EPA 730-N-02-001
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460
                    Pesticide Registration (PR Notice) Notice 2002-1
                                                                             OFFICE OF
                                                                       PREVENTION, PESTICIDES AND
                                                                          TOXIC SUBSTANCES
NOTICE TO MANUFACTURERS, FORMULATORS, PRODUCERS, REGISTRANTS
AND APPLICATORS OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS

ATTENTION: Persons Responsible for Public Health Programs and Those Responsible for
              Registration of Pesticide Products

SUBJECT:    List of Pests of Significant Public Health Importance

       This notice identifies pests of significant public health importance. Section 28(d) of the
Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) requires the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in coordination with the United States Department of
Health and Human Services (HHS) and United States Department of Agriculture (USD A), to
identify pests of significant public health importance and, in coordination with the Public Health
Service, to develop and implement programs to improve and facilitate the safe and necessary use
of chemical biological and other methods to combat and control such pests of public health
importance.' Issuance of this list fulfills the requirement of FIFRA sec. 28(d) to identify pests of
significant public health importance as a part of this process.

       The publication of this list does not affect the regulatory status of any registration or
application for registration of any pesticide product. This list does not, by itself, determine
whether a pesticide product might be considered a "public health pesticide" as that term is used
in FIFRA. That term, is defined in FIFRA section 2(nn); determining whether a pesticide is a
public health pesticide is beyond the scope of this PR Notice.

       Compilation of this list was a cooperative effort by the HHS, USDA and the EPA. The
 Office of Pesticide Programs, EPA,  coordinated the review by experts in public health and/or
 pesticide use patterns to compile this list. No person is required to take any action in response to
 this notice.

       The Agency has determined that the list of pests of significant public health importance
 required under FIFRA section 28(d) can be established independently of the definition of "public
 health pesticide" in Section 2(nn).  EPA is interpreting the term "significant public health
 importance" broadly, to include pests that pose a widely recognized risk to significant numbers
 of people. This amended  list addresses the majority of comments received and also provides a
 mechanism for all interested parties to engage further on this topic.


                                            -1-  '
                               Internet Address (URL)  http://www.epa.gov
         Recycled/Recyclable .Printed with Vegetable Oil Based Inks on Recycled Paper (Minimum 50% Postconsumer content)

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I. BACKGROUND

       FIFRA section 28(d) charges EPA with identifying "pests of significant public health
importance." FIFRA section 2(t) defines the term "pest" as meaning:

              (1) any insect, rodent, nematode, fungus, weed, or (2) any other form of terrestrial
              or aquatic plant or animal life or virus, bacteria, or other micro-organism (except
              viruses, bacteria, or other micro-organism on or in living man or other living
              animals) which the Administrator declares to be a pest under section 25(c)(l).
                                              i

Pursuant to the authorization in the second part of this definition, EPA has broadly declared the
term pest to cover each of the organisms mentioned except for the organisms specifically
excluded by the definition (See 40 CFR 152.5).   ;
                                              i
II. THE LIST

        EPA has determined that the pests identified in Appendix A are pests of significant
public health importance as that term is used in FIFRA section 28(d). This list is derived in large
part from review of the pesticide/pest combinations for which efficacy (product performance)
data are generally required to be  submitted and reviewed prior to registration. In no way should
this be interpreted to mean that EPA has or would; base any regulatory action solely on this list.
EPA is publishing this list separate from any statutory or regulatory conclusions which may be
associated with public health pesticides.

       A brief description of the identified pests or category of pests and an explanation for
designating each as a public health pest is provided below:

       Cockroaches.  The listed cockroaches are controlled to halt the spread of asthma, allergy,
and food contamination.                        j
                                              i                            .   -
       Body, head, and crab lice. These lice are surveyed for and controlled to prevent the
spread of skin irritation and rashes, and to prevent! the occurrence of louse-borne diseases such as
epidemic typhus, trench fever,  and epidemic relapsing fever in the United States.

       Mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are controlled to prevent the spread of mosquitoes bearing such
diseases as malaria; St. Louis, Eastern, Western, West Nile and LaCrosse encephalitis; yellow
fever and dengue fever.                         |
                                              i
       Various rats and mice.  The listed rats and mice include those which are controlled to
prevent the spread of rodent-borne diseases and contamination of food for human consumption.

       Various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. The listed
microorganisms are the subject of control programs by public health agencies and hospitals for

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the purpose of preventing the spread of numerous diseases.

       Reptiles and birds.  The listed organisms are controlled to prevent the spread of disease
and the prevention of direct injury.

       Various mammals.  The listed organisms have the potential for direct human injury and
can act as disease reservoirs (i.e., rabies, etc.).

       EPA, HHS and USD A do not envision that this list of pests of significant public health
importance will remain static. It is possible in the future, as there are new discoveries, concerning
the roles of species in spreading disease, that, this list may need to be changed. Should any
additional species be found to present public health problems, EPA may determine that it should
consider them to be pests of significant public health importance under FIFRA Section 28 (d).
As deemed necessary, the Agency will update the list of pests of significant public health
importance.  Interested parties are invited to petition the Agency regarding the amendment of
this list.  This petition should include the common use name and scientific name of the pest, and
a rationale regarding the public health threat posed by this pest. These petitions can be sent to
the contact under Part VI. For Additional Information.

