPC subcommittees

    •  to increase  public understanding of specific substances
      emitted from specific facilities and their impact on health

You may of course decide on a combination of goals. You may
target several audiences and convey several messages, or you
may tackle just one task at a time. In any  case., your job will be
easier if, for each broad goal, you prepare a detailed plan.
Why is planning important?

Planning translates your broad goals into practical steps: a meet-
ing about the emergency plan in October, a speech at the Rotary
Club in March, a newspaper article in July.

Planning is an exercise in practicality. A calendar and a list of
resources make it clear that you can't do everything at once or
reach everyone at once. But a plan also attests to the fact that
you can achieve some things and reach many people; what's
more, it lets you see how and when.      >

The following chapters are intended to assist with both planning
and implementing a communication program.

 Before You Begin

 1.   Know The Law
 "All of this planning and information gathering is directed to-

 ward a common goal: to help you and your community be bet-

 ter prepared to make important decisions about how to deal

 with toxic and hazardous materials."
                                  Chemicals in Your Community
                            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Title III has four main sections, and each provides opportunities
for communication. Following is a brief look at the law, along
with ideas for communications activities related to each section.
More complete discussions of Title III are available in Appendix
A and in the resources listed at the end of this chapter.

Use this outline as an aid to planning. It suggests ways to tie a
communication program to the information available under Title
in. Also see the  next chapter, which discusses specific ways to
use Title III information.

Sections 301-313:

What: This part of the law establishes State Emergency Re-
sponse Commissions (SERCs), emergency planning districts,
and LEPCs. It requires that each LEPC prepare an  emergency
plan to respond to accidents involving hazardous materials and
keep the plan up-to-date. Under the law, SERCs review the plan
and provide coordination and oversight of LEPCs.

SERCs and LEPCs are community resources. LEPCs not only
develop and update emergency plans, but also receive, manage,
and provide public access to information about toxic and other
hazardous  substances. They appoint a public information coordi-
nator and hold public meetings or give other public notification
of LEPC activities. LEPCs bring together many sectors of the
community, as the box on page 5 shows, and they are expected
to become the forums for discussions and decisions on Title III
information. Many have formed subcommittees on public infor-
mation with which other community  groups can become in-

SERCs serve as  a link to the technical expertise available in
State agencies and they may assist LEPCs in planning, manag-
ing information,  or  locating  public  information   materials.
SERCs also may have information and ideas related to what oth-
er communities in the State are doing.

When: Emergency plans were due October 1988. They will be
reviewed annually by  SERCs and revised by LEPCs  as new in-
formation becomes available.
The Law Has Four
1. Emergency Planning

                     1.   Know The  Law
Information available: Your community's emergency plan is
available from the LEPC. The plan outlines procedures for deal-
ing with an accident and analyzes what areas and populations in
the community are most vulnerable. Also available is the infor-
mation that the LEPC used in making the emergency plan, such
as hazard analyses and safety audits.

The law requires that LEPCs publicize the plan by publishing
notices and holding public meetings. If you are a member of an
LEPC  subcommittee  concerned with public information, you
may be involved in this  form of communication.  If you are a
member of another community group, you, could use the annual
review of  the plan as a starting point for your communication

Here are some suggestions:

   • Publicize the emergency plan
     — brochures, fact sheets
     — public meeting
     — small neighborhood meetings

   • Raise awareness of LEPC and other community activities
     — press releases
     — speeches

   • Introduce the concept of right-to-knpw
     — press releases
     — speeches
     — feature articles
     — guest editorials
     —public service announcements
     — talk show appearances

1.   Know The Law
  Emergency plans must include the following elements:
  • Identification of the facilities and transportation routes
    where hazardous substances are present
  • Emergency response procedures, including evacuation
    plans, for dealing with accidental chemical releases.
  • Notifications  procedures for those who will respond to
    an emergency
  • Notification procedures for the public
  • Methods for determining the occurrence and severity of a
    release and the areas and populations likely to be affect-
  • Emergency equipment available in the  community, in-
    cluding equipment at facilities
  • A program and timetable for training local emergency re-
    sponse and medical workers to respond to emergencies
  • Methods and  timetables for conducting exercises (simu-
    lations) to test elements of the emergency plan
  • Community coordinators and facility coordinators to car-
    ry o'ut the plan
  (Adapted from Chemicals in Your Community: A Guide to
  the  Emergency  Planning and Community Right-to-Know
  Act, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)
  LEPCs involve many sectors of the community. The law
  requires that they include, at a minimum, representatives of
  the following groups:
     •  Elected State/local officials
     •  Law enforcement officers
     •  Civil defense organizations
     •  Firefighters
     •  First aid and health organizations
     °  Hospitals
     •  Transportation officials
     «  Broadcast and print media
     «  Community groups
     •  Facilities  subject to emergency planning require-
                               Emergency Plans
                               LEPC Members

                           1.  Know The Law
2. Emergency Releases
Section 304:

What: Facilities must notify LEPCs and SERCs of emergency
or accidental releases of extremely hazardous substances.

When: Immediately. Written followup from facilities must be
submitted as soon as practicable.

Information available: Notification of the release and a written
followup report, both of which must provide details on known or
anticipated health risks and advice regarding medical attention.

Communicate about the specific substance released, give back-
ground information on  emissions and exposures and general in-
formation on Title in.  Engineers, scientists, and teachers in the
community may help with technical information.

   •  Inform the media
      — press releases

   •  Answer questions
      — publicized telephone number
      — meetings
      — call-in radio shows

   •  Promote public participation in the LEPC
      — speeches
      — small group meetings

1.  Know The Law
  Immediate notification must include:

  • The name of the substance

  • The location of the release

  • Whether the substance is on the "extremely hazardous"

  • How much of the substance has been released

  • The time and duration of the incident

  • Whether the chemical was released into the air, water, or
    land or some combination of the three

  • Known or anticipated health risks and necessary medical

  • Proper precautions, such as evacuation

  • A contact person at the facility

  (Adapted from Chemicals in Your Community: A Guide to
  the  Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know
  Act, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)
  Followup reporting must include:

  •  A written report to the LEPC and the SERC

  •  Updated information for points covered in the initial noti-

  •  Description of response actions taken

  •  More detailed information on health risks

  «  Advice regarding medical care needed by exposure vic-
    tims, if appropriate

  (Adapted from Chemicals in Your Community: A Guide to
  the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know
  Act, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)
                              Immediate Notification

                              Followup Reporting

                        1.   Know The Law
3. Community Right
            to Know
     Material Safety
        Data Sheets
    Inventory Forms
Sections 311 and 312:

What: These two sections give people the right to know what
substances are being made, used, or stored in their communities.
Reports are made to SERCs, LEPCs, and fire departments,  and
LEPCs must make  them available to the public during normal
working hours. LEPCs also must publish an annual notice in lo-
cal newspapers that the forms have been  submitted and are
available for public  viewing at a designated location.

Section 311: Material Safety Data Sheets

These fact sheets on hazardous  substances must be available to
workers who  come into contact with those substances. Section
311 requires that they now be made available to the public as
well, through LEPCs.

When: Material safety data sheets (MSDSs) or a list of MSDS
substances were due October 1987 under Section 311.

Information available: Data on the specific substances present
in the community. MSDSs include chemical and physical prop-
erties and health and safety information.  (LEPCs may get a list
of MSDS substances first, after which anyone can request  spe-
cific MSDSs.)                        |

Section 312: Inventory Forms

Inventory forms show amounts and locations of substances at
specific facilities.

When: Inventory forms are due  each year on March 1.

Information  available: Facilities may report in either of two
tiers unless State law requires otherwise. Tier I forms show the
amounts and  general  locations  of chemicals in certain catego-
ries. Tier n forms, available on request if not already submitted,
give the same information but must name specific chemicals.

With expert assistance from local engineers or teachers, you can
help the community understand what this technical information

    •  Increase public  understanding  of  specific  substances
      present in the community.
      — Prepare simplified versions  of MSDSs. See Under-
         standing  MSDSs, under Resources at the  end of this

                             1.  Know The  Law
    — Distribute fact sheets prepared State agencies, such as
       New Jersey's Hazardous Substances Fact Sheets (See
       under Resources at the end of this chapter; also  see
       Appendix B, Resources.
    Give annual  notice in local newspapers that inventory
    forms are available to the public (if you work with an
    — pressrelease
    Explain and interpret the data. .   .
    — answer  questions.  See Risk Communication  About
       Chemicals in Your Community under Resources at  the
       end of this chapter.
    — guest editorial
    — letter to the editor
    — radio talk show appearance
    Increase awareness of community right-to-know.
    — feature articles
    — guest editorials
    — school programs
A typical MSDS contains:
   I.   Product identification
  II.   Warning statements
  HI.   Precautionary measures
  IV.   Emergency and first aid procedures
  V.   Occupational control procedures
  VI.   Flammability and reactivity data
 VII.   Health effects
VIII.   Physical data
  IX.   Spill, leak, and disposal information
Typical MSDS

1.   Know The Law
        4. Toxic Releases
 Section 313:

 What: Facilities must report the toxic substances they release,
 either routinely or accidentally, into air, land, or water each year,
 or transport as waste to another site. The EPA is using the re-
 ports to establish an online database, called the Toxic Release
 Inventory (TRI), available to the public through The National
 Library of Medicine.                   .

 When: Each year by July 1. The report will cover the previous
 calendar year. Thus the data reported by July 1, 1989, will cover
 emissions for 1988.

 Information available: Estimates, in pounds, of specific sub-
 stances released in  the community. LEPCs will  not receive the
 TRI forms directly, but the forms will be available from SERCs
 and the EPA, and the database will be accessible by computer.
 Many public libraries have access to, or can inexpensively gain
 access to, the National Library of Medicine's databases. In addi-
 tion, anyone with a computer and modem can use the TRI. See
 Chapter 2.

 Explain what the data mean (again, with the help of technical

    • Publicize the TRI
      —  Database demonstrations as part of a speech
      —  Database demonstrations  by libraries, schools, other
      —  Feature articles

    • Interpret the data

      —  Feature articles

      —  Speeches
      — Brochures, fact sheets

      — Talk shows

    * Provide a question-and-answer service

      — Publicized telephone number

      — Talk shows

      — Call-in radio shows

                              1.  Know The Law
  EPA's Toxic  Chemical Release Inventory  Reporting
  Form, when completed by a facility, provides the follow-
  ing information:
     I.   Facility Identification
     II.   Off-site  locations to which toxic substances  are
         transferred in wastes
    HI.   Information on the substance released:
         — Identity
         — Mixture component identity
         — Activities  and  uses of  the  substance  at  the
         — Releases of the substance to the environment
         — Transfers of the substance in waste to off-site
         — Waste treatment methods and efficiency
         — Optional information on waste minimization (re-
            ducing waste at its source)

    IV.   Supplemental information

  (Adapted from Chemical Risk Communication: Preparing
  for Community Interest in Chemical Release Data, Ameri-
  can Chemical Society)
Each section of Title IE covers specific facilities and substances.
In working with the law, you will gradually become familiar
with the different lists of substances and facilities and with regu-
latory concepts, such as reporting thresholds andJhazard catego-
ries. There are also certain exceptions to the reporting require-
ments, notably with regard to trade secrets.  These and other
details of the law are explained in Appendix A and in the re-
sources listed here.

Chemicals In Your Community: A Guide to the Emergency Plan-
ning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 1988.  Emergency
Planning and Community Right-to-Know Information, U.S. En-
vironmental  Protection  Agency, OS 120,  401 M  Street SW,
Washington, DC 20460.

Title III  Fact  Sheet, August  1988. Emergency Planning and
Community  Right-to-Know Information, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, OS 120, 401 M Street SW, Washington, DC

Monsanto/Title III Community Videotape, 1987. Environmental
and  Community  Relations  Manager,  Monsanto  Company,
G4WF, 800 North Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63167.
EPA's Toxic Chemical
Release Inventory
Reporting Form R
Details and Exceptions

          1.  Know The Law
          Reducing the Risk of Chemical Disaster: A Citizen's Guide to
          the Federal Emergency Planning and  Community  Right-to-
          Know Act,  1988. National Wildlife Federation, Environmental
          Quality Division, 1400 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036.

          Risk Communication About  Chemicals  in Your Community ,
          1989. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 230-09-89-
          006  (manual);  EPA 230-09-89-067  (manual  and facilitator's

          Understanding Title III:  Emergency Planning  and Community
          Right-to-Know (videotape, 15 minutes, 1/2-inch and 3/4-inch).
          Chemical  Manufacturers Association, 2501  M  Street,  NW,
          Washington, DC  20037.

          What is the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know
          Act?, 1988. Environmental Policy Institute, 218 D Street SE,
          Washington, DC  20003.


          EPA's Title III Hotline: 800-535-0202; 202-479-2449. Or write:
          Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Informa-
          tion, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  OS  120, 401 M
          Street, SW, Washington, DC 20460.

 Before You Begin

 2,   Know How to Use The  Information
 "There seems to be little understanding of what the data actu-

 ally mean. Also what does this reporting system really have to

 do with average citizens? They need a reason to be informed.
 How can they participate?"

                        Environmental group member, focus groups,
                                 • EPA/Georgetown University
                        Toxic Substances Public Needs Assessment
 Under Title III, the public will have access to several different
 kinds of information:

    •  Emergency planning information

    a  Reports of emergency releases

    •  Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)

    •  Lists of toxic substances present in the community

    •  Estimates of releases of toxic substances into air, water,
      and land, plus transfers of wastes to other treatment or dis-
      posal locations

 What does this reporting system have to do with average citi-
 zens? Although it is not complete, the data can help answer
 some common questions arid can serve as a basis to investigate
 others. This chapter explains some of the limitations and uses of
 Title III data in a communication program.
Emergency Planning Information

To formulate an emergency plan, LEPCs must gather a great
deal of information, beginning with a list that identifies chemi-
cals or extremely hazardous substances present at facilities in
the community over a certain amount (the threshold planning
quantity or TPQ). Emergency plans must also identify the areas
and populations most likely  to be affected. Hazard  analyses,
conducted by the LEPC or submitted by facilities, may present
worst-case scenarios and attempt to estimate the probability of
an accident. Emergency planning information may also include
safety audits and data submitted by facilities to the LEPC.
 Kinds of Information
Emergency Planning

          2.  Know How To Use The  Information
Emergency Releases
                          Uses: The information gathered for the emergency plan can help
                          focus a community's attention on the substances and facilities of
                          immediate concern. It is a first  step.  Also,  since emergency
                          plans must describe the areas and populations most likely to be
                          affected, they can help set priorities for communication efforts.

                          Limitations: The extremely hazardous  substances list does not
                          include  all dangerous substances,  but only those  that are at the
                          top of the list for emergency planning because they have imme-
                          diate health effects. Although seen by some a:3 a limitation, this
                          also provides an opportunity for communities to  focus their at-
                          tention on the substances that pose the greatest; potential risks. A
                          second limitation is that threshold planning quantities are not ab-
                          solute indicators of risk; substances may pose a danger below
                          the TPQ.
Reports of Emergency Releases

Accidental  and emergency releases must be reported to both
SERCs and LEPCs. Transportation accidents may be reported
by dialing 911 or the local telephone operator. The substances
covered by this section of Title in are those on the extremely
hazardous substances list or those subject to the emergency noti-
fication requirement of the  Comprehensive Emergency  Re-
sponse, Compensation,  and  Liability Act  (CERCLA),  also
known as Superfund. Initial reports will include information on
the substance, the nature of  the release,  known or anticipated
health risks, and proper precautions. A follow-up report, also re-
quired, will give more detailed information including, if appro-
priate, advice on medical care required by exposure victims.

Uses: Emergency release notifications will activate the emergen-
cy plan when necessary. Over a period of time, the community
may see repeated releases of certain substances or from  certain
facilities and decide to address the problem. As more informa-
tion on emergency releases becomes available, communities also
may want to consider these data when revising the emergency

Limitations:  It is difficult to estimate exposure to a substance
from data on  its release into the air, water, or land. Many  factors
can affect exposure: wind direction and speed, location of water
supplies, type of soil.

              2.  Know How To Use The Information
Material Safety Data Sheets

MSDSs are fact sheets that must be available to workers who
come in contact with toxic and other substances, as mandated by
an earlier Federal law. Title HI has extended their availability to

Uses: An MSDS provides an overview of basic information on a
substance, including data on its manufacturer, hazardous ingre-
dients,  physical  and chemical characteristics, and health hazards.
Use MSDSs as  a  starting point and as a way to identify toxic
substances present in the community, but supplement them with
other reference materials, such as those listed under Resources.

Limitations: MSDSs use technical language and many acro-
nyms.  These can  be  deciphered with the help of technical ex-
perts. Also see  Resources at the end of this chapter. However,
even once deciphered, MSDSs often yield information more ap-
plicable to employees than to the community at large. Also, if
facilities submit MSDSs instead of a list of MSDS chemicals,
the volume of paper may become difficult to manage.

Manual files full  of MSDSs, arranged alphabetically by sub-
stance, make it hard for citizens to know what facilities are asso-
ciated  with what substances. As a way around these problems,
some states and LEPCs are requesting lists of MSDS substances
instead of the MSDSs. Anyone then may request an MSDS for
any substance on the list. Other LEPCs are using computer pro-
grams  to organize and cross reference the MSDS  data.

Inventory Forms

These  forms give the maximum and average daily amounts of
substances present at a facility as well as information on loca-

Uses: Tier II inventory forms, which may be requested if they
are not submitted  voluntarily, are more useful  than Tier I forms.
EPA encourages facilities to submit Tier II forms, which give in-
formation for specific substances instead of categories  of sub-
stances, plus specific information on location.

Limitations: If a facility chooses to submit Tier  I inventory
forms,  the data  will be limited to five general hazard categories:
(1) immediate health hazard, (2) chronic health  hazard,  (3) fire
hazard, (4) sudden-release-of-pressure hazard (e.g., explosive),
and (5) reactive hazard (e.g., corrosives). Also, Tier I forms re-
quire only the "general location" of a substance.
Material Safety
Data Sheets
Annual Inventories

2.  Know How To  Use The Information!
           Toxic Releases
                Toxic Release Inventory

                Annual reports on toxic releases, entered in the TRI database,
                will provide a national inventory of toxic substances released be-
                yond the fencelines of facilities. About half of the reportable
                substances are identified by the EPA as possible or probable car-
                cinogens, and the others may cause a variety of acute and chron-
                ic health problems. The list of substances covered by this section
                of the law differs from the "extremely hazardous substances"
                list, although there is some overlap.

                Uses: The TRI data allows communities to:

                    •  Determine which substances were released into the envi-
                      ronment during the preceding year.

                    •  Determine approximately how much  of  each  one—in
                      pounds per year—went into air,  land, and water from reg-
                      ulated facilities.

                    •  Determine whether  the substances were transported away
                      from the facility.

                    •  Learn how the wastes were treated on-i;ite and how effi-
                      cient that treatment was.

                   «  Determine total annual  emissions of a single substance
                      from regulated facilities in a specific geographic area or

                   •  Compare releases by similar facilities in different parts of
                      the country.

                   •  Compare releases among different kinds of facilities.

                   •  Check the data  against permits, to  make  sure facilities
                      have permission for releases and are in compliance.

                   •  Find out if there are hot spots  (areas with  an unusually
                      high number of releases).

                   •  Help set priorities for further investigation and reduction
                      of emissions.

                   • Determine  areas  where substances are emitted, for  use in
                     planning emergency responses.

                Limitations: The TRI data has certain limitations, tied to the de-
                tails that are not reported or cannot be determined from what is

            2,  Know How To Use The Information
 • The law requires only that the information be based on
   reasonable estimates. It does  not require measurement or
   monitoring beyond that required by other environmental
   laws and regulations. EPA is helping facilities improve
   the accuracy of their estimates.

 • Not all sources of a particular substance will be reported,
   but only those that fall into certain regulatory categories,
   so people cannot assume that the TRI gives a complete
   picture of toxic emissions in their communities.

 • The TRI provides only total annual emissions to air, wa-
   ter, and land. The rate of release is not given. A substance
   can be released in a large amount over a short period or in
   a small amount over a long period; the rate can determine
   its health effects.

 • The extent of public exposure cannot be determined from
   the TRI data. Many things can happen to a substance once
   it enters the air, water, or land. Also some toxic substanc-
   es may react in the air or water and be changed to differ-
   ent chemicals.
The Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) database is part of a
user-friendly system called TOXNET maintained by the
National Library of Medicine. If you are a new database
user, easy-to-understand menus will lead you to informa-
tion on toxic releases by categories like geographic area,
type of substance, and specific facility. As you gain experi-
ence, you will be able to use a command structure. TRI us-
ers automatically have  access to all TOXNET  and other
NLM files and can use them to obtain supporting informa-
tion in such areas as health hazards and emergency han-
dling of TRI chemicals.

Anyone who has access  to a computer equipped with a mo-
dem and communication software can search TRI. Write to
the address below for an introductory packet. Librarians in
many public, hospital,  and university libraries also can
search this database for their communities.
For more information:
TRI Representative
Specialized Information Services
National Library of Medicine
8600 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, MD  20894
                                     Using the TRI Database

          2.  Know How To Use The Information
When Accidents and
     Headlines Raise
                  Homes Evacuated
              Chemical Used at Local Plant

Emergency units responded, the tank car leak was stopped,
and wind dispersed the gas cloud. People returned home.
But the town that read these hypothetical headlines now has
many questions. Here is how it could use Title HI data to
get answers.

Q.  Is there any way chlorine could escape from the
    plant itself?

The town's emergency planning process had to address this
issue, because chlorine is listed as an extremely hazardous
substance and  because more than 100 pounds (chlorine's
TPQ) are stored at the plant. The hazard assessment con-
ducted by the LEPC found that chlorine is stored in 2 to 10
railroad cars, each containing about  10,000 gallons of the
gas. One of the cars is always connected to the treatment
building via a  pipeline. The gas could escape  if this pipe
developed a leak or if a tank car was punctured.

Q.  Where would the chlorine go? Who would be at

With  average atmospheric conditions, says the  hazard as-
sessment, chlorine from a rapid leak would form a plume
(an area filled with the chemical) extending 6  kilometers
downwind of the plant. With prevailing winds, that area is
most likely to encompass the X and Y sections of town. Be-
cause chlorine is heavier than air, the plume would be near
the ground.

Q.  What health effects does chlorine have?

The MSDS for chlorine, requested from the plant, outlines
the health effects: irritation of the respiratory tract, which at
high concentrations can lead to suffocation, and bums to
eyes and skin. Delayed effects include bronchitis and pneu-
monia. Reference books at the library fill in more details.

Q.  How  much  chlorine is kept at the plant  at one

The Tier n forms show that the most at any lime in the pre-
vious year was 50,000 pounds.

              2.  Know How To Use The Information
   Q.  Is any released in the community in the course of a

   The TRI database shows total airborne  releases last year
   were estimated at  100 pounds. The public contact person
   within the facility, listed in the TRI data, may be able to
   provide more details on the nature of those releases.

   Q.  Do these releases pose a health risk?

   The TRI data cannot answer this question, because rate of
   release is not reported. Dosage and exposures for individu-
   als are very difficult to calculate, in any case, because there
   are so many variables. However, by consulting health offi-
   cials and others, the town may be able to develop an esti-
   mate of general community exposures.  Some of the re-
   sources listed at the end of this chapter can help.

   Q.  Are there any other facilities reporting chlorine in
       the area?

   Lists of MSDS  chemicals reveal that a local plant that
   makes household bleach also has chlorine on site. A search
   of this plant's Tier II inventory forms show the amount:
   about 5,000 pounds on an average day. There also may be
   TRI reports on chlorine from covered  facilities, to supple-
   ment MSDS reporting.

   Q.  Is there any way the chlorine risk can be reduced?

   Title III data cannot answer  this question. But citizens, the
   plant manager, local government officials, and members of
   the LEPC can  decide  whether to explore  this  question,
   based on what they have learned so far. Other LEPCs, trade
   associations, and environmental groups may  have informa-
   tion on ways to reduce risk.
For help in interpreting the data:

Chemicals in the  Community: Methods to Evaluate Airborne
Chemical Levels,  1988. Chemical  Manufacturers Association,
2501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037, (202) 887-1100.

Chemical Risk Communication: Preparing for Community Inter-
est in Chemical Release Data, 1988. American Chemical Socie-
ty, Department of Government Relations and Science Policy,
1155 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20036.
...Title III Can Help
Provide Some

2.   Know How To Use The Information
                              High Tech and Toxics: A Guide for Local Communities, Chapter
                              4, "Evaluating the Community Health Hazards," 1985. S. Sher-
                              ry, Golden Empire Health Planning Center. National Center for
                              Policy Alternatives, 2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Washington,
                              DC 20009.

                              Layperson's Guide to Reading MSDSs, Massachusetts Depart-
                              ment of Environmental Quality, One Winter Street, Boston, MA

                              Making the  Best of the Right to Know: Title III for LEPCs,
                              SERCs, and Citizens, 1988. S.G. Hadden, LBJ School of Public
                              Affairs, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78713.

                              Risk Communication About  Chemicals  in Your Community,
                              1989. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA 230-09-89-
                              066 (manual); EPA 230-09-89-067  (manual and  facilitator's

                              Toxic Substances and Human Risk: Principle of Data Interpre-
                              tation, edited by Robert G. Tardiff and Joseph V. Rodricks, New
                              York: Plenum, 1987.

                              For information on specific substances:

                              Casarett andDoull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons,
                              edited by Curtis D. Klaassen,  Mary O. Amdur, and John Doull,
                              New York, NY: Macmillan, 1986.

                              Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, by N. I. Sax and
                              B. Feiner, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold,  1984.

                              Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens,
                              by M. Sittig, New York, NY: Noyes Publications.

                              Hazardous Substances Fact Sheets, a series of fact sheets on
                              hundreds of toxic substances.  Distributed by State contacts (see
                              Appendix B).


                              Natural Resources Defense  Council, Toxic Substances Informa-
                              tion Line, 800-648-NRDC; 212-687-6862

                              Chemical Manufacturer's Association, Chemical Referral Cen-
                              ter, 800-262-8200.

Before You Begin

3.   Know  Your Audiences
Recognize that not everyone is alike, and that you must com-
municate in different ways with different groups.
There is no such thing as the general public. The public is many
different subgroups, overlapping but separate, each with its own
attitudes or concerns. Just  as television  advertisers aim their
commercials at certain target audiences, educators  design their
messages to appeal to certain groups. Their theory, basically, is
this: If you know  something about the people you are talking
with, you are more likely to say things that are meaningful to

In planning a communication program, first identify your audi-
ences, then learn about their needs and concerns.

Audience subgroups may be people in a certain age group, peo-
ple who have a certain job, people who live in a certain place,
people with  certain interests.  For  an information  program  on
toxic substances, consider these:

    • People living near companies and other facilities required
     to report under Title III

    • Citizens concerned about health and the environment

Also consider people who could help you reach your audience.
These intermediaries might include:

    • Newspaper and broadcast reporters

    • Health professionals

    • Libraries

    • Environmental groups

    9 Community leaders

    • Teachers

    « Business leaders and local industry representatives

    • Homeowners' and tenants' associations
Identify the Audience
Consider Intermediaries

                   3.  Know Your Audiences
Learning about Your
          ...And How
It pays to take the time to learn about your audience. What you
learn will help:

   « Determine what kind of information is needed.

   • Get that information to people in forms they will use.

