Hazardous    Waste Reduction
Reduction         . _     ,.
Program      and Recycling
             Metal Finishing
             Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing
             a program of

     The Department of environmental Quality

               July 1989



     :    ' .     METAL FINISHING

          '.'•>.  ELECTROPLATING

               Prepared by the

                First  Revision
                  July 1989


         •• " -.   .HAZARDOUS WASTE 'REDUCTION  -PROGRAM  .  "  .  .

      guidelines- were prepared  by  the  Oregon Department--of
-nvi-oSJirital  Quality's Hazardous'Waste Reduction Program.  T
orogram was established to provide technical assistance to
businesses' and industries 'to  reduce the -amount of hazardous
walte ?ha? thev generate,  deducing the amount of waste gener-
at,ed helps to  control" costs and protect the environment.-

^he DEQ Hazardous Waste Reduction  Program works with facilities
of all,sizes to come up with  solutions to the  problems asso-
elated with the generation, storage, treatment,  and  disposal of
hazardous waste.  The program can-provide technical  information
on waste reduction  and recycling methods  for your business,  .n
addition, the  program can provide,on-site assistance to iaen
tify and implement  waste reduction opportunities in  your
operations. '      '  _.     '-•     _._    ...      '.-•'..,'

The program also maintains a  technical library containing
information on waste reduction  and recycling for a wide range
of industries. Publications  on specific  waste reduction
methods for electroplating, metal  finishing, and printeoVcir-,
cuit board manufacturing operations,  such,as those listed in
the references are  available.  Additional background infor-
mation and worksheets  for conducting- a waste reduction assess-
ment are  also  available.

To obtain  information,  assistance, or publications on waste
reduction  or  recycling,  please  contact:

              DEQ  Hazardous  wa/ste Reduction Program
                      811 SW  Sixth Avenue
                    Portland,- Oregon 97204
                     Phone. (503) 229-5913  or
            Toll  Free Within Oregon, 1-800-452-4011


                        TABLE  OF.- CONTENTS
     1    •   GENERAL: WASTE  REDUCTION METHODS   .'',.;• .  .--•-.  .  .   .    5,;
                 Improved  Operations and            • .  :          ,
.''•'•    - ',  Housekeeping  Practices   .- ...  ..  .  .  .  .  .  '••  10.
      '      ' s     ' '   ' '  ,'•       •   " •   "             '     '
  '''     .'•   ,   Drag-Out. -Reduction ^. .  . .  .  '.  .  .  .  .  .   .  10
             "   Rihsewater  Modifications  .  ....  ....   -12
                /Material/Chemical  Substitutions  .  . ';_.. .  .   .  13
                 Plating Bath  Maintenance  ...  .  ;.-.  .  . .•-.  14
                 Chemical  Recovery  Processes  .  .  .  .  ....  15
'                 Metal'.Recovery Processes  .'.,.  .  .  .  .-,'.  '..  '.  2.0
            ,     Sludge Management  .. .  . .  .	.-.,... 21'
     .            Solvent Management   ....  ...  •  -  •  •   •  21

CHAPTER 3   WASTE REDUCTION  ASSESSMENTS,  . .  ....  ...   .  23
  ;          PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION;  .  .....  .  .  .  .   .• • .23
            ASSESSMENT  PHASE . . .  -  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •   •  24
            FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS .. .  . ?. .  . -1  .  .  .' . .  .   ... . 31.

'REFERENCES ...  .  .  .  .  . '. '.-•'. .  .  . -.. ., - '....'•  • "•-.• •-. •  • 3S


                           CHAPTER  1

      * * * * * •
There are several good waste reduction  and  recycling opportu-
nities available for metal' finishing, metal' fabricating,  elec-
troplating, 'and printed circuit board- manufacturing operations.
This-manual will help you  identify methods  that  can be used in
these operations to reduce the amount of waste generated  and at
the same time help you to  achieve other important  obj ectives
such as increased profits,  productivity, efficiency,  and      ,
product quality.     ,  • ' _  .
           ' >     '    _          • -  :  .     ' - f  . ^ - .   •    . . _.,   -  ..


Many businesses are finding that waste  management  is becoming
increasingly more burdensome in terms of time, resources,  and
costs,  of particular concern to these  businesses  are such
issues as:    ••'..'/   •    •'•'"•.   .-•'.'    -     '    •     "

     - strict limits for.discharging process wastewaters  to the
      -- sewer'   '  -     . ;.'..'''."'   ""   •       •   -  •  -'.'•'-

     - costs of wastewater treatment to meet those limits

     - regulatory requirements for hazardous waste management:

     - costs of managing and disposing  of hazardous wastes

     - liabilities associated with the  management  of hazardous
       waste "   .. '_ '    .    ', ''    •.;-••,'; .-'"--.   •  •  . '     •"  •

     - land disposal restrictions  of certain hazardous wastes

Waste reduction and  recycling  can  help  you  address these
problems  and  reduce  the burden of  waste management on your
HiVe i ness.'  Waste reduction is  a  means of generating less  waste
in'your  operations thereby reducing  your company's efforts and
resource* required  for waste management.


.waste Reduction;   Waste .reduction is any activity that reduces
or eliminates the generation of hazardous waste at the source,
usually'within a production process.  These source reduction
methods  include such activities as  good housekeeping practices,

                                             ' J-
raw satenai substitutions, equipment modifications,  production
process changes and waste segregation.

was-e Recycling;  waste recycling is the recovery  or  reuse  of
what would otherwise be a waste material.  Waste recycling
activities include the direct use or reuse of a waste material ,
in"a process or the reclamation or recovery of a valuable
material from a waste.  These activities reduce the. amount  of a
waste that requires disposal.

This manual addresses both waste reduction and recycling
activities for metal finishing, metal fabricating, electro-
plating, and printed circuit board manufacturing operations.
These methods generally focus on hazardous wastes-that are
a-enerated in these operations, however, these methods can also
be applied to non-hazardous wastes such as wastewaters, air
emissions, and solid wastes.


Waste reduction and recycling activities can help you to: •

     • Reduce cost* associated with 'the treatment and disposal
       of hazardous wastes.

     • Reduce raw material/chemical requirements which lowers
       operating costs.

     • Increase production rates and improve product quality.

     • Reduce your liability and risks associated with the
       management of hazardous wastes.                    .

     • Improve your company's public image by taking positive
       steps toward, the community's waste problems. •

     • create a safer workplace by reducing exposures to
       hazardous wastes.

     « Reduce the burden of trying to comply with  regulatory
       requirements associated with hazardous waste generation.


Any business that generates hazardous waste in their  opera-
tions, whether  it is  a  small  business or a large corporation,
can implement some method  of  waste reduction.  This manual
specifically focuses  on waste reduction and recycling methods
for metal  finishing,  metal fabricating, electroplating,  and
printed  circuit board manufacturing  operations.

