United States
                     Environmental Protection
                       Prevention, Pesticides
                       And Toxic Substances
July 1995
       Use Profile
     All pesticides sold or distributed in the United States must be
registered by EPA, based on scientific studies showing that they can be used
without posing unreasonable risks to people or the environment. Because of
advances in scientific knowledge, the law requires that pesticides which
were first registered years ago be reregistered to ensure that they meet
today's more stringent standards.
     In evaluating pesticides for reregistration, EPA obtains and reviews a
complete set of studies from pesticide producers, describing the human
health and environmental effects of each pesticide.  The Agency imposes
any regulatory controls that are needed to effectively manage each
pesticide's risks.  EPA then reregisters pesticides that can be used without
posing unreasonable risks to human health or the environment.
     When a pesticide is eligible for reregistration, EPA announces this and
explains why in a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) document.  This
fact sheet  summarizes the information in the RED document for
reregistration case 0445, fenitrothion.

     Fenitrothion is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide used  for
commercial greenhouse and outdoor use on ornamentals, including trees, to
control a variety of insects and mites. Fenitrothion also is marketed in two
new bait products used to control ants and roaches in and around homes,
stores, restaurants, warehouses, and other sites.  Two mosquito control
products used in other countries (not in the U.S.) to prevent malaria are
being voluntarily cancelled by the manufacturer. No food or feed uses are
registered, however a food additive regulation is established for residues of
fenitrothion in or on wheat gluten imported from Australia.
     Fenitrothion is applied to ornamentals using ground-based and hand-
held equipment.  Annual usage on ornamentals is small and appears to be
decreasing. Fenitrothion formulations include a wettable powder,
emulsifiable concentrate, and bait.

     Fenitrothion was first registered as a pesticide in the U.S. in  1975, for
control of the spruce budworm in forests. EPA issued a Data Call-In (DCI)
in 1984 requiring additional chronic toxicity data, and a Registration
Standard in July  1987 (PB88-191697) which evaluated the studies submitted
in response to the DCI. Certain label restrictions were necessary including

                      a 24-hour interim reentry interval for greenhouse and nursery ornamental
                      uses, and restricted-use classification for the forestry uses.  EPA issued a
                      second DCI in June 1991, and required labeling to reflect the high toxicity
                      to birds, honeybees, and aquatic invertebrates. Precautions were imposed to
                      protect endangered species.  The registrant requested cancellation of the
                      forestry uses in 1992.
                           Through implementation of the labeling requirements of the 1992
                      Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides (WPS), the 24-hour
                      interim reentry interval was converted to a 24-hour interim restricted entry
                      interval.  Uses within the scope of the WPS include all commercial and
                      research uses of fenitrothion to produce agricultural plants,  including use on
                      ornamentals.  Fenitrothion ant and roach bait products, registered  in January
                      1995, fall outside the scope of the WPS.
                           The Agency currently is requiring  additional exposure data for
                      fenitrothion before it can  make a regulatory decision on the eligibility of low
                      pressure hand wand and knapsack/backpack methods of application.  Six
                      fenitrothion products are eligible for reregistration.

Human Health   Toxicity
  Assessment        In studies using laboratory animals, fenitrothion generally has been
                      shown to be of moderate to high acute toxicity. It is moderately toxic by
                      the acute oral and dermal routes and has been placed in Toxicity Category n
                      (the second highest of four categories) for this effect. It is slightly toxic for
                     acute eye effects and is a mild dermal irritant (Toxicity Category HI).
                     Fenitrothion is not a skin sensitizer.
                           Fenitrothion is classified as a Group E carcinogen, indicating that it is
                     non-carcinogenic to humans. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor as indicated in
                     several chronic and subchronic toxicity tests performed on laboratory
                           Studies indicate that fenitrothion does not cause reproductive effects.
                     Fenitrothion is not considered to be a mammalian mutagen.  Metabolism
                     studies indicate that fenitrothion is excreted in the urine and feces within
                     seven days of exposure.
                          A rat study  did not indicate ocular toxicity.  A six-month ocular study
                     on dogs, required by the 1991 DCI, is in  reserve status until a test protocol
                     is developed.
                     Dietary Exposure
                          Although  no food uses currently are registered, people may be
                     exposed to residues of fenitrothion through the diet.  A food additive
                     regulation for fenitrothion  and two of its metabolites has been established
                     (40 CFR 185.2200(a)) for residues in wheat gluten resulting from
                     postharvest application of the insecticide to stored wheat in Australia.  An
                     acute risk to the U..S. population from consumption of Australian wheat
                     gluten is unlikely because gluten is mixed with flour before it is eaten.