III. USE OF THE LIST  OF PESTS OF SIGNIFICANT PUBLIC HEALTH
IMPORTANCE LIST BY THE AGENCY

The Agency will use the list of pests of significant public  health importance to:

       1. Fulfill the requirements set forth in FIFRA Section 28(d)

       2. Together with the Public Health Service, develop and implement programs to improve
and facilitate the safe and necessary use of chemical, biological and other methods to control
pests of public health importance.

V. WHAT REGISTRANTS SHOULD DO

       Registrants do not need to do anything in response to this notice.

VI. FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

       If you have questions regarding this PR Notice, contact:

       Kevin Sweeney
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
       Ariel Rios Building
        1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW (7505C)
       Washington, DC 20460

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      phone: (703)305-5063
      fax:    (703) 305.-6596
      e-mail: sweeney.kevin@epa.gov
      or
      Robyn Rose
      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
      Ariel Rios Building
      1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW (7505C)
      Washington, DC 20460
      phone: (703)308-9581
      fax:   (703) 308-7026
      e-mail: rose.robyn@epa.gov
Signed:^	
      Marcia E. MulK^ey, Director
      Office of Pesticide Programs,

             AUG -3  2C02
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Appendix A
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INVERTEBRATE PESTS
COMMON/ SPECIES
NAME
ARTHROPODS
TICKS
soft ticks
soft ticks
soft ticks
American dog tick
Rocky Mountain wood tick
blacklegged tick (deer tick)
western blacklegged tick
lone star tick
Gulf Coast tick
MITES
chigger mites
(common chiggers)
American house dust mite
European house dust mite
itch mite (scabies mite)
SPIDERS
black widow spider
four related species .
SITE CLASS
ARTHROPODA
ACARI
Ornithodoros hermsi
Ornithodoros parkeri
Ornithodoros turicata
Dermacentor variabilis
Dermacentor andersoni
Ixodes scapularis
Ixodes pacificus
Amblyomma americanum
Amblyomma maculatum
ACARI
Trombicula spp.
Dermatophagoides farinae
Dermatophagoides
pteronyssinus
Sarcoptes scabiei
ARANEAE
Latrodectus mactans.
Latrodectus spp.
PUBLIC HEALTH 11
IMPORTANCE ||
|

tick-borne relapsing fever
tick-borne relapsing fever
tick-borne relapsing fever
Rocky Mountain spotted
fever, tick paralysis and
Colorado tick fever
lyme disease and
ehrlichiosis
lyme disease and
ehrlichiosis
ehrlichiosis
tick paralysis

itching, skin irritation
allergy, asthma
allergy, asthma
scabies

venomous bite
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COMMON NAME
brown recluse spider
hobo spider
SCORPIONS
sculptured scorpion
related species
INSECTS
Cockroaches
American cockroach
Australian cockroach
brownbanded cockroach
German cockroach
Oriental cockroach
Sucking lice
body louse (cootie)
head louse
crab louse (crabs)
True bugs
bed bug
masked hunter
kissing bugs, conenosed
bugs
Flies, mosquitoes, midges,
gnats
"no-see-ums", punkies
biting midges ,
horse flies, deer flies and
greenheads
TAXONOMIC NAME II PUBLIC HEALTH
I IMPORTANCE
Loxosceles reclusa
Tegenaria agrestis
SCORPIONES
Centruroides sculpturatus
Centruroides spp.
INSECTA
Blattodea
Periplaneta americana
Periplaneta australasiae
Supella longipalpa
Blattella germanica
Blatta orientalis
Anoplura
Pediculus humanus
humanus
Pediculus humanus capitis
Phthirus pubus
Heteroptera
Cimex lectularis
Reduvius personatus
Triatoma spp.
Diptera
Culicoides spp.
Leptoconops spp.
Tabanidae (many species)
venomous bite
venomous bite

venomous sting


allergies, transmission of
Salmonella, fecal
contamination, hepatitis

skin irritation, rashes,
epidemic typhus, trench
fever and epidemic
relapsing fever

bites, allergic reactions
allergic reactions, Chagas
disease, trypanosome
transmission, allergic
reactions