 ^r.dustrv- Overview   .        ....-••

 Industries  involved in metal fabrication-, metal ^ finishing,
 elec*-opiating,  or printed circuit board manufacturing utilize
 a  wide  range  of  production processes and operations.  These
 processes' include:         "•.        .       ,          .

   •  surface  preparation/cleaning,     .     •   ;    '•       -.
     paint  stripping'    •'      --. '        .'•'•,;       '    . ,  . • ,
. •   -' degreasing.'    • -,...  '   ''      •      • -''  •"   .    ''    -'        '
     p ickling                  . :
     bright dipping and.chemical polishing    .       ;
     electroplating               •'>..-.        .
     electroless plating                        .
     coatings (chromating,  phosphating,  metal coloring,
       'passivating)                          '  ,       ...
     etching  and chemical milling
     painting      .
     heat treating                   -
     fabrication             ,              •      -  ",  •

     machining (cutting, grinding,  welding, polishing, buffing)

                       HY Thaaie Industries '  ...      .
 These operations can generate potentially hazardous wastes
 listed below.  The classification of .a particular waste »_s
 hazardous depends upon its specific characteristics and

      .spent acid or alkaline cleaning solutions
      spent solvents                     .      . , , .   ,_ *.u
    '  spent process baths: plating, etching, pickling baths
      sludges from process baths
      process rinsewaters
      wastewater treatment sludges
      paint residues and sludges
      still bottoms from solvent distillation  systems
      .spent aatal working fluids  (coolants,  hydraulic  fluids,
      lubricating oils, cutting oils, and  quenching  oils) -t

 Chapter  2  of  this  guidance manual describes detailed waste
 reduction  methods  that can be used to reduce or eliminate the
 generation of wastes from industrial processes.  General-wast<
 reduction  methods, that can be applied to.a wide range of
 industrial processes,  are described, as well as process-
 specific waste reduction methods for electroplating, metal

finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing operations.
Chapter 2 also provides a description of the chemical and metal
recovery processes including evaporation, reverse osmosis, ion
exchange, electrodialysis, ultrafiltration, and electrolytic

Chapter 3 describes the procedure for conducting waste
reduction assessments.  The assessment is a useful tool for
identifying and evaluating waste reduction opportunities within
a facility's operations.

      **•* *«1
             ,, ;  - •'     .. • •  CHAPTER' 2


                                                       "r * *

Waste reduction and recycling methods  are  site- and process-
specif ic> although a number of general- approaches, and tech-
niques have been used successfully  across  the  country to
reduce many types of industrial waste.  These  techniques range
from low or no cost methods to major 'equipment modifications
requiring large capital investments.   These  techniques can have.
ah application across a range of  industries, and manufacturing
processes/and can apply to hazardous  as well  as
wastes.  These general methods include:

         • Process and Equipment  Modifications
         • Input Material Changes
         • Improved Operating and Housekeeping Practices
         • Recycling

Process and Equipment Modifications               -           ~

     • Redesigning or replacing equipment  in order  generate
  ' '  .  less waste.-   -;   -        - : .  • •     •       /      '-.-•',-••
                    production process to use  less  raw
       materials and/ or generate less waste.

     • Use of automation which helps to limit  inadvertent
       releases and off -spec product generation.

     • Changes in operating conditions, such as  flowrates,
       temperature r pressures, residence times.

     • Implementing energy and water conservation programs.
                         - •   -''-.*.   "   ,-..-•,"     l  "       * '

Input Material Changes                  •

     e Material substitution or  replacing a. hazardous substance
       used  in a production process with a  non-hazardous or
       less  hazardous substance.   Examples  include  replacing  a
      .solvent cleaner with an alkaline cleaner.

     • -Material nurifieation  involves  the purification  of /input
       or feed materials  in order to  avoid  the introduction  of
       inerts or  impurities  into the  production process,  When
       impurities are  introduced,  the production process must

       eventually be purged in. order to prevent undesirable
       accumulation of the c6ntaminants, thus generating a
       waste.  An example of this method is the use of
       deionized water for process baths and rinsewater in
       plating operations.     '               _

Improved Operating and Housekeeping Practices           . .

     • Tmnroved material tracking and inventory practices can
       reduce the waste resulting from overstocking and
       disposal of materials with an expired shelf-life.
       Examples of these methods include:

           - purchasing and using raw materials only as needed.

           - keeping inventories of hazardous substances for
             each storage area in.the plant.

           - monitoring the quantities of waste resulting from
             expired stock.

           - maintaining Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
             for all materials in use.

           - labelling all containers to indicate the name and
             type of substance, stock number, health hazards,
             suggestions for handling, and first aid

     e Improved material u«aa«. handling, and Storage can
       reduce loss of input materials due to mishandling and
       improper storage.  These methods include:

           - standardization of materials or using the minimum
             number of material types in your operations.  This
             increases the potential for recycling and reduces
             the amount of waste requiring disposal.

           - improved operation and maintenance of container
             and drum storage arsas. . Good operating practices
             include:  '

                 * providing adequate aisle spacing to
                   facilitate container transfer and easy
                   access for  inspections.

                 * properly labelling containers with material
                    identification and health  and safety
                   hazards.       s             ,

                  *  stacking containers  according .to
                   manufacturers'  instructions  to  avoid

             damaging -the containers from  improper  weight,
             distribution.   .   •,    .   .

           *  -segregating different hazardous substances.
             to prevent'.cross-contamination and-mixing  of
    :  r  ,.-.'• incompatibie^materials, 'and 'to facilitate   •. r
  '  . '        inventory control.- . /        . .    .,    '

, ' ' •.    •;' •*• storing containers on-pallets or similar -
        1     device to prevent, corrosion of the
        •     containers which-can result when containers
             come in contact with-moisture on the.floor.

          . •*' constructing secondary containment
             structures, such as curbs, around storage
           * areas.  ' . • "'•'' . '.;•  •   •      .       -. -,"  ..  ••

 improved  scheduling of. batch production runs to reduce
 the frequency of equipment and tanJc cleanings can result
 in  less waste being generated.

 Reeordkeiepina and documentation-of operational proce-
 dures promotes the consistency of these'operations,
 thereby reducing the likelihood of producing unaccept-
 able products which must be discarded, and helps tc
 identify  practices, that need to be improved.  An operat-
 ing manual  will assist the operators in monitoring     .
 waste generation and identifying unplanned waste
 releases,  and assist in responding to equipment    ,
 failures. '.  -    ''.-•"  -     -.....-_•    ' .     ,   '    • '

 Recordkeeping should include the following items:

     -documentation of process procedures, control
      parameters, operator responsibility, and hazards
  .    in  a manual.

