Environmental Pollution
           Prevention Project
            Training Manual
                                            > EPA/742/B-95/003

            Hagler BaUfy Consulting, Inc.
           1530 WUson Boulevard, Suite 900
              Arlington, VA 22209-2406
            HBI Reference No. TR-95-061

          Environmental Pollution Prevention?
              Project Number 936-S559
       Contract Number PCE-5559-QrOO-3022-00


Sponsored by U.S. Agency for International DevelopmentWSAID)


    \                                                -'Ģ_.•;.
                                          N.         '              •

This manual provides an introduction to the application of pollution prevention techniques. It
discusses the role of pollution prevention in a broad based environmental management
program. It provides businesses with practical information on how, to approach and
implement a pollution prevention program. The intended audience comprises owners*
managers and responsible employees of public and private industrial enterprises.

Chapter 1 introduces the concept of pollution prevention and examines the reasons for
pollution prevention. Chapter 2 discusses the pollution prevention assessment methodology
procedures developed by the United Nations Environmental Programme. Chapter 3 presents
the Environmental Pollution Prevention Project (EP3) assessment methodology and several
case studies of assessments done at industrial facilities participating in EP3. Chapter 4
illustrates some issues and methodologies for calculating the financial benefits of pollution
prevention opportunities. Chapter 5 addresses some of the organizational issues encountered
in implementing pollution prevention opportunities.
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The Environmental Pollution Prevention Project (EPS) is a five-year program sponsored by the
United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to address urban and industrial
pollution and environmental quality in developing countries. The objectives of the program are:

       • to establish sustainable pollution prevention programs in developing countries
       • to transfer urban and industrial pollution prevention expertise and information
       • to support efforts to improve environmental quality.                        ,

EPS. was launched in spring 1993; The Project operates though, a contract with RCG/Hagler
Bailly, Inc. and 16' subcontractors, a cooperative agreement with the Water Environment
Federation, and an iriteragency agreement with the U.S. EPA. Activities in developing
countries are initiated through buy-in agreements with USAID country missions. The first
country to host EPS activities was Chile, where an EPS office was established in fall 1993.
Since then, EPS operations have begun in Tunisia, Egypt, Ecuador and Indonesia. EPS
offices in each country develop partnerships with environmental NGOs, government
agencies, and industry associations,

EPS's objectives are achieved through several activities:

             Ģ   on-site industrial assessments to identify pollution prevention
              .   opportunities                                        .
         '"••••'   institutional support to help industry and governments develop and
                 implement programstomanage industrial waste and pollution
            "'•-'  an EPS headquarters clearinghouse and in-^country clearinghouses to
                 disseminate pollution prevention-related materials
        -    •   training for environmental professionals.     . ";•"',

 EPS's pollution prevention assessments for industrial^facilities are conducted by teanis of
 U.S. industry facility specialists, pollution prevention experts, and local environmental
 consultants. The U^, experts are made available on either a paid or pro bono basis. To
 provide this expertise, the Coalition for International  Environmental Research and Assistance
. (CIERA) and the  Water Environment Federation (WEF) have worked with EPS to develop an
 extensive network of environment and industry experts who are available, to participate in
 these assessments. Through their interaction with facility managers and local consultants,
 these experts help to build pollution prevention knowledge in the host country.           ••
                                         • EPS
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The pollution prevention assessments are conducted in such industrial sectors as textiles,
leather tanning, food processing, metal finishing, printing, paDer/paperboartl and chemicals.
Generally EPS targets its assessments in small- to medium-sized facilities that present
pollution prevention opportunities.: The assessment's recommendations focus on low- or no-
cost management practices and operational improvements, and on medium-level capital
equipment and process modifications with projected cost savings and environmental benefits.
Local EPS staff help the facilities with the implementation of these recommendations.

Training workshops and seminars are conducted to transfer the results of the facility
assessments to the remainder of the industrial sector. Inherent to the goals of EPS is the
creation of demand for pollution prevention. EPS achieves this objective by demonstrating
the environmental and economic benefits of pollution prevention and developing a supply of
local professionals trained in pollution prevention techniques. As such, industry management
and local environmental professionals are trained in the principles of pollution prevention,
environmental cost accounting, and facility assessments. Through its network of
clearinghouses, EPS also provides access to pollution prevention and clean technology
information.        •                            •               '              .
                                          • EPS
                                      Training Manual

 Chapter 1    Introduction            ,                                             .     >   :

 1.1    What is Pollution Prevention? ----- ............. ---- ...........I...-- ---- •••'1-1,
              1.1.1  What is Pollution? .................... .V. .........;...•.•••, 1-1;
    .  1   •<;  1.1.2  What is Prevention?,.,.. ..:..:... ....../..:.. .. T. ..v. .;...:.. 1-2
          '    1.1.3  Definitions of Pollution Prevention   ............ .-,.'. ..... ..... 1-2
   -          1.1.4  The Environmental Management Hierarchy ...... .............. .. 1-4
       1.2    Reasons to Prevent Pollution  ..1... ................ ---- ............ 1-5
              1.2.1  Environmental Issues  ................ ,._. ;''.y, .\ : ......... ---- l~6
              1.2.2  Improving Product Quality Through TQEM .-.:.............:..... 1-6
              1.2.3  Improving the Bottom Line  . v. . . ----- ......... ---- .....,;.,. ..1-9

 Chapter!    A Methodology for Pollution Prevention

       2.1    Phase 1: Preassessrhent .......... ------ .. ------ .... ----- ...... .j ...... 2-1
              2.1.1  Stepl: Assessment Focjis and Preparation  ..,...,./,..,... ...... .2-1
              2.1.2  Step 2: Listing Unit Operations ........I...;.. ---- ......... ...2-3
              2.1.3  Step 3: Constructing Process plow Diagrams .'. ---- ............ ..2-5
       2.2.    Phase 2: MateriaTBalance: Process Inputs and Outputs .....'............ .2-7      jj
              2.2.1  Step4: Determining Inputs ..... ---- ..:.;.. . * . ... ...... . . ---- 2-8 .     |
              2.2.2  Step 5; Recording Water Usage ....:., ..... .,....,..,..,. ---- 2.11       •
              2.23  Step 6: Measuring CunģntLevels of Waste Reuse/Recycling       .2-12
      '-:•:•     2,2.4  Step?: Quantifying Process Outputs  .. ..;... . v. ............ ... • 2-13
              2.2.5  Step 8: Accounting for Wastewater .'. . . . .-,. . .'.' . , . . . . . ...... • • • • • 2-14
              2^2.6  Step :9: Accounting for Gaseous ^Emissions  ., .................. .2-16
 ':  •".         v2^.7  Step 10: Accounting for Off-Site Wastes ......... ---- .........2-17
              2.2.8  Step 1 1 : Assembling Input and Output Information for Unit
 .       ';           Operations. ...... .......... ....... ...................... 2-19
              2 2.5   Step 12: Derivmg a Preliminary Material Balance for Unit
    ..•'.•.           •  • - •        • '        •'            ' •  i    • •  •.            *+ nr\
'.                    Operations ..... ---- ..... ---- ...... ...................... f-^u
   .           2.2.10  Step 13:. Evaluating the Material Balance . :...... ---- . . . . . • • • ,:.• 2-21
              2.2.11  Step 14: Refining the Material Balance ...:.......... ----- ......2-21
        2.3  ••"•''
              2.3.1   Step 15: Examining Obvious Waste Reduction Measures ......... 2-23
              2.3.2   Step 16: Targeting and characterizing Problem Wastes .... -------- ..2-25
              2.3.3   Step 17: Segregation  . ..... ......;...,..............•• ------- 2.-25
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            2.3.4  Step 18: Developing Long-Term Waste Reduction Options	 2-26
            2.3.5  Step 19: Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Waste Reduction
                  Options ......:...	.•.......'.	 2-27
            2.3.6  Step 20: Developing and Implementing An Action Plan: Reducing Wastes
                  and Increasing Production Efficiency		• • • • 2-30
     2.4    Case Study: Leather Manufacture .......		•. •	 2-31
            Phase 1: Preassessment	 2-33
                  Step 1: Assessment Focus and Preparation	. .•	• • 2-33
                  Step 2: Listing Unit Operations ...'.	;.. • •	• • •	2-33
                  Step 3: Constructing Process Flow Diagrams ....		. • 2-34
      • .  .  - Phase 2: Material Balance? Process Inputs and Outputs	 2-36
         .         Step 4: Determining Inputs	;.....	.2-36
    .    '.         Step 5: Recording Water Usage		 2-37
                  Step 6: Measuring Current Levels of Waste Reuse/Recycling ...... 2-40
                  Step 7: Quantifying Process Outputs ;	-•'•-.•	2~4Q
                  Step 8: Accounting for Wastewater ...:.-...:.........:.	2-41-
                  Step 9: Accounting for Gaseous Emissions .......	.......... 2-43
/   .              Step 10: Accounting for Off-Site Wastes	•.	'....'	• • 2-43
                  Step 11: Assembling Input and Output Information for Unit
                   _ r  .                                 •                     7 44
                  Operations	•	• • •	^ HH
                  Step 12: Deriving a Preliminary Material Balance for Unit
                  Operations	 ••	2-44
                  Step 13: Evaluating the Material Balance -...,.:	2-47
                  Step 14: Refining the Material Balance	..:	2-47
            PhaseS: Synthesis	•	•	2-47
                   Step 15: Examining Obvious Waste Reduction Measures	 2-47
                .   Step 16: Targeting and Characterizing Problem Wastes ....	... 2-48
                   Step 17:Segregation	;.....	,.	.... 2-50
                   Step 18:. Developing Long-Term Waste Reduction Options .,..	2-50
                  : Step 19: Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Waste Reduction
                   Options	....:.................... • ..-• •"	•••••• 2-53
                   Step 20: Developing and Implementing an Action Plan: Reducing
                   Wastes and Increasing Production Efficiency	 2-53