annoying bites, allergic
reactions
painful bites, allergic
reactions
-7-

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COMMON NAME
TAXONOMIC NAME
^UBLIC HEALTH
IMPORTANCE
black flies, black gnats
Simuliidae (many species)
painful bites, allergic
reactions
house fly
stable fly
little house fly
Musca domestica
Stomoxys calcitrans
Fannia canicularis
may transmit dysentery,
salmonella, shigella,
painful bites, allergic
reaction
rarely myiasis
screwworm
secondary screwworm
Cochliomyia hominivorax
Cochliomyia macellaria
myiasis
myiasis
sand flies
Lutzomyia spp.
 American dermal
 leishmaniasis
 mosquitoes
 Culicidae to include
 Culex spp., Culiseta spp.,
 Aedes spp., Ochlerotatus
 spp., Anopheles spp.,
 Psorophora spp., and
 Coquillettidia spp.
 malaria; St. Louis, West
 Nile, Eastern, Western,
 LaCrosse and Cache Valley
 encephalitis; dengue,
 yellow fever, dog
 heartworm
 Fleas
 Siphonoptera
 cat flea
 dog flea
 human flea
 sticktight flea
 oriental rat flea
 chigoe flea
 Ctenocephalides felis
 Ctenocephalides canis
 Pulex irritans ,
 Echidnophaga gallinacea
 Xenopsylla cheopis
 Tunga penetrans
 Oropsylla spp.
 Thrassis spp  j
 annoying bites, allergic
 reactions, rash
 bubonic plague & murime
 plague
 plague
 Ants, bees & wasps
 Hymenoptera
 pharaoh ant
 Monomorium pharaonis
                                                       feed on wounds
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COMMON NAME
TAXONOMIC NAME
PUBLIC HEALTH
IMPORTANCE
southern fire ant
California fire ant
red imported fire ant
black imported fire ant
Solenopsis xyloni
Solenopsis geminata
Solenopsis wagneri
(invicta)
Solenopsis richteri
painful stings accompanied
by severe reactions
California harvester ant
harvester ant
Pogonomyrmex
californicus
Pogonomyrmex rugosus
painful stings that may
cause life threatening
reactions
yellow] ackets
baldfaced hornet
giant hornet
paper wasps
Vespula spp.
Vespula maculata
Vespa crabrp
Polistes spp.
painful stings that may
cause life threatening
reactions
africanized honey bee
Apis mellifera scutellata
painful stings that may
cause life threatening
reactions
                                        -9-

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VERTEBRATE PESTS AND PESTICIDE USE
             PATTERNS
COMMON/ SPECIES
NAME
REPTILES
Rattlesnakes
(Crotalus spp.)
Copperheads, cottonmouths
(Agkistrodon spp.)
Coral snakes
(Micrurus spp.)
Brown Tree snake
(Boiga irregularis)
BIRDS
Geese
(Subfamily Anserinae)
Mute swan (Cygus olor)
SITE CLASS
^^^^^^^i
Any site where an attack on
humans may occur.
Any site where an attack on
humans may occur.
Any site where an attack on
humans may occur.
Any site where an attack on
humans may occur.

Park, turf and golf course
areas where droppings may
accumulate. Any site where
an attack on humans may
occur. Airports and/or
flight paths.
Park, turf, and golf course
areas where droppings may
accumulate. Any site where
an attack on humans may
occur.
(PUBLIC HEALTH I
IMPORTANCE
_]
direct injury
direct injury
direct injury
direct injury