Since fenitrothion is not registered for use on any domestic crops, its
residues are not expected to enter the diet of food animals in the U.S..
      EPA developed a U.S. consumption estimate for Australian wheat
gluten, and assessed dietary exposure and risk posed by fenitrothion residues
in that commodity. For the overall U.S.  population, such exposure
represents 3% of the Reference Dose (RfD), or amount believed not to
cause adverse effects if consumed daily over a 70-year lifetime. The
exposure level of the most highly exposed subgroup, children aged 1
through 6,  represents 8% of the RfD. If the food additive regulation of 30
ppm is used instead of EPA's consumption  estimate, these exposure and risk
estimates are doubled to 7% of the RfD for the overall U.S.  population and
15% of the RfD for children aged 1  through 6. Dietary exposure and risk
are minimal.
Occupational and Residential Exposure
      Based on  current use patterns, fenitrothion handlers (mixers, loaders,
and applicators) may be exposed to  this pesticide during and after normal
use. Exposure  to fenitrothion is most likely to occur during and after its
application to ornamentals, either outdoors or in greenhouses. The primary
route of occupational exposure is dermal. Inhalation exposure may be
acute, intermittent, or chronic.
      Although  most of the exposure data available were questionable, EPA
assessed worker exposure and risk to fenitrothion using the lexicological
endpoints dermal  toxicity resulting from intermediate exposure, and
inhalation toxicity resulting from chronic exposure, both of which may
result in cholinesterase inhibition.  Exposure estimates are based on the
assumption that fenitrothion handlers wear certain personal protective
equipment. Margins of Exposure (MOEs) are less than 100 (the margin
believed sufficiently protective) for applicators using low pressure
handwands and for mixer/loader/applicators using low-pressure or
knapsacl^ackpack equipment.  Due to a lack of post-application exposure
data, EPA was unable to estimate exposure or risk to workers following use
of fenitrothion on ornamentals.
      Because they are formulated as enclosed baits, the two fenitrothion ant
and roach control products approved in early 1995 for residential use result
in considerably less human exposure than the ornamental uses, during and
after application.
Human Risk  Assessment
      Based on  the available toxicity studies, EPA has determined that
fenitrothion presents a potential acute health hazard. It is  of moderate to
high acute  toxicity and is a cholinesterase inhibitor. However, it has been
classified as non-carcinogenic to humans ("Group E").  Dietary exposure to
fenitrothion residues in wheat gluten is extremely low, and dietary risk
appears to be minimal.

                            Of greater concern is the risk posed to fenitrothion handlers,
                      particularly mixers/loaders/applicators using low pressure handwands or
                      knapsackftackpack equipment to treat ornamentals.  The MOEs for these
                      handlers are inadequate.  EPA is deferring a regulatory decision for
                      fenitrothion products applied using these methods until chemical-specific
                      worker exposure studies, due within one year, are submitted. Thus, for
                      ornamentals, high pressure handwand treatment is the only application
                      method eligible for reregistration at this time.
                            EPA is employing a number of risk mitigation measures to protect
                      fenitrothion handlers.  For example, the Agency is requiring "baseline"
                      personal protective equipment (PPE);  a 48-hour restricted-entry interval
                      (REI) which is more stringent than the (24-hour) interim REI set by the
                      Worker Protection  Standard for Agricultural Pesticides (WPS); and
                      upgraded PPE for early entry. The 48-hour REI is increased to 72 hours
                      when any fenitrothion product is used in an outdoor area where the average
                      rainfall is less than 25 inches per year.  (See RED Risk Mitigation and
                      Labeling sections for more details.)

Environmental   Environmental Fate Assessment
   Assessment        Fenitrothion's major routes of dissipation are biotic microbial
                      mediated processes to carbon dioxide and abiotic aquatic photolysis.
                      Fenitrothion appears to be non-mobile when  applied to silty clay loam, silty
                      clay, and sandy loam soils. It appears to dissipate fairly rapidly with a half
                      life of 3 to 25 days, and does not appear to be mobile. Fenitrothion is
                      expected to be slightly persistent and relatively non-mobile in the soil
                      environment. Its metabolites also appear to degrade fairly  rapidly to carbon
                      dioxide, and are relatively non-mobile.  Residues do  not leach below 0-12
                      inches soil depth.
                      Ecological Effects
                           Fenitrothion is highly toxic to birds on an acute basis, and causes
                     chronic effects (reduced egg production) in reproduction  studies using
                     bobwhite quail.  It is moderately  toxic to small mammals and both cold and
                     warm water  fish on  an acute basis.  However, it is highly toxic to aquatic
                     invertebrates, and moderately to very highly toxic to estuarine organisms.
                     It also is highly toxic to bees.
                     Ecological Effects  Risk Assessment
                          High acute risk is expected  for birds consuming grass and insects, and
                     high chronic risk to  seed-, insect-, and grass-eating birds  will occur,
                     following single as well as multiple applications of fenitrothion at 3 Ibs.
                     active ingredient (ai)/acre. Risk quotients  for mammals and estuarine/
                     marine organisms are exceeded.  High acute risk to freshwater invertebrates
                     is expected from a single application of fenitrothion.  Honey bees exposed to
                     this pesticide may be adversely effected.