Chapters   The EPS Pollution Prevention Procedures

      Pre-Assessment Preparation Phase	...,....;.....	,.. • -3-2
      Assessment Phase- .,		• - • • •'• • • • • • -•.: • • • ••;  • • •'	; •'	   "
      •Post-AssessmentPhase	ģ			;..-.........••••	>|ģ
      EP3 Case Studies	.'. :.:..•.-.	'.-	3-i:>
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                                         ģ• 111
Chapter 4    Financial Considerations

      4.1    Introduction   '....	. —..... .>........ • •"•••• • • • ••-.-.	•	4-*
      4;2,    Key Concepts in Capital Budgeting .....'..	........................ 4-2
      4.3    Establishing a Baseline       ........................		4-4
             4.3.1  Measuring Baseline Costs    ........	.....................4-5
             4.3.2  The Effect of Pollution Prevention Projects on Revenues
                    andExpenses  ..............................	;.......... .4-8
      4.4    Evaluating Pollution Prevention Opportunities ..,..........,...,....:.. 4-12
       •'•     4.4.1  Establishing the Baseline ...-..'..•	.'................ .4-12
             4A.2  Examining The Recycle Option .............,................ 4-1-5
             4.4.3  Evaluating Material Substitution  .........'	..'....	 4-20
             4.4.4  Making the,Financial Comparison .	................ ..•..••• • • 4-21
             4.4.5; Making the Final Decision		...... 4-23
      4.5    The Importance of Considering Intangible Costs  ....'.;....	.....,.".. 4-24
      4.6    Conclusion .......................i.......v.,.;....... ....^.. • • 4-27

Chapters    Implementation                                    .  ; '.'._..-

      5.1    Introduction ...	......	•............ • • • • ^ • • • • • • • • • • •	5-1
      5.2    Pollution Prevention: Inside me Organization .....	.............. 5-2
             5.2.1. How An Organization's Culture Affects Implementation of Pollution    ;
                   Prevention Opportunities	....:.!..,.....,..... 5-2
             5.2.2  How an Organization's Ability to Process Information Affects
                   Implementation of Pollution Prevention Opportunities		5-3
             5.2.3  How an Organization's PoliticalStructure Affects Implementation of
                   pollutipn Prevention Opportunities   .......................... 5-4
      5.3    Case Study: Pollution^Prevention as Continuous Improvement^it Ford Motor
             Company....	....;.;............>..,.... .•'. .....-••••••• ••.••5-4
             5.3.1  Introduction/..,...:..................:^, .v^.......v..... 5-4
             533, Backgrojund		',-.-..'/......:........,..... 5-5
          -   533  The Livonia Project	 5-6
             53.4 Waste Prevention Opportunity Examples ....................... 5-7

Chapter 6    Additional Case Studies in Pollution Prevention
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                                 CHAPTER 1
Rapid industrialization arid urbanization in many countries have led to severe pollution:
water that is unfit for drinking or bathing, extreme levels of air contamination, and growing
quantities of municipal and hazardous wastes that are disposed improperly. Initial efforts to
manage urban and industrial pollution have concentrated on what is commonly referred to as
"end-of-pipe" treatment which focuses on what to do with the waste once it has. been created.
While improvements in treatment and disposal technology have led to dramatic reductions in,
the quantity and types of pollutants discharged into the environment for many soutntries,
"end-of-pipe" methods have proven to be costly and ultimately unsustainable.

Pollution prevention focuses attention away from the treatment and disposal of wastes and
towards the elimination or reduction of undesired byproducts within the production process
itself. Experience in the United States and other countries has demonstrated that in the long
run, pollution prevention through waste minimization and cleaner production is more cost-
effe'ctive  and environmentally sound .than traditional pollution control methods. Pollution
prevention techniques apply to any manufacturing process, and range from relatively easy
operational changes and good housekeeping practices to more extensive changes such as the
substitution of toxic substances, the implementation of clean technology, and the installation
of state-of-the-art recovery, equipment Pollution prevention can improve plant efficiency,
enhance the quality and quantity of natural resources for production, and make it possible to
invest more financial resources in economic development.
 1.1.1  Wbatb Pollution?

 Pollution is any contamination of the air, water, or land that results from human activity.
 Pollution results from inefficiencies in the manufacturing process, both operational practices
 and improperly designed and utilized equipment. Pollutants are unused raw materials or by-.
 products resulting from the production process. Pollution represents a loss of profits in
 manufacturing.;      •             ;                          .**

 In simplest terms, all outputs from a manufacturing facility can be put into two
 classifications: product and waste. Anything that the customer pays for is product; all else
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                                 INTRODUCTION •• 1-2
that leaves the facility is waste. In an ideal world, manufacturing activities would produce
zero waste. In the real world, industry must strive to reduce the waste from manufacturing
since this represents an inefficient use of scarce resources. It can be argued that all waste can
be indirectly^associated with pollution since the management of waste consumes resources
that would not otherwise be:used, and pollution is often generated in these waste
management activities.                •
,1.1.2  What is Prevention?  ;

Prevention is the act of taking advance measures against something possible or probable.
Prevention is generally contrasted with control or cure. For instance, vaccines prevent
illnesses, while antibiotics control illnesses; similarly design for quality preve^ defects,
. while inspection controls defects; seat belts prevent injury, while casts and crutches help^ cure-
injury from car accidents, QeneraUy speaking, the effort, time, and money associated with
prevention is less than that of control or cure. This idea is captured in the maxim An ounce
of prevention is worth a pound of .cure." Thus, in many cases it is worthwhile for industry to
prevent pollution rather than control it.                            -,   .

 1.1.3  Definitions of Pollution Prevention

 The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) defines pollutionj>revention
 as any practice which:        ,    "

        V      reduces the amount of anyhazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant
               reentering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment prior
               to recycling, treatment, and disposal; or   .       .                     .

        *      reduces the hazards to publichealth and the environment associated with the
               release of such-substances, pollutants, or contaminants; or

        ģ      reduces or eliminates the creation of pollutants through (1) increased
               efficiency in the use of raw materials; or (2) protection of natural resources by
               conservation.                                  .