disease, direct injury,
human safety
only repellents are
registered for their control
disease, direct injury
only repellents are
registered for their control
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COMMON/SPECIES
   NAME
      SITE CLASS
PUBLIC HEALTH
IMPORTANCE
Gulls
(Subfamily Larinae)
Park, turf, golf course and
public landfill/dump areas
where droppings may
accumulate. Airports
and/or flight paths.
disease, human safety
Coot (Fulica americana)
Park, turf, and golf course
areas where droppings may
accumulate.
disease
Rock dove and
domestic pigeon (Columbia
livia)
Airports and/or flight
paths. Buildings (indoor
and outdoor areas) where
droppings and/or
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
disease, human safety
 Cliff swallow
 (Hirundo fulva)
 Buildings (indoor and
 outdoor areas) where
 droppings and/or
 ectoparasites may
 accumulate. Areas where
 damage to a building or any
 of its components presents a
 hazard to humans.
                                                      disease, human safety
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COMMON/SPECIES
   NAME
       SITE CLASS
PUBLIC HEALTH
IMPORTANCE
House (English) Sparrow
(Passer domesticus)
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) where
droppings and/pr
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
disease, human safety
Crows
(Corvus brachyrhynchos &
Corvus ossifragus)
Park, turf, and golf course
areas where droppings may
accumulate.
disease
Starling
(Sturnus vulgaris)
Airports and/or flight
paths. Buildings (indoor
and outdoor areas) where
droppings and/jar
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
disease, human safety
House finch
(Carpodacus purpureus)
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) Where
droppings and/Or
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
disease, human safety
Blackbirds
(Family Icteridae)
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) where
droppings and/or
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Airports
and/or flight paths.
disease, human safety
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COMMON/SPECIES
   NAME
      SITE CLASS
PUBLIC HEALTH
IMPORTANCE
Turkey vulture
(Cathartes aura)
Airport and/or flight paths.
direct injury, human safety
Black vultures
(Coragyps atratus)
Airport and/or flight paths.
direct injury, human safety
MAMMALS
Big brown bat
(Epitesicus fuscus)
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) where
droppings and/or
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
disease
Little brown bat
(Myotis lucifungus)
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) where
droppings and/or
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
disease
Brazilian (Mexican) free-
tailed bat (Tadarida
brasilienis)
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) where
droppings and/or
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
disease
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I COMMON/SPECIES
   NAME
      SITE CLASS
PUBLIC HEALTH
IMPORTANCE
 Big eared bat
 (Corynorhinus spp.)
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) where
droppings and/or
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
disease
 Commensal rats
 (Rattus spp.)
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) where
droppings and/or
ectoparasites mlay
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans. Any site
where this pest is found
that presents a hazard or
threat of direct ^njury to
humans       !
disease, direct injury,
human safety
 House mouse
 (Mus musculus)
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) where
droppings and/or
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
disease, human safety
 Cotton rats
 (Sigmodon spp.)
Any site where this pest is
found that presents a
hazard or threat of direct
injury to humans
disease
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COMMON/SPECIES
   NAME
      SITE CLASS
PUBLIC HEALTH
IMPORTANCE
Deer mice (excluding
endangered varieties)
(Peromyscus spp.)
Any site where this pest is
found that presents a
hazard or threat of direct
injury to humans.
disease
Ground squirrels
(Spermophilus spp.)
Any site where this pest is
found that presents a
hazard or threat of direct
injury to humans
                                                      disease
Prairie dogs
(Cynomys spp. excluding
endangered Cynomys
parvidens)
Any site where this pest is
found that presents a
hazard or threat of direct
injury to humans
                                                      disease
Tree squirrels
(Sciurus spp.,
Tamiasciurus spp.)
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) where
droppings and/or
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
disease, human safety
 Flying squirrels
 (Glaucomys spp. excluding
 endangered species)
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) where
droppings and/or
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
 disease, human safety
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COMMON/SPECIES
NAME
Chipmunks
(Tamias striatus,
Eutamias spp.)
Wood rats
(Nematoma spp.)
Bears (Ursus spp.)
Raccoon (Procyon lotor)
Gray wolf (Canis lupus)
Foxes
(Vulpes vulpes, Urocyon
cinereoargenteus,
Alopex lagopus)
SITE CLASS
Buildings (indoor and
outdoor areas) where
droppings and/or
ectoparasites may
accumulate. Areas where
damage to a building or any
of its components presents a
hazard to humans.
i
Any site where this pest is
found that presents a
hazard or threat of direct
injury to humans
i .
Any site where Jan attack on
humans may occur.
i
Any site where an attack on
humans may occur. Areas
where damage to a building
or any of its components
presents a hazard to
humans. Any site where
this pest is found that
presents a hazard or threat
of direct injury'to humans
Any site where an attack on
humans may occur.
i
i
i
i
Any site where an attack on
humans may occur.
!
PUBLIC HEALTH
IMPORTANCE
disease, human safety
disease
direct injury
only repellents are
registered for their control
direct injury,
rabies reservoir
direct injury, disease
Control methods employed
by State and Federal
Biologists.
direct injury, disease
rabies reservoir
Control methods employed
by State and Federal
biologists.
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COMMON/SPECIES
   NAME
      SITE CLASS
PUBLIC HEALTH
IMPORTANCE
Coyote (Canis latrans)
Any site where an attack on
humans may occur.
direct injury, disease
Skunks
(Mephitis mephitis,
Spilogale putorius)
Any site where an attack on
humans may occur. Any
site where this pest is found
that presents a hazard or
threat of direct injury to
humans
direct injury,
 rabies reservoir
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MICROORGANISMS OF PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE
1 ORGANISM TYPE
TAXONOMIC NAME
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE - 1
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE |
BACTERIA
Spirochetes
Leptospira spp. (2)
Treponema pallidum (3)
Treponema pertenue (2)
Treponema carateum (2)
leptospirosis
syphillis
Yaws: skin lesions
Pinta: skin lesions
i
Gram-Negative Bacteria - aerobic rods and cocci
Campylobacter jejuni (2)
Campylobacter fetus sub. fetus (1)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1)
Pseudomonas fluorescens,
P. putida, P. stutzeri (1)
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (1)
Burkholderia cepacia (1)
Burkholderia pseudomallei (1)
Burkholderia mallei (1)
Legionella pneumophila (1)
Legionella bozeman, L. dumoffii,
L. longbeachae (1)
food enteritis
infections, abscesses
i  -
infects wounds/causes septicemia, abscesses
and meningitis
i
respiratory and urinary tract infections,
infects wounds, bacteremia
urinary tract infections
opportunistic pathogen - endocarditis,
septicemia, wound infections
urinary tract infections
glanders - a disease of horses occasionally
transmitted to humans
Legionnaire's Disease
pneumonia
                        -18-

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TAXONOMIC NAME
Neisseria meningitidis (1)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3)
Neisseria elongata (1)
Bordetella pertussis (1)
Brucella spp.
Moraxella lacunata (1)
Acinetobacter spp. (1)
Aeromonas hydrophila (1,2)
Haemophilus influenzae (1)
Haemophilus ducreyi (3)
Chromobacterium violaceum
Galymmatobacterium granulomatis (3)
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE -
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
meningococcal meningitis
gonorrhea
urinary tract and pharyngeal infections
whooping cough
brucellosis (undulant fever)
conjunctivitis
nosocomial infections
gastroenteritis, wounds, septicemia

bronchitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, otitis
venereal disease - soft chancre or
chancroid
pyogenic infections, septicemia
ulcerating lesions in genital area
Gram-Negative Bacteria - facultatively anaerobic rods
Vibrio cholerae (2)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (2)
Vibrio vulnificus (1)
Vibrio alginolyticus (1)
Plesiomonas shigelloides (2)
Pasteurella multocida (1)
Acintobacillus ureae (1)
cholera ,
gastroenteritis
wound infections, septicemia
wounds, ear infections
gastroenteritis
opportunistic pathogen - meningitis,
arthritis, otitis, septicemia, sinusitis,
encephalitis
pneumonia, bronchitis, meningitis,
septicemia, sinusitis
-19-