                           To reduce these risks, the registrant has proposed numerous label
                      modifications for products used on ornamentals including a lower use rate, a
                      restriction on the maximum number of applications per year, and an
                      increase in the retreatment interval from one week to one month. (See Risk
                      Mitigation, below.)
                           Endangered species levels of concern (LOCs) are exceeded for acute
                      effects to aquatic invertebrates and in some instances to birds and wild
                      mammals, as well as for chronic effects to birds and aquatic invertebrates.
                      Limitations on the use of fenitrothion may be required in the future to
                      protect threatened and endangered species when the Endangered Species
                      Protection Program goes into effect.

Risk Mitigation        To lessen the acute toxicity risks of fenitrothion, EPA, in conjunction
                      with the registrant, has developed and is requiring the following risk
                      mitigation measures.
                      o  All fenitrothion products labeled for outdoor use must be classified as
                      restricted use pesticides.
                      o  Use of fenitrothion on Christmas tree plantations, on shade trees other
                      than those in nurseries, and basal bark (drench) treatment are being
                      voluntarily deleted from product labels by the registrant.  These uses pose
                      the greatest potential for exposure to non-target species.
                      o  For the remaining ornamental uses, the registrant has proposed
                      significant label revisions to reduce ecological  risk, including:
                             Reduce application rate to 0.3125 Ibs./acre;
                             Reduce maximum number of applications to three per year;
                             Increase minimum interval between applications to one month;
                             Remove broadcast application from the label,  limiting use to spot
                           treatment only.
                      o  Due to concerns about the high acute toxicity of fenitrothion, EPA is
                      establishing baseline personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements for
                      handlers of all end-use products, and is establishing early-entry PPE
                      requirements including dermal protection PPE and protective eyewear.
                      o  Due to concerns about the post-application exposure of agricultural
                      workers, EPA is increasing the interim Restricted Entry Interval (REI) from
                      24 to 48 hours for all uses within the scope of the WPS.  This REI is further
                      increased to 72 hours when fenitrothion products are used outdoors in areas
                      where the average rainfall is less than  25 inches per year.  The REI will be
                      reassessed upon receipt and review of the chemical specific exposure data
                      required in the RED.

     Additional Data        EPA is requiring the following additional generic studies for
             Required   fenitrothion to confirm its regulatory assessments and conclusions:
                                - Acute oral LD50 for Bobwhite Quail (3-methyl-nitrophenol);
                                - Terrestrial Field Dissipation;
                                - Chronic Toxicity to Birds (reserved);
                                - Six Month Ocular Toxicity Study in Dogs (reserved).
                                Before EPA can make a reregistration eligibility decision regarding
                           the low pressure handwand and knapsack/backpack methods of application,
                           the following studies must be submitted:
                                - Foliar Dissipation;
                                - Occupational Post-application Dermal Exposure;
                                - Occupational Post-application Inhalation Exposure;
                                - Estimation of Dermal Exposure at Outdoor Sites;
                                - Estimation of Inhalation Exposure at Outdoor Sites;
                                - Estimation of Dermal Exposure at Indoor Sites;
                                - Estimation of Inhalation Exposure at Indoor Sites.
                                The Agency also is requiring product-specific data including product
                          chemistry and acute toxicity studies,  revised Confidential Statements of
                          Formula (CSFs), and revised labeling for reregistration.
  Product Labeling
      All fenitrothion end-use products must comply with EPA's current
pesticide product labeling requirements, and with the following.  For a
comprehensive list of labeling requirements, please see the fenitrothion RED
Restricted Use Classification
All fenitrothion products labeled for outdoor use must be classified for
restricted use, and the following statement must appear on product labels:
      "Restricted Use Pesticide
      Due to toxicity to fish and aquatic organisms.
      For retail sale to and use only by certified applicators or persons
      under their direct supervision and only for those uses covered by the
      certified applicator's certification."
Changes in Rates, Uses, and Number of Applications
The following changes must be made to all ornamental end-use products:
      - Restricted use classification;
      - Delete Christmas tree farm and Southern Pine Bark Beetle uses;
      - Delete broadcast application-all ornamental uses are limited to spot
      - Limit use rate to 0.3125 Ibs ai/acre and limit the maximum number
     of applications per year to three;
     - Increase the minimum interval between applications ,to one month;