     - waste generation, waste handling and disposal
••  ' • • .' COStS.  .; •    -. •  .    '  ;-  .   -  .    '-      •''••'

     - unplanned waste releases such as equipment    .
       failures or spills and  leaks, and costs of
    -  cleanup.    . _    :.•';.'•'...-'   •'     , '    : ,  /'v

  ;   - MSDSs...  "  •/'/.-   ;, .  ' - -.•  '_•     '•"     •-      ' - . •

 Preventive maintenance improves the efficiency and
 longevity of equipment, reduces slow-downs or shutdowns
 from equipment failures, and  reduces  the  likelihood of
 producing rejected, off-specification products.  Pre-
 ventive maintenance should consist of regular inspec-
 tions and cleaning'of  equipment  including lubrication,

   resting,  measuring,  and  replacement of- worn or broken
   parts.                 _

•  spill anH  leak  prevention  includes  operational
   procedures  and  precautionary  modifications  to equipment
   and containment areas  to minimize leaks and spills.
   These measures  include:    ,          .    .      .

      - installing and periodically testing overflow
        alarms on storage, process, and  treatment tanks.

      - using tanks and  containers according  to
      .  manufacturer instructions and only for their
        intended  purpose.

      - maintaining integrity of tanks and containers.

      - 'implementing controlled andi supervised loading,
   • '    unloading, and transfer of all hazardous

      - constructing secondary containment: structures
        around tanks or storage areas .containing hazardous

      - developing spill prevention plans.

• Waste segregation promotes recycling and recovery  of
  waste streams and improves the treatability of a waste.
  Wastd types should be segregated as follows:

      - hazardous  from non-hazardous wastes (Note: \
        mixing a hazardous waste with a non-hazardous
        waste generally results in the entire mixture
        becoming a hazardous waste,  which must be managed
        and disposed as such).

      - liquids from solids.

      - by hazardous constituent, such as chlorinated
        solvents  from non-chlcrinatsd solvents.
                                                      ^ ,

      - waste streams containing recoverable metals  from
        waste streams containing chelating agents.

e Employee education and training is an important element.
  of any waste reduction and management program.  Employ-
  ees directly involved with processes and activities that
  generate wastes  should have an understanding, of why and
.  how wastes are generated, how they are managed, and
  costs and liabilities  incurred by your company in^
  generating hazardous wastes.

      r-piove.' training should" consist of:  •    .,.  " - '      '

         '- health ;and safety 'aspects of ail hazardous
          -  ^stances being handled..           .

                **r oo«ration- of process equipment and waste
     -     " llcyclinganS treatment . facilities, ..     -       .

          - procedures for handling Bleaks  and  spills ,;   '  .  -. ;

            ''                include programs, to allocate
                                  r  u  r~  rMrr~-T  *o the
                                  l  c,
      waste ^reatment
     ', accounts
                  and reuse_involv«
     .«acicn or^.=overy >* a >slu,bl. material from ..
     .  hasardous wasta.

^ ffrryr>rTQN ^D FfryfT.T^ ftPFLKftTI^S
            . .                    '-'   '              ™    "
applied to metal - f abrica t ^"^  »«         operations are sum-
a?d printed  circuit b^ »?^^Can5 evaluating waste reduction
mirized below.  ^•"^WS^SJ  emphasis should be placed
options for  your  oPer^i°^'  « cost Material handling and
first on  the simple, , low .or n ° «rjr_ativ€-s- have been consid-
process changes.,  After^these |^™^V^dif ication and waste

                                        «aste      t-n and
 recycling metthoda includ«=                     ,        ,
            ..laproved operations and Housekeeping Practices
            • Drag-out Reduction
               Metal Recovery Processes
               Sludge Management
               solvent Management

                J5  AND HOI
The following practices are easy to implement and require

little o? no capital investment:

     • Repair all leaking tanks, pumps, valves, etc.

  "   . inspect tank and tank liners on a re^lar basis to

       prevent failures that may result in bath dumps.

               steam coils and heat exchangers on a regular

                Prevent accidental contamination of steam
                                               of condensat
                 event accenta  con
      conate and cooling water or leakage of condensate
      and cooling water into the platxng bath.

                            .                          «»•
      baths when not in use.
    * Minimise the volume of water us«d during cleanup
      operations .      '                       •


       £3. s^uW ^ r«ov.d from th. bath wh«n  not belng
           *«-.- *.« «.v,4» nla*-*«c: solution that adheres .to the

 methods include:

•• Modifying- properties of, the placing bach :co  improve
  ' d-ainage  of the plating' solutions ..-bade'.. into  the. piatir.g'
 ' baths  or  reduce: the. concentration of dissolved metal's  -r.
  • the  drag-out.;   .These, methods .include:

       -  Decreasing .bath viscosity:  by reducing the
       -chemical concentration of 'the bath or  by
         increasing the bath temperature.  .      • .   . '

       -  Decreasing bath surface tension:  by adding ,non-
 11  ."'••.ionic wetting, agents or increasing bath
  '     "temperature.      •      :     ,            .       ,   •

 •• Lowering  the withdrawal rate of parts from a bath.  This
  method can reduce the thickness of a drag-out layer
  .because of surface tension effects.,

 • increasing the drain time over the plating tank.   •

 • installing drain boards,  drip bars, and drip tanks to
  capture the drag-out.  The collected drag-out can  be
  fully  or partially returned to the plating- bath to make ,
  up for evaporative losses.  These devices save
  chemicals, reduce rinse requirements, and prevent
  unnecessary floor wettings.

 • Proper racking:  Carefully rack and remove parts so as  ..
  to minimize entrapment of bath materials on  surfaces and
   in cavities s

       - parts should be raekexl with major surfaces.  -
 '•; '  '  '   vertical. • •     • •    .           - '.    . ' •   ' •  .   '

       - parts should not: be racked directly over one
         • - .   ..•.-'.    . -        ...  -            ,       ' %
       - parts should b«  oriented  so that the smallest
         surface  area of  the piece leaves the bath surface
 "• .  • •'   last. '   '   ;  ••"':_ i   •;  ;"   -' • •   ::  - ' :'  .      •  :

 • Designing parts to promote  drainage,  such  as with  no
   cups  or shelves.                                      .

 .Designing Plating racks  with a  minimum surface area,
   minimum horizontal  surfaces,  no pockets,  and an
   effective orientation to promote drainage.

 e Using air knives with oil-free compressed air to Knock
                  off parts and back into , the plating tanks.
  • Using, fog and-spray rinses, parts can be spray rinsed
    with deionized water over the plating tanks.  This
    method is. used when tank evaporation rates are

       sufficient to accommodate the  added  volume  of  spray

     • In rack plating:  Provide drain bars over the  plating
       tank from which the rack can be hung to drain  for  a
       brief period.