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TAXONOMIC NAME f PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE -
I CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Cardiobacterium hominus
Gardnerella vaginalis
Eikenella spp. (1)
endocarditis
nonspecific vaginitis
opportunistic pathogen
Enteric Bacteria
Escherichia coli (2)
Shigella dysenteriae (2)
Shigella flexneri (2)
Shigella sounei (2)
Salmonella cholereasuis (2)
Salmonella enteritidis (2) and many other
serovars
Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi (2)
Salmonella typhimurium (2)
Citrobacter freundii,
C. amalonaticus (1)
Citrobacter diversus (1)
Klebsiella pneumoniae (2)
Enterobacter aerogenes (2)
and related species (2)
Enterobacter cloacae (1)
prinary tract infections, septicemia,
diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis
dysentery, diarrhea
dysentery, diarrhea
dysentery, diarrhea
gastroenteritis, septicemia, bacteremia and
arithritis.
jsalmonellosis(food poisoning), septicemia,
diarrhea
typhoid fever
enterocolitis, gallbladder infection
opportunistic pathogen
opportunistic pathogen, neonatal
meningitis
opportunistic pathogen, pneumoniae,
infant diarrhea and urinary tract
infections
wound infection, other nosocomial
infections, urinary tract infections,
gastroenteritis
opportunistic pathogen
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TAXONOMIC NAME
Hafnia alvei (1)
Proteus mirabilis (1)
Proteus vulgaris (1)
Serratia marcescens (2)
Providencia spp. (1)
Morganella spp. (1)
Yersinia enterocolitica (2)
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (1)
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE -
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
opportunistic pathogen
urinary tract infections, infant diarrhea,
respiratory infections
opportunistic pathogen, cystitis,
bloodstream and central nervous system
infections
nosocomial infections, urinary tract
infections, burn wound infections
opportunistic pathogen, bacteremia,
respiratory/urinary tract infections, wound
infections
gastroenteritis
wound infections, septicemia
Anaerobic Gram-Negative Straight, Curved and Helical Rods
Bacteroides spp. (1)
Bacteroides fragilis (1)
Fusobacterium necrophorum (1)
periodontal disease
anaerobic bacteremia
abscesses
Rickettsias and Chlamydias - obligate, intracellular parasites
Rickettsias -rod shaped bacteria or coccobacilli, gram-negative,
non-motile, most transmitted by arthropods
Rickettsia akari
Coxiella burnetii (1)
rickettsial pox
Q fever
Chlamydia - coccoid bacteria, gram-negative, non-motile
-21-

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TAXONOMIC NAME
Chlamydia trachomatis (3)
Chlamydia psittaci (1)
Chlamydia pneumoniae (1)
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE -
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
trachoma (blindness)
nongonoccocal urethritis
lymphogranuloma venereum
psittacosis (ornithosis)
pneumonia
Mycoplasmas
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (1)
Mycoplasma hominus (1)
Mycoplasma genitalium (1)
Ureaplasma urealyticum (1)
pneumonia
irogenital tract infections
urogenital tract infections
urogenital tract infections
Gram Positive Cocci
Staphylococcus aureus
Coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (1)
Group A Streptococci - beta hemolytic e.g.
Streptococcus pyogenes (1)
Group B Streptococci e.g, Streptococcus
agalactiae (1)
skin infections such as cellulitis, boils,
carbuncles, impetigo, and post operative
wound infections. Can cause food
poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.
Bacteremia, Endocarditis, meningitis,
pneumonia and osteomyelitis
bacteremia, infective endocarditis,
peritonitis associated with dialysis and
predominantly genitourinary tract
infections.
pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, arthritis.
^nfection can lead to rheumatic fever,
scarlet fever or impetigo
neonatal disease: pneumonia, septicemia,
meningitis; adult disease: pneumonia,
meningitis, endocarditis
-22-

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TAXONOMIC NAME
Group C Streptococci e.g., Streptococcus
equisimilis (1)
Enterococcus faecalis (1)
(NOTE: name changed from Streptococcus
in 1984)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (1)
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE - I
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE |
pneumonia, pharyngitis, endocarditis,
meningitis
wound infections, bacteremia,
Endocarditis, urinary tract infections may
lead to meningitis.
pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia,
meningitis
Endospore-forming Gram-positive rods and cocci
Bacillus anthracis (4)
Bacillus cereus (2)
Clostridium tetani (4)
Clostridium botulmum (2)
Clostridium perfringens (4)
Clostridium difficile (4)
anthrax
food intoxication
tetanus
botulism
gas gangrene
antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous
colitis
Regular, non-sporing gram-positive rods
Listeria monocyctogenes (2)
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (1)
food poisoning, abscess, abortion and
meningitis
erysipeloid - affects skin on hand & lower
arms; systemic - arthritis, endocarditis;
occupational disease of veterinarians,
butchers fisherman
Irregular, non-sporing, Gram-positive rods
Corynebacterium diptheriae (1)
diphtheria
-23-

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TAXONOMIC NAME j PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE -
I CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Actinomyces spp. (1)
Propionibacterium acnes (4)
Actinomycoses -granulatomous
inflammatory processes giving rise to
abscess formation; ocular infections,
caries, periodontal disease, intrauterine
infection
acne
Mycobacteria '
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (1)
Mycobacterium avium - intracellulare
complex
Mycobacterium kansasii
Mycobacterium fortuitum-chelonei
complex (1)
Mycobacterium leprae (1)
tuberculosis
pulmonary disease similar to tuberculosis
pulmonary disease similar to tuberculosis
pulmonary, cutaneous absecesses,
post-operative wound infections
leprosy
Actinomycetes - irregular, non-sporing, Gram-positive
Nocardia spp. (1)
Rhodococcus spp. (1)
Streptomyces somaliensis (1)
Actinomadura madurae (1)
Actinomadura pellertiere (1)
opportunistic pathogens-localized
cutaneous/subcutaneous infections;
pulmonary, neural, and/or systemic
nocardiosis; actinomycotic mycetomas -
tumor-like growths within tissues
opportunistic pathogen in immune
compromised individuals
actinomycetoma
actinomycetoma
: actinomycetoma
-24-