  The Canadian Ministry of Environment defines pollution prevention as:

                any action which reduces or eliminates the creation of :        ,
                pollutants or wastes at me source, achieved through activities-   ,      .
               . which promote, encourage or require changes in the basic
        ...       beha^vioral patterns of industrial, commercial and institutional
       ..'•:"  generators or individuals.
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                                      INTRODUCTION ģ 1-3
Many terms .similar to pollution prevention are in use today. In 1989, the United Nations
Environment Programme coined the term cleaner production. Other terms in use include:
clean technology, waste reduction, waste prevention, eco-efficiency, and waste minimization.
There is no universal consensus on what these terms mean. For clarity, this manual uses the
US EPA definition of pollution prevention.      •
                        Pollution Prevention Opportunities in Auto Painting
            It is common for auto companies to change paint color with'each car that goes
            through the paint process. As a result, old paint must be purged from.the lines before
            painting each car. This results in excess paint sludge waste and fugitive emissions of
            toluene and xylene. Additionally, the purging and refilling qualifies as a setup
            activity that adds time to the process.       •      .

            Pollution Prevention Solution #/.-,'                  ...

            Block painting, the process of painting batches of like colored cars, is a
            manufacturing process change that reduces the purged paint sludge and solvent
            emissions. Further, block painting not only decreases the waste, but also the setup
            time involved in the process.

            Pollution Prevention Solution #2:

            The technology now exists to paint cars without the toxic toluene and xylene
            solvents. Similar to the way a photocopier affixes ink to paper, electrostatic painting
            can adhere paint to treated metal. While the scrubber represents treatment and block
            painting represents waste reduction, shifting to the elecaostatic painting process
            represents pollution prevention by design. According to data from Toyota, the
            electrostatic technology exists^ and actually exhibits better quality characteristics
            than solvent-based painting. Unfortunately, paint booths representģlarge capital
            investment (upwards of S10 million) that is usually amortized over ten years.. In the
           . U.S., however, because the big three automakers have all invested in new solvent-
            based paint booths within the past five years, electrostatic painting will not become
            commonplace for another five to ten years.  .               .  ,
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                                 iNTRODUCTlbN •• 1-4
 1.1.4  TMe Environmental Management Hierarchy

 Environmental management encompasses a Variety of strategies for dealing with wastes. A  ..
 hierarchy has been developed to prioritize these strategies. Strategies that reduce or eliminate
 wastes before they are created are preferable to those that deal with treating or disposing
 wastes that are already generated. This hierarchy is:

 f   .  Preventipn: The best waste reduction strategy is one that keeps waste from being
       formed in the first place. Waste prevention may in some cases require significant
       changes to process, but it provides the greatest environmental and economic rewards.

. *•     Recycling: If waste generation is unavoidable in a process, then strategies that
   -    minimize the waste tothe greatest extent possible should be pursued, such as
       recycling and reuse.
          '                   ,'-••: ~   '    "f   ~  '        •'.---•        ' -• -
 >     'Treatment: When wastes cannot be prevented or minimized through reuse or
       recycling, strategies to reduce their volume or toxicity through treatment can be
       pursued. While "end-of-pipe" strategies can sometimes reduce the amount of waste,
       they are not as effective as preventing the waste in the first place.

 ģ•      Disposal: The last strategy to consider is alternative disposal methods. Proper waste
        disposal is an essential component of an overall environmental managementprogram;
        however, it is the least effective technique.      ;
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                               INTRODUCTION ģ• 1-5
'2 .'
ģ Process Changes
ģ Design of Products that
Minimize Environmental
ģ Source Elimination
ģ Reuse
ģ Reclamation
Stabilization .
ģ Disposal at a Permitted-
ģ Modify Process to.
Avoid/Reduce Solvent Use
ģ Modify Product to Extend
• Coating Life
-.Ģ• ... Solvent Recycling
ģ . Metal Recovery from a
Spent Bath
ģ . Volatile Organic Recovery
ģ Thermal Destruction of
Organic Solvents .
.ģ• . . Precipitation of Heavy ,
Metals from a Spent
Plating Bath ...
ģ ' Land Disposal

In most countries there is a need to balance economic growth with environmental protection.
It is increasingly being recognized that economic development and the health and welfare of
a society are closely linked to proper management of a country's natural resources and
environment In these countries pollution prevention offers the government and industrial
sector a way to manage the impacts of industrial growth on the environment while enabling
economic development Specifically, pollution prevention addresses three important
components of the environmental protection/ economic development issue:  ^

*     Environment: offers a better solution for environmental management than "end-of-
      pipe" pollution solutions                             .

ģ•"    Quality: encourages evaluation of production processes and product quality

>•   '  Cost: improves a facility's bottom-line by reducing treatment costs, saying on
      material and resource inputs, and reducing risk and liability insurance
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                                INTRODUCTION ģ• 1-6
1.2 J   Environmental Issues

The overriding purpose of pollution prevention is to improve and protect environmental
quality particularly in areas that are becoming increasingly polluted as a result of rapid
industrialization and urban growth. Pollution prevention measures reduce the need for scarce
raw materials, toxic materials, and energy and reduce! the discharge pollutants both toxic and"
non-toxic into the environment, this need is even more critical in areas that rely on scarce
resources for their well-being,                                    .     • .

Dealing with environmental wastes through "end-of-pipe" measures (such as wastewater
treatment systems, hazardous waste incinerators and other treatment technologies, secure
landfills, monitoring equipment, solid waste hauling^^'equipment, air pollution control
equipment, and catalytic converters) has proven to be very costly and does not address all
environmental problems. Pollution prevention offers industry the advantages of: -
       less need for costly pollution control equipment.
        "getting ahead*'of environmental regulations               .
       reduced reporting and permitting requirements
       less operation and maintenance of pollution control equipment
 1.2.2  improving Product QuaJity Through TQEM                         .

 The process of identifying pollution prevention opportunities also provides a facility with the
 opportunity to identify measures to improve product quality; A pollution prevention
 assessment requires a facility to examine its production process in-depth. Finding ways to
 reduce wastes also requires a firm to examine the root causes for generating wastes and
 improve its processes.           '                     ,                       .

 Total Quality Management (TQM) is the management system developed to achieve the goal
 of high product and service quality. The management elements of TQM include: 1) Customer
 focus; 2) Continuous improvement; 3) Teamwork; and 4) Strong management commitment.

 At first glancei TQM seems unrelated to these environmental concerns. Yet the inherent
 strengths of the TQM methodology can effectively address some of these issues.
 Professionals who apply TQM concepts to environmental issues have coined the term Total
 Quality Environmental Management (TQEM). TQEM is a logical method for achieving.
 pollution prevention.          .

 Customer focus: In the context of quality, the customer is defined as the person who employs
 the "product and service characteristics." Customers fall into two categories, internal and
 external. The internal customer is the next person in the production chain, while the external.
 customer is the end-user of the product. In the auto industry, the person who installs the
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                                •INTRODUCTION" 1-7
bumper is ari internal customer to the department producing the bumpers. The external
customer is the consumer who purchases the finished car. If the definition of the customer is
expanded to include those people'and environments that are affected by the production
process waste, total quality management requires us to understand the impact of this waste on
those customers, and take steps to reduce it Both W. Edwards Demirig and Kiyoshi Suzaki,
legends in the field of TQM, have defined waste as that which does not add value.1 Here, we
define waste more specifically to be the physical by-products of a process. This can be excess
paper in an insurance office as well as waste chemicals from a paper mill. By more narrowly
defining waste, the principles of its elimination put forth by Deming and Suzaki we no less
pertinent                                                                   "     .

       Recognizing the Customer...