     • In barrel plating:  Rotate 'the barrel over  the plating
       tank to remove excess plating  solution.
              i            | *             ••                '

RINSEWATER MODIFICATIONS                  '                ,

Methods are available to improve rinse efficiency.and reduce
the amount: of rinsewater generated.  These methods include the
use of one or more of the following:

     • Still rinse or drag-out tank:  A still rinse tank can be
       used prior to the rinse tanks with flowing water.  As
       the concentration of the plating solutions in the still
       rinse tank builds up over time, the rinsewater can be
       returned to the bath to make up for evaporation losses.

     e Rinse tank mixing:  The even distribution of fresh water
       throughout the rinse tank in addition to aeration can
       increase the efficiency of water use.

     e Water supply control valves:  These are inexpensive
       devices to regulate the feed rate of water at an optimum

     e Spray rinsing:  In this method, when the workpiece is
       sprayed with water,  the process solution films are
       washed off the parts through use of'impact and diffusion
       forces.  This method,  which can reduce water usage as
       much as 75%,  is effective on simple workpieces, such as
       sheets, but has limited application for odd-shaped

     e Fog rinsing:   This method uses water and air pressure to
       produce a fine mist which reduces the concentration of
       the drag-out film.  This method is effective on simple
       workpieces but has limited application for odd-shaped

     e Cascade rinsewater recycling:  In this method, overflow
       from one rinse tank can be used as the water supply for
       another compatible rinsing operation.

     • Countercurrent rinsing with multiple tanks:   In this
       arrangement,  three rinse tanks are operated in series
       with the water flowing- from the tank farthest away from
       the plating tank toward the tank closest to the plating


   -  >  '-ar.'k by g-ravity or pumping.   The  workplace is
       tiall-y'* inaersed in each of  the .three  rinse .ranks,
       counter-current to the rinsewater ' f low,  from  the, least
       pure rinse, tank to 'the cleanest rinse tank.   .

          ••- • ' Counte-rcurrent rinsing  can  reduce rinse flows by . :
    '''-"'••    over 95% compared to/single overflow 'rinses.

           - '''Disadvantages, with  this arrangement include
            .additional space requirement's,,  additional .
             production time', requirements,, and 'costs of   >
             .additional rinse tanks.      '   •              . •  .

MATERIAL/ CHEMICAL ?TT?STTTOTTONS . '          •    ...       •'.'.-

The incentive for substituting process chemicals containing
nonpolluting materials has surfaced  in recent years -in response
to the increasing complexity of  pollution control regulations.
BY eliminating polluting process materials such . as  hexavalent
chromium or cyanide-bearing chemicals, the treatments retired
to detoxify these wastes are also  eliminated.   This is desir-
able particularly for hexavalent chromium and cyanide wastes
since they require a special treatment step  and equipment to
detoxify -         :        :             '        ,          .   •

Material and  chemical substitutes  are  now being gradually
introduced into  the marketplace  by chemical  manufacturers and
suppliers.  When evaluating and  selecting chemical  substitutes
•for a particular application,  a  r.'jsber of  factors should b=
considered,  such as:  ^

. • '   • Are substitutes  available and practical?

    • • Will  substitutes, solve .one -problem but create another?
   "'••".'" -  \ •   ''.-.'-'•"   ;   ,      ......     •-    /    ••.-_.
     !• will  tighter chemical  controls be required of the bath?

     • Will  product- quality and/ or production rate be affected?

     •Will the change involve any cost increases or decreases?

 Some commonly used material and chemical substitutes  in
 electroplating, metal finishing,  and printed  circuit  board
 manufacturing operations are summarized below:
     ical Subsfeitutg* for Alkaline Cvanide  Plating

     •'•'• in. zinc plating, chemical substitutes  include:

         , •  - ammonium or potassium  chloride baths  for
     ,       '  complex ing' zinc.

           - acid .sulfate, chloride, and fiuoroborate baths.

     • In cadmium plating, chemical substitutes include:

           - acid baths consisting of cadmium oxide, sulfuric
             acid, distilled water and anionic compounds.

           - cadmium chloride.

     • in copper plating, copper sulfate can be. used as a
       chemical substitute.

     • In tin plating, acid tin chloride can be used as a
       chemical substitute.      '                        .

Chromium Plating Baths

     • Trivalent chromium solutions can be used in place of
       hexavalent chromium solutions in some situations.  This
       reduces drag-out concentrations of chromium.

Pickling solution and Brian* Dip Alternatives

     • Sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide can b« used , as ,
       substitutes for chromic acid.
       Trisodiua phosphate sr asscr.ia can b* us«d a
       substitutes for cyanide cleaners.
 Coer Etehants
     • Sulfuric peroxide can be used as a "substitute for
       persulfate.      ,                         .


Plating solutions contain valuable metals  in high concen-
trations as well as chemical salts. and additives,  over a
period of time, contaminants can build up  in the plating bath
and  reduc* th« effectiveness of th« plating operation.  For
reasons of economics,  th«s«. plating baths  ar« rarely ever
changed out or dunp«d.  S«v«ral methods are available to
maintain th« quality  of the plating bath  and include:

     • Removing impurities from plating baths:            ,

           - Suspended solids  can be  removed by  filtering.

           - Nickel baths'can be'purified by 'activated- carscr.
           .  adsorption.  ••'••..      '•            .  •

          ''- Carbonates in cyanide bath's can. be  removed  by.
             chemical, precipitation.          ;     .  .  •-

     • using deionized water for makeup and.- as :rinsewater.
                  'PROCESSES '
Chemical recovery processes' are available to  reconcentrate,
plating solutions from, rinsewater for reuse and  to. purify spen.
process solutions.  These methods are summarized below.   When  <
Evaluating a recovery process for a .particular  oper-
ation, general and site-specific factors must be considered
These factors include the metal being plated, drag-out  rates,
concentration of metals in  the rinsewater, rinsewater  fj£w-
rates, space requirements,  personnel requirements,  energy
requirements, and cost and  payback period of  the recovery
system. •   ,       '      '   - ' . '    :' . .•     .• -  ''•'".'•
       In this process, rinsewater is boiled  to
       concentrate the' plating solution.   Steam  from the
       process is.condensed and reused  for rinsing.  The
       plating solution is returned to  the plating bath.
       This process can recover 90 to 99%  of  the
       dragged-out metals.

               Drag-out -recovery  of 'rinsevatsrs  frcr:
                  - hot chromium  baths
                  - ambient temperature nickel baths  ;
                  - metal cyanide baths    •

               Use  in conjunction with  countercurrent
              '• rinsing.                        .

               Simple,.reliable,  widely applicable

        ,       Relatively maintenance-free compared with
                other recovery processes.

Disadvantages:  High energy use.

                Requires periodic removal of  impurities
                from the recovered plating solutions.
 Reverse Osmosis:
            'in this process, water is separated  from
            dissolved metal salts by forcing the water
            through a - semipermea'ble membrane at  high

pressures.  A concentrated solution con-
taining the. plating metals is produced  and
returned to the plating bath.  The purified
water is reused for rinsing.  This process
can recover up to 99% of the dragged-out
metals.                       '

    Drag-out recovery of rinsewaters  from,the
    following plating-baths:

    '   - acidic nickel (Watts nickel  lines)
       - nickel sulfamate
       - copper pyrophosphate
       - copper sulfate
       - nickel fiuoroborate
       - zinc chloride
       - zinc, sulf ate
       •-cyanide baths for copper, zinc,  and

    For use on lines with heated plating
    baths where evaporation is high enough to
    allow the concentrate to be fed directly
    to the plating bath.