      - Limit use on shade trees to those in nurseries and/or greenhouses;
      - Limit application to high pressure handwands, low pressure
      handwands, and knapsack/backpack sprayers. .
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Requirements
The following minimum, baseline PPE requirements pertain to both WPS
and nonWPS uses by occupational handlers:
      "Applicators must wear:
      - Coveralls over long-sleeved shirt and long pants;
      - Chemical-resistant gloves;
      - Chemical-resistant footwear plus socks;
      - Chemical-resistant headgear for overhead exposure;
      - Chemical-resistant apron when cleaning equipment, mixing, or
      - Dust/mist filtering respirator (MSHA/NIOSH approval number
      prefix TC-21C)."
Entry Restrictions
EPA is requiring the following entry restrictions for all uses within the
scope of the WPS:
      "Do not enter or allow worker entry into treated areas during the
      restricted entry interval (REI) of 48 hours.  Each 48-hour REI is
      increased to 72 hours in outdoor areas where the average rainfall is
      less than 25 inches per year."
The PPE required for early entry following applications of fenitrothion is:
      - Coveralls over long-sleeved shirt and long pants;
      - Chemical-resistant gloves;
      - Chemical-resistant footwear plus socks;
      - Chemical-resistant headgear for overhead exposures; and
      - Protective eyewear.
User Safety Statements
EPA is requiring the following user safety statement on all end-use products
containing fenitrothion:
      User Safety Requirements:
      "Discard clothing and other absorbent materials that have been
     drenched or heavily contaminated with this product's concentrate.  Do
     not reuse them. Follow manufacturer's instructions for
     cleaning/maintaining PPE.  If no such instructions exist for washables,
     use detergent and hot water.  Keep and wash PPE separately from
     other laundry."
      User Safety Recommendations:
      "Users should wash hands before eating, drinking, chewing gum,
     using tobacco, or using the toilet."

                       "Users should remove clothing immediately if pesticide gets inside.
                       Then wash thoroughly and put on clean clothing."
                       "Users should remove PPE immediately after handling this product.
                       Wash the outside of gloves before removing. As soon as possible,
                       wash thoroughly and change into clean clothing."
                 Environmental Hazard
                 The following statement is required for end-use products:
                                     "ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD
                       This pesticide is toxic to birds and aquatic invertebrates. Do not apply
                       directly to water or to areas where surface water is present or to
                       intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Runoff may be
                       hazardous to aquatic organisms in neighboring areas.  Do not
                       contaminate water when disposing of equipment washwater or
   For More
      EPA has determined that products containing fenitrothion are eligible
for reregistration except products labeled for application to ornamentals
using low pressure handwand and knapsack/backpack spray equipment
(products applied using high pressure handwand equipment are eligible for
reregistration).  The use of eligible fenitrothion products in accordance with
labeling and risk mitigation measures specified in this RED will not pose
unreasonable adverse effects to humans or the environment. These products
will be reregistered once the required confirmatory generic data, product
specific data, CSFs, and revised labeling are received and accepted by EPA.

      EPA does not have enough information at this time to make an
eligibility decision  for fenitrothion products labeled for use on ornamentals
and applied using low pressure handwand and knapsack/backpack spray
equipment.  The Agency is requiring additional worker exposure studies in
order to develop a more complete data base and make a reregistration
eligibility decision  regarding these uses of fenitrothion.

      EPA is requesting public comments on the Reregistration Eligibility
Decision (RED) document for fenitrothion during a 60-day time period, as
announced in a  Notice of Availability published in the Federal Register.  To
obtain a copy of the RED document or to submit  written comments, please
contact the Pesticide Docket,  Public Response and Program Resources
Branch, Field Operations Division (7506C), Office of Pesticide Programs
(OPP), US EPA, Washington, DC 20460, telephone            703-305-
      Electronic copies of the RED and this fact sheet can be downloaded
from the Pesticide Special Review and Reregistration Information System at
703-308-7224.  They also are available on the Internet on EPA's gopher

server, GOPHER.EPA.GOV, or using ftp on FTP.EPA.GOV, or using
WWW (World Wide Web) on WWW.EPA.GOV.
     Printed copies of the RED and fact sheet can be obtained from EPA's
National Center for Environmental Publications and Information
(EPA/NCEPI), PO Box 42419, Cincinnati, OH 45242-0419, telephone
513-489-8190,  fax 513-489-8695.
     Following the comment period, the fenitrothion RED document also
will be available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS),
5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161, telephone 703-487-4650.
     For more information about EPA's pesticide reregistration program,
the fenitrothion RED, or reregistration of individual products containing
fenitrothion, please contact the Special Review and Reregistration Division
(7508W), OPP, US EPA, Washington, DC 20460, telephone
     For information about the health effects of pesticides, or for assistance
in recognizing and managing pesticide poisoning symptoms, please contact
the National Pesticides Telecommunications Network (NPTN).  Call toll-
free 1-800-858-7378, between 8:00 am and 8:00 pm Eastern Standard
Time, Monday through Friday.