       Many industries use the solvent trichlbroethylene (TCE) in their operations.
       This highly toxic chemical must be contained in a closed system, as releases of
       TCE can be fatal. Such releases often require the evacuation of the facility.
       Here the plant workers are the unwilling internal customers of TCE fumes. The
       external environment is also an unwilling customer. Rivers downstream can be
       effected by the effluent of a paper mill or oil refinery. Aquatic life in the river
       and people dependent on the river for drinking water are unwilling customers
       of this effluent.                                     .
 Continuous Improvement: Those who have embraced TQM understand that quality can only
 be built into," not inspected into the product This requires the producer to continuously
 identify and eliminate the oZflLsailSfi of the impediments to quality.1 Continuous improvement
.is also the key to reducing the environmental impacts of the production process. The
 traditional approach to industrial waste has been to view it as a necessary, though unwanted,
 by-product of manufacturing. While production generates the waste, the responsibility to
 dispose of the waste in a safe and legal manner usually falls on the environmental
 engineering department Because environmental engineers receive the waste after it has been
 created, they are not intimately familiar with the processes that create it Further, because
 waste reduction is not a component of their performance review, environmental engineers do
 not have the institutional motivation to reduce the waste.

 TQEM is the logical method for producing the results of pollution prevention. Pollution
 prevention calls for industry to prevent pollution wherever possible. Employing a customer
 focus, and classifying the waste itself and the activities required to control it as non-value-
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                                 INTRODUCTION * 1-8
added TQEM calls for waste generation to be brought to a minimum.2 Operators and process
engineers, not environmental engineers, are responsible for identifying and eliminating the  ;
root causes of process waste. Employing the continuous irnprovement approach,  zero waste
is as much a goal as "zero defects."
  '       '       •  '  ',   - •   -;    '    '  ' "      \   .'•'".''"•-.   :'   '.•''.      •"'.'.
As a result of TQEM projects, product quality often improves while waste is reduced. One
possible explanation might be thatTQEM efforts empower employees to become more
familiar with all aspects of the process, and not just those associated with production. When
forced to question wastes from the process, improvements to quality characteristics can
result-'   -  -;   ..•''-     .'    ..'-•'. .:'.   ,    ''_;'•   -..„-''  '", -  .".'',.'

Teamwork: the team approach allows alt factors of the environmental issue-to be considered:
Accountants are familiar WiA.cost considerations; product engineers are familiar quality
considerations; process and chemical engineers are familiar with, feasibility considerations;
and environmental engineers are familiar with environmental impacts. Because
environmental engineers are trained to deal with waste ifisi it has been generated, and. not in
methods of preventing it from being created in the first place, engineers with knowledge of
the process characteristics must be involved.
          S      '. 1       ,      ,           '" "     •
         Ford Team eliminating TCE through Continuous Improvement...

         Degreasing certain aluminum components with TCE has required extensive
         safety mechanisms and procedures. Building better containment systems
         reduces the risk of exposure, but does not get to the root cause of the problem
         — the use of TCE. With this in mind, the U.S. automobile manufacturer Ford,
         an active TQEM proponent, looked for a TCE-free solution to degreasing
         radiator coils! Forf formed a team that included a chemical engineer, an
         environmental engineer, a process engineer, an accountant; and a product
         engineer. The variety of backgrounds on the team ensured that the pertinent
         issues of cost, product quality, process feasibility, and environmental impact
         were all addressed. The Ford team designed an aqueous degreasing system
         (i.e.^ soap and water) to replace the TCE. Not only is the toxic chemical
         removed from the plant, but the water in the new system is recycled as well.
         Significantly, the aqueous degreaseif exhibits better quality characteristics
         than the TCE degreaser..
 The above project is an example of the best of all worlds: improved quality, reduced cost, and.
 reduced environmental impact. Certainly not all projects will prove so fruitful. Some clean

                                INTRODUCTION •• 1-9
alternatives may cost more than their polluting rivals, but that cost must be balanced with the
benefits of the environmental improvement.3 To justify this viewpoint, one needs only to
look to the increasing expectations of external customers for "environmentally friendly

Strong Management Commitment: It should now be clear that three of the elements of TQM
— customer focus, continuous improvement, team approach— readily apply to
environmental issues. As in traditional TQM settings, the last — strong management
commitment — is perhaps the most important. No TQEM program will succeed without the
commitment of senior management Senior management, those who have built their careers
when waste was seen as a necessary by-product, must come to understand that both internal
and external customer expectations include environmentally conscious products  and
processes. They must learn to see the value of applying TQEM to get to the root .causes of
waste, and call on the cross-disciplinary teams to employ continuous improvement to
implement ever "cleaner" solutions.                        .

1.23  Improving the Bottom Line                               .

'In many cases, pollution prevention measures can have clear environmental benefits in terms
of pollution that is not generated, reductions in the toxic materials used in the production
process, savings in energy use and other raw materials. Savinp can accrue in five areas:

 *     a company can save on raw materials;    ,
 *     a company can save on labor costs;
 ģ•     disposal costs can be reduced or eliminated;
 >     a facility can save on waste handling/treatment costs both in its own use  of labor to
       collect, store, and process wastes and incur costs to transport wastes off-site;
 >     decreasing the amount of toxic materials used, handled, and transported 'at a facility
       can reduce its future liabilitycosts.           .

 Chapter 4 focuses on the. financial considerations associated with pollution prevention
 projects. Additionally, the case studies included in this manual demonstrate this concept
                                     Training Manual

 •'.    .           ,,•  /         CHAPTER!                                >

This Chapter describes a step-by-step approach for carrying out a pollution prevention
assessment It is designed to be generic to apply to a broad spectrum of industry. The
approach comprises three phases; a preassessment phase for assessment preparation; a data
collection phase to derive a material balance; and a synthesis phase where the findings from
the:rnaterial balance are translated into a waste reduction action plan.

It is possible that not all of the assessment steps will be relevant toevery situation.Similarly, ~
in some situations addhionalsteps may be required. However, the following approach should
form the basis of your investigations.                        .         ,      ....

2.1    PHASE 1: PREASSESSMENT    •                      ,

2.1.1   Step 1: Assessment Focus and Preparation

A thorough preparation for a pollution prevention assessment is a prerequisite for an efficient
and cost-effective study. Of particular importance is to gain support for. the assessment from
top-level management, and for the implementation of results; Otherwise there will.be no real
action.'     •    .      •,,.-.    '    ""  ' '•    •-  :  '.'.  V '-.•'.''.'  •';.•;

The pollution prevention assessment team should be identified. The number of people
required on an assessment team will depend on the size and complexity of the processes to be
investigated. A pollution prevention assessment of a small factory may be undertaken by one
person with contributions from the employees: A more complicated process may require at
least 3 or 4 people: technical  staff, production employees and an environmental specialist
Involving personnel from each stage of the manufacturing operations will increase employee
awareness of waste reduction and promote input and supportfor the program.

 A pollution preyentioT assessment will probably require external resources, such as
 laboratory analytical facilities and possibly equipment for sampling and flow measurement:
 You should attempt to identify external resource requirements at the outset of the project
    1    This chapter is derived from The United Nations industrial Development Organization's manual
 "Audit and Reduction Manual for Industrial Emissions and Wastes^"
                                    Training Manual

Analytical services and equipment may not be available to a small factory. If this is the case,
investigate 'the possibility of forming a pollution prevention associations with other factories
or industries; under this umbrella the external resource costs can be shared.                ,

It is important to-select the focus of your assessment at the preparation stage. You may .wish'
the pollution prevention assessment to cover a complete process or you may want to
concentrate on a selection of unit operations within a process. The focus will depend on the
objectives of the pollution prevention assessment You may wish to look at waste
minimization as a whole or you may wish to concentrate on particular wastes, for example.

>     raw material losses;    •  '    .                       .   •           .,
ģ     wastes that cause processing problems;
>     wastes considered to be hazardous or for which regulations exist;
>•     wastes for which disposal costs are high.