    Use in eonjunction with still rinse
    tanks, countercurrent rinsing, or other
    rinsevater conservation techniques.

    Produces m^dina to high ccr.scr.trnticr.3 cf
    metal salts for reuse in the plating
    Performs efficiently on dilute

    Nonselective in removing dissolved
    substances  from the solution.   Impurities organic brighteners, wetting
    agents, and unwanted metals may be
    returned to the plating bath along with
    the  recovered metal.

    To prevent  fouling of  the membrane,
    prefiltering of the rinsewater  is
    required to remove solid particles,
    oxidizing materials, and oil and grease.
                        *   '               •
    Limited application for solutions with
    high oxidation  potential  (chromic acid)
    or  extreme  pH  (i.e. high pH cyanide
    baths) -due  to destruction  of membranes.

 -<*•«' s-x-.hanae;'   The ion exchange process can be used .or,
 '."" "."•""•      -'removing contaminants from process baths or
'                recovering.dissolved metals from rinsewaters.
               .The process can recovery 90 to 95% of the metals
       •    ',    in drag-out.

               'There are two types of 'ion exchange units,
                cation and anion.  The selection- of the type of  •
    :    ..  •      ion exchange -unit to use for a particular   .
                application will depend upon the ionic charge of
                the contaminant to be removed or.metal to be
      ;     •     recovered.  •-•-.•".-,       ,  •.     .,-.';•

    >;>       'A cation exchange unit, contains a specific type
                of resin to remove positively charged ions .rom.-
                solution, such as metal cations.  The cations
                removed from the solution are typically
                replaced by hydrogen ions that are displaced
                from the resin>  The solution that exits the
                cation exchange unit has a limited potential for
                reuse as a rinsewater due the presence of the .
                hydrogen ions which make the solution acidic,

                After a period of time, the capacity of the
                resin to Remove additional metal cations becomes
   '             limited and the resin must be regenerated if it
                is to be further utilized.  Regeneration of the
                cation exchange unit consists of passing a
                strong acid, sucn as sulfuric acid, througn
                resin bed.  The solution  exiting the cation
                exchange unit from the  regeneration process
                contains the metal ions,  which  can be returned
                to plating bath.

                An anion exchange unit  contains a type  of resin
                to remove negatively-charged  ions from  solution,
                such as chromate and cyanide.   Typically with
                anion. exchange units,  hydroxide ions  are    ^
                displaced from the  resin to replace the anions
                 removed'from the solution.   The anion exchange
                 units are regenerated with a strong base,  such
                 as sodium hydroxide.

        Application:     Purification of spent process acids.

                        Recovery of anodizing baths.

                        Drag-out recovery of rinsewaters from the
           .     .         following plating baths:

        - Acid copper
       ' - Acid zinc
        - Nickel
        - Tin
        - Cobalt  •           .
        - Chromium
     Can remove all metal ions from a
     relatively dilute solution.

     Low capital and operating costs compared
     to  other recovery processes .

     Not capable of producing  a highly
     concentrated stream  for return to  the
     plating  baths.

     Does not remove organic additives  from  a

     Prefiltering of the  rinsewater may be
     required to remove solid particles and
     oil which can cause  fouling of the rssin.

     Not cost effective when drag-out rates
     are low.         .

     Equipment is  complex, requiring tight
     operation  and aaintsr.anc« .
                      Monitoring of the ion exchange unit is
                      required to ensure that the resin
                      capacity is not exceeded..

                      Resins require periodic regeneration .with
                      strong acid or caustic.
E Lec,trod i a 1 vs i s t
In this process water is separated from
dissolved salts using a network of
alternately-spaced anion-permeable and
cation-permeable membranes.  An electric
potential is applied across the membranes to
provide the driving force.  This process- can
recover 90 to 95% of the metals in drag-out.

    Regeneration of chromic acid etchant..

    Drag-out recovery of rinsevaters from the
    following plating baths:

       - nickel
       - acid zinc


                      - zinc cyanide
                      - chromium  -' . ••
                      — gol'd .       -
                      -~ silver
   Use 'in conjunction with a  still  rinse-
   tank.   ' '                  '.-.•••   •
    ' , "  -  .    ,        '     !   -   '    '."•;'
   Achieves higher concentration o,f metals
   than reverse osmosis or ion  exchange.

   Energy efficient.

   Can operate .continuously without,
   requiring regeneration.

   Requires little; space.               :

   Nonselective in removing dissolved
   substances from the solution.  Impurities
   such as organic brighteriers, wetting
   agents ,• and unwanted metals  may  be
   returned to the plating bath along  with
   the  recovered metal .

   Membranes are sensitive to extreme  pH,
    flow variations,  and suspended solids.

    Pref iitering o£ tne rinsewater may  oe
    required to remove  solid particles  and
   oil  which can cause fouling  of the
   - resins.  ..'...•'  ' • •  •   .       -  ,  ,

    Requires careful  operation and periodic
    maintenance to- avoid  damage  to  the
t r a f i 11 ration:
In this process, a solution is filtered
through an extremely fine filter to -remove .
solids, emulsions, and high molecular weight

    Regeneration of alkaline cleaners,
    coolants, or process baths requiring
    removal of particles and emulsified oils

    wastewater treatment process  for volume
    reduction of  spent  coolants,  cleaners,
    and  rinsewaters.

Efficient for removing suspended solids,
emulsified oils, and other hrgh molecula:
weight organic compounds.

Low capital and operating costs.

Easy to operate and requires little
maintenance.     '

Limited application for recovery of
dissolved metals from rinsevaters.

Requires periodic backwashing to remove,
captured solids.
E1ectrolvtic Recovery:
   This process involves the electro-
   chemical reduction of metal ions to
   their elemental forms as a powder or
   foil.  A direct current is passed
   through a metal-bearing solution by
   means of cathode plate and insoluble
   anodes.  The cathode consists of a
  •stainless steel or carbon fiber plate
   upon which the recovered metal is
   deposited.  After the coating is
   sufficiently thick, the metal is
   peeled off and sent to a refiner or
   the coated stainless steel cathode is
   used as an anode in plating baths,
   serving a source of metals.
      Application:    Oxidation of cyanide.
Reduction of hexavalent chromium in

Recovery of metals from plating and
etching bath drag-out, such as gold,
silver, copper, cadaium, zinc, tin, and

Regeneration of ammoniacal and chloride
etch solutions during metal recovery.

Us* in conjunction with m still.rinse

Not a labor-intensive operation.

Low energy requirements.


         -  . -   .   -.  _  Lev energy .requirements".