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TAXONOMIC NAME
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE -
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
FUNGI - Genus, species
Rhizopus spp. (1)
Rhizomucor spp. (1)
Absidia spp. (1)
Mucor spp. (1)
Cunninghamella spp. (1)
Mortierella spp. (1)
Saksenaea spp. (1)
Apophysomyces spp. (1)
Candida albicans (1)
Candida spp. (albicans, tropicalis,
torulopsis, glabrata, parapsilosis) (1)
Fusarium spp. (solani, moniforme,
proliferatum) (1)
Pseudalleschericia boydii (1)
Cryptococcus neoformans (1)
opportunistic pathogen
murcomycosis
opportunistic pathogen
murcomycosis
opportunisitc pathogen
murcomycosis
opportunistic pathogen
murcomycosis
opportunistic pathogen
murcomycosis
opportunistic pathogen
mucormycosis
opportunistic pathogen
murcomycosis
opportunistic pathogen
murcomycosis
candidiasis, thrush
iatrogenic infections, genitourinary tract
infections
disseminated skin lesions, - patients with
leukemia
pulmonary; local lesions in paranasal
sinuses; disseminated - kidney, thyroid,
brain, heart
meningitis
-25-

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TAXONOMIC NAME
Trichosporon spp. (1)
Epidermophyton floccosum (1) (4)
Malassezia furfur (1)
Exopkiala wernecki (1)
Trichophyton mentagrophytes (1)(5)
Trichophyton spp. (1)(4)
Microsporum spp. (1)
Pneumocystis carnii (previously classified
as protozoan, now classified as fungus) (1)
Histoplasma capsulatum (1)
Coccidioides immitis (1)
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (1)
Blastomyces dermatitidis (1)
Sporothrix schenkii (1)(4)
Aspergillus spp. (fumigatus, flavus, niger,
terreus)
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE -
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
trichosporonosis -lesions in skin, kidney,
liver, eyes, lungs.
ringworm - tinea cruis, tenia pedis
tinea versicolor, lesions of skin - chest,
back and shoulders
tinea nigra palmaris - b'rown/black
macular areas on hands/fingers
!
athelete's foot, tinea pedis
ringworm - tinea coporis, tinea pedis, tinea
barbae, tinea cruis, tinea capitis, tinea
favosa
tinea capititis
pneumonia - opportunistic pathogen
histoplasmosis - respiratory tract infection
coccidioidomycosis - respiratory tract
infection
i
1
paracoccidioidomycosis - lesions on skin, in
mouth, in lungs, lymph nodes
i
blastomycosis - granulomatous lesions;
pulmonary infection
ringworm - tinea nigra
aspergillosis - pulmonary infection
-264

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TAXONOMIC NAME
Aspergillus fuinigatus (1)
Aspergillus flavus (2)
Aspergillus parasiticus (2)
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE -
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
pneumonia,
skin infections, ear infections
food-borne intoxication (aflatoxin)
food-borne intoxication (aflatoxin)
PROTOZOANS - Genus, species
Amoebas
Entamoeba histolytica (2)
Naegleria fowleri (2)
Acanthamoeba spp. (2)
amoebic dysentery
microencephalitis
Keratitis, may lead to blindness; chronic
granulomatous amoebic encephalitis
Flagellates
Giardia lamblia (2)
Trichomonas vaginalis (3)
dysentery
urethritis, vaginitis
Ciliates
Balantidium coli (2)
dysentery
Sporozoa
Cryptosporidium spp. (2)
Cyclospora sp.
Toxoplasma gondii (4)
diarrhea
food poisoning
toxoplasmosis
VIRUSES
Adenoviruses (subgenera A-E, serotypes 1-
47) (1)
respiratory infections, ocular infections,
genitourinary infections, gastroenteritis
Herpesviruses
-27-

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TAXONOMIC NAME
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (1)
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (3)
Epstein Barr Virus (1)
Varicella - Herpes Zoster virus (1)
Herpes B virus (4)
Cytomegalovirus (1)
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE - |
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE J
jfever blisters and canker sores
genital lesions
infectious mononucleosis - headache,
malaise, fatigue, fever, pharyngitis,
jlymphadenopathy
shingles, chickenpox
infection a risk of primate handlers such as
in zoos and laboratories-fatalities from
ascending paralysis and encephalitis from
monkey bites
congenital abnormalities in newborns,
mononucleosis; various infections in the
immunocompromised
Poxviruses
Variola (smallpox) virus
vaccinia
Variola major and minor (smallpox)
cowpox
Picornaviruses ;
Poliovirus (2)
Coxsackieviruses A1-A22, A24, B1-B6
Echoviruses 1-34 (not 10 or 28)
polio
meningitis (A7, A9, B1-B6); myocarditis
(B); hand-foot-mouth disease (A9, A16);
colds (A21, A24, B)
chronic meningoencephalitis; myocarditis;
maculopapular exanthema (9, 16); colds
(11, 20); neonatal carditis, encephalitis,
hepatitis (11)