A good starting point for designing a pollution prevention assessment is to determine the
major problems/wastes associated with your particular process or industrial sector. The Rapid
Assessment of Sources of Air, Water and Land Pollution published by the World Health
Organization (WHO, 1982) is a useful reference for identifying the typical quantities of
wastes associated with particular industries. For example, Exhibit 2-1 describes the likely
waste quantities for the tanning industry..
 Exhibit 2-1: Manufacture of Leather and Products of Leather, Leather Substitutes
 and Fur, except Footwear and Wearing Apparel
                                         Pulp hair/
                                   chrome tanning/
     Save hair/
chrome tanning/
       Save hair/
vegetable tanning
Waste volume
Suspended, Solids
Total Solids .
Total Chromium
Oil and Grease .
Total N ;
PH .
(raj of hides)'.
(kg/t of hides} . .
(kg/t of hides}
(kg/t of hides)
(kgrt of hides)
(kg/4 of hides)
(kg/t of hides)
(kg/t of hides)
' (kg/t of hides)
(kg/t of hides) '
"1 53 '
95 . '
' 260
145 •
43 •
™~ 50
' Ŗ1
1 1<
f\ *^
' Q 1
 (Source: WHO, 1982)
                                    Training Manual

All existing.documentation.and information regarding the process, the plant or the reg^nal
industrial sector should be collated and reviewed as a preliminary step. Regional or plant
surveys may have been undertaken; these could yield useful information indicating the areas
for concern and will also.show gaps where no data are available. The following prompts give
some guidelines on useful documentation.

/     Is a site plan available?                     .
*      Are any process flow diagrams available?
ģ      Have the process wastes ever been monitored- do you have access to the records?
       Do you have a map of the surrounding area indicating watercourses, hydrology and
       human settlements?   ,       '                            ''.'••'        „
,.   .   Are there any other factories/plants in the area whichMy have similar processes?

Other general data which may be collated quickly and which are userul orientation material
are described below.    ''<...            ....             •••-'  .    . ,      .. ;

ģ•      What are the obvious wastes associated with your process?
ģ•      Where is water used in greatest volume?                                   ;
*.•    Do you:use chemicals that have special instructions for their useandhandling?
 *-     DO you have waste treatment and  disposal, costs-what are they?
 •     Where are your discharge points for liquid, solid and gaseous emissions?

The plant employees should be informed that the assessment will be taking place, and tiiey
 should be encouraged to take part. The support of the staff is imperative for this type of
 interactive study. It is important to undertake the assessment during normal working hours so
 that the employees and operators can be consulted, the equipment can be observed in
 operation and, most importantly, wastes can be quantified    -     .      .

 2.1.2   Step 2: Listing Unit Operations

 Your process will comprise a number of unit operations, A unit operation may be defined as
 an areaof the process or a piece of equipment where materials are input, a function occurs
 and materials are output, possibly in a different form, state or composition..For example, a,
 process may comprise the following unit operations: raw material storage, surface treatment,
 rinsing, painting, drying, product storage and waste treatment.                  ;

  Any initial site survey should include a walk around the entire manufacturing plant in order
.  to gain a sound understanding of all the processing operations and their mterrelationships.
  This will help the assessment team decide how to describe a process in terms of unit
  operations. During this initial overview, it is userul to record visual observations and
                                     Training Manual

discussions and'to make sketches of process layout, drainage systems, vents, plumbing and
other material transfer areas. These help to ensure that important factors are not overlooked.

The assessment team should consult the production staff regarding normal operating
conditions. The production or plant staff are likely to know about waste discharge points,
unplanned waste generating operations such as spills and washouts, and give the assessors a
good indication of actual operating procedures. Investigations may reveal that night-sliift
procedures are different from day-shift procedures; also, a plant may disclose that actual
material handling practices are different from 'those set out in written procedures.

A long-standing employee could give some insight into recurring process problems. In the
absence of any historical monitoring this information can be very useful. Such employee'
participation must however be a non-blaming process; otherwise.it will not be as useful as it
could be.                                      . •           .    "'  '.            ,

During the initial survey, note imminent problems that need to be addressed before the
assessment is complete.      .                   •

The pollution prevention assessment team neete to understand the 'function and process
variables associated with each unit operation. Similarly, all the available information on the
unit operations and the process in general should be collated, possibly in separate files. It is
useful to tabulate this information, as shown in Exhibit 2-2.
 Exhibit 2-2; Identification of Unit Operations
Unit Operation
(A) Surface Treatment-
Function ' • . .
Surface treatment of metal products •
1 0 m3 spray chamber, 6 jets, 100/min pump-
File Number
  (B) Rinsing
•Washing metal products before painting
 Identification of materials handling operations (manual, automatic, bulk,.drums, etc.)
 covering raw materials, transfer practices and products is also an important aspect which
 could usefully be included in the above tabulation as a prelude to development of a materials
 balafice(Phase2)..                                  .  .
                                     Training Manual

2.1 J   Step 3: Constructing Process Flow Diagrams

By connecting the individual unit operations in the form of a block diagram you can prepare
a process flow diagram. Intermittent operations such as cleaning, make-up or tank dumping
may be distinguished by using broken lines to link the boxes. Exhibit 2-3 is an example of a
simplified process flow diagram for a metalfinishing process.

Exhibit 2-3: A Process Flow Diagram for a Metal Finishing Process
"Surface :
a -

• c

. Tram
* ;

.' '


, Rimewater

1 t.
. '
— ģ

V 1


•P*,,^ .

For complex processes prepare a general flow diagram illustrating the main process ares
and, on separate sheets of paper, prepare detailed flow diagrams for each main processing
  Now you must decide on the level of detail that you require to achieve your objectives.

 'k is important to realize that the less detailed or larger scale the assessment becomes, the
  more information is likely to be lost or masked by oversimplification. Establishing the
  correct level of detail and homing in on specific areas is very important at an early stage.
                                      Training Manual

Pay particular attention to correcting any obvious waste arising which can be "*ģ* *
prevented easily, before proceeding, to the development of a matenal balance (Phase 2). By
making simple changes at this early stage, the resultant benefits will^elp enlist the    ,
participation and stimulate the enthusiasm of employees for the total pollution prevention
assessment/reduction program.              .
  Phase 1: Summary

  At the end of the pollution prevention assessmentfKasseSsment stage the assessment team
  should be organized and be aware of the objectives of the pollution prevention assessment.,

  Plant personnel should have been informed of the assessment purpose is order to maximize
  co-operation between ail parties concerned.

  Any required financial resources should have been secured and external facilities checked out
  for availability and capability.

  The team should be aware of the overall history and local surroundings of the plant.

  The scope and focus of the pollution prevention assessment should have been established, and
  a rough timetable worked out te fit in with production patterns.

  The assessment team should be familiar with the layout of the processes within the plant and
  should have listed the unit operations associated with each process. Sources of wastes and
  their causes should also have been identified.

  It should be possible to draw process flow diagrams highlighting those areas to be covered, in
  the pollution prevention assessment.   ..            .         .             .      '  .

  Any very obvious waste saving measures which can be introduced easily should be imple-
  mented immediately.   '   "                      .   •                                .

  The findings of the Phase 1 investigations could usefully be presented to -the management in
  the form of a brief preassessment report in order to reaffirm their commitment into the next
  phase.     .        -              •
 A material balance may be defined as a precise amount of the inputs-and outputs of an
 operatio'n.               .
                                     Training Manual

This phase describes a procedure for the collection and arrangement of input and output data.
The procedure can be applied to derive the material balance of a plant, a process or a unit
operation. Exhibit 2-4 is an example of a set of components that need to be quantified to
derive a material balance. Note that infrequent outputs (e.g., the occasional dumping of an
electroplating bath) may be as significant ascontinuous daily charges.