       Disadvantages:   Limited application for recovery,of   ,'
         .• '  ••     •  .  chromium from solutions.;

          . .  '.  .' . •  '. Monitoring of the solution concentration \
           '        ;    -is. required. •_'.-.'•''•'.••
SLUDGE  MANAGEMENT            ,        - ". •'  ',          "        •'.'.-"

Sludges produced in process baths and as a result of ' wastewater1
treatment  processes are typically hazardous wastes that .must be
appropriately managed.,  Frequent management problems with  these
sludges include" the high volumes-generated that must .be handled
cand  costs  for disposa'1.  Some waste, management alternatives 'are
available, to,help alleviate these problems. /

Sludoe  Dewaterino:    :-     -" • •  ..';''  .  -  ••,.•'•

Several mechanical dewatering devices that reduce sludge
volumes are commercially available.  These devices include:

      •  Centrifuges     .         ,      •
      •  Filter presses   ,           •        .  -  •           .
      «  Vacuum filters   .   .                 .
      •  Sludge dryers .

treatment  Chemical Selection

A wide  range of treatment chemicals is available for
precipitating dissolved metals out of a solution.  Some .of
these chemicals produce less sludge-when compared to other
•chemicals  of comparable removal efficiency.  Therefore, the
selection  of a treatment chemical for a particular application
is important for reasons of efficiency and sludge volume
.production.  '    V                          ..'',."   - '   -  -  ., •

Examples of treatment chemicals that produce less sludge-
include:   ••"•.'-   •    :•..'•:   •   _              .       _   ,  • . '

      •  use of caustic soda  (NaOH)  instead  of lime  (Ca(OH) 2-) •'
      *  use cf polymers  instead of  ferrous  sulfate and  alum*.

        ..'..'-'      •  •     • -M • '  -  ;    •  .          • --: •   •--•.-..
 Organic solvents are widely used  in metal  finishing  operations
 for cleaning, decreasing,  and paint stripping.   The  management
 and disposal of spent  organic solvents are becoming  increas--
 ingly more difficult and expensive.   Some  waste  reduction and
 recycling methods  for  organic solvents are summarized  below.

Material Suhstj*--"* i°-Q   •      '                         • •     .  •
Alternatives to using solvents  include:
     •.Alkaline cleaners
     • High pressure hot  water  washings
     • Steam cleaning            .

            *                          ecovered and reu.sed.
               The particles can be  recovered  and  reu.sed.
Recovery and Reuse                                  .    .
Methods for reusing and recovering  spent  solvents include the
following:                                '
                reuse:  This  involves using  a spent
        finishing applications
     e  "ffn*;t Beveling:.  Several waste management services
     *  are available for recycling »P™V°i££SbS
        your facility site or at an offsite location.

                          ..TSR' 3   /-  \

A waste reduction' assessment  is  a  step-by-step  procedure that
-an be used by a  facility ' s, own  employees  to  identify waste
reduction and recycling  opportunities.  -The assessment can he.p . understand the  facility ' s wastes  and processes ^dent,
viable options for  reducing wastes,  and  determine  which options
art technically and economically feasible  to  justify implemen-
tation in your operations.

The amount of effort required for  a  waste  reduction assessment
will depend upon  the size  and type of  your business.  Small
facilities with only a few processes will  obviously require
less time" and resources  for the  assessment.  Large facilities
with mtny processes may  require  a  team of  skilled  professionals
to conduct a more detailed technical and economic  evaluation of
waste reduction options.                ,       .

considerino the wide range of waste  reduction and  recycling  ..
opSortuni?ies available for metal  finishing and'.l^rbplating.
opSrltions, it  is likely that your business can implement waste
reduction methods and  end up  saving  money  as  a result.^ The
following steps will provide  you with  some general guidance in
identifying and implementing  waste reduction  and recycling
practices  in  your operations.  Mote  that all  waste streams
should  be  considered when conducting an assessment, *uou "
hazardous  wastes, wastewaters, air emissions, and non-hazardous
 solid waste.   Additional sources of information on waste
 reduction methods and implementation can be found in the
; .references-, i    •  .  .     ' .  ' • .     •.      -  -   '

 There are several different, tasks, involved when conducting. a
 waste reduction  assessment.  These tasks  include the  following:

      • Planning  and Organization
      * Assessment  Phase                                   -
      e Feasibility Analysis
      e Implementation and Evaluation

  Planning and organizing waste reduction assessment
  are esslntiai: steps to ensure a Program's success. ^^
  is conducted prior to actual assessment phase.  Important
  elements, of this tasfc are summarized below..

       Get a commitment and support from management.  It is
        _	                                           .e to
       provide the time, personnel, financing, and. other
       resources required for developing a waste reduction
       program.                    .              '
important for the management of a company to support
waste reduction program.  The management must be abi<
       Develop a formal policy statement describing the waste
       reduction program objectives.

       .Involve employees in all phases of waste reduction
       program development.

       Organize a waste reduction assessment team.

           - Get people who know the facility,  processes, and
             operating procedures,  and are familiar with your
             waste management practices, environmental
             "regulations,  and waste reduction and recycling

           • Get people from affected departments or groups,
             such as production, maintenance, environmental,
             safety, sales, purchasing, etc.  Involve line
             operators and production supervisors.

           - Appoint, a team leader who has a strong technical
             background and good problem-solving and manag

       Set goals to achieve waste reduction.

       Recognize potential barriers and problems that may
       hinder waste reduction program development.
This phase involves an evaluation of the facility's operations,
waste streams, and waste management practices and the identifi-
cation and screening of potential waste reduction and recycling
options.  Important steps of this phase include the following:
               Faeilitv Information
One of the first steps of the assessment  is to gather
background information on production processes, operating
procedures, waste streams, and current waste management
activities,  collecting data, will create  a basis by which the
assessment team can track the flow and characteristics of. the
waste streams over'time.  This will be useful in identifying


i 1 4 ^B g* "•"•""	
collected ..
team is. better
      • production, rates   ;            -••••         .
      ^ process descriptions and efficiencies

      . condition of proce,a ea^ip*ent, such as tanXs, pu,Ps,
       pipes/'and valves
      . sourc,. or pot.nU.1' spur=« of X..X, and
      • operating procedures
      . maintenance:procedures  and schedule.,
      .operating  and;maintenance costs  ,

      .energy/utility  usage and costs
       •material inventory
                                           or o«,.r
        • raw material costs
        . «t.ri»l transfer and handling procedures

        e storage procedure*
       ' .source, oi leaX,  or spi^s in ***** -
         . condition of pipe*. P-PS- tanK,',  valve,,  and
          storage/ delivery  areas         .