-28-

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TAXONOMIC NAME
Enteroviruses 68-71 (1)
Hepatitis A (2)
Rhinoviruses 1-100 (1)
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE -
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
meningitis; paralysis (70, 71); hand-foot-
mouth disease (71); acute hemorrhagic
conjunctivitis (70); maculopapular
exanthema
hepatitis
colds
Togaviruses
Rubella virus (1)
rubella
Flaviviruses
Hepatitis C virus (2)
hepatitis C
Bunyaviruses
Hantaviruses: Hantaan, Puumala, Seoul,
Muerto Canyon viruses (4)
Acute respiratory infection, hemorrhagic
fever, nephropathy
Orthomyxoviruses
Influenza A (1)
Influenza B (1)
Influenza C (1)
Flu
Flu
Flu
Paramyxoviruses
Measles virus (1)
Mumps virus (1)
Respiratory Syncytial virus (1)
measles
mumps
pneumonia, bronchitis
-29-

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TAXONOMIC NAME
Parainfluenza viruses (1)
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE -
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
respiratory tract uinfections-bronchiolitis,
pharyngitis croup, pneumonia; fever
Coronaviruses
Coronavirus (1)
Toroviruses (1)
upper respiratory tract infections, colds
upper respiratory tract infections, colds
i
Retroviruses
HIV strains (3)
Human T-Cell Lymphoma viruses (3)
AIDS
i   
leukemia/lymphoma; tropical spastic
paraparenis (TSP)
Rhabdoviruses 
Vesticular stomatitis virus (1)
influenza-type illness; fever chills, muscle
pain
i
Reoviruses
Rotaviruses (2)
gastroenteritis: vomiting generally
proceeding diarrhea
Hepadnaviruses
Hepatitis B (3)
Hepatitis D (3)
hepatitis
hepatitis
j
Caliciviruses !
Norwalk virus (2)
Hepatitis E (2)
gastroenteritis
acute hepatits
Astroviruses (2) diarrhea
Filoviruses ;
-30-

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TAXONOMIC NAME
Ebola-S (Sudan) (3)
EboIa-Z (Zaire) (3)
Marburg (3)
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE -
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
hemorrhagic fever
hemorrhagic fever
Papoviruses
Papillomaviruses (3)
Polyoma viruses : BK virus (1)
Polyomavirus JC (1)
genital warts, common warts, plantar
warts, flat warts, butcher's warts, oral and
respiratory papillomas.
upper respiratory infections
progressive multifocal
leukoencephalopathy (PAL)
Parvoviruses
Erythrovirus: Parvowirus B19 (4)
erythema infectiosum (fifth disease);
arthritis; aplastic chronic anemia; hydrops
fetalis
Arenaviruses
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (1)
PRIONS
meningitis
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy,
Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease,
scrapie
FOOTNOTES:

(1) Transmitted by respiratory or nosocomial contact.
(2) Transmitted by contaminated food or water.
(3) Transmitted by blood or other body fluids.
(4) Transmitted by contact with other environmental factors.
                                    -31-

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                        *REFERENCES USED*

Beneson, Abram (ed.), Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. 1995.
     American Public Health Association!
                                     i
                                     i
Boyd, Robert F., Basic Medical Microbiology. 5th ed., 1995. Little, Brown and
      Company, Inc., USA.
             _ anri TnVm G. Holt, (eds.). Bergev's Manual of Systematic
      Bacteriology Vol. 1. 1984. Williams& Wilkens, Baltimore, MD.

Rhondanelli, Elio Guido and Massimo Scaglia, Atlas of Human Protozoa. 1993.
      Masson, Milano, Italy.            i
                                     i
Sneath, Peter H.A., Nicholas S. Mair, M. Elisabeth Sharpe, and John G. Holt
(eds.), Bergev's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Vol. 4 .1986.

White, David O., and Frank J. Fenner, Medical Virology. 4th ed., 1994.
Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.    ;
                                     i
Williams, Stanley T., M. Elizabeth Sharpe,' and John G. Holt (eds.), Sergey's
Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Vol. J4 , 1989. Williams & Wilkens,
Baltimore, MD.                       :
                                   -32-

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                      Pesticide Registratibn (PR Notice) Notice 02-

NOTICE TO MANUFACTURERS, FORMULATORS, PRODUCERS, REGISTRANTS
AND APPLICATORS OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS

ATTENTION: Persons Responsible for Public Health Programs and Those Responsible for
             Registration of Pesticide Products

SUBJECT:    List of Pests of Significant Public Health Importance
       This notice identifies pests of significant public health importance.  Section 28(d) of the
Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) requires the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in coordination with the United States Department of
Health and Human Services (HHS) and United States Department of Agriculture (USD A), to
identify pests of significant public health importance and, in coordination with the Public Health
Service, to develop and implement programs to improve and facilitate the safe and necessary use
of chemical, biological and other methods to combat and control such pests of public health
importance. Issuance of this list fulfills the requirement of FIFRA sec. 28(d) to identify pests of
significant public health importance as a part of this process.