   • Get that information to people through channels they can
     use and trust.

   • Understand attitudes and feelings.
Few LEPCs will have the resources to conduct surveys or use
other formal audience research methods. The EPA and other
groups, however, have conducted research that may be useful;
see the boxes and graphs in this chapter.

There are other ways you can get to know your audiences. Con-
sider inviting representatives to LEPC meetings or meet with
them in another setting, such as a tenant or homeowner associa-
tion meeting. It also may help to talk with people in close touch
with the community, such as elected officials, and with people
who have carried out other educational programs in the commu-
nity. Try your health or social services department.

Ask questions like these:

What do people already know? Are they aware of the new
law? Do they know there is an emergency plant? Do they know
about the other information that has become available and that
they have  a right to this information? Do they know that the
LEPC must help them obtain it?

What would they need or like to know? Do they want infor-
mation on the specific chemicals emitted from a nearby plant?
On their locations? On their health effects? On the plant's safety
precautions and the probability of an accident?

Where do people turn for information and who do they con-
sider credible? Do they read the local paper or listen to particu-
lar radio stations? Do they pick up materials on grocery store
racks or at libraries?  Do they go to PTA meetings? Do they
know where to ask questions—or what questions to ask? (See
sidebar in Chapter 5, for more on channels of communication.)

                        3.   Know Your Audiences
How do they feel about business, government, and communi-
ty groups as sources of information about the environment?
Are  they skeptical or hostile toward certain groups? What fac-
tors and incidents have helped shape their distrust? What can be
learned from these experiences? How do people feel about your
group or others that might help you reach  your audience  (e.g.,
media, health professionals, teachers, business representatives)?

How do people feel about the environment? Are they con-
cerned or indifferent? Do  they feel they can get answers when
they have questions? Do they know where to go for answers? If
industries provide many jobs in your area, are people more con-
cerned about employment than the environmental and health im-
pact of industry?
  In some communities, people who live near companies ex-
  pected to report under Title III may:

  • Be unaware of Title III

  • Think it's a good idea

  • Be skeptical that industry will comply

  • Be skeptical that government will enforce

  • Be concerned about pollution in general

  « Be  uninterested in details, i.e. specific substances or
    routes or levels of exposure

  • Not differentiate between emission and exposure

  • Think that all emissions are risky

  » Think that all emissions should be illegal

  • Think that only a complete absence of risk is acceptable

  • Not believe that they can get information

  • Not believe that industries or authorities will act to cor-
    rect the problems they see

  (Source: EPA/Georgetown   University  Medical Center,
  Toxic Substances Public Needs Assessment, 1988)
Research Results:
Views from Communities

                      3.  Know Your Audiences
    Research Results:
               Views of
  Hazardous Materials
      Personal Knowledge
         about Chemicals
Personal Actions to Protect
             Against Risk
    Sources of Information
A 1988 survey measured people's knowledge, awareness, and
actions related to hazardous materials in six communities: Albu-
querque, New Mexico; Cincinnati, Ohio; Durhaun, North Caroli-
na; Middlesex County, New Jersey; Racine County, Wisconsin;
and Richmond, Virginia.

Here are some of the results.
                             Location of Facilities Where
                               Chemicals Stored/Used
                             Releases of Chemicals Into Atmosphere
                             Quality of Drinking Water
                             Community Right-to-Know Laws
                             Emergency Preparedness Plans in Area
                             Hazardous Waste Facilities in Area
                             Activities to Cleanup Spills
                             Risks of Chemicals in Area
                                     "A Lot"

   22 %
                                   Of Those Who Answered Yes:
                                   High School     More Than
                                                         % Yes
                             Contributed Time/Money to
                                Environmental Cause          37  %
                             Used Bottled Drinking Water      36
                             Attended Town or Community
                                Meeting                    20
                             Talked to Doctor                20
                             Called/Written Government
                                Official                    16
                             Gone To Library                15
                             Moved/Chosen Not to Live
                                in Certain House              13
                                     or Less

                                      25  %



High School

   45 %



 Family Members
 Mail Notices
 Town Meetings, Library, LEPC,
   Doctors, Local Businesses


                        3.  Know Your Audiences
News Reporters
Local Government
Federal Government
Chemical Industry
 How much
 do you get
from source?
  "A Lot"
   27  %
 ,  5
 How much
  do you
trust source?
  Percent  "
  "A Lot"
  27 %

  is source?
    17 %

                                                             Perception of
                                                             Information Sources

EPA/Georgetown University Medical Center/Columbia Univer-
sity, Baseline Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Re-
garding Environmental Issues: Research Conducted in Prepara-
tion for Risk Communication Interventions as Part of SARA Title
The Community Partnership: A Hazardous Materials Manage-
ment Planning Guide, 1988. National Safety Council, 444 North
Michigan Avenue, Chicago, EL 60611-3991.

Do-It-Yourself Marketing Research, 1988. New York: McGraw-

Making Health Communication Work: A Planner's. Guide, 1988.
Office of Cancer Communication,  National Cancer Institute,
9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892.

                  3*  Know Your Audiences
  Research Results:
What Public Opinion
           Polls Say
Forty two national surveys concerning environmental pollu-
tion were conducted between 1984 and 1987,, Here is a brief
review of their results:
• Most  people  said they were aware of and concerned
  about pollution, but few felt that it was directly related to
  their own lives.

• A substantial majority said they favored strict govern-
  ment  enforcement of regulations concerning toxic sub-
  stances, even if it meant fewer jobs  or higher prices.

• More  than half of all respondents  felt that industry was
  not adequately protecting the community, with a strong
  majority expressing concern about  the safe manufacture,
  storage, and transport of toxic chemicals.
• A strong majority acknowledged  there was a  risk  in-
  volved in living near a plant that  manufactures chemi-
• Chemical wastes were seen as one of the most serious en-
  vironmental problems, according to a strong majority,
  but fewer than half said it was among their own greatest

(Source: EPA/Georgetown University Medical Center, Tox-
ic Substances Public Needs Assessment, 1988.)

Before You Begin

4.   Know Who  Can  Help
"Title III introduced a new relationship among governments at

all levels, the private sector, public organizations, and the gen-

eral public. Each group has a different but equally important

role in making emergency planning and community right-to-

know work."
                                     It's Not Over in 0 ctober
                           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Before you do anything else, take a look at what's going on in
your community. Some of the activities may fit your needs.

This stage of planning, often called a needs  assessment, helps
you find out what public information needs  are already being
met, or partially met, and what remains to be done. It also tells
you about  programs with which you may be  able to cooperate.
Have citizen groups produced a brochure you could use? Does a
chemical plant  have a public relations program? Does the fire
department give school  assemblies? Do these programs reach
the audiences you want  to reach and get out the message you
want to get out?

Basic questions to ask are these:

   • What's already going on?

   • How can  you work with other groups?

   • How can  they help you meet your goals?

   « Who else can help?

   « What else is needed?

What's already  going on?

Maybe more,.than  you think at first. This is  especially true  in
towns near large plants and refineries,  of course, but if you are
near truck routes, areas where  pesticides are sprayed, areas
where landfills  have been  located or  proposed, or areas with
much heavy industry, you may find some information programs
already underway.
Assessing Needs
What's Already
Going On?

            4.  Know Who Can Help
 Consider these possibilities:

 Government agencies. Health departments and departments of
 environmental protection often have public affairs offices, espe-
 cially on the state level, and many put out fact sheets, press re-
 leases, or other materials on toxic hazards. The SERC in your
 state can help you with contacts. Locally, fire departments and
 health departments may have outreach programs with materials
 or demonstrations that would fit your needs.

 Business programs. After the 1984 Bhopal disaster in India, the
 Chemical Manufacturers Association developed a public infor-
 mation program called Community Awareness and  Emergency
 Response (CAER). If you have a large chemical plant in your
 community, it may have a CAER program. Other plants or busi-
 nesses affected by Title III may also have public relations offic-
 es willing to help.

 When working with any other group, whether business or envi-
 ronmental, conservative or liberal, be sure that you understand
 that program's objectives. They should contribute  to, not re-
 place, your objectives.

 Citizen's, environmental, and health groups. In some places,
 environmental problems have given rise to citizen  groups that
 may have communications programs in place. Also consider the
 local chapters  of groups such as the Sierra Club, the American
 Lung Association, the National Audubon Society, and other vol-
 untary groups like Greenpeace and the National Wildlife Federa-

 Other LEPCs. You may be able to share ideas and resources
 with neighboring LEPCs.  The SERC may be  able to provide
 leads on what other communities in your state are doing.

 How can you work with others?

 Whether your group is an LEPC subcommittee or another com-
 munity group, Title III will bring you in contact with govern-
 ment, industry, and the public. For example, according to the
 law, LEPCs must include elected State and local officials; po-
 lice, fire and civil defense professionals; public health profes-
 sionals;  environmental,  hospital, and  transportation  officials;
representatives of affected facilities; representatives  of commu-
nity groups; and media representatives.

You may be working with all or some of these groups in a com-
munication program. As you do so, remember that the past sev-
eral decades have given rise to environmental stereotypes. De-
pending on your bias, the manufacturers may be manipulative,
the environmental groups self-serving, the public unreasonable,
the regulators unresponsive, the journalists irresponsible.

                          4.   Know Who Can  Help
As these groups work together under Title IE, the stereotypes
must give way but it may be a  gradual process. To facilitate
cooperation, keep in mind the different, and legitimate, perspec-
tives that each group brings  to the risk management process.
Several of the resources at the end of this chapter discuss the
viewpoints and concerns of various groups in the community.

How can other information pro grams help?

Once you have learned about other programs, decide whether or
not, and how, they can help. Ask questions like these.

   • Do materials or programs convey the  same message you
     want to convey? Are they  slanted in any way? Are they
     about toxic substances in air, water, or soil, or do they fo-
     cus on other topics,  such as indoor air pollution? If they
     do not further your group's goals, they are of little use to
     you, no matter how attractive or obtainable they may be.

   « Are they appropriate to your audience? Is a fact sheet too
     technical? Is a presentation designed for children  when
     you want to reach adults, or vice verse? If so, do not use
     them—but ask the following question.

   « Could they be adapted or modified  so  that they would
     work for your group? You may not have to start complete-
     ly  from scratch. See more about  adapting  materials in
     Chapter 14.

   • Are cooperative ventures possible? Could you develop a
     joint program with another group? More about working
     with other groups is in Chapter 7.

What other groups can help?

In addition to the groups mentioned above, all communities have
clubs, associations, offices, and businesses that have nothing to
do with toxic substances—but may be interested in helping. For

Libraries can help organize and provide information. Also, of
course, they can help locate books and articles, and reference li-
brarians can help you identify State and local officials and com-
munity groups. Many public libraries have computer access to
various databases now, and can inexpensively gain access to the
TRI database. Libraries usually have files on a wide variety of
topics of local concern; ask about the "vertical file." In addition,
libraries can often provide meeting rooms, hand out fact sheets
at the check out desk, and mount exhibits.
Who Else Can Help?

        4,,  Know Who  Can  Help
In Bay town, Texas, the Exxon facility donated a computer
to the city library to make it easier to access Title III data.
Software allows citizens  to cross reference chemicals by
company; any  hazard category by company name; all
chemicals by  hazard categories; and all  companies by
chemical name. The  LEPC will add inventory and emis-
sions data as they are reported.

(From Communicating Title HI: A Newsletter on Outreach
Activities, Chemical Manufacturers Association)
              Stores may be willing to serve as distribution points for materi-
              als and to display posters.

              Printers may be willing to donate their services for a pamphlet
              or brochure.

              Civic groups, such as the Lions Club, are often interested in
              supporting programs that  benefit the community, sometimes
              with funds, sometimes with in-kind services, such as free public-
              ity in a newsletter.  Ask groups that have regular meetings for
              time on their agenda to speak about Title III.

              School  or  university journalism or public  speaking classes
              may be interested in helping with special projects.
Louisiana State University, Department of Environmental
Studies is helping the Baton Rouge LEPC catalog Title III
data on personal computers provided by industry in the re-

(From Communicating Title III: A Newsletter on Outreach
Activities, Chemical Manufacturers Association.)
             Toastmaster's International, a  public speaking club, might
             also lend members for speaking occasions.

             Homeowners' or tenants' associations may have newsletters,
             meetings, or other channels of communication that  you could
             use to spread awareness.

             Voluntary groups with  local chapters, such as  the American
             Lung Association, the League of Women Voters, or  the March
             of Dimes Foundation may have materials or activities that would
             fit in your objectives.

                         4.  Know Who  Can Help
Environmental activist groups may be able to lend time and

Hospitals, clinics, or other groups that sponsor health fairs may
welcome an exhibit on environmental health.

Churches may be able to provide meeting space or publicity in
a newsletter.

Schools hold assemblies, and may  be willing to arrange for a
presentation that appeals to students, such as a demonstration of
HAZMAT equipment to deal with hazardous material emergen-
cies, accompanied by an explanation of what the LEPC is doing.

Local newspapers, radio stations, and TV stations are, of course,
essential and valuable  allies. See Chapter 11 for more on  the

Once you know what  materials  and activities exist, how you
could use them, and who else might help, decide what you need
to develop from scratch. This is the time to make your plans fi-
nal; see Chapter 5.
Chemicals In Your Community: A Guide to the Emergency Plan-
ning and Community Right-to-Know Act,  1988.  Emergency
Planning and Community Right-to-Know Information, U.S. En-
vironmental Protection Agency, OS  120, 401  M  Street SW,
Washington, DC 20460.

The Community Partnership: A Hazardous Materials Manage-
ment Planning Guide, 1988. National Safety Council, 444 North
Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991.

It's Not Over in October: A Guide for Local Emergency Plan-
ning Committees,  1988. Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know  Information, U.S. Environmental  Protection
Agency, OS 120, 401 M Street SW, Washington, DC 20460.

Locating Funds for Health Promotion Programs, 1988, ODPHP
National Health Information Clearinghouse, P.O.  Box  1133,
Washington, DC 20013.

Making Health Communication Work: A Planner's Guide, 1988.
Office  of Cancer  Communication, National Cancer Institute,
9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892.
What Else Is Needed?

4,,  Know Who Can Help

Before You Begin
5.  Outline A  Plan
With homework done, you are ready for the final step in

The final step is to outline your plan in detail. This outline need
not be a long or  formal document, but it should answer five

    •  What do you want to accomplish in the community?

    •  What information do you want to convey in order to have
      that happen?

    •  How will you convey it?

    •  Who will do what? When?

    •  How will you know if your strategy is working?
What do you want to accomplish ?

This will depend on your community. Say, for example, that a
large chemical plant is a major employer in the area; that a State
right-to-know law has been in effect for some time; that a local
environmental group has been active for the past  decade; and
that many people are already aware of the presence of toxic sub-
stances. Then your overall goal might be to encourage citizens
to use the new law to learn more. Your objectives could focus
on telling concerned  citizens about how to access and use the
TRI database, follow LEPC activities, and work to reduce risks.

Every community, of course, has a different combination of cir-
cumstances. But to illustrate the planning process, the remainder
of this chapter will use just one hypothetical situation.

   Washington County has several businesses reporting un-
   der Title III, but there has not yet been afire or a spill
   that extended beyond the fencelines. Few people in the
   county realize there is a potential risk; almost no one
   knows the County needs or has an emergency plan.The
   LEPC Public Information Subcommittee decides that its
   communication goals are (1) to publicize the  emergency
   plan in the neighborhoods near the facilities, and (2) to
   raise awareness of community leaders throughout the
   county of the presence of toxic substances and of their
   rights under the new law.
What Do You Want to

                              5.  Outline A Plan
What Information Do You
        Want to Convey?
 How Will You Convey It?
       Who Will Do What
              and When?
What is your message ?

Try to put into single statements the ideas you want to convey
and then make sure that all activities and materials get across
that message.

   The Subcommittee sums up the messages related to its
   two goals as follows: (1) Although the risk of an accident
   is very low, everybody who lives in the vicinity of busi-
   nesses that handle  large amounts of toxic substances
   should know that there is an emergency  committee and
   an emergency plan. (2) There are toxic substances  in
   Washington County  and there is a new federal law that
   gives citizens the right to know about them.

What channels will you use?

There are dozens of different ways to convey information. Chan-
nels of communication can range from personal conversations to
mass media programming, and there are many more practical
ones between (see below). Choose channels that fit both your
message and your audience.

   To reach people living near the facilities, the Subcommit-
   tee chooses as channels their homeowners' and tenants'
   associations, PTAs,  and two busy neighborhood shop-
   ping centers. To reach community leaders throughout the
   county it chooses a countywide newspaper  and local
   town councils as channels.

Decide on activities, assign tasks, and devise a timetable.

Does  someone need to  make calls, arrange for a presentation,
write a fact sheet or press release, obtain  brochures, distribute
brochures, invite people to subcommittee meetings, demonstrate
computer access to the TRI database? As with any workplan, the
more clearly it's spelled out, the fewer will be the frustrations.

   The Subcommittee decides that its Information  Coordi-
   nator will personally visit the newspaper editor, leave
   him materials, and invite him to an LEPC meeting. Three
   other members will  call the homeowners' and  tenants'
   association presidents and the PTAs to ask if Subcommit-
   tee members can attend their meetings to make presenta-
   tions. The presentation will be prepared by afire depart-
   ment member,  and delivered by the members who made
   the first contact. A chemical company's public relations
   department will send someone to the next Subcommittee
   meeting to give public speaking tips.

                              5.  Outline A Plan
   Someone else will design and write a brief fact sheet de-
   scribing the emergency plan, and another member will
   start looking into inexpensive ways to have it printed or
   photocopied. Yet another member will call  local scout
   troops and ask them to help distribute the fact sheet at
   the shopping centers one Saturday morning.
  Where would you like or expect to find information about
  toxic releases? People  in several communities answered
  like this:
      News reports
      Telephone number
      Police and emergency agencies
      Civic and community group meetings
  Y    Drugstores
      Post offices
      Environmental groups
      Doctor's offices
      Elected officials*
      Government offices*
  * Some people voiced skepticism about these sources of in-
  (Source:  EPA/Georgetown University  Medical  Center,
  Toxic Substances Public Needs Assessment, 1988.)
Plan to follow up.

It's a good idea to follow up on these activities to find out if they
are achieving your goals. If not, you may want to alter them in
some way or try something different. Known as evaluation, this
kind of followup is vital to making a program work and should
be built into your plan from the beginning.

    Our hypothetical Subcommittee asks each speaker to re-
   port at its next meeting on the size of his or her audience,
    the amount of interest shown, and the kinds of questions
    asked. It asks the scout troops to keep track of approxi-
    mately how many people take materials. The Information
    Coordinator scans the newspaper for stories related to
    the LEPC or toxic chemicals. And finally,  the member
    who fields telephone calls for the Subcommittee asks
    each caller how he or she found  out about toxic sub-
   stances and emergency planning.
Research Results:
Channels of
How Will You Know if
Your Strategy Is

               5.  Outline A Plan
               The information collected through followup helps give an idea
               of the impact of each activity and helps members decide what to
               do next. For example, if the newspaper does not run a story on
               the LEPC and Title III, the Information Coordinator may decide
               to try a press release or to approach a local radio talk show in-

Resources    Making Health Communication Work: A Planner's Guide, 1988.
               Office of Cancer Communication, National  Cancer Institute,
               9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892,.

               "Measuring Potential/Evaluating Results," Managing Your Pub-
               lic Relations: Guidelines for Non-profit Organizations, 1980. In-
               stitute for Public Relations Research  and Education, 310 Madi-
               son Avenue, Suite 310, New York, NY 10017.

               "Planning and Setting Objectives," Managing Your Public Rela-
               tions: Guidelines for Non-profit Organizations, 1980. Institute
               for Public Relations Research and Education, 310 Madison Ave-
               nue, Suite 310, New York, NY 10017.

Part II:   Getting People  Involved
Promoting public participation, vital to the success of Title III, is
also an important part of your communication program. In fact,
it is a process that got started as you planned the program.

Planning forced you to come to terms with time and resources,
making it clear that no single person or group could handle com-
munication alone. As you planned, you spelled out the contribu-
tions that different groups and individuals could make, defining
your own role and that of others.

The following chapters suggest ways to build on what you have
started. Chapter 6 gives tips for attracting individual volunteers
to work with your organization. Chapter 7 discusses ways to es-
tablish joint ventures with other groups.


 Getting People Involved

 6.   How  To  Get And Keep Volunteers
 "Preparing for chemical accidents and controlling the release

 of toxic substances into the environment is no longer the

 exclusive responsibility of a handful of government and

 industry specialists in emergency management and pollution

 control. Now it's everybody's job."
                                 Chemicals in Your Community
                           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 If you are a member of an LEPC subcommittee or other group
 that provides public information about toxic substances, then the
 concept on which Title in is based—"it's everybody's job"—is
 more than an abstract ideal. It has practical benefits. With more
 people involved, you will have:

    •  more channels through which to reach different segments
      of the community

    •  more feedback from different segments of the community
      on information needs

    •  more ideas for messages and channels

    •  more help with specific tasks

 Here are some ways to find and keep active group members.

 Make a list. Put on it the names of people who might be inter-
 ested  in joining your subcommittee or group. You could begin
 by  contacting people who are active in other groups—citizen
 and neighborhood associations, local environmental and health
 groups, and business organizations. Chapter 4 lists some exam-
 ples. And don't overlook word-of-mouth as a way to find volun-

 Ask leaders to appoint representatives from their groups.
 Remember that it may take some time for leaders to talk to peo-
ple and find out  who is interested and has time. Offering to
 speak at one of the group's meetings may help.

Make personal contact. In getting people involved, a personal
meeting is more effective than a telephone call and a telephone
call more effective than a letter. Some people recommend a let-
ter followed by a telephone call to arrange a meeting.
Finding Active Members

              6.  How To  Get And Keep Volunteers
  Reporters and LEPCs:
   A Conflict of Interest?
Keeping People Involved
                              Set up a structure that can accommodate various interests.
                              Consider establishing subcommittees, task forces, or advisory
                              groups to study particular issues or carry out certain tasks. This
                              not only helps your group get its work done efficiently, but also
                              encourages volunteers who are interested  or knowledgeable in
                              some particular area. For example you might have a subcommit-
                              tee on publicity, another on information management, and an-
                              other on hazards analysis.
  A study of Virginia LEPCs found that some journalists feel
  there is a conflict of interest between their jobs and LEPC
  membership. Focus groups in Pennsylvania revealed a sim-
  ilar problem. Reporters fear being used by special interests;
  they feel that getting  actively involved could limit their
  ability to be objective about environmental news. One solu-
  tion may be to encourage senior editors or producers to rep-
  resent the media on the LEPC and its: subcommittees, in
  place of reporters.
Take advantage of special skills. A task force on publicity
could be chaired by a member of the media, one on information
management by a librarian.

Know what you want members to do. Nothing is more discou-
raging than to volunteer for a community group and then find
out there is nothing specific to do. Designing tasks  for volun-
teers takes time and thought. It is easy, therefore, to overlook or
gloss over this step, especially when you yourself are a volun-
teer with limited time. But try to avoid this mistake. Make a list
of activities that new recruits could take over, with  guidelines
for implementation. In the long run, you will save yourself time.
(For communication jobs, the guidelines from this manual could

Set definite meeting times. If everyone knows that  the Public
Information Subcommittee meets on the first Tuesday of every
month, members are more likely to remember meetings and less
likely to schedule conflicts. Ask people about important con-
flicts before setting up the schedule.

Send out reminders of meetings. These can be in the form of
minutes from the last meeting, postcards, or telephone calls.

Plan substantive agendas. Community group meetings range
from aimless get togethers to professional presentations. Try to
avoid both extremes. The organizations that keep members com-
ing to meetings are  usually those  that have fairly  structured
agendas in which many people  can participate. Include  in the
agenda reports from subcommittees or individuals working  on
projects, time to discuss the reports, and formal votes on next

                6.  How To Get  And Keep Volunteers
Schedule special presentations. Part of some meetings can be
devoted to  presentations from other groups. An environmental
group, for  example, could present its special concerns at one
meeting  and an industry spokesman could speak  at another.
Computer demonstrations of information management systems
and the TRI database could be arranged.

Be aware of the nature of volunteer work. What people get
out of volunteer work is surprisingly similar to what people get
out of paying jobs: a sense of satisfaction at contributing,to ,a
team  effort, a sense of satisfaction at individual achievement,
recognition from peers, the  opportunity for .personal  growth.
Volunteers  also may welcome the chance to enhance their work
experience  or develop marketable skills; and there is the oppor-
tunity to improve the community's quality of life.

Volunteer work should be managed in the same way as any oth-
er work. It is usually recommended that volunteers:
   •  set specific, attainable objectives
   9  define tasks
   •  be given the authority to get the job done
   •  have a timetable
   •  report back to the group on problems and progress
   •  be recognized for contributions
 "Volunteer organizations can make it more or less difficult for
 members to serve by the procedures they adopt," notes a re-
 port on a survey of Virginia LEPCs. Meeting times  were
 among the potential problems identified by the survey.
                                 Percent of members saying
                                	problem is:	
  Potential Problem
  Finding time for work
    outside of meetings
  Finding time to go to
    LEPC meetings
  Meetings scheduled at
    inconvenient times
  Getting access to
    needed information
  Lack of cooperation from
    affected firms
  Getting time released from
    work for the LEPC

 28 %











 (Source: Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University,
 Community Interpretation of Hazardous Materials Risk Infor-
 mation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1989.)
Research Results:
Finding the Right Time

             6.  How To Get And Keep Volunteers
How to Keep Volunteers
  1.  Fit the job to the person.
  2.  Set a realistic schedule.
  3.  Be specific about tasks.
  4.  Delegate authority as well as responsibility.
  5.  Give support and supervision.
  6.  Use the product or results.
  7.  Say thank you in a meaningful way.
"Working With Volunteers," Managing Your Public Relations:
Guidelines for Non-prof it Organizations, 1980. Institute for Pub-
lic Relations Research and Education, 310 Madison Avenue,
Suite 310, New York, NY 10017.

 Getting People Involved

 7.   How  To  Work With  Other Groups
 Reach more people and stretch your resources by cooperating
 with other organizations.
Why work with other groups? Consider this hypothetical situa-

    The Washington County LEPC Information Subcommit-
    tee wants to distribute a fact sheet to every household in
    a certain neighborhood. The American Lung Associa-
    tion's (ALA's) local chapter -will be conducting its annu-
    al, door-to-door fund drive in about two months. After a
    telephone call and a meeting, the ALA agrees to let the
    Subcommittee use its canvassers  as  a communication
    channel; the canvassers will distribute fact sheets at the
    same time they  request donations. In return the LEPC
    agrees to print on the fact sheets, "Distribution a service
    of the Washington County Lung Association." The joint
    venture gets the job done and benefits both groups.

Cooperation, in other words, saves time and money.

Another advantage  to joint ventures  is  improved  credibility.
When established community groups become involved, people
may be more likely  to believe your message and take it serious-
ly. The Lung Association in the above example lends its prestige
and credibility to the Subcommittee's message.

To  make a joint venture work,  manage it carefully. Here are
some guidelines.