Exhibit 2-4: Components to a Material Balance
                                                         Gmous Emissions
                   Catsly* -
                   Water/Air -
                     Powar -
Precast or Unit
' ' RteydĢ

ay-Produeti  .;
Including WaĢaa
foe Racbvaiy.
                                                        Liquid waģtaĢtar Stbraga and/
                                                        or Off-ma Olipool '
                                                            SoKd Wastt* far Sung*

 A material.balance may be defined as a precise account of the inputs and outputs of ah
• operation.  '• / _   ••;" •  '•'-'•"-'..    •';'."    '      •  .•', _  ,.',""   ' •   ' .  '    •   .  '

 This phase describes a procedure for the collection and arrangement of input and output data.
 The procedure can be applied to derive the material balance of a plant, a. process, or a.unit
 operation. Exhibit 2-4 is an example set of components that need to be quantified to derive a
 material balance. Note that infrequent outputs (e.g. the occasional dumping of an    ,
 electroplating .bath) may be as significant as continuous daily discharges.        '

 The manual uses unit operations to illustrate the pollution prevention assessment procedure.
                                     Training Manual

Although the procedure is laid down in a step-by-step fashion it should be emphasized that
the output information can be collected at the same time or before the input data; it is up to..
you to organize your time efficiently.
                                i                         •

2.2.1   Step 4: Determining Inputs

Inputs to a process or a unit operation may include raw materials, chemicals, water, air and
power (Exhibit2-4). The inputs to the^process and to eachrunir operation need to be^
quantified.                           .            ...

As a first step towards quantifying raw material usage, examine purchasing records, this
rapidly gives you an idea of the sort of quantities involved.

In many situations the unit operations where raw material losses are greatest are raw'material
storage and transfer. You should look at these operations in conjunction with the purchasing
records to determine the actual net input to the process.

Make notes regarding raw material  storage and handling practices. Consider evaporation
losses, spillages, leaks from underground storage tanks, vapor losses through storage tank
pressure-relief vents and contamination of raw materials. Often these can be rectified very
    *                                       *
Record raw material purchases and storage and handling losses in a table in order to derive
the net input to the process (Exhibit 2-5).

Once the net input of raw materials to your process has been determined you should proceed
with quantifying the raw material input to each unit operation.

If accurate information about raw material consumption rates for individual unit operations is
not available then you will need to  take measurements to determine average figures.

Measurements should be taken for  an appropriate length of time. For example, if a batch
takes one week to run, then measurements should be taken over a period of at least three •
weeks; these figures can be extrapolated for monthly or annual figures.
                                    Training Manual

Exhibit 2-5: Raw Material Storage and Handling Losses

 Material 1
 ' Raw  '
 Material 2
 Material 3
City of Raw
City of
•Raw Material
(per annum)
Type of
Used in
 (per annum)
of Storage
Estimated -   .
Annual Raw  •
Material Losses
95 kg
                                            1 month
 Some quantification is possible by observation and some simple accounting procedures.

       For solid raw materials, ask the warehouse: operator how many sacks are stored at the
       beginning of the week or prior to unit operation; then ask him again at the end of the
       week or unit orjeration. Weigh a selection of sacks to check compliance with

 *     For liquidraw materials .such aswater or solvent* checkstoragetank capacities and
       ask operators when a tank was last filled. Tank volumes can be estimated from the
       tank diameter and tank depth. Monitor the tank levels and the number of tankers
;       arriving on she.                                         .

 While investigating the inputs, talking to staff and observing the unit operations in action, the
 pollution prevention assessment team should be thinking about how to improve the efficiency
 of unit operations. Consider the following questions.

'-*•''••,  Is the size of the raw material inventory appropriate to ensure that material-handling
        loses can be minimized?                                   .     .              '
'.*.-.   Transfer distances between storage and process or between unit operations -could
  >;     these be reduced to minimize potential wastage?            '                -
 V     Do the same tanks store different raw materials depending on the batch product? Is
        there a risk of cross contamination?          ,       . .  A
 ' i-     Are sacks of materials emptied or is some material wasted?
                                     Training Manual

        Are viscous raw material used on site - is it possible to reduce residual wastage in
        drums?              -                                           .
  *     ' Is the raw material storage area secure? Could a building be locked at night,, or could
        an area be fenced off to restrict access?
  >     How could the raw materials be protected fix>m direct sunlight or from heavy
  >     Is dust from stockpiles a problem?
  >     Is the equipment used to pump or transfer materials working efficiently? Is it
        maintained regularly?
  ģ•     Could spillages be avoided?               ,
 'ģ     Is the process adequately manned?
.•>     How could the input of raw materials be monitored?
  ģ     Are there any obvious equipment items in need of repair?.
. *•     .Are pipelines self-draining?                           ...
  ģ•     Is vacuum pump water recirculated?               •       .   .

  The energy input to a unit operation should be considered at this stage; however, energy use
  deserves a* full assessment in its own right. For pollution prevention assessment purposes
  make a note of the energy source and whether waste reduction could reduce energy costs. If
  energy usage is a particularly prominent factor maybe you should recommend that an energy
  assessment be undertaken.

  Input data should be recorded on your process flow diagram or in tabular form as shown in
  Exhibit 2-6.                                                         .

  Water is frequently used in the production process, for cooling, gas scrubbing, washouts,
  product rinsing and steam cleaning. This water usage needs to be quantified as an input.

  Some unit operations may receive recycled .wastes from other unit operations. These also
  represent an input                                                       .

  Steps'5 and 6 describe how these two factors should be included in your pollution prevention
  assessment  .   .'
                                      Training Manual

Exhibit 2-6: Input
 Unit Operation
, Raw Material I
                                       Raw Material 2
Energy Source
 .Treatment (A)
 Rinse (B)
 Painting (C)
 , Total Raw Material
 Used in-All Unit
 , Operations
2.2.2  Step 5: Recording Water Usage                   ;   .

The use of water, other than fora process reaction, is a factor that should be covered in all
pollution prevention assessments. The use of water to wash, rinse and cool is often          .
overlooked, although it represents an area where waste reductions can frequently be achieved
simply and cheaply.                    ...

Consider these general points about the site water supply before assessing the water usage for
individual units.           .                                    ^

>•     Identify water sources? Is water absorbed directly from a borehole, river or reservoir;
       is water stored on site in tanks or in a lagoon?        '     .
>...    What is the storage capacity for water on site?
f     How is water transferred - by pump, by gravity, manually?                  ;
*     Is rainfall a significant factor on site?,,         •   "     -      •         •

For each unit operation.consider the following.

 ••      What is water used for in each operation? Cooling, gas scrubbing, washing, product
    •   rinsing, dampening stockpiles,general maintenance,safety quench, etc.
 >      How often does each action place?
 v      How much water is used for each action?
 It is unlikely that the answers to these questions will.be readily available - you will need to
 undertake a monitoring program to assess the use of water.in each unit operation. Again, the
 measurements must cover a sufficient period of time to ensure that all actions are monitored.
 Pay particular attention to intermittent actions such as steam cleaning and tank washouts;
                                      Training Manual

water use is often indiscriminate during these operations. Find out when these actions will be
undertaken so that detailed measurements can be made.

Record water usage information in a tabular form — ensure that the units used to describe
intermittent actipns indicate a time period (Exhibit 2-7).
Exhibit 2-7: Water Usage
    1  .   •              Cleaning            Steam             Cooling            'Other

 Unit Operation A	 •	.  .'  '        '••••'•'

 Unit Operation B                     • .  . •    	'       	        ,       _

 Unit Operation C               .	       -  ' •   •••_''	    '.  .

Alt measurements in standard units, for example mVannum or mVday.               •
Using less water can be a cost-saving exercise. Consider the following point? while
investigating water use:

*•      tighter control of water use can reduce the volume of wastewater requiring treatment
       and result in cost savings — in the extreme, it can sometimes reduce volumes and
       increase concentrations to the point of providing economic material recovery in place
       of costly wastewater treatment;
>      attention to good house-keeping practices often reduces .water usage and, in turn, the
       amount of wastewater passing to drain;
ģ      the cost of storing wastewater for subsequent reuse may be far less than the treatment
       and disposal costs;  .                     .      •                      ...
>      counter-current rinsing and rinse water reuse are highlighted in the case studies as
       useful tips for reducing water usage.
2.2.3  Step 6: Measuring Current Leveb of Waste Reuse/Recycling

Some wastes lend themselves to direct reuse in production and may be transferred from one
unit to- another (e.g., reuse of the final rinse in a soft-drink bottle washing plant as the initial
rinse); others require some modifications before they are suitable for reuse in a process.
These reused waste streams should be quantified.
                                    Training Manual

If reused wastes are not properly documented double-counting may occur in the material
balance particularly at the process or complete plant level; that is, a waste will be quantified
as an output from one process and as an input to another.            ,

The reuse or recycling of wastes can reduce the amount of fresh water and raw materials
required for a process. While looking at the inputs to unit operations think about the
opportunities for reusingand recycling outputs from other operations.
   Steps 4,5 and 6 Summary               •       ,

   By the end of Step 6 you should have quantified all your process inputs.