    . activities,  processes,  or input materials that generate
      waste streams
    • physical and chemical characteristics of the each waste
    . hazardous classification of ^V^^ant^
      which wastes are hazardous and which, are not.)
                of waste stream 'generation. (i.e. continuous or
                nt, such as from9periodic cleaning activities
      or bath dumps)      '              .
    • rates 'of generation of each waste stream and any
      variability in these rates
    e current disposition of 'each waste stream  (i.e. hew is it
      handled, treated, and disposed)

    . costs of managing waste streams, including treatment and
      disposal costs
    * operational procedures for waste treatment units

    e efficiency of waste treatment units

    • quantity and characteristics of all treated wastes,
      sludges, and residues
    • waste stream mixing  (are  hazardous wastes mixed with
      non-hazardous wastes or are potentially recyclable
      wastes  mixed with other wastes? )^

         « Reduction;               ,
     e current waste reduction and recycling methods being
       implemented       .                   '

     e effectiveness of those methods  ,

sgureea gf Baekq-ramid' m formation

       --ocess flow diagrams                       .-•       '
       Material and heat balances for production processes and
       waste treatment processes     ./, -   •_ ' -_ .         •  ••  -.
       operating manuals and process descriptions        :  ,

       equipment specifications and data sheets,
       piping and instrument diagrams      • •• ..
       plot. and elevation plans                    '.
       sewer diagrams  '      .  • ;     ,                   ,      .
       equipment layouts 'and work flow diagrams
       hazardous waste- manifests •        .
       emission inventories         .
       annual hazardous waste reports

       envlronmentalSaudit and inspection  reports-
. reports (
                       r.l««« inventoriw  (SMI* Title  III
       requirements)                  .
       product composition' and batch she«ts
       material application diagrams    .
       material safety data sh««ts  (MSDS)
       product and raw ftatarial  inventory records
       op«rator data logs
       production schedules              _,.
       d«parta«ntal cost accounting reports
       company environmental policy statenmnts
       organization charts

 in  some  situations  it may  b* necessary  to develop  flow  diagrams
 and mS?.riaror Sass balances  of th* major  waste generating
 operations.   Th«s«  flow diagrams and mass glances help to
 identify waste sources, concentrations, and rates  of
.generation.                          . ..                     •

 w**n funds  time, and- personnel are limited, it may be

 and budget permit.

 Items that should be considered when prioritizing  include:

      • compliance with  current and  future  regulations .

      • costs  of  waste treatment  and disposal

               '•,•  -    •.' .•• 27-• •   .   .      :'".  '  '. -              -.

     • potential environmental and. safety liability

     • quantity of waste

     • haza-dous properties of the waste (including toxicity,
       reactivity, corrosivity, and ignitability)

     • safety hazards to employees

     • potential for reduction, recycling,  or recovery

     • potential for removing bottlenecks in production or
       waste treatment

     • potential recovery of valuable by-products

     • available budget and expertise for the waste reduction
       assessment program and projects

3)  SJ-te Inspection

The purpose of  the site Inspection is to verify background  _
information, fill data gaps and resolve questions raised while
collecting and  reviewing data, identify additional sources of
wastes? and collect information on actual operating and waste
management practices.  The inspection concentrates on under-
standing how and why wastes are generated.
For each of the selected processes or operations *««£   .
evaluated, the inspection should  follow the process from the
point where raw materials enter the process to the point where
products and wastes exit.

Some general guidelines for  conducting the site  inspection   .
include the following:  '

     • Prior to the inspection:

            - make a list  of  items that require clarification.

            - notify personnel involved within the  process  or
             area to  be inspected.

      • Schedule the  inspection t°'coincide^with_ the  particular
       operation of  interest; if the operation  is  P«"?^f. or
        intermittent  in nature (e.g.  bath dumping,  chemical ,
        addition,  etc.).  '   .       .              • '   .

      e During the inspection take notes and P^fF*** th?, t
        areas of interest.  This helps to recall details that
        may be forgotten at a later date.

       Monitor the .operation at different times' during.the.
       shift and during the•different shifts, especially, if
       waste generation is highly dependent on human    ,   :
       involvement.    :t ' •   • ;;•

       interview the operators, maintenance personnel, shift   ,
       supervisors, and foremen in .the area's being inspected.
       Assess .the" operators1  and supervisors' ^awareness  of the
       waste generation aspects of the operation and familiar-
       ity with the impacts their operation may,have 'on  other •
      'operations.                            .    ^        .

       Observe housekeeping aspects of the operation.  Check
       for signs of leaks or spills.  Assess the overall
       cleanliness -of the site. , Note any odors and fumes.

       Evaluate the organizational structure and level of
       coordination of environmental activities between various
       departments. .    ...        •   '•'•,"•  .  .

       Evaluate administrative, controls, such" as cost
       accounting procedures, material purchasing procedures,
       and waste collection procedures.   ,          -
4)  Generating Waste Reduction Potions

After the data collection and site inspection stages of the
assessment, the next step involves identifying possible waste
reduction and recycling options*  This step requires the
expertise of the assessment team members.  Much of this
knowledge comes from their education and on-the-job training.
Other sources of waste reduction and recycling information are
listed below: '.   .         ..  :.  :     , ','  .  " .      "'•;.     ;

     e Trade associations                     ,

     e Plant engineers and operators

     e Published literature technical journals, trade
       journals, government reports, conference proceedings,
       and  research reports,

  ;   e DEQ  Waste Reduction Program

     e Workshops,  conferences,  and seminars

     e Equipment vendors                .

     • consultants and employees from  other  facilities

Waste -eduction and recycling methods for electroplating, metal •
finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing operations
vere discussed in Chapter 2 of this guidance manual.

5)  screening apd Selecting Wasta Reduction 'Qp^ons  for  Further

Since detailed evaluation of technical and economic  feasibility
is usually costly, the proposed waste reduction options  should
be screened to identify those that deserve further evaluation.
The screening procedure serves to eliminate suggested options
that appear marginal, impractical, or inferior without a
detailed and more costly feasibility study.

When considering options, emphasis should be placed  on process "
changes and other source reduction measures, .followed by recy-
cling and reuse.  Many source reduction-.options involve  no or
low capital costs and can be easily implemented.  After  these
alternatives have been considered, then the more expensive
equipment modifications and waste recycling options  should be
evaluated.                  ,

The following criteria should be considered when screening and
selecting options:

     • existing technology (does the necessary technology exist
       to develop the option?)

     • extent of current use in the industry
                  i,            P  ,    , ,
     • successful performance history

     « cost and cost effectiveness

     • reduction  in the waste's quantity and hazardous
       characteristics  (toxicity, flammability, reactivity,
                                  *     •
     • reduction  of treatment and disposal costs

     • reduction  in  safety hazard

     e reduction  in  liability and  insurance  costs

     e "reduction  of  input material  costs

     • effect on  product quality

     • low capital  cost

     • low operation and maintenance costs


     c short  implementation period •  '   . '      .       , v   •
     o ease, of- implementation •  '    7,   '•     .        . .      •  '•
     o other  benefits           ,      .  .      .           :     .