Identify interested  groups. When you reviewed what was al-
ready going on in your community (Chapter 4), you may have
found organizations that were  working on environmental or
health concerns. LEPC representatives from community groups
may know of ways  their organizations could get involved. Ask
local newspapers and libraries if they know of other groups. Try
to find organizations that can influence your audience.
  The LEPC in Louisville, Kentucky, worked with the Rub-
  bertown Mutual Aid Association, which is the local Chemi-
  cal Awareness and Emergency Response (CAER) group, to
  develop a form for the public to use in requesting Title IE
  data from  the county clerk. A public library  branch has
  agreed to store the data.

  (From Communicating Title III: A Newsletter on Outreach
  Activities, Chemical Manufacturers Association)
 Cooperation Improves
 Efficiency, Access,
 and Credibility
Identify Groups

(7.  How To Work With Other Groups
          Make Them Part
           of the Program
                               Approach group leaders personally. Don't issue a general call
                               for help or circulate a form letter. Personal contact is much more
                               effective. Try to identify someone you or another group member
                               knows in each organization, and call that person first to ask for
                               an introduction to group leaders. If you do not know anyone and
                               feel it is more appropriate to begin with a letter, make it a per-
                               sonal one and follow up with a telephone call.
Involve group leaders in planning as early as possible. Their
activities may influence yours and vice verse. For example, if
you have asked the PTA to sponsor a science award related to
chemicals in the community, both you arid the PTA will need
time to prepare. The PTA must meet with school officials, get
approval, make arrangements for judging, and so on. You will
want to make plans to incorporate news of the contest in press
releases and other publicity.

Be flexible. Remember that other groups have their own goals
and timetables.  For the venture to be  successful  and worth re-
peating, it must serve their goals as well as yours. Don't lose
sight of your own objectives, but be willing to adjust your time-
table or strategy if necessary.

Avoid competition. Be willing to share responsibility and credit
for achievements.

Provide a structure for the cooperative effort.  A written
agreement may or may not be necessary, but be sure to do more
than talk on the telephone. Meet  with leaders to discuss plans,
progress, problems, and results. Decide who will do what and by
when. Photocopy the schedule and send it to everyone involved.

Choose specific, short-term activities that are likely to be suc-
cessful. Avoid  vague objectives,  such as  "let your members
know about the new law." Instead specify "an article in your
newsletter" or "help in distributing a brochure."
   The Information Subcommittee of the Louisville/Jefferson
   County LEPC, in Kentucky, asked the water utility to mail
   brochures explaining Title HI with its bills. Officials at the
   water company agreed, as long as the brochures could be
   designed to be handled by their automated mailing equip-
   ment. Funds for the brochures were solicited from industry.

   (From Communicating Title III: A Newsletter on Outreach
   Activities, Chemical Manufacturers Association)

                7.  How To Work With Other Groups
Recognize efforts with something tangible. A formal thank
you letter, with copies sent to local newspapers, is one way to do
this. For large projects, certificates of appreciation may be in or-

Discuss results with the other group. Review what worked and
did not work, and prepare a short report for everyone who was
involved. Use these reports to improve future efforts.

Share your successes. Write a report on the project and why it
worked. Share it with other groups interested in communication
about toxic and other hazardous substances.
Making Health Communication Work: A Planner's Guide, 1988.
Office of Cancer Communication, National  Cancer  Institute,
9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892.
Evaluation and Followup

7.  How To Work With Other Groups

 Part 111:   Running A Communication
Use the how-to-do-it chapters that follow as a primer. Each is a
brief introduction to a broad topic, in some cases a whole field.
Media relations and public speaking, for example, are the sub^
jects of books,  courses, and magazine articles. Yet you don't
need an  advanced degree to do them well; much  is common
sense and practice.

For those who want to pursue a topic, a few titles are listed at
the end of most chapters. More can be found at libraries  and
book stores.

As you move beyond planning and begin to talk with people
about toxic substances in the community, you may find yourself
dealing with a variety of reactions: worry, fear, anger, fatalism.
At this point it's important to remember your purpose, which is
neither to enflame nor to minimize concern and controversy, but
to channel them into productive dialogue. Listen to concerns, ac-
knowledge their legitimacy, suggest next steps. The overall goal
of a communications program is to allow the community to learn
about toxic substances and to participate in decisions about the
risks they pose.


 Running A Communication Program

 8.   How To  Talk About  Risk
 "I continuously get the feeling that people still think chemistry

 is alchemy. It really is a mystery; it's a black box if you don't

 work in it. And they kind of look at people in the chemical

 industry as a little strange. They have no idea  what you do.

 They don't know what questions to ask. I think it's because

 they're afraid to show ignorance or it's just so far afield for

 them that they don't ask."
                         Chemical company employee focus groups,
                                   EPA/Georgetown University
                         Toxic Substances Public Needs Assessment
 People have a hard time talking about risk. As you begin to talk
 about emissions and inventories and probabilities, you will prob-
 ably begin to see why.  Here are some of the special challenges
 of risk communication and ways to begin coping with them.

 Technical language. Information about toxic substances often is
 expressed in numbers, acronyms, and multi-syllable terms that
 tell the layman little. For example:

    Methemoglobinemia is the most important result of ani-
    line poisoning in man. Inhalation of 7-53 ppm causes
    only slight symptoms  but 1-160 ppm for over an hour
    can cause serious difficulty.

 Volume of data. There  are 366 extremely hazardous substances
 for which businesses must submit inventory information, and
 similarly large numbers  are covered by other sections of the law.
 In industrial parts of the country, this can result  in a flood of
 data under Title  III. Databases and computer programs are be-
 ing developed to help deal with this problem.

 Uncertainty. More scientific research is needed on almost all
 toxic  substances. Because one or two studies are not enough to
 prove cause and effect, you will frequently run into information
 like this:

   Epidemiological evidence suggests that aniline is not a
   human carcinogen.  However, ingested aniline may  be
   concentrated  to aniline hydrochloride which  has been
   shown  to be carcinogenic in rats.

 History of conflict in some communities.  Distrust of officials
 and business is high in some places that have experienced con-
flict over toxic waste dumps or other industrial pollution. "They
won't do anything about it," and "they only tell you what they
want you to hear," are the kinds of comments you may hear. A
good communication program  can channel these  feelings into
constructive action.
The Challenges

             8.  How To Talk About Risk
Aspects of Risk
Apathy in some communities. The other side of the coin is apa-
thy; people seem not to care. Apathy can stem from lack of in-
formation. But it can also stem from a feeling of powerlessness.
"You feel as if your hands are tied; there's nothing you can do,"
is a common sentiment.

Much exposure to risk, over which* one has no  control, also can
breed a kind of paralysis. In one Pennsylvania community near a
major highway, emergency workers no longer can get people  to
evacuate their houses when an truck accident spills chemicals on
the highway; it has happened too often.

What is the risk of aniline causing cancer in people who live 2
miles from a chemical plant that sometimes releases it into the
air? Science measures  the risk in statistical terms: perhaps it is 1
death annually among 1,000,000 people. Residents measure the
risk in  personal terms:  that one death could be their child's.

There are many non-statistical aspects of risk. For example:

Voluntary risks are more acceptable  than risks forced on us by
others. There is a difference between deciding to spray your ros-
es to get rid of Japanese beetles and having someone else decide
to spray your neighborhood from a helicopter, without your con-

Risks we can  control as individuals are more acceptable than
those we cannot control. Many people would rather drive a car
than ride in an airplane, no matter what the statistics say about
car accidents vs plane crashes. A community that has  some say
over the location of a chemical plant may feel more comfortable
with the risk from that plant.

Unfair risks that affect one group more than another are difficult
to accept. "Not in my backyard" is a natural and universal reac-
tion to toxic waste disposal landfills. It is not fair for one neigh-
borhood to bear the risk while others  do not.

The source of risk information can play a role. Is the agency or
business trustworthy? Does it tell the community what's really

Risk concentrated in time and space is  less acceptable than dif-
fused risk. Risks that are mathematically the same may really be
very different when time and space are considered. For example,
chemical A may kill  50 people a year in the  U.S.; chemical B
may have one chance in 10 of killing 5,000 people in one com-
munity sometime in the next 10 years.  Mathematically, the risk
in both  cases is the same: an  expected annual mortality of 50
people. But the second risk is less acceptable.

                      8.   How To Talk About  Risk
 People have always lived with risk, presently live with risk,
 and will continue to live with risk. Some degree of risk of
 adverse health effects from toxic  substances is inevitable,
 as a consequence of exposure to both naturally occurring
 and  manmade toxicants. Proper management of risk re-
 quires risk assessment, risk management, and risk commu-

 Risk is the potential of an adverse health effect as a result
 of exposure to a hazardous substance or agent.

 Risk assessment is a scientific process of estimating the
 exposure to a substance and evaluating its adverse health
 effects. Risk assessment consists of four steps:

    • Hazard identification is the process of determining
      whether exposure to a substance can cause an effect
      such as cancer.

    • Dose-response assessment establishes a quantitative
      relationship between the exposure and the adverse
      health effect determined in the hazard identification

    • Exposure assessment is the process of measuring or
      estimating  the current or anticipated exposure from
      various routes such as air, water, and food to a sub-
      stance. Exposure assessment considers intensity, fre-
      quency, and duration of exposure as well as the pop-
      ulation involved.

    •  Risk characterization is the final step in risk assess-
      ment and combines the three steps mentioned above.
      It estimates potential adverse  health effects under
      various conditions of human exposure.

Risk  management is the the process of integrating risk as-
sessment results with engineering data and social, econom-
ic, and political concerns. Alternatives are weighed to se-
lect the most appropriate public health action that will  lead
to a decision on appropriate controls, remedial actions, or
other measures.

Risk  communication deals with public education and in-
formation.  It aims at improving public understanding and
thus facilitating an informed individual and societal choice.
Effective risk communication increases the likelihood that
communities will find acceptable risk management solu-
tions and improves the quality of those solutions.

(Adapted from Risk Assessment in the  Federal Govern-
ment: Managing  the Process. National Academy  Press,
Washington, DC, 1985.)
What Is Risk?

                  8.   How To Talk About  Risk
Conveying Technical
Exotic risks, from high-tech industries for example, are less tol-
erable than familiar risks, such as household chemicals. Similar-
ly, artificial risks, such as toxic air pollution, seem riskier than
naturally occurring radon.

Risks that are well understood by science  are more acceptable
than those about which there is much uncertainty.

Risks that carry special dread,  such as cancer, or are associated
with memorable events, such as the disaster at Bhopal or Cher-
nobyl, are less easy to accept than others.

Risks that are not easily detectable seem worse than those that
are. An invisible gas is more frightening than a chemical spill—
at least until the spill gets into water supplies. People are also
more likely to fear a risk that takes many years to show up, such
as a chemical that may cause cancer 20 years after exposure.

Risks that seem unethical are less tolerable. If you feel that toxic
emissions are wrong, then there is no such thing as an acceptable
level of risk.

Experts point out that these factors are not distortions of risk.
They are intrinsic to our society's understanding of risk and any-
one who  is talking about toxic substances and risk must take
them into account.

To explain risk, you may first have to explain some of the basic
principles of toxicology and the effects of specific substances.
Here are some general principles.

Avoid  technical terms and jargon.  These are shortcuts that
make communication easier within a field  but shroud it in mys-
tery for others. For example, you can use  "swallow"  instead of
"ingest",  "breathe" instead of  "inhale", "contact with the skin"
instead of "dermal contact". To follow this rule, you often have
 to observe the next.

 Don't hesitate to use many plain words,  if necessary, in place
 of a few technical words. For example, say "a^substance that
 may harm an unborn baby" instead of "teratogen."

 Don't  try to tell everything at once. Your main message  can
 get lost in a sea of relatively unimportant  details. For example,
 you  could explain  which trimester of pregnancy may be most
 vulnerable to a certain teratogen, but in so doing you could ob-
 scure your main point. Deciding what is important and unimpor-
 tant  means having  a very clear idea of your owri message  and
 your audience's needs.

 Start out with direct statements  or answers. Don't try to  add
 qualifications and details all at once.

                        8.  How To Talk About Risk
 Imagine how your first statement could be misinterpreted.
 Then add background information that can prevent misinterpre-
 tation. This is the time for details.

 Add  qualifiers. Explain  what is not known, when it may be
 known,  and what kinds of other information  could change the
   Here  is  an  example of  technical  information presented
   clearly, taken from Risk Communication About Chemicals
   in  Your  Community,  U.S.   Environmental  Protection

      "Benzene is  a chemical found  in  many common
      products  such as gasoline and often used in making
      plastics, textiles, rubber, and solvents. It is known to
      cause leukemia if people are exposed to it at levels
      of hundreds of parts per million over many years. In
      our town, concentrations in the air ;are  about 20
      parts per  billion. Scientists do not know whether ex-
      posures at this level  have human health  effects,
      since  it is about 400  times  lower  than exposures
      known to cause leukemia. In other cities that do not
      have factories emitting benzene, concentrations in
      the air average about  9  parts per billion, because
      both automobile exhaust and other everyday activi-
      ties such as  pumping gasoline  result in benzene
      emissions too."
 Because the technical information is full of uncertainties, you
 will have to talk also about probabilities and degrees of risk.

 Acknowledge that there is uncertainty. Don't be on the defen-
 sive because you can't give yes or no answers. Instead, put this
 fact in context by talking about the uncertainty inherent in much
 of science.

 Don't use government  standards as cut-off points. This im-
 plies that risk is a safe-or-not-safe proposition when it is really a
 matter of degree. People have a strong tendency to interpret ac-
 tion levels, guidelines, and standards as the upper level  of safe
 exposure, which they are not intended to be. Use the terms "low-
 risk" and "high-risk" to convey that risk is a matter of degree.

 Give background information when using numbers. For ex-
 ample explain the risk assessment process if the numbers come
from a risk assessment. Explain routes of exposure, and the dif-
ference that levels of exposure make.
 Plain Speaking
Conveying Risk

              8.  How To Talk About Risk
Comparing Risks
                     Use graphs and charts. Visual explanations of probability are
                     easier to understand than numerical expressions. Be sure they
                     are clear, and don't include so many numbers that you obscure
                     the main message.

                     Make risk comparisons but do it very carefully. A useful way
                     to explain risks from toxic substances is to compare them with
                     other risks. But this can be very tricky. If you compare risks
                     people choose voluntarily with risks that are chosen for them by
                     someone else—e.g.,  smoking with breathing pollutants—you
                     will be comparing apples and oranges, and you're likely to make
                     people  angry. Before making  risk comparisons,  consider the
                     non-statistical aspects of risk discussed earlier.

                     The following box outlines risk comparisons that may work.
Rutgers University's  Environmental  Communication Re-
search Program suggests these kinds of comparisons:
• Use comparisons of the same risk at two different times:
  "in 1979 before regulation versus this year after regula-
• Compare with a standard: "This level is 25% below the
  Federal standard and somewhat below  the State guide-
  line." At the same time explain that standards  are not
  cut-off points  for safety, but  only indications of what
  may be high-risk or low-risk. (Use this comparison care-,
  fully if the standard is controversial.)
• Compare with different estimates of the same risk: your
  estimate of the risk side-by-side with the industry assess-
  ment and the environmentalists'. Then explain the differ-
• Explain how the risk compares with the risk in  other
  communities or to national or state averages.

(From Improving Dialogue With  Communities, by Billie Jo
Hance, Caron Chessman, Peter M. Sandman )
                      Explain the processes that are taking place. Explain how stan-
                      dards are set, how risk assessments are made, how regulations
                      are enforced, and in general, how decisions are made.

                      Explain how people can have  more control. Provide a tele-
                      phone number to report problems or to get information on pollu-
                      tion. Explain how to use the TRI data and to become involved
                      with groups working on the problem.

                       8.  How To Talk  About Risk
 Communicate on a personal level. Put the risk in personal
 terms: e.g., "If you live two miles from the plant, your risk of
 breathing in these routine emissions is in the low range."  Also
 acknowledge that personal feelings about risk are legitimate.

 Be prepared for personal questions. When people are trying to
 make personal decisions about technical matters (should I move
 away or join a protest march or drink bottled water or just forget
 it?) it is legitimate to ask a technical expert what his or her deci-
 sion would be (are you drinking bottled water?). Some  experts
 are reluctant to answer such questions, especially if they repre-
 sent an agency that makes policy decisions or if their  answer
 will receive publicity.

 But answering this kind of question  is a good way to make risk
 and risk decisions intelligible. Some experts recommend giving
 a direct answer, while making it clear that agencies and other
 people may  come  up with different answers. For example: "I
 personally wouldn't mind living this close to a plant that had
 careful controls, because the risk seems  low  enough to me. I
 have  a brother, though,  who wouldn't want to  take even this
 amount of risk."
Explaining Environmental Risk, Peter Sandman, U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency, 1987. Emergency Planning and Com-
munity Right-to-Know Information, U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency OS  120, 401  M Street, SW, Washington, DC

Improving Dialogue With Communities, by Billie Jo Hance, Car-
on Chess, and Peter M. Sandman, Environmental Communica-
tion Research Program, Rutgers University, 1988.  New Jersey
Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Science
and Research, Risk Communication Unit, CN 409, Trenton, NJ

Risk Communication About Chemicals in Your  Community,
1989. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA 230-09-89-
066 (manual);  EPA 230-09-89-067 (manual and facilitator's

8.  How T© Talk About Risk

 Running A Communication Program
 9,     How To Publicize
         The  Emergency  Plan
".. .the industrial emergency response group put together a

plan, a major drill.. .for our emergency response...."

"We got a lot of good press out of it."

"A lot of good positive press.... But probably the best thing

that came out of it was what the community could do., .it had a

major impact, I think."
               Chemical company employee participants, focus groups
                                 EPA/Georgetown University
                        Toxic Substances Public Needs Assessment
If you are a member of an LEPC public information subcommit-
tee, one of your first jobs may be to publicize the emergency
plan. Other groups may be able to help. Information about the
plan is important to community safety, because people need to
be prepared. Talking about the plan is also a good introduction
to Title III and a way to start raising awareness of toxic risks.

The law requires that LEPCs publicize the emergency plan
through public meetings and public notification. Also consider
other ways to publicize the plan, choosing those that fit your au-

Use newspapers. Local newspapers can  publish articles on the
emergency plan, based on interviews with you, press releases
written by you, or both (see Chapter 11, "How To Work With
the Media").

Articles about the emergency plan give you a chance to provide
background information—what the risks  are and why a plan is
needed—increasing the likelihood that  people will comply if
emergency actions are ever necessary. Also use this opportunity
to publicize the LEPC and the community's rights under Title
Start Raising Awareness

              9.   How To Publicize The Emergency  Plan
    A I.OHI) CONTINUOUS SIRKN. holding ils
  pilch fur three (.1) minutes or mure, may mean
  h.-» been :itlw.ilc7vfc)-O9//

 MIL(XUOTaERlEF(a5)727-6191 (312)672-5254

 ILLINOIS STATE POLICE (815)  726-6291








  302 North Chicago Street
    Joliet, HUinois 60432

The Will County, Illinois, LEPC has distributed this cardboard fact sheet through fire, police, and
emergency services departments. The reverse has text explaining the provisions of Title ILL

           9.  How To  Publicize The Emergency Plan
  A newspaper ad in Midland, Texas, boosted public aware-
  ness of emergency preparedness. The ad, headed "Are You
  Prepared for a Hazardous Materials Emergency?" was pro-
  duced by the Midland Community Awareness and Emer-
 . gency Response (CAER) Committee, an advisory group to

  (From Communicating Title III: A Newsletter on Outreach
  Activities, Chemical Manufacturers Association)
Consider newsletters. Those of local groups, such as home-
owners' associations, PTAs, and churches, may reach your audi-
ence.'.Write  a brief article and contact editors to ask  them to
print it.

Distribute  emergency instructions  to neighborhoods that
could be affected by a fire, explosion, spill, or other accident.
These should be brief and very clear; use direct statements, large
print, and bold type. They should also be in a form that is easily
saved. The instructions can be distributed in community centers,
libraries, city halls (where people pay water bills, for example),
supermarkets, and other public places. You could  ask municipal
fire, police, and emergency departments to help distribute the in-
structions. Some  municipalities have regular newsletters that
could print a copy. Also consider including  emergency instruc-
tions in tax bills.

Be  prepared for  questions. Publicizing the emergency plan
may raise questions about toxic and other hazardous substances
and how much risk they pose. It is important to give as much in-
formation as is available, not only because it is the public's right
to have  that information but also because it will establish your

Make sure that newspaper articles and instructions tell where to
call for more information (when there is no emergency). Try to
anticipate questions, and if possible,  have  a brochure or fact
sheet to send out with more background information. Urge peo-
ple  to learn more through the mechanisms established  by Title

When talking to people about toxic "substances,  listen to their
concerns and acknowledge that they are legitimate. See Chapter
8, "How to Talk About Risk."

Produce a video or slide presentation. If you can solicit funds
from local businesses and services from audiovisual experts, you
may be able to do this. Audiovisuals make good introductions to
speeches and can be loaned to other groups.

9.   How To Publicize The  Emergency Plan
                     An industry advisory group to the Midland, Texas, LEPC
                     produced a video on the emergency plan  and Title  HI.
                     "When the Siren Sounds" is being distributed free at local
                     video shops.

                     (From Communicating Title HI: A Newsletter on Outreach
                     Activities, Chemical Manufacturers Association)
                   Make a special effort to reach minority groups. Instructions
                   to evacuate are sometimes less effective with minority ethnic
                   groups, researchers have found, because of differences in lan-
                   guage, beliefs,  and risk perceptions and a feeling of isolation
                   from authority. Translation of emergency instructions are one
                   solution. Holding small neighborhood meetings and working
                   with local ethnic associations may be even more effective. Make
                   a special effort to reach those who may be at particular risk.

                   Speak at other group's meetings. This may be easier than set-
                   ting up your own meeting, and it is an effective say to reach a
                   specific audience. Speak with group leaders in advance and ask
                   if you can be included on their agendas.

                   Hold meetings. Small group meetings may convey more infor-
                   mation more effectively than a general public hearing. Consider
                   less formal meetings  with people who are most affected by or
                   concerned about toxic substances.

                   Keep it up. Publicizing the emergency plan should be a regular
                   part of your communication plan, not a one-time project. Do not
                   assume that people will remember it. Other opportunities for
                   press releases are when the plan is revised,  when simulations
                   take place, or when responders receive special training.

                   "Using Publicity to Best  Advantage," Managing Your Public
                   Relations: Guidelines for Non-profit Organizations, 1980. Insti-
                   tute for Public Relations Research and Education, 310 Madison
                   Avenue, Suite 310, New York, NY 10017.

                   Promoting Issues and Ideas: A Guide to PR for Nonprofit Or-
                   ganizations, 1987. New York, NY: The Foundation Center.

Running A Communication Program

10.    How  To  Answer Questions
"/ catted someplace because I wanted to know about

something my husband was using...I called a couple numbers

and kept getting different numbers."

"No one knows anything."

"I never got past the switchboard."

"There's nothing you can do."
                               Public participants, focus groups
                                  EPA/Georgetown University
                        Toxic Substances Public Needs Assessment
These are comments from people who have tried to get informa-
tion on industrial pollution and failed.

But with the passage of Title III, citizens asking questions are
exercising a legal right, not asking a favor. And now a telephone
call can lead to other actions, such as accessing the TRI or work-
ing on an LEPC committee or other group. For these reasons, it
is important that local officials and the volunteers who may help
them  develop a workable system for responding  to telephone

People may have questions like these:

   •  There's a bad smell in our neighborhood whenever smoke
      starts coming out of the plant's stack. What's causing it?

   •  The newspaper  said XYZ Company  released 4,000
      pounds of cyclohexane into the air last year; isn't that ille-
      gal? Isn't it dangerous?

   o  How can the government let that happen?

   •  Is anything being done to stop it?

   •  What will  breathing cyclohexane do to  my family's

   »  What about  breathing cyclohexane together with  XXX
      chemical that another plant is releasing?

   •  I've heard there are underground storage tanks at the ABC
      chemical company. What's the chance of their developing

   «  What steps are being taken to prevent explosions?

   •  Could the leaks get into our water?

               10.  How To Answer Questions
       .And Answers
Talking With People
 You will not have the answer to every question, or even to most
 of them. You will need the help of technical experts from local
 schools, businesses, and government agencies, and they in turn
 will need to refer to the data specific to your community. Anoth-
 er EPA manual, Risk Communication About Chemical in Your
 Community, discusses the kinds of answers that are appropriate
 in particular situations.

 This chapter discusses the procedures involved in providing a
 question-and-answer service that works smoothly for both those
 who are asking and those who are answering questions.
 Appoint one person to be the initial contact for all requests.
 This person need  not be  an expert on  toxic substances, but
 should be accessible by telephone during  specified times. He or
 she could be in the library, health department, fire department,
 or other local office. An answering machine can take messages,
 if necessary, so that calls can be returned.

 Publicize that telephone number and the hours it's available.
 Include it in any printed materials (stamp it on materials from
 other sources) and  make sure the newspaper includes it in arti-
 cles whenever possible.

 Make the number known to other  agencies and offices, so that
 they can refer callers to you.

 Start a card file of referral contacts for different topics. In-
 clude names and telephone numbers as well as frequently asked
 questions that have been referred to each  contact. You can also
 include easily available publications in your  file, with ordering
Listen to specific concerns. Every request will be a little differ-
ent. Let the caller know that you understand what he or she said.
Acknowledge feelings. Don't belittle worries.

If you don't know the answer, say so. Offer to refer him or her
to someone else who will have the answer or to a specific book;
explain how to obtain printed material.

Don't guess if you don't have the  answer or a  good referral
source. Tell the person you will call them back. Or say that you
don't know and suggest several places to try.  In this case, you
might want to ask requestors to call you back and let you know
if they got the information they wanted.    :

                   10.  How To Answer Questions
Focus groups (small group meetings) with people
trial areas reveal that:

• There must be a personally relevant need for information
  for someone to be motivated to learn more. Participants
  said that tangible physical  evidence of emissions  and
  news reports would motivate them.

• Once a relevant need or hazard had been identified by
  these participants, they cited examples of actions they
  had taken. Most often, action meant seeking information
  by telephone.

• There must be an information source that is easily ac-
  cessible, knowledgeable, and credible if the target audi-
  ence is to be expected to become more knowledgeable
  and concerned. Although printed information may help,
  understanding of these complex issues is likely to require
  a two-way exchange.

• Information sources must be prepared to respond prior to
  attempting to raise public awareness and concern, or ad-
  ditional frustration may result.

• Agencies or other information sources the public would
  turn to with questions must at least be made aware of
  where to refer callers if public frustration is to be less-

(Source: EPA/Georgetown University Toxic Substances
Public Needs Assessment, 1988.)
Help callers formulate specific questions. Some callers may
have general concerns but not know the right questions to ask.
You may be able to help  by volunteering information. For
example, you could  explain that health  effects  can be both
long-term and short-term; that some emissions are permitted and
some are not; that there are a number of different factors that
affect toxicity.

Suggest a next step. Depending on the caller's needs, you might
offer to send a fact sheet or brochure or tell where one can be
picked up; explain the procedures for obtaining MSDSs and Tier
II information; tell how to access the TRI database; or suggest
the caller become involved in a local group concerned with Title
                                                            Research Results:
                                                            Seeking Information on
                                                            Toxic Substances—The

                  10.   How To Answer Questions
Evaluation and Followup
Consider checking back with callers that, were referred to oth-
er sources to ensure that their questions  were  answered. This
could be especially important  with complex questions or for
callers who represent groups to which they will be reporting the

Keep a record of the numbers and kinds of questions asked and
referrals made. If you find that the same questions are asked
over and over, you might consider preparing a question-and-
answer fact sheet to distribute in the community or at least to
keep by the telephone.