   The net input of raw materials and water to the process should be established haying
   taken into account any losses incurred at the storage and transfer stages. .;

   Any reused .or recycled inputs should be documented.

   All notes regarding raw material handling, process layout, water losses, obvious areas
   where problems exist should all be documented for consideration in Phase 3.
 2.2.4  Step 7: Quantifying Process Outputs

 To calculate the second half of the material balance the outputs from unit operations and the
 process as a whole heed to be quantified.                   .

 Outputs include primary product, by-products^ wastewater, gaseous wastes (emissions to
 atmosphere), liquid and solid wastes which need to be stored and/or sent off-site for disposal
 and reusable or recyclable wastes (Exhibit 2-4). You may find that a table along the lines of
 Exhibit 2-8 will help you organize the input information. It is important to identify units of -
 measurement,                                              ,
                                    Training Manual

                 A Ml-. .'HODOLOGY FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION ģ 2-14
Exhibit 2-8: Process Outputs
Unit Operation
Waste. So''."1
. to be Waste- Gaseous .Stored Wastes
Product By-Product Reused water Emissions Wastes OfŖSite
Unit Operation A- ,
Unit Operation B . •
Unit Operation C . , . .
The assessment of the amount of primary product or useful product is a key factor in process
or unit operation efficiency.                                        .      .

If the product is sent off-site for sale, then the amount produced is likely to be documented in
company records. However, if the product is an intermediate to be input to another process or
unit operation then the output may not be so easy to quantify. Production rates will have to be
measured over a period of time. Similarly, the quantification ofany by-products may require
measurement.                -                             .

Hints on how to approach the quantification of wastewater, gaseous emissions and wastes for
off-site removal are described in Steps 8,9 and 10.
 2.2.5  Step 8: Accounting for Wastewater

'On many sites significant quantities of both clean and contaminated water are discharged to
 sewer or to a watercourse. In many cases; this wastewater has environmental implication^and
 incurs treatment costs, in addition, wastewater may wash out valuable unused raw materials
, from the process areas.               ;          .        '.   .'.    '...•'

 Therefore, it is extremely important to know how much wastewater is going down the drain
 and what the wastewater contains. The wastewater flows, from each unit operation as well as
.from the process as a whole, need to be quantified, sampled and analyzed.

 Here are some suggestions on how to carry out a thorough survey of wastewater flows on
 your site.                  '

 •>     Identify the effluent discharge points; that is, where  does wastewater leave the site?
       Wastewater may go to an effluent treatment plant or directly to a public sewer or
                                    Training Manual

       watercourse. One factor that.is often overlooked is the use of several discharge points
       -it is important to identify the location, type and size of all discharge flows.     '    -

 ••      Identify where flows from different unit operations or prieess areas contribute to the
       overall flow. In this way, it is possible' to piece together the drainage network for your
       site. This can lead to startling discoveries of what goes where!

 ģ.      Qnce the drainage system is understood it is possible to design an appropriate
       sampling and flow measurement program to monitor the wastewater flows and
       strengths from each unit operation.

 f      Plan your monitoring program thoroughly and try to take samples over a range of
      . operating conditions such as full production, start up, shut down and washing out. In
       the case of combmed stonn waiter and wastewater drainage systems, ensure that
       sampling and flow measurements are carried outin dry weather.

 v     For small or batch wastewater flows it may be physically possible to collect all the
       flow for measurement using a pail and wristwatch. Larger, or continuous wastewater
       flows can be assessed using flow measurement techniques.

 The sum of the wastewater generated from each unit operation should be approximately the
 same as that input to the process. As indicated in Step 6,  note that double-counting can occur
 where wastewater is reused. This emphasizes the importance of understanding your unit
 operation- and their interrelationships.                        ' \           ,

 The wastewater should be analyzed to determine, the concentration of contaminants.

 V    You should include wastewatei; analyses such as pH, chemical oxygen demand
       (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended solidsand grease and oil.

•''•ģ:  • -  Other parameters that should be measured depend on the raw material inputs. For
       example, an electroplating process is likely to use nickel andchromium. The metal
       concentrations of the wastewater should be measured to ensure that the concentrations
       do not exceed discharge regulations, but also to ensure that .raw materials are not
       being lost to drain. Any toxic substances used in the process should be measured.

 ģ•     Take samples for laboratory analysis. Composite samples should be taken for.
       cohtinuouslyrrunning wastewater. Por example, a small volume, 100 ml, maybe
  •      collected every hour through a production period of ten hours to gain a 1 liter
        composite sample. The composite sample represents the average wastewater
        conditions over that time, Where significant flow variations occur during the
        discharge period, consideration should be given to varying the size of individual
                                    Training Manual

       samples in proportion to flow rate in order to ensure that a representative composite
       sample is obtained. For batch tanks and periodic drain down, a single spot sample
       may be adequate (check for variations between batches before deciding on the
       appropriate sampling method).                        ,         .

Wastewater flows and concentrations should be tabulated (Exhibit 2-9).

Exhibit 2-9: Wastewater Flows
                 Discharge to
                Storm water
                 ,  Drain
"-Tonal .Waste-
.  waiter Output
 Source of
Flow  Conc'n   Flow  Conc'n   Flow   Conc'n  Flow  Conc'n    Flow   Cdnc'n
 Unit Operation A
 Unit Operation B
 Unit Operation C
Flows in m'/d; concentrations of contaminants of concern in mg/1)
2.2.6  Step 9: Accounting for Gaseous Emissions

To arrive at an accurate material balance some quantification of gaseous emissions associated
with your process is necessary.          ,

It is important to consider the actual and potential gaseous emissions associated with each
unit operation from raw material storage through to product storage.
          "              *                       '       •ģ•*'•.'
Gaseous emissions are not always obvious and can be difficult to measure. Where
quantification is impossible, estimations, can be made using stoichiometric information. The
following example illustrates the use of indirect estimation.

Consider coal burning in a boiler house. The assessor may not be able to measure the mass of
sulphur dioxide leaving the boiler stack due to problems of access arid lack of suitable       :
sampling ports on the stack. The only information available is that the coal is of soft quality
containing 3% sulphur by weight and, on average, 1000 kg of coal is'burned each day:
                                     Training Manual

                  A METHODOLOGY FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION >• 2-17   •
 First calculate the amount of sulphur burned:    /

        1000 kg coal x 0.03 kg sulphur/kg coal = 30 kg sulphur/day.
                          '• '     ,  .   '•'.'.,'.     -...--'..•-." -'-"-
 ••  '      :  -  V.      .  !  - ..  .  '   -     V  -  .   .      •  ;
 The combustion reaction is approximately:        <   „
     ..           .     ,                           .    ...     .                     ,..
 The number of moles of sulphur burned equals the number of moles of sulphur dioxide
 produced. The atomic weight of sulphur is 32 and ^molecular weight of sulphur dioxide is 64.   ,
 Therefore:;,-.  .   ". '   ..   ",    ' ;.••-•'; ;.''""'-:"" "       . ' ', •'--.;. ' •  ; , '.v.^ /':/,•;...  ,..•:'• .;''  ..

        kg-moles. S = 30 kg/32 kg.per kg-mole ^ kg-mole of SO2 formed              . .