FEASIBILITY ANALYSTS  . /     •   •'    .    . .: . ;     ~-  '  '   •    ,.••'.
After/identifying  potential ^waste,reduction and recycling-
options-, the  next  step is  to  conduct a detailed analysis of
these options.  The  analysis  of these options .includes both a
technical and economic evaluation..                  •  ,
Technical .Evaluation            <_          -  •            ,
The technical evaluation determines whether a proposed waste
reduction option will  work in a specific application.  The
following criteria should  b«  considered when conducting a
technical evaluation:       :                   -
    -               •          -'•',"•„•     •        '      .
     • will th« option work in this application?
 -    • How has it  worked in similar applications?
     • Will the option cr«at« less waste or just move the waste
       problem from  one form to another?
     e Is the system safe  for workers?           •
  .   « Will product  quality -fc'e'      ';,••',,'       "
     e Will the option adversely affect productivity?
     • Is space available?
     • Are  the hew equipment, materials, or procedures.
;       compatible  with production operating procedures, work
        flow,  and production rates?
     e  Is  additional labor required?
     •  Are  utilities available or must they be  installed?
      e  How long will stopped in order to install
       -.the system? \"- .-..''•" ; "-''• "\    ".'• .  .' '   '  '.'•••  '.'•'"..
      e Is special expertise required  to operate or maintain the
        new system?
      • Does  the vendor provide acceptable service?
      • Does  the system create other  environmental  problems?
•   •     '•   -'•'-•...''.• .3,1' ''.'•.      ''.-•".

For equipment: related options:     '    '

     . V'si* facilities that have installed. the equipment,
       These visits can be arranged through equipment vendors
       and industry contacts.                           ,,,

     • Solicit operator's comments and compare to vendor
       claims.               •.,'•'

     • conduct bench-scale or pilot demonstrations.  Rental
       test units for bench-scale' experiments may be available
       from equipment vendors for use.

     • some vendors may install equipment on a trial, basis,
       with acceptance and payment after a prescribed time, if
       the user is satisfied.

The economic evaluation is conducted using standard measures of
Srofitabilitv  such as payback period, return on  investment,
!nd net oriseAt value.  Most companies have their own methods
fSr S^lSHSS pSjSt. for implementation.  In conducting  an
economic evaluation various costs and savings must be
considered.  Some of these factors are described  below.

For the purpose of evaluating a project to reduce waste       .
quIntitiSs, some types of costs are more  significant and  easily
quantified.  These costs include:

      e disposal  fees
      • transportation  costs
      • predisposal treatment costs
      • raw material costs
      • operating and maintenance  costs

When  conducting the  economic  evaluation of waste  reduction
          Sese^costs  should be considered first .bmu.«  th.y

  ave a greater effect on project «cononiCVnd^h
 effort to estimate reliably.  Other elements, such
 listed below, are usually secondary in their direct impact and
 should be included in fine-tuning the analysis.
        site development
        process equipment
        connections to utilities and services
        new utility and service facilities
        other  non-process equipment

   •  • engineering and'consulting  services        ,        „
     • permitting '-.costs-      ;          .  '  • •
    -• .contractor's fees .    -,         ,.
     • training costs  -      -•,  v  ,  ,     .   .  •;  • .      .      ',
 • "•   • finance charges        .-. =       . ;.     ,.   •••  .     •

Coeratinq Cost? and Savings;    ;,       /   .    '  . , ,

     •-.Reduced! waste management costs                .   •
    •       I.onsite and,offsite treatment,  storage, disposal
             costs.  '•       "   ..'•..•       -
           -;state generator fees      .                        .
   '        - transportation  costs    - - .              ,:.
           - permitting, monitoring,  reporting, and
 •            recordkeeping costs                "•     .  '

   '  • Input material  cost savings

     • insurance and  liability savings

     • Chaha«s in cost associatad with product quality (costs
       lor Icrap? reworlc,  and quality ^control  inspections)  •

     * Changes in utility  costs

     • Changes in operating  and maintenance costs  for labor,
       burden, and  benefits

      • Changes in  operating and maintenance supplies

      • changes in overhead costs

  ;   • Changes in revenues  from increased (or  decreased)
        production         .

      • increased revenues from the sale of by-products
and th«  .&      and
                                 .vaiuations.   Th. r«port also
                        affected groups
  be arven tne cnanc* wu review and comment ...
  report ShSIldcSUain a discussion of the following
  £, 9£*Wfe »• •^••^^^^                 -   r

       • waste reduction options evaluated and results of the

         evaluation          .        ,     ,
                                         • • •        , v -       „   "

       • .recommended options for implementation

            '  '.    '      '   -33 ''•••'          '      -..'".

    . w*ethe~ the recommended technology or procedure has beer.
      established in the industry,  with a mention of success-
      ful applications

    •.how the project will be implemented

    • required"resources, such as money, expertise, personnel,
      Available in-house and those resources that must be
      brought in from outside

    • estimated construction period and production downtime

    • expected performance of project

    . how the performance of_the project can be evaluated
      after it is .implemented

    • reduction in environmental and safety liability
Th. implantation of selected waste
will Generally follow the procedures established by
compandor implanting any new procedure, Pfocess
cations, or equipment change.   The assessment report
to g«£ management approval and funding
the selected projects.  Steps involved
reduction project include the following:

                                                      a waste
       preparing  a detailed design
       preparing  a construction bid  package
       lelSctinl  construction staff  and  purchasing materials
       installing new equipment
       training personnel                        ;        .
       starting operation
       monitoring and evaluating performance
justify the development of other waste reduction projects
The waste reduction assessment program ******
options that were not pursued earlier

Inforaation-'contained  in -this-guidance document has been
derived from the  fpilowing  sources:.    ,      .  . .  ..
     Higg'ins, T. E. , CH2MHill,  Evaluating Hazardous-. Waste
     Minimization Programs  for  Metal  Fin.^hina Processes..-
     Presented at the AOI/AEA/DEQ  workshop on "Responsible
     Hazardous Waste Management",  Wilsonville,  Oregon,  March
     24, 1987,.'    ;,  *             -. .        '    -:  ,             .  .'

     Lorton, G. A., and  D.  A. Hanlon,  Jacobs Engineering .Group
     inc., waste Minimi 7*r1 on Assessments.   prefente^L^Co
     California Aerospace Environmental  Association Conference,
     Long Beach, California, February 17,  1988.      -'   '; '

     New York State Departnent  of  Environmental Conservation,
     m-aff New York State Hazardous Waste Reduction Guidance
     Manual. November 1988.

     U.S. Environmental • Protection Agency,
       ..                                    ..
     gontrol and T-reatmenfe Technology for the  Metal Finishing .
     Tndv!strv.  Tn-.Planr- changes.  Industrial Environmental
     Research  Lab >  Cincinnati;  Ohio, , EPA/625/8^82-008, January

     ;1982.     '    •..,''-..'•   '.,.'.         •:'-.''•.    '  •

     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, fleeing
     Waste  Requirements for Metal Finishers.  Seminar
     PUS Heat ion.  Otfice o£ Researcn and Development,
     Cincinnati,  Ohio,  EPA/625/4-87/018 , September 1987

     U.S'. Environmental Protection Agency, Wast;e
      Environmental Qualifcv with Economic Benefit?, Of f ice of
      Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, D.C.,
      EPA/530-SW-87-026, October 1987.

      U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency, TftV SPA Manual f 07
      v**±* Minim^M^ian opportunity Assessment , tHazardo,us
      wHte Enginiering Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio,
      EPA/5QQ/2-SS/02S, April 1988.
 For additional references on waste' reduction and recycling
 refer to OEQ's Bibliography of Hazardous
 Publications.          ;