Check with your referral groups, if you find you are making
the same referrals over and over. Is it all right with them or are
they overloaded? Can they suggest another source? Could they
provide you with answers to the more routine questions?

Risk Communication About  Chemicals in Your Community,
1989. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA 230-09-89-
066 (manual); EPA 230-09-89-067  (manual and facilitator's

Running A Communication Program

11.   How  To Work With  The  Media
Understanding how the media work is the key.
Local newspapers may be your greatest allies. They  can help
you publicize the emergency plan, announce the availability of
emissions data, discuss the significance of the data, tell people
when and how to obtain more information, announce meetings,
report on meetings, ask for volunteers, and serve as a forum for
debate. Local radio and television stations can be just as val-
uable.                                            .

With that in mind, also remember that a communications pro-
gram is more than media relations. News and feature stories can
help raise awareness of toxic substances. But personal interac-
tion—speeches, meetings, answers to individual questions-^-can
result in much greater understanding and involvement. Ideally,
the mass media and personal interaction supplement each other
in a communication program.

What to ask of the media, and how and when to ask, will vary
from town to town and county to county. That is why one of the
first rules of media relations is  to meet personally with editors
and station  managers. The other rules given here concern basic
procedures  and techniques, recognized and welcomed by media
people in almost every community.

Identify media contacts,  such as editors, science and environ-
mental reporters, radio and television station managers. You can
do this by consulting community directories, libraries, and the
PR departments of large businesses in your community. In larger
cities, you  may find  that other groups have developed media
guides or that an environmental group has a press list.

Call or  visit your media contacts. Ask about deadlines; pre-
ferred lengths of articles or radio scripts; possibilities for feature
articles,  talk show appearances, guest  editorials, and columns;
and kinds of photographs preferred or tapes preferred.

Keep  a media list with names,  telephone numbers, and prefer-
ences. Keep it current.

Choose one member to be the chief media spokesperson. This
person should be easily available by telephone. Having one chief
contact is easier for editors, and it helps prevent conflicting or
duplicative stories. The media spokesperson can, of course, refer
reporters to other members for certain kinds of information. For
example, a technical expert could give  reporters information on
the properties of a certain substance.
Media Can Be Allies

            11.  How To  Work With  The  Media
Getting the Media's
                         Compile a packet of background information on Title III, the
                         emergency plan, the kinds of information becoming available,
                         and ways to use that  information. Distribute this to all media
                         contacts and keep extras on hand to give new contacts. EPA and
                         the National Safety  Council are developing a background note-
                         book on Title IE for reporters which may be useful.

                         Plan your media program in advance. For example, you could
                         plan press releases in  March and July when the inventory and
                         emissions data are reported; ask to take part in a radio talk show
                         in September to discuss the emissions data; publish a reminder
                         about the  emergency plan each October (with background infor-
                         mation on right-to-know); and write a guest editorial in January
                         to recognize volunteers.

                         Be flexible. Look for other opportunities for media coverage.
                         For example, an accidental release in another cornmunity could
                         be interesting to your  media contacts if it involved facilities or
                         substances similar to those in your community.
Observe standard formats for press releases. Type them dou-
ble- or triple-spaced on one side of 8 1/2" x 11" paper, and allow
wide margins. Give the media contact person's name and num-
ber at the top and give a release date (which may be "immediate-
ly"). Type "-more-" at the bottom of a page, if there is more, and
"-30-" or a row of asterisks at the end.

A news release  should begin with a colorful lead paragraph
highlighting local people, places,  or events. Include factual in-
formation—the traditional  what, who, why,  when, where, and
how—and  use clear, short sentences.  Many  public relations
primers, such as  those listed at the end of this chapter, contain
more guidelines on writing press releases.

Don't stop at press releases. A letter to the editor can ask for or
thank volunteers. A guest editorial or op-ed article  can give an
overview of an issue. A monthly column can report on LEPC ac-

Choose the medium that fits the message. Radio and televi-
sion can give broad, fast coverage to  simple announcements,
such as the existence of an emergency plan and the availability
of emissions data. Talk shows give an opportunity for discus-
sion.  Newspaper stories can provide background  information
and discuss complex issues, such as risk.   '.

11.   How To Work With The  Media

          Safety Building      730 Center Street       Raclna. Wlaconaln  63403
          Tatephona  414-838-3616
                                           DATE:  January 5, 1988
                                           Peter R. Jensen, Coordinator
                                           Racine County Emergency Govt.
                                           730 Center Street
                                           Racine, WI.   53403
                                           TELEPHONE:  414-636-3515
                                        "PRESS  RELEASE"

  ,  ...     TO:   Burlington, Standard Press
                Caledonia Pictorial
                Racine, Journal Times
                Racine Labor
                Shoreline Leader
                Waterford Post
                Westine Report
                RADIO/TV STATIONS:
                  WRJN/WHKQ, WBSD, WRKR/WHBT, Gateway WGTD,



     , ,   ,  TEXT:





           AT THEIR SITES.












The Racine County, Wisconsin, Office of Emergency Government,  prepared this press release on
Title m.

11.  How To Work With The Media
The Racine, Wisconsin, LEPC has put together a media kit
to provide information on Title HI. It includes:

• Two, double-spaced pages of background information
  for the media

• A fact sheet on the LEPC, outlining activities  and giving
  members'names and meeting times.

• An article for newspapers to use

• A photocopied, published magazine article on Title El

• EPA's Title III Fact Sheet (see Appendix A)
             Ask about public service programming. Broadcast stations are
             encouraged by the Federal Communications Commission to de-
             vote a certain percentage of air time to public service program-
             ming of importance to the community. This is often in the form
             of public service announcements (PSAs), which range from 10
             to 60 seconds. Television PSAs can be expensive to produce, but
             stations sometimes donate the needed skill and equipment.

             Radio PSAs are not as expensive, although tapes are best made
             in a professional studio. Many radio announcers prefer a written
             script, called live copy, from which they will read the PSA. Ask
             your local station what format it prefers.

             Don't overlook news programs, talk shows, and radio call-in
             shows. Keep their producers on your media list, and send them
             press releases. Call them to find out what kinds of information
             they might use.

             Do not use press conferences unless there its a  major news
             story, such as  a dangerous accident. See Chapter 16 on holding
             a press conference in an emergency.

             Consider press briefings, which are more informal and relaxed
             than a press conference, to provide media people with back-
             ground information on your activities. Press briefings  often in-
             volve several speakers, packets with fact sheets, brochures, and
             press releases, plenty of time for questions and. answers, and re-

             Observe media courtesies. In a city with competing papers, be
             impartial, sending the same releases and invitations to all. But if
             an editor asks you for a special story or article, do not send it to
             a competing paper. Don't send the same information to two de-
             partments of the same paper, unless you note on the release that
             you have done so.

                  11.  How To Work With  The Media
Return calls and turn up for interviews promptly. Be considerate
of reporters' deadlines, and don't ask them to write to you for in-

Be accurate. It is embarrassing to both you and a reporter if you
guess at an answer that turns out to be wrong. If you do not
know an answer, say so, and offer to consult a technical expert
and get back to the reporter as soon as possible.

Send thank you notes to reporters, editors, and station manag-
ers who help you with publicity. Don't demand apologies or re-
tractions for minor errors, but do ask that serious errors be cor-
rected.            . .   ...                         ••••:.

Monitor publications and  broadcasts. Start a clippings note-
book, and keep a record of broadcast coverage. Use it to keep
your contact list up to date, noting the names of reporters  who
write related stories. This record also can show what activities
resulted in press attention.

Ask editors for advice if you find they are not giving you cov-
erage. Don't complain; do  ask how you can provide material
they will use.
  Don't wait until  there's  an accident.  Think in terms of
  headlines like these:

  Emergency Planning Committee Gets New Members

  Local Committee Plans for Emergencies

  Chemical Releases Down Last Year

  Environmental Groups, Industry Working Together

  League of Women Voters to Discuss Toxics in Air

  Answers To Your Questions About Chemicals a Phone Call Away

  Profile: Emergency Planning Chairman Answers Hard Questions

  High Tech at the Library: New Database Available

  Emergency Planning Volunteers Honored

  LEPC Celebrates 3rd Anniversary
 Evaluation and Followup
Making News

  11.  How To Work With The Media
Explaining Environmental Risk, Peter Sandman, U.S. Environ-
mental  Protection Agency,  1987. Community Right-to-Know
and Information Hotline, U.S. Environmental Protection Agen-
cy, OS 120,401 M Street, SW, Washington, DC 20460.

Getting Your Public Relations Story on TV/Radio, 1986. Pilot
Books, 103 Cooper, Babylon, NY 11703.

Lesly's Public Relations Handbook, 3rd ed., Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987.

The Only Press Guide You'll Ever Need, by J. Sellers, 1988.
Capital Ideas Press, 1730 Minda Drive, Eugene, OR 97401.

 Running A Communication Program

 12.    How To  Give  A Speech
 "We've got to get it in layman's terms. You've got to get

 laymen to go out in the community or to organizations. You

 get these high priced people—they talk in words that

 long—and people don't understand them."

                                Public participants, focus groups
                                    EPA/Georgetown University
                         Toxic Substances Public Needs Assessment
 Whether you want to get people involved in a task force or ex-
 plain the extent of hydrofluoric acid emissions from a nearby
 plant, personal communication is likely to be your most effec-
 tive tool. Speeches or presentations can reach a selected audi-
 ence more surely than the mass media, and they can be tailored
 to the needs and interests of a particular group.

 The following guidelines can help take the dread out of public

 Find out about your audience. Talk to one or several group
 leaders to find out what the members already know, what they
 want to know, and what their concerns  are. Tailor your speech
 accordingly. For example, if you are talking to members of a
 Clean Water Coalition, you  can probably assume that they are
 already very much interested in toxic substances as  an issue, so
 rather than explain the reasons for Title III, you could tell them
 how to obtain Title III data.

 Collect information and prepare an outline. Do not try to tell
 everything you know in one speech. Limit your talk to two or
 three main points, make it brief, and tell the audience where they
 can get more information.

 Give your speech a definite introduction, body, and conclu-
 sion. Remember that your audience must depend on their ears to
 follow your reasoning; they can't  see  subheadings or para-
 graphs. Use signposts, such  as "What I'm going to talk about
 is..."; "My first point is..."; "My second point is..."

Begin with a provocative quote or short, startling statement.
Resist the temptation to start with a long anecdote or "a little
background before I begin."

Use humor carefully. Make sure it will appeal to all members
of your audience.

                  12.  How To Give A Speech
Delivering the Speech
Make it clear what you would like your audience to do next,
such as reading the handouts, coming to a meeting, or becoming
familiar with the emergency plan.

Use a blackboard, newsprint board, slides, or overhead pro-
jections to emphasize  certain points.  Make  sure the  proper
equipment, will be available.

Make sure your speech is easy for you  to read. Type your
speeches in all capitals  or in  a large typeface. Double or triple
space the lines. Indicate places where you want to pause, such as
at the ends of long sentences and between major points. Some
speakers use numbers in parentheses (1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5) to help
them pause a certain number of seconds.

Rehearse  the speech several times.  Eliminate urns and ahs.
Practice looking up from your notes. Rehearse in front of a mir-
ror. A videotape and tape recording can also help  you see and
correct mistakes.

Beware of too much  formality. Some experienced speakers
feel it is possible to over rehearse, making a speech too dry and
formal, robbing it of spontaneity. Depending on your experience
with public speaking, you may want to experiment with different
levels of preparation.

Ask for help from experienced speakers. The public relations
department of a business may be willing to coach you and lend
audiovisual equipment.  Other resources are local college speech
departments and chapters of Toastmasters or Toastmistresses In-

Arrive early so that you can become familiar with  the room and
the tone of the meeting.

Ask if everyone can hear you, and if not, adjust  the micro-
phone or speak more loudly.  Sustain the volume throughout the

Don't speak too quickly. Force yourself to pause  between sen-
tences and thoughts. What  seems an eternity to the speaker
seems natural to the listeners.

Look at members of the audience. Establish eye contact.

Avoid reading the speech word for word. Paraphrasing can
make a speech more interesting. Practice this beforehand.

Use gestures to help make points, but don't overdo it. Too many
can be distracting.

12.  How To  Give A Speech
Vary the rate and expression in your voice. Don't speak in a

Repeat questions to make sure you have understood them and
that everyone  in the room has heard them. Try to  anticipate
questions so that you can answer briefly and directly. But if you
don't have the answer, don't hesitate to say so. Promise to find
out the answer and get the questioner's name  and  telephone
number after the meeting so that you can send the answer to him
or her.
Report on the speech, questions, and audience reactions at your
group's next meeting.

Consider asking a colleague or public speaking expert to ob-
serve your speech. Some organizations do this routinely to help
members improve their speaking skills. See a sample evaluation
checklist below.

Keep copies of all speeches and accompanying graphics to be
used or adapted for other audiences.

Use the speech as the basis for a news release.

Send additional information promised questioners as soon as
    Could the audience hear?

    Did the speaker made eye contact with audience?

    Did the speaker appear to read speech?

    Was the opening attention-getting?

    Were the main points clear?

    Was topic clearly summarized?

    Did the speaker use a monotone?

    Did the speaker talk too quickly?

    Were audience questions repeated?

    Were visual aids set up properly?

    Did they provide emphasis and clarity?
                                     Evaluation and Followup
                                     Speech Evaluation

12.  How To Give A Speech
       Community Relations in Superfund: A Handbook, U.S. Environ-
       mental Protection Agency, 1984. National Technical Informa-
       tion Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161;
       Order No. PB84-209378.

       Evaluating  Risk Communication Programs: A  Catalogue  of
        "Quick and Easy" Feedback Methods, 1989, by Mark Kline,
       Caron  Chess,  and Peter Sandman, Environmental Communica-
       tion Research Program, Rutgers University. New Jersey Depart-
       ment of Environmental Protection, Division of Science and Re-
       search, Risk Communication Unit, CN 409, Trenton, NJ 08625.

       Executive Speechmdker, Institute for Public Relations, 310 Mad-
       ison Avenue, New York, NY 10017.

       Fundamentals of Public Speaking, Donald C. Bryant and Karl R.
       Wallace,  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

       How to Write and Give a Speech, by Joan Detz, 1985. St. Mar-
       tin's Press.                            ;

 Running A Communication Program

 13.    How  To Hold  A Meeting
 "They really weren't doing anything illegally in any way, but

 no one knew what was going on there and that can really

 create problems. That's what annoyed us most. If they had just

 said, you know, reported in the paper about there having been

 an explosion or this and that, nobody would have said

 anything. But the whole thing  was covered up."

                         •       Public participants, focus groups
                                   EPA/Georgetown University
                         Toxic Substances Public Needs Assessment
Public meetings, like press conferences, should be used sparing-
ly. Most people in most communities do not give up evenings to
go to public meetings unless the benefit is clear and immediate.
Even community  activists  become very selective  about  what
meetings they attend.

Nevertheless, there are times when a public meeting does offer a
clear and immediate benefit. For example, LEPCs  hold public
meetings on emergency plans. A large public meeting could be
useful after an accident when many people have questions.  Or if
the current emergency plan has become controversial, a meeting
could offer the  community a chance for wider participation in
revising it. The time to hold a public meeting is when:

   •  many people have questions on a particular topic

   •  you are seeking input on a particular topic in which there
      is widespread interest

   «  there is widespread controversy on a particular topic

   •  people have  asked for a meeting

Communities affected by toxic waste have benefitted from  pub-
lic meetings in the last two decades, and they have learned  a lot
about them. The following guidelines are drawn primarily from
their experience.

Decide  whether to  hold a large public meeting or small
group meetings. A single,  large public meeting allows you to
reach many people at once and may attract media attention, thus
reaching even more people. Very large meetings, however, are
not as likely to provoke meaningful, two-way discussion^ In  fact,
they  can turn into confrontations rather than discussions, if peo-
ple are angry and frustrated with previous attempts to get infor-
When Should You
Hold a Meeting?

13.  How To Hold A Meeting
                               A series of small group meetings mean more work and may not
                               attract the media, but they do give more people a chance to
                               speak. Some public meetings begin large, with an introductory
                               session or presentation, and then break up into smaller groups
                               for discussion.

                               Consult with other community groups on the agenda.  You
                               could talk with leaders informally or distribute an "Agenda In-
                               put Form" to all concerned groups to find out what they want the
                               meeting to address.

                               Decide on your agenda. Be clear what your purpose is. Public
                               meetings generally  last from  one to  three hours. You  should
                               have several different experts there to help answer questions.

                               The agenda could include an  introductory statement, presenta-
                               tions  by technical experts, presentations by community  groups
                               or concerned individuals,  time for discussion, and a concluding
                               statement. If there are presentations on several topics, you  may
                               want to have separate discussion periods following each presen-

                               Make it clear who is sponsoring the meeting,, Industrial public
                               relations departments and government agencies that the public
                               distrust often run into problems at public meetings.  Because
                               their credibility is low, the chance of disruption is high. If the
                               proceedings come to be dominated by a few articulate, angry in-
                               dividuals, there is no chance for a real dialogue, and little is ac-
                               complished.                           :

                               You may be able to prevent this by making it  clear that a civic
                               group is the sponsor of the meeting. Do mis  through advance
                               publicity and at the meeting itself. Make sure it's true;  people
                               will see very  soon if the meeting is being used as a channel for
                               what they perceive as biased views.

                               Also consider holding the meeting under the sponsorship of an-
                               other  group, such as the League of Woman Voters or the Kiwa-
                               nis Club.

                               Anticipate questions from the audience* and get the informa-
                               tion you need to answer them.  You can't anticipate all questions,
                               but it helps to have as much ready information as possible to an-
                               swer those that you  think  will  be asked. Different people can be
                               prepared to answer different kinds of questions. Decide whether
                               you need someone who speaks Spanish or other language to help
                               with questions.

                       13.  How To Hold A Meeting
Prepare questions for the audience. One way to get discussion
started is to ask questions, e.g., "does anyone feel that this part
of the  emergency plan  needs more explaining?" This also can
help get discussions back on track when digressions seem to go
on too long:  "Does anyone else have an idea how we might
strengthen this part of the plan?"

Pay attention to logistics. You will need a meeting room large
enough to hold everyone who makes the effort to attend. The
meeting location  should have adequate seating, parking and
lighting. Also arrange, if necessary, for a microphone, a black-
board or large newsprint pad, and audiovisual equipment. Ask
about heat or air conditioning if the meeting is in a building
where these are turned off at night.

Publicize the meeting.  Start your publicity several weeks ahead
of time. Call  local organizations and civic groups and ask them
to publicize  the  meeting in their meetings  and  newsletters.
Newspapers and broadcast stations, of course, can publicize the
meeting too;  consider a press release. Posters  and flyers in su-
permarkets, malls, and  public places are another way to publi-
cize. Send special invitations to media representatives.

Begin  by  telling  who  you are and give some personal back-
ground. People who lead meetings as impersonal experts or au-
thorities invite indifference or suspicion.

Announce the agenda. Be clear about the purpose of the meet-
ing and tell how  it's going to be structured.  You could even
write the agenda down on a newsprint pad or blackboard so that
everyone can see where the meeting is headed. This will help
everyone stick to the agenda.

Be responsive to major concerns, regardless  of the agenda. If
most people really want to talk about something that is not on
the agenda, be flexible. For example, if you are finding it diffi-
cult to get beyond the topic of emissions, ask the audience if it
would like to set aside  some time to talk only about emissions,
before you go on  to discuss the evacuation plan. If it turns out
that, after all, only a minority is interested in  emissions, make
other arrangements. For example, offer to set up another meet-
ing with that  group or arrange to get information to them after
the meeting.

Take notes on the meeting. It will probably help to have some-
one there for  the sole purpose of taking notes. Keep track of the
kinds of questions asked and the ideas and concerns that emerge.
Also make notes  if you offer to send people  information, say
you will hold another meeting, or promise to follow up in some
other way.  It  is easy to forget what you promised when ques-
tions were flying.
At the Meeting

13.  How To Hold A Meeting
 Evaluation and Followup
        Try to establish a two way dialogue. Often in meetings, your
        goal will be not only to give information but also to learn how
        the community feels and thinks about a certain issue. Encourage
        comments from many different participants by asking questions
        of the audience. Try to avoid setting yourself up as the authority.
        Call for comments rather than questions. Think of the meeting in
        terms of a discussion, rather than a question and answer session.

        Acknowledge fear, anger, and other feelings. Remember that
        it is important to respond to emotions  before you plunge  into
        facts and figures:

            "It is frightening to learn that this spill may have con-
            taminated drinking water. I can understand your anger.
            What we know so far is that...."

        This won't make fear and anger disappear, any more than it will
        make the contamination disappear, but it will make it easier to
        talk about the problem. See more about answering questions in
        Chapter 10.

        Use the information and  insights  you obtained through  the
        meeting,  and let the community  know how you use them. For
        example if the  emergency plan is revised, make it clear in your
        news release how public input influenced the plan.

        Assess the meeting. You can do this informally, by talking af-
        terwards with individual participants, or more formally, by ask-
        ing all participants to fill out an evaluation form.

        Another evaluation method is a 10- or 15-minute brainstorming
        session at the end of a  meeting, going over the  same points
        shown in the sample evaluation form.

        Write a news release about the meeting. This will help spread
        awareness of issues to people who did not attend.

        Follow up on anything you said you would do. A quick way to
        lose credibility is not to follow up.

                         13.   How To Hold  A Meeting
                             Environmental Communication Research Program
                             A Program of the Agricultural Experiment Station
                             Cook College
                             122 RydersLane
                             New Brunswick • New Jersey 08903
                       Meeting Topic:_
         This agency is very interested in knowing what you thought of this meeting so it can do better
   next time. Please complete this survey before leaving to help in this effort.

   I.     How did you hear of this meeting?

   2.     Respond to the following statements using a scale of 1 - 5, where:
3=neither agree
nor disagree
          a.  I had all my major questions answered in this meeting.

          b.  I learned a lot about the issues covered in this meeting.

          c.  Agency representatives seemed to listen carefully to the
             opinions and questions of those outside of the agency.'

          d.  Agency representatives were difficult to understand.

          e.  Agency representatives seemed to be speaking honestly.

          f.  Agency representatives did not deal with the issues
             that concerned me.

          g.  Agency representatives dealt with the hard questions
             during this meeting.

          h.  Agency representatives were unclear about their actions and plans.

          i.  Agency representatives understood my feelings about the issues.

          j.  I believe the agency will use input from  this meeting
             in its decisions.

          k.  Agency representatives seemed authorized to speak for the agency.

          1.  I gained a better appreciation of the dilemmas involved
             in this topic.

          m. Arrangements for this meeting (selection of time and
             place, directions, agenda, materials) were well-handled.

          n.  I feel a need for more meetings.

          The thing I liked most about this meeting was:
The thing I  liked least about this meeting was:
Please use the back of this sheet for other comments, questions, or concerns.

If you have additional questions, please contact_	_at	
This sample meeting evaluation form was devised by the Environmental Communication Research
Program at Rutgers University.   Copyright © Environmental Communication Research Program

13.  How To Hold A Meeting
        Alternative Environmental Conflict Management Approaches: A
        Citizen's Manual, by P. Bidol et al., Ann Arbor, MI: Environ-
        mental Conflict Project.                I

        Evaluating Risk Communication Programs: A  Catalogue of
        "Quick and Easy" Feedback Methods, by Mark Kline, Caron
        Chess, and Peter Sandman, Environmental Communication Re-
        search Program, Rutgers University, 1988. New Jersey Depart-
        ment of Environmental Protection, Division of Science and Re-
        search, Risk Communication Unit, CN 409, Trenton, NJ 08625.

        Improving Dialogue With Communities, 1988, by Billie Jo
        Hance,  Caron  Chess, and Peter M.  Sandman, Environmental
        Communication Research Program,  Rutgers University.  New
        Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Sci-
        ence and Research, Risk Communication Unit, CN 409, Tren-
        ton, NJ 08625.

Running A Communication Program

14.   How To Find Educational  Materials
Existing materials may fit your needs. This chapter tells how to
obtain and, if necessary, adapt them for your community.
Brochures, videotapes, fact sheets, and other educational materi-
als offer special advantages as tools of communication. They
can be designed to appeal to specific audiences; they can pro-
vide a thoughtful discussion of issues; they can answer routine
questions; and, if in printed form, they can be kept for future ref-

This does not mean, necessarily, that you must get into the pub-
lishing business. It does mean that you should learn what has al-
ready been produced and is available.
Consider both public and private sources. Materials related to
public education on toxic substances come from a variety of
sources. While keeping in mind that each source has its own per-
spective on toxic substances, consider ways that you could use
or adapt its materials for your purpose.

   • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is pro-
     ducing fact sheets, brochures, videotapes, and other docu-
     ments on Title III. Some are for businesses, some for State
     and local officials and LEPCs, and some for citizens.

   • State environmental and health agencies have produced
     fact sheets on specific substances. Although they are often
     technical and written primarily for use at worksites,  they
     do contain basic reference information on the health ef-
     fects of specific toxic substances.

   • Businesses produce MSDSs, and some larger companies
     have prepared lay versions of these technical documents.
     Like State fact sheets,  MSDSs contain basic reference in-

   • Some labor unions have materials on specific substances
     to which their members are exposed. These are likely to
     be written in  lay language, but again, the focus is occupa-
Identify Sources

   14.   How To Find Educational Materials
Using Materials
   •  Voluntary groups, such as the League of Women Voters,
      the Conservation Foundation, the National Wildlife Feder-
      ation, the Sierra Club, and others have published materials
      on toxic substances and risk in general. Some of the mate-
      rials that predate Title ni may urge citizens to take steps
      that are no longer needed under the nev/ law, but others
      explain general principles of toxicology and risk in lay

Appendix B lists materials related to public education on toxic
substances as well as some organizations that have information.
This could serve as a starting point in a search for materials.

Call or write these organizations. Ask for publications lists
and/or sample copies of titles in which you are interested. At the
same time, ask for information on how many you can order,
quantity discounts, and whether or not you need permission to
reprint or adapt a publication.

Evaluate the sample copy to determine whether it could meet
your needs. Ask questions like these:

   •  Does it convey the message you want to convey? If it does
      not fit your strategy, it will not be useful to you, no matter
      how appealing or available. In fact by distributing other
      messages you will diffuse your own message. Don't com-
      pete with yourself!

   •  Is the message accurate and complete?

   •  Is it slanted? Do the authors seem to play up or play down

   •  Is the format, style, and readability level appropriate for
      your audience?

   •  Is it affordable?

   •  Can it be modified to better fit your needs?

Decide whether to purchase or reprint. Government materials
are often free but available only as  single copies. You may be
able  to borrow the original, camera-ready copy for reprinting.
Government publications are almost always in the public do-
main, which means you can reprint or photocopy them without
special permission. Private publishers usually require  permis-
sion. See Chapter 15 for more on reproducing materials.

              14.  How To Find  Educational  Materials
 Decide whether to modify the document to make it better
 serve your purpose. In general, public education materials on
 toxic substances are national in  scope and written at  a high.
 school or college level for the educated public, employees who
 work with toxic substances, administrators and decisionmakers.
 Most are available only in English. Modifications could include:

    ° simplifying the language

    • adding information on toxic substances emitted from local

    « adding information on the LEPC

    • translating it into a language spoken in your area

 Also consider combining elements from different publications.
 For example you may like the way one brochure explains Title
 IE, the way another one uses graphics, and the way another is
 laid out. With a little help from your printer's graphic artist (and
 permission from the original publishers), you can have the publi-
 cation you want.

