United States
                      Environmental Protection
Prevention, Pesticides
and Toxic Substances
EPA 738-F-00-002
June 2000
SERA   Cadusafos  Facts
               EPA has assessed the dietary risk of cadusafos and prepared a "Report on FQPA Tolerance
        Reassessment Progress and Interim Risk Management Decision" for this organophosphate (OP)
        pesticide. Cadusafos fits into its own "risk cup"-- its individual risks are within acceptable levels.
               Cadusafos has no U.S. registrations and
        only one import tolerance on bananas.
        Cadusafos-treated bananas do not pose risk
        concerns, and no risk mitigation is necessary at
        this time.

               EPA's next step under the Food
        Quality Protection Act (FQPA) is to complete
        a cumulative risk assessment and risk
        management decision encompassing all the OP
        pesticides, which share a common mechanism
        of toxicity.  The interim decision on cadusafos
        cannot be considered final until this cumulative
        assessment is complete. Further risk mitigation
        may be required at that time.

               EPA is reviewing the OP pesticides to
        determine whether they meet current health and
        safety standards.  Older OPs need decisions
        about their eligibility for reregistration under
        FIFRA. OPs with residue limits in food
        (tolerances) and other non-occupational
        exposures also must be reassessed to make
        sure they meet the new FQPA safety standard.
               The cadusafos interim decision was made through the OP pilot public participation process,
        which increases transparency and maximizes stakeholder involvement in EPA's development of risk
        assessments and risk management decisions.  EPA worked with affected parties, such as the
      The OP Pilot Public Participation Process

          The organophosphates are a group of
    related pesticides that affect the functioning of the
    nervous system. They are among EPA's highest
    priority for review under the Food Quality Protection
          EPA is encouraging the public to
    participate in the review of the OP pesticides.
    Through a six-phased pilot public participation
    process, the Agency is releasing for review and
    comment its preliminary and revised scientific risk
    assessments for individual OPs. (Please contact
    the OP Docket, telephone 703-305-5805, or see
    EPA's web site,                       .)
          EPA is exchanging information with
    stakeholders and the public about the OPs, their
    uses, and risks through Technical Briefings,
    stakeholder meetings, and other fora. USDA is
    coordinating input from growers and other OP
    pesticide users.
          Based on current information from
    interested stakeholders and the public, EPA is
    making risk management decisions for individual
    OP pesticides, and will make final decisions
    through a cumulative OP assessment.

International Banana Association, to reach the decisions presented in this interim decision document,
which concludes the OP pilot process for cadusafos.

       Cadusafos is a nematicide used to control nematodes and soil insects on bananas in Ecuador,
       Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala, Columbia, and Mexico.  It is not registered for use in the

       A single import tolerance is established, for residues of cadusafos in or on imported bananas.
       About 5 to 7 % of bananas imported into the U.S. annually have been treated with cadusafos.

Health Effects

       Cadusafos can cause cholinesterase inhibition in humans; that is, it can overstimulate the
       nervous system causing nausea, dizziness, confusion, and at very high exposures (e.g., accidents
       or major spills), respiratory  paralysis and death.
       Potential acute and chronic dietary exposures from eating bananas treated with cadusafos are
       below the level of concern for the entire U.S. population, including infants and children.
Risk Mitigation
       Dietary risk from exposure to cadusafos does not exceed EPA's level of concern. Therefore,
       no mitigation is necessary and no further actions are warranted at this time.
Next Steps
       Numerous opportunities for public comment were offered as this decision was being
       developed. The cadusafos interim decision document therefore is issued in final (see
       www.epa.gov/pesticides/op ), without a formal public comment period. The docket remains
       open, however, and any comments submitted in the future will be placed in this public docket.

       When the cumulative risk assessment for all organophosphate pesticides is completed, EPA will
       issue its final tolerance reassessment decision for cadusafos and may make further FQPA-
       related determinations or require risk mitigation.