       The publication of this list does not affect the regulatory status of any registration or
application for registration of any pesticide product.  This list does not, by itself, determine
whether a pesticide product might be considered a "public health pesticide" as that term is used
in FIFRA. That term, as defined in FIFRA section 2(nn), requires consideration of the context of
the pesticide use, including minor use status and use of the.pesticide in public health control
programs.  Determining whether a pesticide is a public health pesticide is beyond the scope of
this PR Notice.

       Compilation of this list was a cooperative effort by the HHS, USD A and the EPA.  The
Office of Pesticide Programs, EPA, coordinated the review by experts in public health and/or
pesticide use patterns to compile this list. No person is required to take any action in response to
this notice.

       The Agency has determined that the list of pests of significant public health importance
required under FIFRA section 28(d) need not be subject to the same restrictions and
considerations that apply to the definition of "public health pesticide" in Section 2(nn).
Therefore, EPA is interpreting the term "significant public health importance" broadly, to  include
most pests that pose a widely recognized risk to significant numbers of people. This amended
list addresses the majority of comments received and also provides a mechanism for all interested
parties to engage further on this topic.
                                           -1-

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I. BACKGROUND
                                              i
       FIFRA section 28(d) charges EPA with identifying "pests of significant public health
importance." FIFRA section 2(t) defines the term "pest" as meaning:
                                              i
              (1) any insect, rodent, nematode, fungus, weed, or (2) any other form of terrestrial
              or aquatic plant or animal life or virus, bacteria, or other micro-organism (except
              viruses, bacteria, or other micro-organism on or in living man or other living
              animals) which the Administrator declares to be a pest under section 25(c)(l).

Pursuant to the authorization in the second part of this definition, EPA has broadly declared the
term pest to cover each of the organisms mentioned except for the organisms specifically
excluded by the definition (See 40 CFR 152.5).   j

II. THE LIST                        .        i            "

        EPA has determined that the pests identified in Appendix A are pests of significant
public health importance as that term is used in FIFRA section 28(d).  This list is derived in large
part from review of the pesticide/pest combinations for which efficacy (product performance)
data are generally required to be submitted and reviewed prior to registration. In no way should
this be interpreted to mean that EPA has or would ibase any regulatory action solely on this list.
EPA is publishing this list separate from any statutory or regulatory conclusions which may be
associated with public health pesticides.         ;

       A brief description of the identified pests or category of pests and an explanation for
designating each as a public health pest is provided below:

       Cockroaches. The listed cockroaches are controlled to halt the spread of asthma, allergy,
and food contamination.                        \
                                              i
                                              i
       Body, head, and crab lice. These lice are surveyed for and controlled to prevent the
spread of skin irritation and rashes, and to prevent! the occurrence of louse-borne diseases such as
epidemic typhus, trench fever, and epidemic relapsing fever in the United States.

       Mosquitoes.  Mosquitoes are controlled to'prevent the spread of mosquitoes bearing such
diseases as malaria;  St. Louis, Eastern, Western, West Nile and LaCrosse encephalitis; yellow
fever and dengue fever.                         |

       Various rats and mice. The listed rats andrnice include those  which are controlled to
prevent the spread of rodent-borne diseases  and contamination of food for human consumption.

       Various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. The listed
microorganisms are the subject of control programs by public health agencies and hospitals for

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the purpose of preventing the spread of numerous diseases.

       Reptiles and birds.  The listed organisms are controlled to prevent the spread of disease
and the prevention of direct injury.

       Various mammals.  The listed organisms have the potential for direct human injury and
can act as disease reservoirs (i.e., rabies, etc.).

       EPA, HHS and USD A do not envision that this list of pests of significant public health
importance will remain static. It is possible in the future, as there are new discoveries concerning
the roles of species in spreading disease, that this list may need to be changed.  Should any
additional species be found to present public health problems, EPA may determine that it should
consider them to be pests of significant public health importance under FIFRA Section 28 (d).
As deemed necessary, the Agency will update the list of pests of significant public health
importance.  Interested parties are invited to petition the Agency regarding the amendment of
this list.  This petition should include the common use name and scientific name of the pest, and
a rationale regarding the public health threat posed by this pest.  These petitions can be sent to
the contact under Part VI. For Additional Information.                               .

III. USE OF THE LIST OF PESTS OF SIGNIFICANT PUBLIC HEALTH
IMPORTANCE LIST BY THE AGENCY

The Agency will use the list of pests of significant public health importance  to:

       1. Fulfill the requirements set forth in FIFRA Section 28(d)

       2. Together with the Public Health Service, develop and implement  programs to improve
and facilitate the safe and necessary use of chemical, biological and other methods to control
pests of public health importance.

V. WHAT REGISTRANTS SHOULD DO

       Registrants do not need to do anything in response to this notice.

VI. FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

       If you have questions regarding this PR Notice, contact:

       Kevin Sweeney
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
       Ariel Rios Building
        1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW (7505C)
       Washington, DC 20460

                                           -3-

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      phone: (703)305-5063
      fax:    (703) 305-6596
      e-mail: sweeney.kevin@epa.gov
      or
      Robyn Rose
      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
      Ariel Rios Building
      1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW (7505C)
      Washington, DC 20460
      phone: (703)308-9581
      fax:   (703) 308-7026
      e-mail: rose.robyn@epa.gov
Signed:,
      Marcia E. Miflkey, Director
      Office of Pesticide Programs, (7/601C)
               AUG  - 3
                                         -4-.

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