 Thank the groups whose publications you use. Let them know
 how you have distributed the publications, and if you have mod-
 ified them, send a copy. Attending to these details will make fu-
 ture cooperation easier.

 Keep files of sample publications by topic. These can help you
 answer questions, and you may want to consider using them at
 another time.

 The Community Plume,  a newsletter  with information  on re-
 sources  and activities  related to Title in. The Environmental
 Policy Institute, 218 D Street SE, Washington, DC 20003.

 ODPHP National Health Information Clearinghouse, 800-336-
 4797 (for referrals to groups that have materials on environmen-
 tal topics).

 Chemical  Education for  Public Understanding Project (for in-
 structional materials to use both in middle schools and with the
public). CEPUP, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of Cali-
fornia, Berkeley, CA 94702.

Michigan  State University (for public education materials on
toxic substances). Center for Environmental Toxicology, C231
Holden Hall, Michigan  State University, East Lansing, MI
Evaluation and Followup

14. How To Find Educational Materials

Running A Communication Program
15.   How To Produce
         Educational Materials
"Will felt that the reader was in serious trouble most of the

time, a man floundering in a swamp, and that it was the duty

of anyone attempting to write English to drain this swamp

quickly and get his man up on dry ground, or at least throw

him a rope."
                                       The Elements of Style
                       E.B. White and William Strunk, Macmillan
If (and only if) you have decided that a)there are no existing ma-
terials you can use and b)there are no existing materials you can
modify, then consider producing your own.

This chapter explains the basic steps needed to produce simple
print materials. Groups interested in audiovisual materials may
be able to obtain them on loan or to cooperate with a local or-
ganization, such as a radio station or public relations  depart-
ment, that has the necessary resources to produce them.
Review your overall strategy. What do you want to say and to
whom? What distribution channels will best serve your purpose?

Decide on the format that fits your message, audience, and
channels. For example,  you  may want to tell everyone in  a
neighborhood near a plastics factory about emergency proce-
dures in case a fire releases toxic fumes. This means that you
need something (a) that will fit into mailboxes; (b) won't take
too long to read; (c) is likely to be kept for future reference, per-
haps tacked up on household bulletin boards. A one page fact
sheet, or brochure that opens  into a fact sheet, may be  the an-

On the  other hand, if you need a publication to answer routine
requests about obtaining emissions and inventory data, you may
want a longer brochure, perhaps folded to a size that will fit easi-
ly into a standard business envelope.

Talk with several printers. Ask them:

   • About cost; discuss the printing  and typesetting options
     listed in the boxes in this chapter.

    15.  How To  Produce Educational Materials
Writing and Editing
                            • What help they could provide. Many printers have graph-
                              ics departments that can design layout and even provide il-
                              lustrations. Some can provide, or refer you to, editorial
                              help.                           ;

                            • About seeing samples of their work.

                            • If they might donate some or all of the cost as a communi-
                              ty service; in exchange offer to give them a credit line on
                              the publication.

                         Investigate desktop publishing.  Inexpensive desktop publish-
                         ing services are springing up in many places. Designed for per-
                         sonal computers, desktop publishing systems can lay out pages
                         and add screens (overlays of color) and graphics. These systems
                         offer great flexibility; it is  easier, thus  less expensive, to make
                         changes on a computer screen than on copy layed out and pasted
                         up by  hand. Desktop publishing  systems generally use laser
                         printers for near-typeset quality  products. Although  the type
                         quality is not quite as good as in typesetting, it is close and is
                         used increasingly for educational materials.
Observe the standard rules of clear writing:

    •  Organize your text into short paragraphs, each with a sin-
      gle idea.

    •  Use frequent headings and subheadings to articulate main

    •  As much as possible, use active verbs instead of passive;
      plain English instead of literary English; short words in-
      stead of long words. These rules hold true for all audienc-

    •  Omit needless words. This is  difficult to do  in the first
      draft,  so read over  and  revise your text  several  times.
      Watch out for adjectives  and adverbs that sound good in
      speech but wordy in print. Changing passive verbs to ac-
      tive verbs often results in more concise sentences.

    •  Vary sentence length and construction. Try beginning sen-
      tences with clauses or prepositional phrases to avoid the
      monotony of subject-verb-object.

    •  Present technical material with care: See the guidelines in
      this chapter.

Pay attention to visual  appeal. Layout and. graphics  should
clarify the text, not compete with it.

Use boldface type and italics  to highlight important points.
Use bullets for lists and parallel ideas.

           15,   How  To Produce  Educational Materials
 The following guidelines can help in developing educational materials
 on toxic substances.
 •  Simplify language rather than content It may take more words to ex-
    plain technical matters in plain English, but this is not always true.
 •  Break up the text into very short sections, each with only one or two
    points. Questions and answers may help.
 •  Don't try to explain everything at once. First make direct statements
    or give definite instructions. Then add reasons, qualifications, details,
    or background information.
 •  Define technical terms in the text or in a glossary, or both.
 •  Avoid  acronyms as  much as possible. Define them in the  text and
 •  Be brief. Avoid lengthy publications for the general public.
 •  Personalize to the reader. For example, most readers want to know,
    "am I safe?" They need guidance in answering this question for them-
 •  Write at less than the 12th grade reading level.
 • Include an accessible and reliable source for additional information.
 • Pretest publications with the target audience where possible, especial-
   ly for new and controversial information.
 •  Use pictures, simple graphics, and a user-friendly layout to reinforce
   the text.
 •  Generally, people are equally concerned about all sources and routes
   of environmental pollution. Content should address this concern.
 •  People do not often understand that some emissions are legal.
 •  It is unlikely that most people are ready to interpret the meaning of
   specific quantities of toxic releases, such as "4,000 pounds" as they
   are reported in the TRI.
 •  Words such as cancer-causing and toxic arouse fear.
 •  People need to understand the purpose of the legislation, why it is im-
   portant, and what value it provides the public.
 •  People are skeptical about the accuracy of the reporting, and enforce-
   ment of the law.
 •  Content can go out of date quickly. Check publications periodically to
   make sure they are still accurate.
(Adapted from recommendations by EPA/Georgetown University Medi-
cal Center Toxic Substances Public Needs Assessment, 1988.)
How to Present
Technical Materials

         15.  How To Produce Educational  Materials
Evaluation and FoIIowup
Leave enough white space to set off the text. A solid page of
print does not invite reading.

Use  graphics  such as charts, drawings, and photographs.
Make sure it is clear what they are at first sight. They should re-
inforce, not distract from, your message.

If you use drawings, they should be of professional quality; oth-
erwise they make the text seem less credible.

Use reasonably large type. Resist the temptation to squeeze in
more text by using small type. Generally, 10-point type is the
minimum for educational materials. Ask the printer to show you
different typefaces and sizes.

Conclude your text by suggesting the next step. Suggest a def-
inite action, such as saving a fact sheet for future reference, call-
ing for more information, going to a meeting, asking a librarian
for help in accessing the TRI, requesting Tier II information.

Decide whether to have materials printed  or  photocopied.
For more than a few hundred copies, it is  often cheaper to  print
than to photocopy. Consult with your printer. For what to ask
him or her, see the sidebars.

Carefully check the final version before printing or photocopy-
ing. Have at least three people proof the text for typos. Ask the
printer for bluelines or page proofs, which are versions produced
for proofreading that show the layout as well as well as the text.

Begin evaluation when materials are still in  the formative
stage. Ask some of the people  for whom they are intended
whether they seem appealing and  get across the main idea. You
might take a rough draft of a brochure to a civic group's meet-
ing, for example, and ask for reactions.

This is an informal version of what communication experts call
pretesting. It takes some extra time but can make a big differ-
ence in the effectiveness of your final product.

For example, if people at the meeting say the language is hard to
understand, you can simplify it before you have spent time and
money on printing.

Have materials reviewed for accuracy by technical experts and
others, such as LEPC members, before they are printed. If you
have translated technical terms into less technical English, ask
the reviewers to make sure you have not changed the meaning.

After printing,  continue to collect reactions  to materials
whenever possible. Try to determine their impact by talking to
representatives of the intended audience. Ask if the materials are
remembered and are considered useful. This could be one way
to involve the audience when you are giving a presentation. Use
negative comments to improve the materials before you reprint.

         15.  How To Produce Educational Materials
If you have decided to use offset printing rather than photo-
copying, be aware of factors that affect cost:

Quantity — While photocopying costs remain constant per
item, printing costs per item go down as quantities go up. For
example you  may  pay $40.00 for 1,000 printed fact sheets
($.04  per copy) and $53.00 for 4,000 fact sheets ($.026 per
Paper — Paper comes in many different weights, colors, and
finishes. The  more expensive papers are generally heavier,
colojed, or coated (shiny).  Ask to see samples and get costs
for different types of paper.

Ink — Colored ink is more expensive than black ink, two col-
ors more expensive than  one color, and four colors more ex-
pensive than two colors. Black is considered a color  when
printers talk about two-color or four-color materials.

Ask the printer about screens, which are lighter patches of the
ink color, to set off sidebars or headings. Screens add variety
and visual interest but don't cost as much as an extra ink col-

Artwork — Materials with photographs, artwork, or screens
will cost more than materials with text alone, but the extra
fees are generally small.
Typesetting  is more expensive than typewritten or word-
processed text, but it has several advantages:
• It takes up less space. A 3-page typewritten document may
  be reduced to one page when typeset. This can save you
  printing and mailing costs.
• It is easier to read.
• Its professional appearance may make the material seem
  more credible.

Electronic technology has brought down the cost of typeset-
ting in the last few years. Most printers and typesetters now
offer several options  for typesetting copy that has been pro-
duced on a word processor. Consider these options:
Taking your disk to the printer and having the typesetting
done directly from the disk. You may have to have your disk
converted to a different  operating system, e.g.,  DOS 3.3 to
MS-DOS, but this is not expensive.

Transmitting by modem. Many printers have equipment that
can receive manuscripts electronically through a modem con-

Using a desktop publishing service. This may be the least
expensive option of all.
Printing Options
Typesetting Options

15.  How To Produce Educational Materials
The Complete Guide to Creating Successful Brochures, 1988.
Asher-Gallent Press, 131 Heartland Boulevard, Brentwood, NY

Effective Writing for  Engineers, Managers, Scientists, H. J.
Tichy, New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1966.

The Elements of Style, William Strunk and E.B. White, New
York, Macmillan, 1979.

F, F, and B: Producing Flyers, Folders, and Brochures, 1984.
Ragan Communications,  407 South Dearborn,  Chicago,  IL

Writing With  Precision, Jefferson D. Bates, Washington, DC,
Acropolis Books, 1987.

Running A Communication Program

16-    How To Communicate
         About Emergencies
"The toxic event had released a spirit of imagination. People

spun tales, others listened spellbound. There was a growing

respect for the vivid rumor, the most chilling tale."

                                            White Noise
                                   A novel by Don DeLillo
Viyid rumors ami chilling tales are spun in the absence of real
information, which, in an emergency, most of us would rather

The job of getting information to the public in an emergency in-
volving toxic substances usually rests with public officials who
work with local police, fire, and rescue squad spokespersons as
well as with contacts at the facility involved. The LEPC sub-
committee for public information and other community groups
are not likely to be deeply involved in emergency communica-
tion. However they may be called upon to help.

This chapter gives a very brief overview of emergency commu-
nications for the information of volunteers  who may be in-
volved. It covers communication before, during, and after  an

   •  Before a fire, spill, explosion, or other accident occurs, a
     complete emergency communication plan  should be  in
     place and citizens should know what actions may be nec-
     essary in an emergency.

   •  During an emergency, the community should  have  as
     much information as possible about what is actually hap-
     pening and clear  instructions about what actions people
     should take.

   •  After an emergency, the community should know why
     and how the  accident occurred and how another one can
     be prevented.
A Brief Overview
for Volunteers

f       16.  How To  Communicate About Emergencies     J
    Before an Emergency
    During an Emergency
Have an emergency  communication plan. The community
will have a plan for public notification in the event of an emer-
gency: a siren, sound trucks, a particular radio station to which
people should listen. The plan should also include:

   •  Name of chief spokesperson

   •  Communication center

   •  A telephone ladder (a list of people to be called first with
      the people whom they call in  turn)  to inform everyone

   •  Tasks for individuals; the chief spokesperson will need
      help in preparing for a press conference, maintaining con-
      tact with the facility's communication center, and getting
      information to people at evacuation centers.

   •  A list of emergency contacts within plants and other facili-
      ties that handle toxic and other hazardous materials.

   •  Administrative details. Who has the key to the building
      that will be the  communications center? How does  the
      switchboard work after hours? How do you start the pho-
Consider holding a press conference. Standard public relations
advice is not to hold a press conference unless there is major
news on which reporters have numerous questions. A fire, spill,
or explosion that affects many people may fall into this catego-
ry. Standard guidelines for press conferences include these:

   •  Telephone all media to invite theni; don't leave anyone

   •  Arrange for a quiet room with chairs.

   •  Distribute print materials. Consider copies  of the MSDS
      or other fact sheet on the substance involved. Include a
      news release with the basic facts, as far as they are known.
      Arrange these materials into separate packets if there is

   •  Have at least three  people to answer questions. A well-
      known figure should be present and can make an opening
      statement. Others, such as a technical expert, a fire depart-
      ment spokesperson, a health professional, and an environ-
      mental expert can help answer questions.

   •  If you expect television cameras, try to have visual materi-
      als available, such as an enlarged map of the affected area.
      A smaller version can be included with handouts.

f       16.  How To Communicate About Emergencies
   • Be accurate, frank, and objective. Don't hold back infor-
     mation in hope that the news will get better. If you do you
     will damage your own credibility, and reporters will  go
     elsewhere next time. Do make it clear that the news is in-
     complete, that it may get better, and that more information
     will be available. Be frank about the worst-case scenario,
     but tell what is being done to prevent it.

   • Avoid technical jargon, but don't underestimate people's
     ability to understand the situation, especially when there is
     high motivation to understand.

Visit evacuation centers. Get information directly to people by
visiting evacuation centers. The same principles that apply to the
media apply to the public: give all the facts that are known so
far, but make it clear what is still not known.
Continue to provide information. Write a press release or talk
to reporters about what has been learned since the emergency,
using information  from the facility, emergency  responders,
health professionals, and other technical experts. This is another
opportunity to urge that the community  become  involved in
emergency planning.

Evaluate the emergency communication plan. Did it work as
planned? Were there any problems? Made adjustments in case
there is a next time.

If the evacuation order is seen as a false alarm, make sure
that people understand why it was issued. People who have
studied emergencies find that residents who keep hearing false
alarms may not respond in a real crisis. But when people under-
stand why the false alarm was issued, say researchers, they are
less likely to discount the next alarm. So if people believe they
were evacuated unnecessarily, make a special effort  to reach
them with'an explanation.
After an Emergency

f   16. How To Communicate About Emergencies   J

Questions and Answers
in an Emergency

1. What will this substance do to me if I breathe it? If it
gets on my skin? In food or water?
2. Does it cause cancer? Does it cause birth defects?
3. What will it do to children?
4. What are the chances of its getting into food and water?
5. What is the worst that could happen?
6. How could this happen? What went wrong?
7. What is being done to clean it up?
8. When will it be over with?
9. When will we know for sure how much has gotten into
our water, soil, food?
10. Will the government do something about this?
11. Who is going to pay the medical bills?
12. Who is going to pay for the property damage?
These aren't as easy as the questions.
For questions on health effects, use the information in the
MSDSs, in the fact sheets distributed by the EPA (see Appen-
dix B), and in reference books. Also refer people to technical
experts in the area.
For why, how, and when questions, rely On the facts in the
hazard assessments prepared for the emergency plan and re-
ported by the facility and emergency responders. Give direct
answers as much as possible, but make it clear that informa-
tion is still incomplete; e.g. "A faulty valve in the refining
tower was the primary cause, as far as the fire department can
tell right now."
For questions about the aftermath of the accident, do not
hesitate to say you do not know the answers yet, if you do not,
but try to provide some information. Explain who is in charge,
and who will be making these decisions.
Remember that people have a right to ask these questions
and to get the best information available.



f      16.  How To Communicate About Emergencies      J
Crisis Management: A Workbook for Survival, 1987. The Lem-
pert Co., 202 Belleville Avenue, Belleville, NJ 07109.

The Emergency Public Relations Manual, by Alan Bernstein,
1988. 3rd ed., PASE, FOB 1299, Highland Park, NJ 08904.

Lesly's Public Relations Handbook, 3rd ed., Prentice-.Hall, 1987.

Risk  Communication About Chemicals in Your Community,
1989. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA 230-09-89-
066 (manual); EPA 230-09-89-067 (manual and facilitator's

Title III Community Awareness Workbook, Chemical Manufac-
turers Association, 2501 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037.

[    16.  How To Communicate About Emergencies   J

The  Seven Cardinal  Rules  Of
Risk Communication
The following rules sum up what other risk communicators have
learned over the past few years. While these and the other guide-
lines in this manual are important, none guarantees success. Risk
communication is still a trial and error process, and risk commu-
nicators may expect some failures along with some achieve-
ments. Learn from both as your program evolves, and add your
own guidelines to these.

1. Accept and Involve the Public as a Legitimate Partner

   •  Involve the community early.
   •  Involve all parties that have an interest or stake in the is-
   •  Remember, you work for the public.

   The goal of risk communication should be to produce an in-
   formed public that  is involved,  interested, reasonable,
   thoughtful, solution-oriented, and collaborative.

2. Plan Carefully and Evaluate Your Efforts

   •  Begin with clear, explicit objectives.
   •  Evaluate the information you have about risks  and know
      its strengths and weaknesses.
   «  Identify and address the  particular interests of different
   •  Train your staff—including technical staff—in communi-
      cation skills.
   •  Practice and test your messages.
   •  Evaluate your efforts and learn from your mistakes.

3. Listen to the Public's Specific Concerns

   If you do not listen to people, you cannot expect them to lis-
   ten to you. Communication is a two-way activity.
   •  Do not make assumptions about what people know, think,
      or want done. Take the time to find out what people are
   •  Let all parties with an interest in the issue be heard.
   «  Identify with your audience. Put yourself in their place
      and recognize their emotions.

   People are often  more concerned about trust, credibility,
   competence, control, voluntary fairness, caring, and compas-
   sion than mortality statistics or quantitative risk assessment.

4. Be Honest, Frank, and Open
   °  State your credentials;  but do not ask or  expect to be

The Seven Cardinal Rules Of Risk Communication
                             • If you do not know the answer or are uncertain, say so.
                               Get back to people with answers. Admit mistakes.
                             • Disclose risk information as soon as possible.
                             • Do not minimize or exaggerate the level of risk.
                             • Lean toward sharing more information., not less—or peo-
                               ple may think you are hiding something.

                             Trust and credibility are difficult to obtain. Once  lost they
                             are almost impossible to regain completely.

                          5.  Coordinate and Collaborate with Other Credible Sources.
                             • Take time to coordinate  with other organizations or
                             • Devote effort and resources to the slow, hard  work of
                               building bridges with other organizations.
                             • Try  to issue communications jointly with other credible

                             Few things make risk communication more  difficult than
                             conflicts  or  public  disagreements  with  other  credible

                          6.  Meet the Needs of the Media
                             • Be open with  and accessible to reporters; respect their
                             • Provide risk information tailored to the needs of each type
                               of media.
                             • Prepare in advance and provide background material on
                               complex issues.
                             • Do not hesitate to follow up on stories with praise or criti-
                             • Try to establish long-term relationships of trust with spe-
                               cific editors and reporters.

                             The media are frequently more interested in politics than in
                             risk; more interested in simplicity than in complexity; more
                             interested in danger than in safety.

                          7.  Speak Clearly and with Compassion

                             Technical information and jargon are barriers to successful
                             communication with the public.
                             « Be sensitive to local norms, such as speech and dress.
                             • Never let your efforts to inform people about risks prevent
                               you from acknowledging—and saying—that any illness,
                               injury, or death is a tragedy.           '
                             • If people are sufficiently motivated, they are quite capable
                               of understanding complex risk information, even if they
                               may  not agree with you.

Appendix A: Title ill  Fact Sheet
The fact sheet reprinted on the following pages summarizes
Title HI of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
(SARA), also  known  as the  Emergency  Planning and
Community Right-to-Know Act.

                          A. Title III Fact Sheet

                                         August 1988
                          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

The Emergency Planning and
Community Right-to-Know Act of
1986 establishes requirements
for federal state, and local
governments and industry
regarding emergency planning
and "community right-to-know"
reporting on hazardous and toxic
chemicals. This legislation
builds upon EPA's Chemical
Emergency Preparedness Pro-
gram (CEPP) and numerous state
and local programs aimed at
helping communities to better
meet their responsibilities in
regard to potential chemical
emergencies. The community
right-to-know provisions  will help
to increase tne puolic's knowl-
edge and access to information
on the presence of hazardous
chemicals in their communities
and releases of these chemicals
into the environment. States and
communities, working with
facilities, will be better able to
improve chemical sqfety  and
protect public heatth. and the

Nothing in this document should
be construed to indicate  that EPA
has determined states have Title
ni authority over Indian reserva-
tions. For purposes of this docu-
ment, definition of the terms
"state" and 'governor" includes
"Indian tribe" and Tribal Chair-
man." EPA has issued a draft
policy for comment regarding the
application of the emergency
planning and community right-to-
know law to Indian lands.

The emergency planning and
community right-to-know (also
known as Title m) provisions
have four major sections: emer-
gency planning (Section 301-
303). emergency release notifica-
tion (Section 304). community
right-to-know reporting require-
ments (Sections 311. 312) and
toxic chemical release reporting-
emtssions inventory (Section
313). Information from these
four reporting requirements will
help states and communities
develop a broad perspective of
chemical hazards for the entire
community as well as for individ-
ual facilities.
SECTION 301-303:
Emergency Planning

The emergency planning sec-
tions are designed to develop
state and local governments'
emergency response and prepar-
edness capabilities through
better coordination and plan-
ning, especially within the local

The Emergency Planning and
Community Right-to-Know Act
required the governor of each
state to designate a state emer-
gency response commission.
Many state emergency response
commissions include public
agencies and departments
concerned with issues relating
to environment, natural re-
sources, emergency services.
public health, occupational
safety, and transportation.
Also, interested public and
private sector groups and
associations with experience in
emergency planning and com-
munity right-to-Imow issues    ;
may be Included in the state    I
commission. At this time, all
governors have established state
emergency response commis-

The state commission must also
have designated local emergency
planning districts and appointed
local emergency planning
committees for each district.
State commissions have desig-
nated over 4,000 local districts.
Thirty-five state commissions
chose counties as the basic
district designation (often with
separate districts for munici-
palities), ten state commissions
designated substate planning
districts and five state commis-
sions designated the entire state
as a district.  Trie state commis-
sion is responsible  for supervis-
 ing and coordinating the activi-
ties of the local emergency
 planning committees, for estab-
 lishing procedures  for  receiving
 and processing public requests
 for information collected under
 other sections of Title III. and for
 reviewlng local emergency plans.

 This local emergency planning

         A.  Title 111  Fact Sheet
                   KEY DATES TO REMEMBER
   November 17, 1986

   November 17, 1986

   January 27. 1987

   March 17, 1987

   April 17, 1987

   April 22, 1987

   May 17, 1987
   June 4, 1987
   July 17, 1987
   August 17, 1987
   (or 30 days after
   designation of dis-
   tricts, whichever Is

   September 17, 1987
   (or 30 days after
   local committee
   is formed, which-
   ever is earlier)
EPA published Interim List of Extremely
Hazardous Substances and^Threshold Plan-
ning Quantities in Federal Register (Sections
302, 303, 304)

EPA initiated comprehensive review of emer-
gency systems (Section 305 (b))

EPA published proposed format for Emer-
gency Inventory Forms and reporting require-
ments in Federal Register (Sections 311 &

National Response Team published guidance
for preparation and implementation of emer-
gency plans (Section 303(f)l

State governors appointed state emergency
response commissions (Section 301 (a))

EPA published Final List of Extremely Haz-
ardous Substances and Threshold Planning
Quantities in Federal Register (Sections 302,
303, 304)

Facilities subject to Section 3O2 planning
requirements notified state emergency re-
sponse commission (Section 302(c)). Interim
report on emergency system review submit-
ted to Congress (Section 305(b))

     published proposed toxic chemical
   -ise (i.e.. emissions inventory) form (Sec-
tion 313(g))

State emergency response commission
designated emergency planning districts
(Section 301 (b))

State emergency response commission
appointed members of local emergency plan-
ning committees (Section 301 (c))
Facilities notified local planning committee of
selection of a facility representative (Section
   (Continued on Page 4)
committee must include, at a
minimum, elected state and
local officials, police, fire, civil
defense, public health profes-
sionals, environmental, hospital.
and transportation officials as
well as representatives of facili-
ties subject to the emergency
planning requirements, commu-
nity groups, and the media. As
soon as facilities are subject to
the emergency planning require-
ments, they must designate a
representative to participate in
the planning process.  The local
committee must establish rules.
give public notice  of its activi-
ties, and establish procedures
for handling public requests for

The local committee's primary
responsibility is to develop an
emergency response plan by
October 17, 1988 and  review it
at least annually thereafter. In
.developing this plan, the local
committee evaluates available
resources for preparing for and
responding to a potential chemi-
cal accident. The plan must:

 — identify facilities and trans-
    portation routes of extremely
    hazardous substances;

 — describe emergency response
    procedures, on-site and off-

 — designate a community
    coordinator and facility
    coordlnator(s) to implement
    the plan:

 — outline emergency notifica-
    tion procedures;

 — describe methods for deter-
    mining the occurrence of a
    release and the probable
    affected area and popula-

A.  Title 111  Fact Sheet
     — describe community and
        Industry emergency equip-
        ment and faciJltles and the
        Identity of persons respon-
        sible for them:

     — outline evacuation plans:

     — describe a training program
        for emergency response per-
        sonnel (Including sched-
        ules): and.

     — present methods and sched-
        ules for exercising emer-
        gency response plans.

     In order to assist the local
     committees in preparing and
     reviewing plans. Congress
     required the National Response
     Team (NRT), composed of 14
     federal agencies with emergency
     response responsibilities, to
     publish guidance on emergency
     response planning. This guid-
     ance, the "Hazardous Materials
     Emergency Planning Guide."
     was published by the NRT in
     March 1987.

     The emergency response plan
     must be initially reviewed by the
     state commission and, at least.
     annually by the local committee.
     Regional Response Teams.
     composed of federal regional
     officials and state representa-
     tives, may review the plans and
     provide assistance to the local
     committees upon request.

     Planning actMtte* of local
     committees and facilities should
     be Initially focused on. but not
     limited to. the 366 extremely
     hazardous substances pub-
     lished in the Federal Register.
     Plans should be comprehensive.
     addressing all hazardous mate-
     rials of concern and transporta-
     tion as well as fixed facilities.
     The list includes the threshold
     planning quantities (minimum
     limits) for each substance.
     Through mlemaking. EPA can
     revise the list and threshold
     planning quantities based on
     the toxicity, reactivity, volatility.
     dlspersability, combustibility, or
     flammability of a substance.

     Any facility that has present any
     of the listed chemicals in a
     quantity equal to or greater than
     Its threshold planning quantity
     is subject to the emergency
     planning requirements.  In
     addition, the state commission
     or the Governor can designate
     additional facilities, after public
     comment, to be subject to these
     requirements. Covered facilities
     must notify the state commis-
     sion and local committee that
     they are subject to these re-
     quirements within 60 days after
     they begin to have present any
     of the extremely hazardous sub-
     stances in threshold  planning

     Each state commission must
     notify the EPA Regional  Office of
     all facilities subject to the emer-
     gency planning requirements.
     including facilities designated by
     the  state commission or the
     SECTION 304:
     Emergency Notification

     Facilities must immediately
     notify the local emergency
     planning committees and the
     state emergency response
     commissions likely to be
     affected if there Is a release into
     the environment of a listed haz-
     ardous substance that exceeds
     the reportable quantity for that
     substance.  Substances subject
     to this requirement are those on
     the list of 366 extremely hazard-
     ous substances as published In
     Federal Register (40 CFR 355) or
     on a list of 721 substances
     subject to the emergency notifi-
     cation requirements under CER-
     CLA Section 103(a) (40 CFR
     302.4).  Same, chemicals are
     common to both lists.
Initial notification can be made
by telephone, radio, or in per-
son. Emergency notification
requirements involving trans-
portation incidents can be met
by dialing 911, or in the
absence of a 911 emergency
number, calling the operator.

This emergency' notification
needs to include:

 — the chemical name:

 — an Indication of whether the
    substance is extremely

 — an estimate of the quantity
    released Into the environ-

 — the time and duration of the

 — whether the release oc-
    curred Into air. water, and/
    or land:

 — any known or anticipated
    acute or chronic health
    risks associated with the
    emergency, and where nec-
    essary, advice regarding
    medical attention for ex-
    posed individuals:

 — proper precautions, such as
    evacuation: and,

 — name and telephone num-
    ber of contact person.

 Section 304 also requires a
 written follow-up emergency
 notice after th« release.  The
 follow-up notice or notices

 — update Information in-
    cluded in the Initial notice.

 — provide Information on

     •actual response actions
      taken; and.

        A.  Title III Fact Sheet
             KEY DATES TO REMEMBER (Continued)
     October 15. 1987
    October 17, 1987
    December 17, 1987
    February 16. 1988
    •February 25. 1988
    March 1. 1988
    (and annually
    June 1988
   June 20, 1988
   July 1. 1988
   (and annually

   July 29. 1988
   August 4. 1988
 EPA published final format for emergency In-
 ventory forms and reporting requirements In
 the Federal Register (Sections 311 and 312)

 EPA published proposed regulation governing
 trade secret claims (Sections 322 and 323)

 Manufacturing facilities submitted MSDS's or
 lists of MSDS chemicals to state commission,
 local committee and local fire department
 (Section 311  (d))

 EPA published a final rule delistlng four
 chemicals from the Extremely Hazardous
 Substance List (Section 302)

 EPA published final toxic chemical release
 regulations, form and instructions (Section
 313 (g))

 EPA published a final rule delistlng 36
 chemicals from the Extremely Hazardous
 Substance List (Section 302)

 Manufacturing facilities submit their hazard-
 ous chemical inventory forms to state
 commission, local committee and local fire
 department (Section 312(a)(2))

 Final report on emergency systems study
 submitted to Congress (Section 305(b))

 EPA published final rule delistlng titanium
 dioxide from the Toxic Chemical List
 (Section 313)

 Covered facilities submitted initial toxic
 chemical forms to EPA and designated state
 officials (Section 313 ..a))

 EPA published final regulation governing
 trade secret claims (Sections 322 and 323)

EPA clarified Reporting Dates for facilities
newty covered by the OSHA expansion of the
Hazard Communication Standard (Sections
311 and 312)
   (Continued on Page 6)
     •advice regarding medical
      attention necessary for
      exposed Individuals.

If local committees are not yet
formed, releases should be
reported to appropriate local
response officials.

SECTION 311-312:
Community Right-To-
Know Requirements

There are two community
right-to-know reporting re-
quirements within the Emer-
gency Planning and Commu-
nity Right-to-Know Act.  Sec-
tion 311 requires facilities
that must prepare material
safety data sheets (MSDS)
under the Occupational Safety
and Health Administration
(OSHA) regulations to submit
either copies of their MSDSs
or a list of MSDS chemicals

  - the local emergency
    planning committee:

  - the state emergency
    response commission;

  - the local fire department.

If the facility owner or opera-
tor chooses to submit a list of
MSDS chemicals, the list
must include the chemical or
common name of each sub-
stance and must identify the
applicable hazard categories.
These hazard categories are:

  - immediate (acute) health

  - delayed (chronic) health

  - fire hazard:

  - sudden release of pres-
   sure hazard: and.

  - reactive hazard.

                           A. Title  Id  Fact Sheet
If a list Is submitted, the facility
must submit a copy of the
MSDS for any chemical on the
list upon the request of the local
emergency planning committee
or state commission.  Also. EPA
has established threshold
quantities for hazardous chemi-
cals below which no facility
must report. The current
thresholds for Section 311 are:

 — for extremely hazardous
   substances: 500 pounds or
   the threshold planning
   quantity, whichever Is lower.

 — for all other hazardous
   chemicals: before October
   17. 1989: 10.000 pounds:
   on or after October 17.
   1989: zero pounds (Note:
   the zero threshold will be
   revised pending further

The Initial submission of the
MSDSs or a list of MSDS chemi-
cals was due on October 17.
 1987. or three months after the
facility Is required to prepare or
have available an MSDS under
OSHA regulations.  Currently.
OSHA regulations require only
manufacturers and Importers in
Standard Industrial Classifica-
tion (SIC) codes 20-39 to have or
prepare MSDSs for their chemi-
cals. But as of June 24. 1988.
those OSHA regulations ex-
panded to include non-manu-
facturers except the construc-
tion industry. Thns, under the
emergency planning and com-
munity right-to-know statute.
facilities newly covered by the
expanded OSHA regulations
must submit MSDSs or a list of
 MSDS chemicals within 3
months after they become cov-

An MSDS or a revised list must
be provided when new hazard-
ous chemicals become present
 at a facility In quantities above
the established threshold levels
after the deadline. A revised
MSDS must be provided to
update the original MSDS if sig-
nificant newjnformatlon Is dis-
covered about the hazardous

Reporting under Section 312
requires a facility to submit an
emergency and hazardous
chemical Inventory form to the
local emergency planning
committee, the state emergency
response commission, and the
local fire department. Hazard-
ous chemicals covered by
Section 312 are those for which
facilities are required to prepare
or have available an MSDS
under OSHA's Hazard Commu-
nication Standard and that were
present at the facility at any
time during previous calendar
year above specified thresholds.

EPA established threshold
quantities for Section 312 for
hazardous chemicals below
which no facility must report.
Currently those thresholds are:

 — for extremely hazardous
    substances:  500 pounds or
    the threshold planning
    quantity,  whichever is lower

 — for all other hazardous

    January to December 1987
    or first year of
    reporting...lO.OOO pounds.

    January to December 1988
    or second year of reporting
    ...10.000 pounds.

    January to December 1989
    or third year of
    reporting...zero pounds.
    (Note: the zero threshold will
    be revised pending  further

 The inventory form incorporates
a "two-tier" approach. Under
Tier I. facilities must submit the
following aggregate Information
for each applicable hazard

 — an estimate (in ranges) of the
   maximum amount of
   chemicals for each category
   present at the facility at any
   time during the preceding
   calendar year:

 — an estimate (In ranges) of the
   average daily amount of
   chemicals In each category;

 — the general location of
   hazardous chemicals in each

 If requested by a local commit-
 tee, state commission or local
 fire department,  the facility
 must provide the following Tier
 II Information for each sub-
 stance subject to the request:

  — the chemical name or the
    common name as indicated
    on the MSDS;

  — an estimate (in ranges) of the
    maximum amount of the
    chemical present at any time
    during the preceding calen-
    dar yean

  — a brief description of the
    manner of storage of the

  — the location of the chemical
    at the facility; and.

  — an indication of whether the
    owner elects to withhold lo-
    cation information from
    disclosure' to the public.

  EPA published a uniform format
  for the Inventory forms on
  October  15, 1987. Since many
  state commissions have addi-
  tional requirements or have
  incorporated the federal con-

                              A. Title III Fact Sheet
 tents in their own forms. Tier I/
 II forms should be obtained
 from the state commission.
 Tier I information must be
 submitted for covered manufac-
 turing facilities on or before
 March  1.  1988 and annually
 thereafter on March 1, for all
 covered facilities.

 The Tier II form may be sent by
 the facility instead of a Tier I.
 form. The public may also
 request Tier II information from •.
 the state commission and the
 local committee.  The 'informa-
 tion submitted by facilities
 under Sections 311 and 312
 must generally be made avail-
 able to  the public by local
 emergency planning committees
 (LEPCs) and state emergency
 response commissions (SERCs)
            during normal working hours.

            SECTION 313: Toxic
            Chemical Release

            Section 31.3 of the Emergency  ,
            Planning .and Community Right-.
            to-Know Act of 1.986 requires'
            EPA to establish an inventory of
            routine toxic chemical emissions
            from certain facilities. . Facilities
            subject to this reporting require-
            ment are required to complete a ,
            Toxic Chemical Release, Form
            (Form R)  for specified chemicals.
            The form must be submitted to
            EPA arid  those state officials
            designated by the governor, on
            or before July 1. 1988,'arid an-
            nually  thereafter on July 1. . ,
         KEY DATES TO REMEMBER (Concluded)
 September 24. 1988
 (three months
 after the OSHA
October 17, 1988
(and review at
least annually

March 1. 1989
October 17,1989
June 20. 1991
October .17. 1991
Non-manufacturing facilities covered under
the new OSHA expansion as of June 24,
1988 submit MSDSs or a list of chemicals
present in quantities over the first year
threshold to the state commission, local
committee, and local fire department
(Section 311)                    :  '

Local emergency planning committees.com-
plete preparation of an emergency plan ,
(Section 303(a))
Non-manufacturing facilities submit their
emergency inventory forms to state commis-
sion, local committee, and local fire depart-
ment (Section 312 (a)(2))

Manufacturing facilities submit MSDS or a
list of chemicals over the final threshold to
the state commission, local committee, and
local fire department (Section 311)

Comptroller General submits Report to Con-
gress on toxic chemical release Information
collection, use and availability (Section 313

EPA submits to Congress a Mass Balance
Study (Section 313(1))-
 These reports should reflect
 releases during the preceding
 calendar year.

 The purpose of this reporting
 requirement is to inform the
 public and government officials
 about routine releases of toxic
 chemicals to the environment.
 It will also assist in research
 and the development of regula-
 tions, guidelines, and stan-
. dards.

 The reporting requirement
 applies to owners and operators
 of facilities that have 10 or more
 full-time employees, that are in
 Standard Industrial Classifica-
 tion (SIC) codes 20 through 39
 (i.e.. manufacturing facilities)
 and that manufacture (including
 importing), process or otherwise
 use a listed toxic chemical in
 excess of specified threshold

 Facilities manufacturing or pro-
 cessing any of these chemicals
 in excess of 75.0OO pounds in
 1987 must report by July 1,
 1988.  Facilities manufacturing
 or processing in excess of
 50.000 pounds in 1988 must  -
 report by Jury 1, 1989: thereaf-
 ter, facilities manufacturing or
 processing more than 25,000
 pounds In a year are required  to
 submit the form. Facilities
 otherwise using listed toxic
 chemicals in quantities over
 10,000 pounds In a calendar
 year are required to submit
 toxic chemical release forms by
 July 1 of the following year.
 EPA can revise these threshold
 quantities and covered SIC

 The list of toxic chemicals
 subject to reporting consisted
 Initially of chemicals listed for
 similar reporting purposes by
 the States of New Jersey and
 Maryland.  There are over 300
 chemicals and categories on
 these lists. Through rule-

                            A.  Title 111  Fact Sheet
making. EPA can modify this
combined list.

The final Toxic Chemtral Re-
lease Form and regulations were
published in the Federal Regis-
ter on February 16. 1988. The
following Information Is required
on the form i

 — the name, location and type
   of business:

 — off-site locations to which
   the facility transfers toxic
   chemicals In waste:

 — whether the chemical Is
   manufactured (including im-
   portation), processed, or
   otherwise used and the
   general categories of use of
   the chemical:

 — an estimate (in ranges) of the
    maximum amounts of the
    toxic chemical present at the
    facility at any time during
    the preceding year:

 — quantity of the chemical
    entering each medium-air.
    land, and water-annually:

 — waste treatment/disposal
    methods and efficier.Tv of
    methods for e  ,       -

 — optional information on
    waste minimization: and,

 — a certification by a senior
     facility official that the
     report Is complete and

 Reports are sent to EPA and
 designated state agencies. EPA
 must establish and maintain a
 national toxic chemical Inven-
 tory based on the data submit-
 ted. The public must be able to
 access this national database.
 and obtain the data  through
 other means.
In addition to the toxic chemical
release reporting requirements.
Section 313 authorizes EPA to
arrange for a Mass Balance
Study to be carried out by the
National Academy of Sciences
(MAS).  The study will determine
the feasibility, utility, and alter-
natives to collecting mass
balance type information as a
supplement to the currently re-
quired toxic release data. A
report of this study must be
submitted by EPA to Congress
no later than October 17, 1991.
An interim report from NAS is
due to EPA in early 1989.

 Trade Secrets

 Section 322 of the Emergency
 Planning and Community Right -
 to-Know Act addresses trade
 secrets as they apply to emer-
 gency planning, community
 right-to-know, and toxic chemi-
 cal release reporting. Any
 facility may withhold the spe-
 cific chemical Identity on these
 submittals. No trade secrets are
 allowed to be claimed under
 Section 304 of the statute.  The
 withholder must show that:

  — the information has not been
     disclosed to any person
     other than a member of the
     local planning committee, a
     government official, an
     employee of the withholder
     or someone bound by a con-
     fidentiality agreement;
     measures have been taken
     to protect the confidentiality;
      and the withholder intends
      to continue to take such

   — the information is not re-
      quired to be disclosed to the
      public under any other
      Federal or State law;
— the information is likely to
   cause substantial harm to
   the competitive position of
   the withholder; and.

— the chemical identity is not
   readily discoverable through
   reverse engineering.

However, even if chemical
identity Information can be
legally withheld from the public.
Section 323 provides for disclo-
sure of this information to
health professionals who need
the information for diagnostic
and treatment purposes or local
health officials who need the in-
formation for prevention and
treatment activities. In non-
emergency cases, the health
professional receiving  :he infor-
mation must sign a confidential-
ity agreement with the facility
 and provide a written  statement
 of need. In medical emergency
 situations, the health profes-
 sional must, if requested by the
 facility, provide these  docu-
 ments as soon as circumstances

 Information claimed as a trade
 secret and substantiation for
 that claim must be submitted to
 EPA. More detailed information
 on the procedure for  submitting
 trade secrecy claims  can be
 found in. the trade secrets final
 rule, published In the Federal
 Register on July 29,  1988.  Any
 person may challenge trade
  secret claims by petitioning
  EPA. The Agency must then
  review the claim and rule on its

  The trade secret regulations
  cover the process for submis-
  sion of claims, petitions for dis-
  closure and the review process
  for petitions.

                             A. Title III Fact  Sheet
Title III Penalties

Section 325 of the Emergency
Planning and Community Rlght-
to-Know Act addresses the pen-
alties for failure to comply with
the requirements of this law.  .
Civil and administrative penal-
ties ranging from up to $10.000
- $75.000 per violation or per
day per violation can be as-
sessed to facilities that fail to
comply with the emergency
planning (Section 302). emer-
gency notification (Section 304),
community right-to-know
(Sections 31 Land 312), toxic
chemical release (Section 313)  -
and trade secret (Sections 322
arid 323) reporting require-

Criminal penalties up to
$50.000 or five years In prison
may also be given to any person
who knowingly and willfully falls
to provide emergency release
notification. Penalties of not
more than $20.00O and/or up
to one year in prison may be
given to any person who
knowingly and willfully discloses
any information entitled to pro-
tection as a trade secret. In
addition. Section 326 allows
citizens to initiate civil actions
against EPA. state emergency
response commissions, and/of
the owner or operator of a
facility for failure to meet the re-
quirements of the emergency
planning and community right-
to-know provision*.  A state
emergency response commis-
sion, local emergency planning
committee, state or local govern-
ment may institute actions
against facility owner/operators
for failure to comply with Title
III requirements. In addition.
states may sue EPA for failure
to provide trade secret informa-
Training Grants

Section,305(a) of the Emergency
Planning and Community Right-
to-Know,Act authorizes the Fed-
eral Emergency Management
Agency to provide $5 million for
each of fiscal years 1987, 1988.
1989, and 1990 for training
grants to support state and local
governments. These training ,
grants are designed to Improve
emergency planning, prepared-
ness, mitigation, response, and
recovery capabilities.  Such pro-
grams must provide special
emphasis to hazardous chemi-
cal emergencies. The training
grants may not exceed 80
percent of the cost of any such
programs. The remaining 20
percent must come from non-
federal sources. These training
grants are coordinated within
each state by the state emer-
gency response commission.
Public Access

Section 324 of the Emergency
Planning and Community Rlght-
to-Know Act provides for public
access to Information gathered
under this law.  Under this
section,  all material safety data
sheets, hazardous chemical
Inventory forms, toxic chemical
release form follow-up emergency
notices,  and the emergency
response plan must be made
available during normal working
hours by the state commissions
and local committees. In order to
inform the public of the availabil-
ity and location of the Informa-
tion provided to the local emer-
gency planning committee, the
local committee must publish a
notice annually in the local
newspaper.  In addition. Toxic
Release Inventory (Section 313)
information Is being collected by
EPA and will be made available
by telecommunications and other
Emergency Systems Study

Under Section 305(b). EPA is
required to review emergency
systems for monitoring, detect-
ing, preventing and warning of
accidental releases of extremely
hazardous  substances at repre-
sentative U.S. facilities that pro-
duce, use. or store these sub-
stances. EPA reported interim
findings to  Congress In May 1987
and issued a final report of find-
ings and recommendations to
Congress in June 1988.
  For more Information, .contact
  the Emergency Planning &
  Community Rlght-to-Know
  Information Hotline:

  Hotline: 1-800-535-0202
  (in Washington. D.C. -
      (2O2) 479-2449)

  Hours: 8:30 am - 7:30 pm
  (Eastern Time) Monday - Friday
                                          This is NOT an
                                        emergency number.

                           A. Title  III  Fact  Sheet
jLlst of Extremely Hazardous
Substances (366 Substances)
§302: Emergency Planning
§304: Emergency Notification
§311/312: Material Safety Data
        , Sheets and Emer-
         gency Inventory
 Facilities with more than
 estimated planning quantities
 of these substances must notify
 the State commission and local

r Initial focus for preparation of
 emergency plans by local emer-
 gency planning committees,

• Certain releases of these sub-
 stances trigger Section 304
 notification to State commission
 and local committees.

• Separate and lower thresholds
 are established for these sub-
 stances of concern for the
 MSDS and Tier I/II reporting
Substances requiring notifica-
tion under Section 103(a) of
CERCLA [721 substances] (40
CFR 302.4)
§304: Emergency Notification
1 Certain releases of these trigger
 Section 304 notification to State
 commission and. local commu-
 nities as well as Section 104(a)
 requirement for National Re-
 sponse Center notification.
Hazardous Chemicals consid-
ered physical or health hazards
under OSHAs Hazard Commu-
nication Standard (29 CFR
1910, 1200) [This is a per-
formance standard; there is no
specific list of chemicals.]
§304: Emergency Notification
§311: Material Safety Data
§312: Emergency Inventory
• Identifies facilities subject to
 emergency notification require-

• MSDS or list of MSDS chemi-
 cals provided by covered facili-
 ties to state commissions, local
 committees and  local fire de-

• Tier I/II hazardous chemical
 inventory forms  must be pro-
 vided by facilities to state
 commissions,'local committees
 and local fire departments.
Toxic Chemicals [327 chemi-
cal/chemical categories] (40
CFR 372)
§313: Toxic Chemical Release
• These chemicals are reported
 on an emissions Inventory to
 Inform government officials and
 the public about the release of
 toxic chemicals into the envi-

Appendix B:   Resources
Appendix B provides information of the following three areas:
1.  Selected List of Materials about the Emergency Planning
   and Community Right-to-Know Act and Risk Communi-
   cation.                     .
2.  EPA Regional Contacts for Section 313.
3.  State Emergency Response Commission/Title III Contacts.


Appendix B:  Resources
1.   Selected  List Of  Materials
Emergency Planning & Community Right-to-Know (Title III) Factsheet
August 1988 (OSWER-88-003)
A 9-page summary of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-
Know Act of 1986. This document includes the requirements of each section,
the facilities covered by each section and a chart of key dates for Title III.

Chemicals in Your Community, A Citizen's Guide to the Emergency Plan-
ning and Community Right-to-Know Act.
September 1988 (OSWER-88-002)
This booklet is intended to provide a general overview of the Title III require-
ments and benefits for all audiences. Part I of the booklet describes the provi-
sions of Title HI and Part II describes more fully the authorities and responsi-
bilities of the groups of people affected by the law.

Extremely Hazardous Substances List and Threshold Planning Quantities;
Emergency Planning and Release Notification Requirements; Final Rule
FR April 22,1987 (OSWER 42287)
This Federal Register contains the final rule on Sections 302 and 304 of Title
III, the emergency planning and emergency notification sections. This docu-
ment does not contain the extremely hazardous substance list; that list is an
appendix to this Federal Register and is distributed separately.

Extremely Hazardous Substance List
March 1,1988 (OSWER-EHS-1)
The complete list of extremely hazardous substances as defined under Sec-
tion 302 of Title  III. This document lists the chemicals alphabetically and by
CAS number.  The reportable quantity  and threshold planning  quantity of
each chemical is also listed.

It's Not Over in October; A Guide for Local Emergency Planning Commit-
tees; Implementing the Emergency  Planning and Community Right-to-
Know Act of 1986
September 1988 (OSWER-88-004)
The purpose of this pamphlet is to offer suggestions to LEPCs to help them
implement Title III. The pamphlet describes the function of LEPCs and pro-
vides ideas and examples based on past LEPC, EPA, and FEMA experiences.

Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis
December 1987 (OSWER-88-001)
This document provides  technical assistance to local emergency planning
committees in assessing the lethal hazards related to airborne releases of ex-
tremely hazardous substances. This guide should be used with NRT-1, Haz-
ardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide.

List of State Emergency Response Commissions
May 5,1989
The EPA's revised list of state emergency response commissions contacts.
The name, title, address, and phone number of the contacts for each state as
well as some U.S. territories are listed.
Emergency Planning and
Community Right-to-
Know Act Resources

B-1.  Selected  List Of  Materials
             Review of Emergency Systems: Final Report to Congress
             June 1988 (OSWER 305B)
             This document details the approach, findings, and recommendations of the
             EPA's review of emergency systems as required under Section 305(b) of
             SARA Title HI. This report documents the surveys, evaluations, site visits,
             and expert panels that contributed to the Review.

             Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Forms and Community
             Right-to-Know Reporting Requirements; Final Rule
             FR October 15,1987 (OSWER-101587)
             The final rule on Sections 311 and 312 of Title HI, the community right-to-
             know section. This Federal Register contains the MSDS and Inventory re-
             porting requirements, the Tier I and Tier II forms and instructions for these

             Community Right-to-Know and Small Business
             September 1988 (OSWER-88-005)
             This illustrated brochure is directed toward businesses that will be newly cov-
             ered under Sections 311 and 312 of Title in as a result of the OSHA expan-
             sion of the Hazard Communication Standard to include non-manufacturing
             businesses. The brochure provides background information of Title IE and
             the Community Right-to-Know reporting requirements (Sections 311 and
             312). It describes the requirements for small businesses and helps them deter-
             mine if they need to comply.

             Trade Secrecy Claims for Emergency Planning  and Community Right-to-
             Know Information; and Trade Secret Disclosures to Health Professionals;
             Final Rule
             FR July 1988 (OSWER-72988)
             The final rule containing the procedures for claims of trade secrecy, for
             EPA's handling of such claims,  for submission and handling of petitions re-
             questing reviews of trade secrecy claims and for disclosure to health profes-
             sionals of information  claimed as a trade secret. This Federal Register con-
             tains the substantiation form and instructions.

             Guide to Exercises in Chemical Emergency Preparedness Programs
             May 1988 (OSWER-88-006)
             The purpose of this guide is to provide local and state officials with a self-
             contained manual for use in conducting a wide range of chemical emergency
             exercises. It includes three technical bulletins published by the EPA:
              1. Introduction to Exercises in Chemical Emergency  Preparedness  Pro-
              2. A Guide to Planning and Conducting Table-Top Exercises
              3. A Guide to Planning and Conducting Field Simulation Exercises

                       B-1.   Selected  List Of Materials
Tort Liability in Emergency Planning
May 1989 (OSWER-89-007)
This document is the seventh in a series of technical bulletins to assist inter-
ested persons in various emergency planning, preparedness, or prevention ac-
tivities. This bulletin, developed by Dr. John Pine of Louisiana State Univer-
sity, addresses concerns raised  by many- members of local emergency
planning committees about the liability that may arise from their planning
and administrative duties. Liability and protection from liability is discussed
from the Federal and State employee perspective.

Successful Practices in Title III Implementation
January 1989 (OSWER-88-006.1)
This document is the first in a series of technical bulletins to provide exam-
ples of Title III programs and practices that are innovative or have proven to
be effective.

Criteria for Review of Hazardous Materials Emergency Plans
May 1988 (OSWER-NRT-1A)
This document contains a set of criteria that may be used by the Regional Re-
sponse Teams (RRT) under the provisions of Section 303(g) of the Emergen-
cy Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986.

Explaining Environmental Risk
November 1986
This document provides tips on communicating environmental risks to both
the media and the general public in an effective and understandable way. The
booklet  was written by Peter Sandman, a noted expert on risk communica-

Seven Cardinal Rules of Risk Communication
April  1988
This brochure provides guidelines that should be used to adequately commu-
nicate environmental risk.

The above mentioned documents are available through written request to:
    Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know
    Mailcode: OS-120
    401 M Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20460

 The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 313
Release Reporting Requirements
English Version: December 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-001)
Spanish Version: October 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-00ISP)
This 24-page brochure alerts businesses to their reporting obligations under
Section 313 and helps them determine whether their facility is required to re-
port. The brochure contains the Section 313 EPA Regional contacts, the Sec-
tion 313 toxic chemical list and a description of the Standard Industrial Clas-
sification,  (SIC),  Groups subject to  313.  This brochure  was   originally
distributed to every manufacturing facility in the U.S.
Source of Above-Mentioned

B-1.   Selected  List Of  Materials
                                    Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-ta-Know; Final Rule
                                    PR February 16,1988 (OTS FR 021688)
                                    The final rule on Section 313 of Title III, toxic chemical release reporting.
                                    This Federal Register contains the toxic chemical release inventory reporting
                                    form, Form R. It also contains a list of the Section 313 toxic chemicals.

                                    Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Package for 1988
                                    January 1989 (EPA 560/4-89-001)
                                    Includes the Form R and instructions document, Questions and Answers doc-
                                    ument, Magnetic Media Submission Guidance Package, Title III List of Lists,
                                    and the Section 313 final rule all in one document.

                                    Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form R and Instructions
                                    January 1989 (EPA 560/4-88-005)
                                    Step-by-step expanded instructions for completing the toxic chemical release
                                    inventory reporting Form R. This document includes a  sample completed
                                    Form R and a list of the State 313 contacts as well as a copy of Form R.

                                    Title III List of Lists
                                    December 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-003)
                                    A consolidated list of chemicals subject to reporting under Title III of SARA.
                                    This document lists by CAS number the extremely hazardous substances with
                                    their threshold planning quantities, the CERCLA hazardous substances with
                                    their reportable quantities, the Section 313 toxic chemicals and the RCRA
                                    Hazardous Wastes from the P and U lists.

                                    Common Synonyms for Chemicals Listed Under Section 313 of the Emer-
                                    gency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986.
                                    Revised December 1988  (OTS-ETD-001)
                                    This glossary is divided into two parts. Part I is a listing by CAS number of
                                    each Section 313 toxic chemical followed by common  synonyms  for that
                                    chemical. Part 2 contains names and synonyms in an alphabetical listing. This
                                    glossary enables the trade and common names of a substance to be matched
                                    to that substance's CAS number or to other synonyms.

                                    Supplier Notification Requirements
                                    January 1989 (EPA 560/4-89-003)
                                    This pamphlet assists chemical suppliers who may be subject to the  supplier
                                    notification requirements under  Section 313 of Title III.  The pamphlet  ex-
                                    plains the supplier notification  requirements, gives examples of situations
                                    that require notification, describes the trade secret provision, lists the Region-
                                    al Section 313 contacts and contains a sample notification.

                                    Industry Specific Technical Guidance Documents for Estimating Releases
                                    January-July 1988
                                    These documents were developed to assist specific industries with comple-
                                    tion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the toxic chemical release
                                    inventory reporting Form R. The documents include general information on
                                    the toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with examples
                                    of release estimate calculations.

                      B-1.  Selected  List Of Materials
Electroplating Operations
January 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004g)

Presswood & Laminated Wood Products Manufacturing
March 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-0041)

Wood Preserving
February 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004p)

Roller, Knife and Gravure Coating Operations
February 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004J)

Spray Application of Organic Coatings
January 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004d)

Electrodeposition of Organic Coatings
January 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004c)

Rubber Production and Compounding
March 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004q)

Paper Paperboard Production
February 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004k)

Leather Tanning and Finishing Processes
February 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-0041)

Semiconductor Manufacture
January 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004e)

Printing Operations
January 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004b)

Monofilament Fiber Manufacture
January 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004a)

Textile Dyeing
February 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004h)

Formulating Aqueous Solutions
March 1988 (EPA 560/4-88-004f)

Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Questions and Answers
January 1989 (EPA 560/4-S9-002)
This document has been developed to expedite facility reporting and to pro-
vide additional explanation of the reporting requirements under Section 313
of Title III. It supplements the instructions for completing Form R.

B-1.   Selected List Of  Materials
   Source of Above-Mentioned
             Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Magnetic Media Submission Instruc-
             January 1989 (EPA 560/7-88-003)
             This document provides specifications for the use of magnetic media to sub-
             mit EPA Form R. The structural record specifications for each section of
             Form R are presented. These specifications must be followed exactly for the
             EPA to accept the magnetic media submission.

             The above mentioned documents are available through written request to:
                Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know
                Document Distribution Center
                P.O. Box 12505
                Cincinnati, OH 45212

             Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide
             March 1987 (NRT-1)
             The purpose of this guide is to assist communities in planning for hazardous
             materials incidents. This guide outlines the development of planning teams
             and hazardous materials emergency plans. It also addresses approaches to
             plan appraisal and continuing planning.
             This document is available through written request to:
                Hazmat Planning Guide (NRT-1)
                401 M Street, SW
                Washington, DC 20460

             Estimating Releases and Waste Treatment Efficiencies for the Toxic Chem-
             ical Release Inventory Form
             December 1987
             This manual provides an overview of the general methods that may be used
             to estimate releases subject  to the reporting requirements. Examples of the
             application of most of the methods discussed are included. Sources of addi-
             tional information on release estimation are also provided.
             This document is available for $ 11 through:
                Superintendent of Documents
                Government Printing Office
                Washington, DC 20402-9325
                Telephone number: (202) 783-3238
                GPO stock number: 055-000-00270-3       '•

                       B-1.  Selected  List  Of Materials
The Toxic Release Inventory: Meeting the Challenge
April 1988
This 19-minute overview videotape is designed to explain toxic release re-
porting to plant facility managers and others who need to know about the re-
quirement. State governments, local groups, universities, and others may also
find the video program useful and informative.
To purchase, write or call:
    Color Film Corporation
    Video Division
    770 Connecticut Avenue
    Norwalk, CT 06854
    3/4-inch = $30.75; Beta = $22.95; VHS = $22.00

Title III: What It Means To You
This brochure briefly explains the main provisions of Title III and tells how
citizens can participate in and obtain information from their LEPCs.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    Attention: Title III Coordinator
    841 Chestnut Building
    Philadelphia, PA  19107

1987 Emergency Response Guidebook
September 1987
This guidebook lists over 1,000 hazardous materials by name and DOT num-
ber. General hazards and isolation distances for these materials are also dis-
This document is available through:
    Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation
    Attn: DMH-50
    Research and Special Projects Administration/DOT
    400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act: A Status of
State Actions
April 1988
This report provides state-by-state descriptions of how the states and territo-
ries are implementing the requirements of Title III.
This report is available by sending a pre-paid written request to:
    National Governors Association,  Hall of the States
    444 North Capitol Street, Suite 250
    Washington, DC 20001-1572
    Price: $10.00

B-1.   Selected List Of  Materials
            Title III Community Awareness Workbook
            January 1988
            Written for the chemical industry, this guide examines communication issues
            that chemical companies must consider in light of Title III, including risk
            communication methods, community relations, and working with the media.
                Chemical Manufacturers Association
                2501 M Street, NW
                Washington, DC 20037
                $26.25 nonmembers; $17.50 members

            Community Guide to Title HI
            Questions and answers outline the basic provisions of Title III in this handout
            for chemical companies to distribute in their communities.
                Chemical Manufacturers Association
                2501 M Street, NW
                Washington, DC 20037
                $.50 nonmembers; $.35 members

            Monsanto/Title HI Community Videotape
            This 20-minute video discusses the four main provisions of Title III and de-
            picts community members with environmental concerns, community  organi-
            zations, local officials, and plant managers all working together to implement
            the law.
                Environmental and Community Relations Manager
                Monsanto Company, G4WF
                800 North Lindbergh Boulevard
                St. Louis, MO 63167

B-1.  Selected  List Of Materials
 Understanding MSDSs: Your Right To Know
 West Newton, MA: Massachusetts Department of Labor Industries. No
 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), the fact sheets on specific chemicals
 prepared by manufacturers, will be available  to the public under Title III.
 This  tabloid-sized pamphlet explains how to interpret them  section-by-
 section, and defines some frequently encountered terms.
    Massachusetts Department of Labor and Industries
    Division of Occupational Hygiene, Right to Know Program
    1001 Watertown Street
    West Newton, MA 02165
    (617) 969-7177

 Of Mice and Men: Health Risks and Safety Judgments
 By Celia Epting, Washington, DC: League of Women Voters of the Unit-
 ed States, 1977.
 This fact sheet for  the general public discusses the concept of risk, its meas-
 urement, the setting of standards, and risk communication.
    League of Women Voters of the United States
    1730 M Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20036

 Improving Dialogue With Communities: A Risk Communication Manual
for Government.
 By Billie Jo Hance, Caron Chess, Peter M. Sandman, and the Environ-
 mental Communication Research Program, Rutgers University. Trenton,
 NJ: New Jersey  Department of Environmental  Protection, [January
 Government agencies can generate two-way communication with communi-
 ties, says this guide, which emphasizes understanding the community's point
 of view; earning trust; releasing information; interacting with the community
 (especially at public meetings); and explaining risk.
   New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
   Division of Science and Research
   Risk Communication Unit, CN 409
   Trenton, NJ 08625
   (609) 984-6072
                                              Risk Communication and
                                              Community Awareness

B-1.   Selected List Of Materials
             High Tech and Toxics: A Guide for Local Communities
             By Susan Sherry, Washington,  DC: Golden Empire Health Planning
             Center, 1985.
             The electronics manufacturing and semiconductor industry uses a variety of
             toxic substances. This manual examines  problems of pollution in the high
             tech industry and provides a detailed guide to citizen involvement in evaluat-
             ing and regulating these and other local health hazards.
                 National Center for Policy Alternatives
                 2000 Florida Avenue, NW
                 Washington, DC  20009
                 (202)387-6030                          '.

             Medicine for the Layman: Environment and Disease
             By David P. Rail. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1982.
             An overview of how  scientists study the  link between chemicals and health
             and what they have learned is presented in general lay terms. The issue of an-
             imal testing receives special attention.
                 Office of Clinical Reports and Inquiries
                 Building 10, Room 5C305
                 National Institutes of Health
                 Bethesda, MD  20892

             Toxicology for the Citizen, 2nd ed.
             By Alice E. Marczewski and Michael Kamrin. East Lansing, MI: Michi-
             gan State University, Center for Environmental Toxicology, 1987. (Fund-
             ed in part by the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation)
             This booklet explains in lay terms the science of toxicology, describing fac-
             tors that determine  toxicity, how toxicity is measured, and how standards for
             exposure are set
                 Center for Environmental Toxicology
                 C231 Holden Hall
                 Michigan State University
                 East Lansing, MI 48824

B-1.   Selected List  Of Materials
 Toxics in the Air
 By Richard A. Liroff. Washington, DC: The Conservation Foundation,
 One of the Foundation's Issue Reports, this monograph summarizes the risks
 of indoor and outdoor air pollution and describes Federal, State, and local
 programs to reduce pollution. The Foreword explains that the emphasis is on
 "focusing attention and remedial action on where the greatest risks occur.
 This requires paying greater attention both to reducing indoor exposures and
 to preventing industrial accidents."
    The Conservation Foundation
    Publications Department-86
    1250 24th Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20037

 Strategies for Explaining Very Small Risks in a Community Context
 By Ann Fisher, Gary H.  McClelland, and William D. Schulze. Pitts-
 burgh, PA: Air Pollution Control Association, 1988.
 This paper, prepared for APCA's 1988  meeting, discusses risk communica-
 tion within communities.
    Air Pollution Control Association
    P.O. Box 2861
    Pittsburgh, PA 15230
    (412) 232-3444

 The Community Partnership: A Hazardous Materials Management Plan-
 ning Guide
 Chicago, IL: The National Safety Council, 1987.
This guide discusses the formation of Local Emergency Planning Committees
and sets out the steps  a Committee must take for formulate an Emergency
Preparedness Plan, as mandated by Title HI. Separate sections address partici-
pation in such Committees from industry's point of view, from government's
point of view, and from the point of view of a partnership between the public
and private sectors.
    National Safety Council
    444 North Michigan Avenue
    Chicago, IL 60611-3991
    (312) 527-4800

B-1.  Selected  List Of Materials
             Toxic Chemicals: Information is the Best Defense
             Sacramento, CA: League of Women Voters of California, 1986. (Funded
             by the BKK Corporation)
             A two-part, award-winning documentary, this videotape with accompanying
             handbook shows why it is important for citizens and local officials to know
             about chemicals being used in  their communities. Part I, "Who Needs to
             Know," gives an overview of the problems posed by toxics; Part II, "Devel-
             oping a Community Right to Know Law," shows how people in one commu-
             nity worked together to create a model local ordinance. Available on video-
             cassette, each part 26 minutes.
                 Bullfrog Films, Inc.                       ':
                 Oley.PA 19547
                 (800) 543-FROG

             Chemical  Risk  Communication; Preparing for Community Interest in
             Chemical Release Data
             October 1988
             This handbook, prepared by the American Chemical Society, provides a basic
             understanding of risk assessment concepts  and risk communication tech-
             niques that can be  used as a framework when responding to questions from
             the public about releases of chemicals to the environment It is designed to
             help local public health officials and other local leaders encourage citizen dis-
             cussions that are productive and constructive.
                 American Chemical Society
               • 1155 16th Street, NW
                 Washington, DC 20036

             Air Toxics 1; Air Toxics Update 2; Air Toxics Update 3
             Sacramento, CA: California Air Resources Board, 1986,1987.
             This series of three fact sheets explains to the general public what one State is
             doing to control toxic substances in the environment and discusses the risks
             associated with several specific chemicals.
                 Air Resources Board Stationary Source Division
                 Chief, Toxic Pollutants Branch
                 P.O. Box 2815
                 Sacramento, CA 95812
                 (916) 322-6023

B-1.   Selected  List Of Materials
What To Do In Case of a Chemical Emergency
Baltimore, MD: Mayor's Hazardous Materials  Advisory  Council, no
A list of short, simple instructions telling people how to protect themselves
during a chemical emergency.
    City of Baltimore Fire Department
    Oldtown Station
 '   1100 Hilien Street
    Baltimore, MD 21202
    (301)396-5756                                            .

Waste minimization or reduction means reducing  hazardous waste  at its
source, before it is generated. The following publications promote waste re-
duction as a general policy.

Cutting Chemical Wastes: What 29 Organic Chemical Plants Are Doing To
Reduce Hazardous Wastes
By David J. Sarokin, Warren R. Muir, Catherine G. Miller, and Sebas-
tian R. Sperber. New York, NY: INFORM, 1985.
Case studies explore some of the methods used by organic chemical plants to
reduce hazardous waste at its source. Hazardous waste in this case refers not
only to solid wastes but also to air emissions and wastewater discharges. The
book's purpose is to "spur heightened initiatives and broader consideration
by government and business of how waste reduction can be accelerated."
    INFORM, Inc.
    381 Park Avenue South
    New York, NY 10016

Promoting Hazardous Waste Reduction: Six Steps States Can Take
By Warren R. Muir and Joanna Underwood. New York, NY: INFORM,
This report identifies six organizational initiatives that State governments can
take to promote reduction of hazardous waste at its source before it is gener-
   INFORM, Inc.
   381 Park Avenue South
   New York, NY  10016
                                              Waste Minimization

             B-1.   Selected  List Of  Materials
Other Sources of

American Chemical Society (ACS)
ACS distributes educational brochures on various topics, including ground-
water, risk assessment, and risk communication.
To contact:
    American Chemical Society
    1155 16th Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20036

Chemical Education for Public Understanding Project (CEPUP)
With the goal of fostering greater public awareness, knowledge, and under-
standing about chemicals and how they interact with our lives, CEPUP is de-
veloping hands-on instructional materials for use both in middle schools and
with the public.
To contact:
    Lawrence Hall of Science
    University of California                  ;
    Berkeley, CA 94702

Public Health Foundation, Environmental Health Program
Established by the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, the
PHF publishes directories of environmental health and laboratory services
and other publications on environmental health.
To contact:
    PHF Environmental Health Program        :
    1220 L Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20005
    (202) 898-5600

Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute
Among other activities the Institute has developed a model program to pro-
vide information and services to the general public, small industry, employ-
ees, schools, and professionals. The Institute is jointly sponsored by the Uni-
versity of Medicine  and  Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson
Medical School and Rutgers University.
To contact:
    657 Hoes Lane
    Piscataway, NJ  08854-5635

B-1.   Selected  List Of Materials
Working Group on Community Right To Know
This group, affiliated with the Environmental Policy Institute, represents a
coalition of voluntary groups with environmental concerns. It has compiled
nine information packets for citizens on Title HI, each covering a topic such
as documents for LEPCs, risk communication, and risk assessment. The
packets contain  newspaper articles, fact sheets, sample forms, case studies,
and more.
To contact:
    Working Group on Community Right To Know
    218 D Street, SE
    Washington, DC 20003

Community Right To Know News
Washington, DC: Thompson Publishing Group
Published twice  a month, this publication is aimed at companies and commu-
nities affected by Title III. It reports on Federal and State activities, emergen-
cy response programs, and industry liability.
    Thompson Publishing Group
    Subscription Service Center
    P.O. Box 76927
    Washington, DC 20013
    (800) 424-2959 or (202) 872-1766

The Great Lakes United
Buffalo, NY: Great Lakes United
This newsletter is published by a voluntary organization that monitors pollu-
tion in the Great Lakes area and works for a cleaner environment. Articles fo-
cus on legislative and regulatory news and on the activities of other environ-
mental groups.
    Great Lakes United
    24 Agassiz Circle
    Buffalo, NY 14214
    (716) 886-0142

National Air Toxics Information Clearing House Newsletter
Research Triangle Park, NC: National Air Toxics Information Clearing-
This  bimonthly newsletter for State and local air pollution control agencies
contains news of clearinghouse and other agency activities, State and local
programs, and current research.
   Pollutant Assessment Branch
   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, MD-12
   Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

   B-1.   Selected List Of Materials
               Sierra Club Hazardous Materials/Water Resources Newsletter
               Olympia, WA: Sierra Club National Hazardous Materials and Nations
               Water Resources Committees
               A quarterly, this newsletter provides a means for volunteer activists to com-
               municate with each other about resources, research, and activities.
                   Hazardous Materials/Water Resources Newsletter
                   P.O. Box 474
                   Olympia, WA 98507
Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine
Available online through a modem connection or in a medical library, this da-
tabase provides citations, and often abstracts, for journal articles and mono-
graphs. Topics are human and animal toxicity studies, effects of environmen-
tal chemicals and pollutants, and adverse drug reactions.
For information:
    National Library of Medicine
    MEDLARS Management Section
    8600 Rockville Pike
    Bethesda, MD 20894
    (800) 638-8480 or (301) 496-6193

Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine
Also available online, this database contain technical information on hazard-
ous substances and research results on potential carcinogens.

Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine
One part of TOXNET, this database contains toxic releases to the  environ-
ment, as reported under Section 313 of Title III.
For information:
    National Library of Medicine
    Specialized Information Services Division
    8600 Rockville Pike
    Bethesda, MD 20894

                       B-1.  Selected  List Of  Materials
 Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Center for Occupational Health
 and Safety
 CCINFOdisc is a compact disk with several toxic substance databases. New
 Jersey's Hazardous Substance Fact Sheets are also accessible through this
 service. Subscribers receive four updated disks a year. •
 For information:
     CCINFOdisc, Inquiries Service
     Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety
     250 Main Street East
     Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N1H6
     (416) 572-2981
Directory of Accredited Laboratories, 1988
Gaithersburg, MD: American Association for Laboratory Accreditation,
Included in this listing are laboratories accredited for environmental testing
of drinking water, wastewater, solid waste, hazardous waste, toxic substanc-
es, and pesticide residues.
    American Association for Laboratory Accreditation
    656 Quince Orchard Road, No. 704
    Gaithersburg, MD  20878
    (301) 670-1377

Health Effects of Toxic Substances: A Directory of References and Re-
sources, 1986
By Hanafi Russell  et al.  Sacramento, CA:  California Department  of
Health Services, c!984,1985.
Print reference books, online databases, and organizations are included in this
directory; asterisks indicate books essential for a basic reference library on
    California Department of General Services
    Publications Section
    P.O. Box 1015
    North Highlands, CA 95660
    (916) 924-4800; 7540-958-1300-3

Information Resources in Toxicology, 1988
2nd ed. by Philip Wexler, Toxicology Information Program, National Li-
brary of Medicine
This is a comprehensive listing of materials and other resources.
    Elsevier Science Publishing Company
    52 Vanderbilt Avenue
    New York, NY 10017

B-1.  Selected List Of Materials
            Risk Assessment, Management, Communication: A Guide to Selected
            Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1987
            This bibliography includes many journal articles and some monographs on
            risk assessment, management, and communication, and includes a section on
            "Informing the Public."
               U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
               Office of Information Resources Management and Office of
                Toxic Substances
               Washington, DC 20460

Appendix B:  Resources
2.  EPA  Regional Section  313  Contacts
(CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT)
    Dwight Peavey
    Pesticides & Toxics Branch
    USEPA Region 1 (APT2311)
    JFK Federal Building
    Boston, MA 02203
    FTS 835-3230

(NJ, NY, PR, VI)
    Nora Lopz
    Pesticides & Toxics Branch
    USEPA Region 2 (MS240)
    Woodbridge Avenue, Building 209
    Edison, NJ 08837
    (201) 906-6890
    FTS 340-6890

(DE, MD, PA, VA, WV, DC)
    Kurt Eisner
    Toxics & Pesticides Branch
    USEPA Region 3 (3HW42)
    841 Chestnut Street
    Philadelphia, PA 19107
    (215) 597-1260
    FTS 597-1260

(AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN)
    Jill Perry
    Pesticides and Toxic Substances Branch
    USEPA Region 4
    345 Courtland Street
    Atlanta, GA 30365
    (404) 347-5053
   FTS 257-5014

(IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI)
   Dennis Wesolowski
   Pesticides & Toxic Substances Branch
   USEPA Region 5 (5SPT-7)
   230 South Dearborn Street
   Chicago, DL 60604
   (312) 353-5907
   FTS 353-5907
 Region 1
 Region 2
Region 3
Region 4
Region 5

            B-2.   EPA Regional Section  313 Contacts
Region 6
Region 7
Region 8
Region 9
Region 10
   Gerald Carney
   Pesticides & Toxic Substances Branch
   USEPA Region 6 (6TPT)
   1445 Ross Avenue
   Dallas, TX 75202-2733
   (214) 655-7244
   FTS 255-7244

   Ed Vest
   Congressional & Intergovernment Liaison
   USEPA Region 7 (CIGL)
   726 Minnesota Avenue
   Kansas City, KS 66101
   (913) 236-2806
   FTS 757-2834

(CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY)
   Diane Groh
   Toxic Substances Branch
   USEPA Region 8 (8AT-TS)
   999 18th Street
   Denver, CO 80202-2405
   (303) 293-1730
   FTS 564-1735

(AZ, CA, ffl, NV, AS, GU, MP)
   Kathleen Goforth
   Pesticides & Toxic Branch
   USEPA Region 9 (A-4-3)
   211 Main Street
   San Francisco, CA 94105
   (415) 974-7280
   FTS 454-7280

(AK, ID, OR, WA)
   Phil Wong
   Pesticides & Toxic Substances Branch
   USEPA Region 10 (AT083)
   1200 Sixth Avenue
   Seattle, WA 98101
   (206) 442-4016
   FTS 399-4016

 Appendix B:  Resources
 3.   SERC/Title  III  Contacts
This list is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's listing of State Emer-
gency Response Commissions and State designated agencies for the Emer-
gency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act The EPA has verified
each contact individually. All addresses listed under State Commissions re-
ceive the Section 302 emergency planning notification and the Section 304
emergency release notification unless otherwise specified, the State designat-
ed agencies receive the submissions for the sections listed in their headings.
If one address is listed with no heading, the State commission receives all
submissions for every section of the Act. If an additional address is listed un-
der the heading "Mailing Address," this address is to be used for mailings to
the State Commissions other than the P.O. boxes used for the form submis-

State Commission:
    J. Danny Cooper, Co-Chair
    Alabama Emergency Response Commission
    Director, Alabama Emergency Management Agency
    520 South Court Street
    Montgomery, AL 36130
    (205) 834-1375
    Contact:  Dave White

Section 311/312 Submissions:
    Leigh Pegues, Co-Chair
    Alabama Emergency Response Commission
    Director, Alabama Department of Environmental Management
    1751 Congressman W.G. Dickinson Drive
    Montgomery, AL 36109
    (205) 271-7700
    Contact:   L.G. Linn                      (205) 271-7700
             E. John Williford                (205) 271-7931

Section 313 Submissions:
   E. John Williford, Chief of Operations
   Alabama Emergency Response Commission
   Alabama Department of Environmental Management
    1751 Congressman W.G. Dickinson Drive
   Montgomery, AL 36109
   (205) 271-7700
   Contact:   L.G. Linn                      (205)271-7700
             E. John WUIiford                (205) 271-7931

              B-3.  SERC/Title III Contacts
American Samoa
   Linda VanHouten, Chair
   Alaska State Emergency Response Commission
   P.O. Box O
   Juneau.AK  99811
   (907) 465-2630
   Mailing Address:
   Linda Van Houten
   Alaska State Emergency Response Commission
   3220 Hospital Drive
   Juneau, AK  99801

State Commission:
   Maiava O. Hunkin
   Program Coordinator for the Territorial Emergency Management
   Coordination Office
   American Samoan Government
   Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799
   International Number (684) 633-2331

Section 311/312 & 313 Submissions:
   Pati Faiai, Director
   American Samoa EPA
   Office of the Governor
   Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799
   International Number (684) 633-2304

    Carl F. Funk, Executive Director
    Arizona Emergency Response Commission
    Division of Emergency Services
    5636 East McDowell Road
    Phoenix, AZ 85008

State Commission:
    Randall Mathis, Acting Director
    Arkansas Hazardous Materials Emergency Response Commission
    P.O. Box 9583
    8001 National Drive
    Little Rock, AR 72219
    (501) 562-7444
    Contact:  Mike Bates                   (501) 455-6888

Section 311/312 & 313Submissions:
    Becky Bryant
    Depository of Documents
    Arkansas Department of Labor
    10421 West Markham
    Little Rock, AR 72205                   :
    Contact:  John Ward                   (501)562-7444

B-3.  SERC/Title  III Contacts
    Mailing Address:
 .   Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology
    P.O. Box 9583
    8001 National Drive
    Little Rock, AR 72219
    Attn: John Ward

State Commission:
    William Medigovich, Chair
    California Emergency Planning and Response Commission
    Director, Office of Emergency Services
    2800 Meadowview Road
    Sacramento, CA 95832

Section 302,304,311/312 Submissions:
    California Emergency Planning and Response Commission
    Office of Emergency Services
    Hazardous Materials Division
    2800 Meadowview Road
    Sacramento, CA 95832
    Contact:  Gary Burton
             Michelle La Bella
             Dave Zocchetti

Section 313  Submissions:
    Chuck Shulock
    Office of Environmental Affairs
    P.O. Box 2815
    Sacramento, CA 95812
    Attn: Section 313 Reports
    (916) 324-8124
    (916) 322-7236 Completed Form R Information

State Commission:
    David C. Shelton, Chair
    Colorado Emergency Planning Commission
    Colorado Department of Health
    4210 East llth Avenue
    Denver,  CO 80220
    (303) 273-1624
    Emergency Release Notification:               (303) 377-6326
    After Hours & Weekends (Emergencies Only):   (303) 370-9395

         B-3.  SERC/Title III  Contacts
Section 302,304,311/312 & 313 Submissions:
    Colorado Emergency Planning Commission
    Colorado Department of Health
    4210 East llth Avenue
    Denver, CO 80220
    Contact:  Richard Bardsley               (303)273-1789
             Judy Waddill                  (303) 331-4858

    Sue Vaughn, Title IE Coodinator
    State Emergency Response Commission
    Department of Environmental Protection
    State Office Building, Room 161
    165 Capitol Avenue
    Hartford, CT 06106
    (203) 566-4856
State Commission:
    Patrick W. Murray, Chair
    Delaware Commission on Hazardous Materials
    Department of Public Safety
    Administration Center
    Dover, DE  19901
    Contact:   George Frick                  (302) 736-3169

Section 302 Submissions:
    Dominick Petrilli, Acting Director
    Division of Emergency Planning and Operations
    P.O. Box 527
    Delaware City, DE 19706
    (302) 834-4531

Section 304 Submissions:
    Phillip Retallick, Director
    Division of Air and Waste Management
    Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control
    Richardson and Robbins Building
    89 Kings Highway
    P.O. Box 1401
    Dover, DE  19901
    (302) 736-4764

Section 311/312 Submissions:
    Dr. Lawrence Krone, Chief
    Bureau of Health and Social Services
    802 Silver Lake Boulevard
    Dover, DE  19901
    (302) 736-4731

B-3.  SERG/Title  III  Contacts
 Section 313 Submissions:
    Robert French, Chief Program Administrator
    Air Resource Section
    Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control
    P.O. Box 1401
    Dover, DE 19901
    (302) 736-4791

    Joseph P. Yeldell, Chair
    State Emergency Commission for Title III in the District of Columbia
    Office of Emergency Preparedness
    2000 14th Street, NW
    Frank Reeves Center for Municipal Affairs
    Washington, DC 20009
    (202) 727-6161
    Contact:   Pamela Thurber
              Environmental Planning Specialist

    Mr. Thomas G. Pelham, Chair
    Florida Emergency Response Commission
    Secretary, Florida Department of Community Affairs
    2740 Centerview Drive
    Tallahassee, FL  32399-2149
    (904) 488-1472
    In FL: (800) 635-7179
    Contact: , Greg Dawkins

State Commission:
    J. Leonard Ledbetter, Chair
    Georgia Emergency Response Commission
    Commissioner, Georgia Department of Natural Resources
    205 Butler Street, SE
    Floyd Towers East, llth floor
    Atlanta, GA 30334

Section 302,304,311/312 & 313  Submissions:
    Jimmy Kirkland
    Georgia Emergency Response Commission
    205 Butler Street, SE
    Floyd Towers East
    Atlanta, GA 30334
    Emergency Release Number (800) 241-4113
                                           District of Columbia

  B-3,  SERC/Title III Contacts
State Commission & Section 311/312 Submissions:
   Dr. George Boughton, Chair
   Guam State Emergency Response Commission
   Civil Defense
   Guam Emergency Services Office
   Government of Guam
   P.O. Box 2877
   Aguana,Guam 96910
   (671) 734-3410
   FTS 550-7230

Section 313 Submissions:
   Roland Solidio
   Guam EPA
   P.O. Box 2999
   Aguana, Guam 96910
   (671) 646-8863

State Commission and Section 311/312 Submissions:
   Dr. Brace S. Anderson, Vice-Chair
   Hawaii State Emergency Response Commission
   Hawaii Department of Health
   P.O. Box 3378
    Honolulu, ffl 96801
    (808) 548-2076
    (808) 548-5832
             Samir Araman
             Mark Ingoglia
(8108) 548-5832
(808) 548-2076
 Section 313 Submissions:
    Dr. John C. Levin, Chair
    Hawaii State Emergency Response Commission
    Hawaii Department of Health
    P.O. Box 3378
    Honolulu, ffl  96801-9904
    (808) 548-6505

 State Commission:
    Idaho Emergency Response Commission
    Department of Health and Welfare
    State House
    Boise, ID 83720
    (208) 334-5888

 Section 311/312 & 313 Submissions:
    Idaho Emergency Response Commission
    State House
    Boise, ID 83720
    Attn: Jenny Records
    Contact:  Jenny Records                 (208) 334-5888

                         B-3.  SERC/Title HI Contacts
 State Commission and Section 311/312 Submissions:
    Oran Robinson
    Illinois Emergency Response Commission
    Illinois Emergency Services & Disaster Agency
    Attn: Hazmat Section
    110 East Adams Street
    Springfield, IL 62706
    (217) 782-4694

 Section 313 Submissions:
    Joe Goodner
    Emergency Planing Unit
    Illinois EPA
    P.O. Box 19276
    2200 Churchill Road
    Springfield, IL 62794-9276
    (217) 782-3637

    Skip Powers, Director
    Indiana Emergency Response Commission
    5500 West Bradbury Avenue
    Indianapolis, IN 46241
    (317) 243-5176
State Commission and Section 302 Submissions:
    Ellen Gordon, Co-Chair
    Iowa Disaster Services
    Hoover Building, Level A
    Room 29
    Des Moines, IA  50319

Section 304 Submissions:
    Air Quality & Solid Waste Protection Bureau
    Department of Natural Resources
    Wallace Building, 5th Floor
    Des Moines, IA  50319
    (515) 281-8694
    Contact:  Pete  Hamlin

Section 311/312 Submissions:
    Iowa Emergency Response Commission
    Iowa Division of Labor
    1000 East Grand  Avenue
    Des Moines, IA 50319
    (513)  281-6175
    Contact:  Don Peddy

     B-3.  SERC/TItle III Contacts
Section 313 Submissions:
    Department of Natural Resources
    Records Department
    900 East Grand Avenue
    Des Moines, IA 50319
    (515) 281-6175
    Contact:  Don Peddy

State Commission:
    Karl Birns, Staff Director
    Kansas Emergency Response Commission
    Building 740, Forbes Field
    Topelca,KS 66620
    (913) 296-1690

Section 302 & 304 Submissions:
    Karl Birns
    Kansas Department of Health and Environment
    Right-to-Know Program
    Building 740, Forbes Field
    Topeka.KS 66620
    (913) 296-1690
    Emergency Release Number Only (24 hrs): (913) 296-3176

Section 311/312 & 313 Submissions:
    Right-to-Know Program
    Kansas Department of Health and Environment
    Building 740, Forbes Field
    Topeka,KS 66620
    (913) 296-1690
    Contact:  Karl Birns

State Commission & Section 311/312 Submissions:
    Colonel James H. "Mike" Molloy, Chair
    Kentucky Emergency Response Commission
    Kentucky Disaster and Emergency Services
    Boone National Guard Center
    Frankfort, KY 40601-6168
    (502) 564-8660
    (502) 564-8682
    Contact:  Mike Molloy or Craig Martin

Section 313 Submissions:
    Valerie Hudson
    Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection
    Frankfort, KY 40601
    (502) 564-2150

                         B-3.  SERC/Title III  Contacts
    Mailing Address:
    Lucille Orlando
    SARA Title HI
    Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection
    Kentucky Disaster and Emergency Services
    Boone National Guard Center
    Frankfort, KY 60601-6161

 State Commission & Section 311/312 Submissions:
    Sergeant Ronnie Mayeaux
    Louisiana Emergency Response Commission
    Office of State Police
    P.O. Box 66614
    7901 Independence Boulevard
    Baton Rouge, LA 70896

 Section 313 Submissions:
    R. Bruce Hammatt
    Emergency Response Coordinator
    Department of Environmental Quality
    P.O. Box 44066
    Baton Rouge, LA 70804-4066
    (504) 342-8932

    David D. Brown, Chair
    State Emergency Response Commission
    Station Number 72
    Augusta, ME  04333
    (207) 289-4080
    In ME: (800) 452-8735
    Contact:   Tammy Gould

State Commission:
    June L. Swem
    Governor's Emergency Management Agency
    c/o Maryland Emergency Management Agency
    2 Sudbrook Lane, East
    Pikesville, MD 21208
    (301) 486-4422

Section 302,304,311/312 & 313 Submissions:
    Marsha Ways
    State Emergency Response Commission
    Maryland Department of the Environment
    Toxics Information Center
    2500 Broening Highway
    Baltimore, MD 21224

            B-3.   SERC/Title  111  Contacts
Arnold Sapenter
c/o Title Three Emergency Response Commission
Department of Environmental Quality Engineering
One Winter Street, 10th floor
Boston, MA 02108
(617) 556-1096
For LEPC Information: Jack Callahan (508) 820-2060

Title III Coordinator
Michigan Department of Natural Resources
Environmental Response Division
Tide III Notification
P.O. Box 30028
Lansing, MI 48909
(517) 373-8481

Lee Tischler, Director
Minnesota Emergency Response Commission
Department of Public Safety
Room B-5
State Capitol
St. Paul, MN 55155
(612) 296-0488

J.E. Maher, Chair
Mississippi Emergency Response Commission
Mississippi Emergency Management Agency
P.O. Box 4501
Fondren Station
Jackson, MS 39296-4501
(601) 960-9973
Contact:  Bill Austin

Dean Martin, Coordinator
Missouri Emergency Response Commission
Missouri Department of Natural Resources
P.O. Box 3133
Jefferson City, MO 65102
(314) 751-7929
Mailing Address:
Dean Martin, Coordinator
Missouri Emergency Response Commission
Missouri Department of Natural Resources
2010 Missouri Boulevard
Jefferson City, MO 65109

                        B-3.  SERC/Title III Contacts
    Tom Ellerhoff, Co-Chair
    Montana Emergency Response Commission
    Environmental Sciences Division
    Department of Health & Environmental Sciences
    Cogswell Building A-107
    Helena, MT  59620
    (406) 444-3948

    Clark Smith, Coordinator  ,
    Nebraska Emergency Response Commission
    Nebraska Department of Environmental Control
    P.O. Box 98922                                     :.
    State House Station
    Lincoln, NE  68509-8922
    (402) 471-4217

 State Commission and Section 311/312 Submissions:
    Joe Quinn
    Nevada Division of Emergency Management
    2525 South Carson Street
    Carson City, NV 89710
    Emergency Release Number (After Hours & Weekends): (702) 885-5300

 Section 313 Submission:
    Bob King
    Division of Emergency Management
    2525 South Carson Street
    Carson City, NV 89710
    (702) 885-4240

    Richard Strome, Director
    State Emergency Managment Agency
    Title III Program
    State Office Park South
    107 Pleasant Street
    Concord, NH 03301
    Contact:  Leland Kimball

State Commission:
    Tony McMahon, Director
    New Jersey Emergency Response Commission
    SARA Title HI Project
    Department of Environmental Protection
    Division of Environmental Quality
    Trenton, NJ 08625
    (609) 292-6714
New Hampshire
New Jersey

          B-3.   SERC/Title  HI Contacts
  New Mexico
     New York
North Carolina
Section 302,304, & 311/312 Submissions:
   New Jersey Emergency Response Commission
   SARA Title HI Project
   Department of Environmental Protection
   Division of Environmental Quality
   Trenton, NJ 08625
   (609) 292-6714

Section 313 Submissions:
   New Jersey Emergency Response Commission
   SARA Title HI Section 313
   Department of Environmental Protection
   Division of Environmental Quality
   Trenton, NJ 08625
    (609) 292-6714

    Samuel Larcombe
    New Mexico Emergency Response Commission
    New Mexico Department of Public Safety
    P.O. Box 1628
    Santa Fe.NM 87504-1628
    (505) 827-9222   .

 State Commission:
    Anthony Germain, Deputy Director
    State Emergency Management Office
    Building 22
    State Campus
    Albany, NY 12226
    (518) 457-9994

 Section 302,304, & 311/312 & 313 Submissions:
    New York Emergency Response Commission
    New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
    Bureau of Spill Response
    50 Wolf Road/Room 326
    Albany, NY 12233-3510
    Contact:   William Miner

 State Commission:
    Joseph Myers, Chair
    North Carolina Emergency Response Commission
     116 West Jones Street
    Raleigh, NC 27603-1335
     (919) 733-3867

B-3.  SERC/Title HI Contacts
 Section 302,304, & 311/312 & 313 Submissions:
    North Carolina Emergency Response Commission
    North Carolina Division of Emergency Management
    116 West Jones Street
    Raleigh, NC 27603-1335
    (919) 733-3867
    In NC: (800) 451-1403 General Information Only
    Contacts:  Vance Kee                     (919)733-3844
              Emily Kilpatrick                (919)733-3865
              Darian Maybry                 (919) 733-3890

 State Commission:
    Ronald Affeldt, Chair
    North Dakota Emergency Response Commission
    Division of Emergency Management
    P.O. Box 5511
    Bismarck, ND 58502-5511

 Section 302, & 311/312 & 313 Submissions:
    SARA Title HI Coordinator
    North Dakota State Department of Health and Consolidated Laboratories
    1200 Missouri Avenue
    P.O. Box 5520
    Bismarck, ND 58502-5520
    Contact:   Charles Rydell

 State Commission and Section 311/312 Submissions:
    Felix A. Sasamoto, Civil Defense Coordinator
    Office of the Governor
    Capitol Hill
    Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands
    Saipan,CNMI 96950
    International Number (670) 322-9529

Section 313 Submissions:
    Russell Meecham, III
    Division of Environmental Quality
    P.O. Box 1304
    Saipan, CNMI 96950
    International Number (670) 234-6984
                                          North Dakota
                                          Commonwealth of
                                          Northern Mariana

B-3.  SERC/Title 111  Contacts
         State Commission and Section 311/312 Submissions:
             Ken Schultz, Coordinator
             Ohio Emergency Response Commission
             Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
             Office of Emergency Response
             P.O. Box 1049
             Columbus, OH 43266-0149
             (614) 644-2260

         Section 313 Submissions:
             Cindy Sferra-DeWulf
             Division of Ak Pollution Control
             1800 Watermark Drive
             Columbus, OH 43215
             (614) 644-2270

             Jack Muse, Coordinator
             Emergency Response Commission
             Office of Civil Defense
             P.O. Box 53365
             Oklahoma City, OK 73152
             Contact:  Aileen Ginther

             Ralph M. Rodia
             Oregon Emergency Response Commission
             c/o State Fire Marshall
             3000 Market S treet Plaza
             Suite 534
             Salem, OR 97310
             (503) 378-2885

          State Commission:
             Sanders Cortner
             Pennsylvania Emergency Response Commission
             SARA Title HI Officer
             PEMA Response and Recovery
             P.O. Box 3321
             Harrisburg, PA 17105
             (717) 783-8150
             (717) 783-8193
             Emergency Release Number—24 hours: (717) 783-8150

                         B-3.  SERC/Title III Contacts
 Section 311/312 Submissions:
    Pennsylvania Emergency Response Commission
    c/o Bureau of Right-to-Know
    Rm 1503
    Labor and Industry Building
    7th & Forrester Streets
    Harrisburg, PA 17120
    (717) 783-2071

 Section 313 Submissions:
    James Tinney
    Bureau of Right-to-Know
    Rm 1503
    Labor and Industry Building
    7th & Forrester Streets
    Harrisburg, PA 17120
    (717) 783-8150

 State Commission and Section 311/312 Submissions:
    Mr. Santos Rohena, Chair
    Puerto Rico Emergency Response Commission
    Environmental Quality Board
    P.O. Box 11488
    Sernades Juncos Station
    Santurce.PR 00910
    (809) 722-2173

Section 313 Submissions:
    SERC Commissioner
    Title III-SARA  Section 313
    Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board
    P.O. Box 11488
    Santurce,PR 00910
    (809) 722-0077

State Commission:
    Joseph A. DeMarco, Executive Director
    Rhode Island Emergency Response Commission
    Rhode Island Emergency Management Agency
    State House Room 27
    Providence, RI 02903
    (401) 277-3039
    Emergency Release Number: (401) 274-7745
    Contact:   John Alcott
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island

            B-3.  SERC/Title III  Contacts
South Carolina
  South Dakota
Section 311/312 Submissions:
   Lynn Colby
   Rhode Island Department of Labor
   Division of Occupational Safety
   220 Elmwood Avenue
   Providence, RI  02907
   (401) 457-1847

Section 313 Submissions:
   Department of Environmental Management
   Division of Air and Hazardous Materials
   291 Promenade Street
   Providence, RI  02908
   Attn: Toxic Release Inventory
   (401) 277-2808
   Contact:  Martha Mulcahy

State Commission and Section 302 Submissions:
   Stan M. McKinney, Chan-
   South Carolina Emergency Response Commission
   Division of Public Safety Programs
   Office of the Governor
    1205 Pendleton Street
   Columbia, SC 29201
    (803) 734-0425
Section 304 & 311/312 Submissions:
    South Carolina Emergency Response Commission
    Division of Public Safety Programs
    Office of the Governor
    1205 Pendleton Street
    Columbia, SC  29201
    Attn: Purdy McLeod
    (803) 734-0425
Section 313 Submissions:
    Ron Kinney
    Department of Health and Environmental Control
    2600 Bull Street
    Columbia, SC  29201
    (803) 734-5200

State Commission and Section 311/312 Submissions:
    Clark Haberman, Director
    South Dakota Emergency Response Commission
    Department of Water and Natural Resources
    Joe Foss Building
    523 East Capitol
    Pierre, SD 57501-3181

                       B-3.   SERC/Title 111  Contacts
Section 313 Submissions:
   Lee Ann Smith, Title III Coordinator
   South Dakota Department of Water and Natural Resources
   Joe Foss Building
   523 East Capitol
   Pierre, SD 57501-3181
   (605) 773-3153

   Lacy Suiter, Chair
   Tennessee Emergency Response Commission
   Director, Tennessee Emergency Management Agency
   3041 Sidco Drive
   Nashville, TN 37204
   (615) 252-3300
   (800) 258-3300 (out of TN)
   (800) 262-3300 (in TN)
   Contact:  Lacy Suiter or Tom Durham

State Commission:
   Mike Scott, Coordinator
   Texas Emergency Response Commission
   Division of Emergency Management
   P.O. Box 4087
   Austin, TX 78773-0001
   (512) 465-2138

Section 302 & 311/312 Submissions:
   Dr. William Elliot
   Texas Department of Health
   Division of Occupational Safety and Health
   1100 West 49th Street
   Austin, TX 78756
   (512) 458-7410

Section 313 Submissions:
   David Barker, Supervisor
   Emergency Response Unit
   Texas Water Commission
   P.O. Box 13087-Capitol Station
   Austin, TX 78711-3087
   (512) 463-8527
   Contact:  Priscilla Seymour

           B-3.  SERC/TItle III Contacts
Virgin Islands
State Commission:
   Lorayne Tempest-Frank, Director
   Comprehensive Emergency Management
   P.O. Box 58136
   1543 Sunnyside Avenue
   Salt Lake City, UT 84158-0136
   (801) 533-5271

Section 311/312 & 313 Submissions:
   Neil Taylor
   Utah Hazardous Chemical Emergency Response Commission
   Utah Division of Environmental Health
   288 North 1460 West
   P.O. Box 16690
   Salt Lake City, UT 84116-0690
   (801) 538-6121

State Commission:
   Jeanne VanVlandren, Chair
   Vermont Emergency Response Commission
   Department of Labor and Industry
   120 State Street
   Montpelier, VT 05602
   (802) 828-2286
   Contact:   Robert McLeod                (802)828-2765

Section 311/312 & 313 Submissions:
   Dr. Jan Carney, Deputy Commissioner
   Department of Health
   60 Main Street
   P.O. Box 70
   Burlington, VT 05402
   (802) 863-7281

   Allan D. Smith, Commissioner
   Department of Planning and Natural Resources
   U.S. Virgin Islands Emergency Response Commission
   Title III
   Suite 231
   Nisky Center
   Charlotte Amalie
   St. Thomas, VI 00802
   (809) 774-3320 Extension 169 or 170
   Contact:   Gregory Rhymer

                        B-3.  SERC/TitleJII Contacts
    Wayne Halbleib, Director
    Virginia Emergency Response Council
    Department of Waste Management
    James Monroe Building
    18th Floor
    101 North 14th Street
    Richmond, VA  23219
    (804) 225-2513
    Chuck Clarke
    Washington Emergency Response Commission
    Department of Community Development
    Mail Stop GH-51
    9th and Columbia Building
    Olympia,WA 98504
    (206) 753-5625
    Contact:  BUI Bennett              (206)459-9191
                                     (800) 633-7585 (in WA)

Section 313 Submissions:
    Department of Ecology
    Mail Stop PV-11
    Olympia, WA 98504

    Carl L. Bradford, Dkector
    West Virginia Emergency Response Commission
    West Virginia Office of Emergency Services
    State Office Building, EB-80
    Charleston, WV 25305
    (304) 348-5380
    Emergency Release Number (304) 348-5380
    Contact:  BillJopling

State Commission:
    Richard I. Braund, Director
    Wisconsin Emergency Response Commission
    Division of Emergency Government
    4802 Sheboygan Avenue
    P.O. Box 7865
    Madison, WI 53707
    (608) 266-3232
West Virginia

     B-3.  SERC/Title III Contacts
Section 313 Submissions:
   Department of Natural Resources
   P.O. Box 7921
   Madison, WI 53707
   Attn: Russ Dumst
   (608) 266-9255

   Ed Usui, Executive Secretary
   Wyoming Emergency Response Commission
   Wyoming Emergency Management Agency
   P.O. Box 1709
   Cheyenne, WY 82003
   (307) 777-7566
   Contact:  Brooke Hefner
   Mailing Address:
   Ed Usui
   Wyoming Emergency Response Commission
   Wyoming Emergency Management Agency
   5500 Bishop Boulevard
   Cheyenne, WY 82009

Appendix  C:    Communication Research
                               And  Reports
The following reports provided much valuable background information for
this manual.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Toxic Substances. Research
conducted through a cooperative agreement with the Institute for Health Pol-
icy Analysis, Georgetown University Medical Center: Public Response to the
Toxic Release Inventory; Needs Assessment and Resources Development.

    Campbell Communications, Environmental Protection Agency  Toxic
    Substances Project: 1988 General Public Focus Groups. Summary of
    Findings, presented to Institute for Health Policy Analysis, Georgetown
    University Medical Center, 1988.

    Campbell Communications, Environmental Protection Agency  Toxic
    Substances Project: Survey of York, Pennsylvania Emergency Response
    Committee Members: Summary of Responses, presented to Institute for
    Health Policy Analysis, Georgetown University Medical Center, 1988.

    Campbell Communications, Environmental Protection Agency  Toxic
    Substances Project: Information Sources Focus Groups, presented to In-
    stitute for Health Policy Analysis, Georgetown University Medical Cen-
    ter, 1988.

Arkin, E.B., Public Knowledge and Attitudes:  Environmental Issues Related
to Toxic Chemicals. A Review of Public Polling Data, 1984-1987, Institute
for Health Policy Analysis, Georgetown University Medical Center, May

Hadden, S.G. with L. Flores, Community Right to Know: Results of Four Sur-
veys, Working Paper, No. 49, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs,
The University of Texas at Austin, 1988.

Institute for Health Policy Analysis, Georgetown University Medical Center,
Health Risk Reporting: Roundtable Workshop on the Media and Reporting of
Risks to Health. Workshop Summary Report, The Institute, 1985.

Institute for Health Policy Analysis, Georgetown University Medical Center
and Columbia University Center for Risk Communication, Baseline Survey of
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Regarding Environmental Issues: Re-
search Conducted in Preparation for Risk Communication Interventions as
Part of SARA Title HI, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agen-
cy, 1989.

McCallum, D.G. and Klaidman, S.P., Experience and Issues in Crisis  Com-
munication: Planning in a Post Chernobyl World, Institute for Health Policy
Analysis, Georgetown University Medical Center, 1988.


Appendix D:  Glossary
CAER:  Chemical Awareness and Emergency Response; a communication
program that may be in place at larger chemical companies; sponsored by the
Chemical Manufacturers Association.

Channel: The way a message reaches an audience. The mass media are one
kind of channel; personal communication, such as a speech or a meeting, is

Communication:  Not just speaking  and writing; this is the term used fre-
quently today to encompass public information, public education, public rela-
tions, and community relations.

Dose: The concentration of a substance multiplied by the length of time a
person comes in contact with it.

Emission:  The release of a substance from a facility into the air, land, or wa-

Evaluation: Following up on activities to see if they are achieving what they
were intended to do.

Exposure:  The concentration of a substance at the time a person comes in
contact with it.

Focus group interview:  A kind of audience research in which a trained
moderator leads a group of 8-10 people through a discussion of a particular
topic.  It is not possible to" tell from a  focus group what everyone else in the
community is thinking; the groups are too small for that. But one can gain
deeper insights into feelings and attitudes than is possible from a survey.

Goal: The broad, long-term aim of a communication program. In planning,
goals  are usually differentiated from objectives, which are short-term and

Hazard assessment:  Analysis of the consequences of a worst case accident
at a facility. LEPCs had to request hazard assessments, or conduct their own,
in order to come up with emergency plans.

Hot spots:  Areas exposed to a large quantity of emissions. The TRI will be
able to help identify these.

Intermediaries: Groups or individuals that can  act  as channels for getting
messages and materials to target audiences.

LEPC:  Local Emergency Planning Committee; there is one in each local
emergency planning district.

     D. Glossary
MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheets; fact sheets containing technical infor-
mation about hazardous substances in the workplace, including physical and
chemical characteristics, health hazards, and safety precautions.

Needs Assessment: Assessing what programs and materials exist and what
programs and materials need to be developed to accomplish objectives.

PSA:  Public  Service Announcement. Radio and television stations, and
sometimes even newspapers and magazines, will carry these  free advertise-
ments as a community service.

Media Kit:  A packet of information for reporters, editors, and other media
people. It usually includes press releases and background information on a

Press release:  Also known as a news release, this is a one- or two-page
news story sent to editors and reporters. They may use it as is,  do a little edit-
ing, or base a story on it.

Right-to-know:  This concept was first embodied in State laws requiring that
employers inform workers about the dangers of substances with which they
come in contact. Right-to-know was extended to the public in a few States,
including New Jersey, which provided the model for the Federal law.

SARA: Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Emer-
gency Planning and Community Right to Know Act is Title III  of SARA.

SERC:  State Emergency Response Commission, appointed by the Governor.
SERCs designated emergency planning districts and review and support the
Target  audience:
The  intended  audience  for  program  messages and
Tiers I and II: Two different levels of inventory reporting permitted under
Section 312 of Title III. Tier I reports give the general categories and loca-
tions of hazardous materials; Tier II reports give specific names and loca-

TPQ: Threshold Planning Quantity; the amount of an extremely hazardous
substance, above which  a facility's owner/operator must give  emergency
planning notification to SERC and LEPC.

TRI:  Toxic Release Inventory; this is the national database on Section 313
releases which is available through the National Library of Medicine.

Appendix  E:   User Comment Form
We would appreciate any comments or suggestions about this manual.
1.  How much of this book did you read?
            All of it	      Some of it.
Did not read it
2.  If you read some of the manual, please put a check beside the chapters you read:
Part I: Before Your Begin
	  1. Know the Law
	  2. Know How to Use the Information
       3. Know Your Audience
	  4, Know Who Can Help
	  5. Outline a Plan
Part II: Getting People Involved
	  6. How To Get and Keep Volunteers
	  7. How To Work With Other Groups
Part III: Running a Communication Program
	8. How To Talk About Risk
	  9. How to Publicize the Emergency Plan
	 10, How To Answer Questions
	 11. How To Work With the Media
	 12. How To Give a Speech
	 13. How To Hold a Meeting
	 14. How To Find Educational Materials
	 15. How To Produce Educational Materials
	 16. How To Communicate About Emergencies
3.  Did you the find the book to be
       very useful;     	somewhat useful;
not useful?
4.  Please circle the chapters listed above that you found most useful.

5.  Do you belong to an	LEPC  or	other group?

   If another group, what is its name?	;	
6.  What is your position or principal role within the LEPC or other group?
                                                             (continued on next page)

                      E. User Comment Form
7.  How might this book be improved?
Thank you

Please send to:
Elaine Bratic Arkin
Institute for Health Policy Analysis
2121 Wisconsin Avenue NW
Washington, D.C. 20007