     '   JcgS02 formed = (64 kg. SO^g-mdle) x kg-moles SO2 = 64 x 30/32 = 60 kg    ;     ;

 Thus, it may be estimated that an emission, of 60 kg sulphur dioxide wiU take place each day
 from the  boiler stack..                         '•",-            .      j             ;
 . -;     '  •  '      \   •" '   : ••    '  --   '      • '.     . '•  •   .'.' ••-  ',-   '••    • -   .•   ;•    '
 Record the  quantified emission data in tabular form and indicate which figures are estimates
 and which are actual measurements.

 The assessor should consider qualitative .characteristics at the same time as quantifying
 gaseous wastes.                                         .        :         ,      .

 'ģ     Are odors associated with a unit operation?
 V     Are there certain times when gaseous emissions are more prominent - are they linked
        to temperature?    ;                                                     .
  ģ     Is any pollution control equipment in place?
  >     Are gaseous emissions trom confined spaces (including fugitive emissions) vented to
        the outside?      .
->.     tf gas Drubbing is practiced, what is done with .the .spent scrubber.solution?. Could it
        be converted to a useful product?
  >•     D6 employees wear protective clothing, such as masks?                   r

  2.2.7  Step 10: Accounting-for pif-Site Wastes
  Your process may produce wastes wWch cannot te treated on-site.- These need to be
  transported off-site for treatment and disposal. Wastes of this type are usually non-aqueous
  liquids,  sludges or solids.
                                      Training Manual

Often, wastes for off-site lisposal are costly to transport and to treat. Therefore, minimization
of these wastes yields a direct cost benefits.

Measure the quantity and note the composition of any wastes associated with your process
which need to be sent for off-site disposal. Record your results in a table (Exhibit 2-10).
Exhibit 2-10: Wastes for Off-site Disposal
Unit Operation
Qty Composition-.. Qty
Qty Composition
Unit Operation A — 	 	 	 —
Unit Operation's •
Quantities in mVannum or t/annum
 You should ask several questions during the data collection stage.

 ģ•      Where does the waste originate?
 ^  „   Could the manufacturing operations be optimized to produce less waste?
 >      Could-alternative raw materials be used which would produce less waste?   .
 *   •   Is there a particular component that renders the whole waste hazardous -could this
        component be isolated?   -•   .
 >      Does the waste contain valuable materials?

 Wastes for off-site disposal need to be stored on-site prior to dispatch. Does storage of these
 wastes cause additional emission problems? For example, are solvent-wastes stored in closed
 tanks? How long are wastes stored oh-site? Are stockpiles of solid waste secure or are dust
 storms a regular occurrence?
                                     Training Manual

                                                                              (._* -i.
  Steps?, 8,9, and 10 Summary

  At the end of Step 10 th* pollution prevention assessment team should have collated all,the
  information required for evaluating a material balance for each unit operation and for a
  whole process.                      '             ..   .         ~           ;

  All actual andpotential wastesShould be quantified. Where direct measurement is
  impossible, estimates based on stpichibmetric information should be made.

  The data should be arranged in clear tables with^ standardized units. Throughout the data
  collection phase the assessors should make notes regarduig actions, procedures and
 . operations thatcduld be Improvedi                  -   •        -,       .  ;•
 2.2.8  Step 11: Assembling Input and Output Information'for Unit Operations

 One of the basic law& applied to chemical engineering is that of the material balance which
 states that the total of what goes into a process must equal the total of what comes out.
 Prepare a material balance at a scale appropriate for the level of detail required in your study,
 For example, you may require a material balance for each unit operation or one for a whole
 process may sufficient. In this manual the preparation of a material balance.for unit operation
' scale is illustrated.                                        .,   :

 Preparing amaterial balance is designed to gain a better understanding df the inputs and
 outputs, especially waste, of a unit operation such that areas where information is inaccurate
 or lacking can be identified. Imbalances require further investigation. Do not expect a perfect
 balance•- your initial balance should be considered as a rough assessment to be refined and
 improvedi   . -  .   .'...•   . .   _"     -,    ..,"••'/'•..  '-''•'•   ; • •:•'.•_:   •_ •' " .; "'• '  .'•

 Assemble the input and output information for each unit, operation and.then decide whether
 .all the. inputs and outputs need to be included in the material, balance. For example, this is not
 essential where the cooling water input to a unit operation equals the cooking water output

 . Standardize units of measurement (liters, tons or kilograms) on a per day, per year or per
 batchbasis.           '     >           ,          :  .-.'•••'  .      .... :
 . -   .     .        •        ,   -.' '   .   \ •    '      -     ••.-,••        .
 Summarize the measured values in standard units by reference to your process flow diagram.
 It may have been necessary to modify your process flow diagram following the m^depth
  study of the plant.    .  ,   .
                                     Training Manual^

2.2.9   Step 12: Deriving a Preliminary Material Balance for Unit Operations

Now it is possible to complete a preliminary material balance. For each unit operation utilize
the data developed in Steps 1-10 and construct your material balance. Display your
information clearly. Exhibit 2-11 is one way of presenting the material balance information.
Exhibit 2-11: Preliminary Material Balance for Each Unit Operation
(amounts in standard units per annum)
 Raw Material 1
 Raw Material 2
 Raw Material 3
 Waste Reuse
 Water.  '
                                    Unit Process A
  Outputs       (amounts in standard units per annum)

  Raw Material Storage and Handling Losses
  Reused Wastes                   ...
  Wastewater             .
  Gaseous Emissions               .   '
  Stored Wastes
  Hazardous Liquid Waste Transported Off-Site
  Hazardous Solid Waste Transported OfP-Site
  Non-Hazardous Liquid Waste Transported Off-Site
  Non-Hazardous Solid Waste Transported Off-Site
  Total                               .
 Note that a material balance will often need to be carried out in weight units since volumes
 are notalways conserved. Where volume measurements have to be converted to weight units,.
 take account of the density of the liquid, gas or solid concerned.
                                   Training Manual

Once the material balance for each unit operation has been completed for raw material inputs
and waste outputs it might be worthwhile repeating the procedure with respect to each
contaminant of concern. It is highly desirable to carry out a water balance for all water inputs
and outputs to and from unit operations because water imbalances may indicate senous,
underlying process problems such as leaks or spills. The individual material balances may be
summed to give a balance for the whole process, * production area or factory.
2.2.10 Step 13: Evaluating the Material Balance

The individual and sum totals making iip the material balance shouM be reviewed to.
determine information gaps and inaccuracies. If you do have a significant material imbalance
then further investigation is needed. For example, if outputs are less than inputs look for
potential losses or waste discharges (such as evaporation). Outputs may appear to be greater
than inputs if large measurement or estimating errors are made or some inputs have been
overlooked.                      .      •'.',..         V

At this stage you should take time to re-examine the unit operations; to attempt to identify
where unnoticed losses may be occurring. It may be necessary to repeat some data collection
activities.                       ..'.;                               .••••-'••.

Remember that you need to be thorough and consistent to obtain a satisfactory material
balance. The material balance not only reflects the adequacy of your data collection, but by
its very nature, ensures that you have a sound understanding of the processes involved.
                                                                 •qar. •  •' .    •       '"*•'!
                                                                         •  '     •       "• .  i
 2.2.11 Step 14$ Refining th* Material Balance

 Now you can reconsider the material balance equation by adding those additional factors
 identified in the previous step. If necessary, estimates of unaccountable losses will have to be
 calculated.          •  •   .'            "  "",               •         ,-:  .".,'•.

 Note that, in the case of relatively simple manufacturing plants* preparation of a preliminary
 material balance and its refinement (Steps 13 and 14) can usefully be combined. For more
 complex pollution prevention assessments however, two separate steps are likely to be more
 appropriate.              .          :       .   .

 Remember, the inputs should ideally equal the outputs but in practice this will rarely be the
      and some judgement will be required to determine what level of accuracy-is acceptable.
  In the case of high-strength or hazardous wastes, accurate measurements are needed to design
 . waste reduction options.                                   .                  .
                                    Training Manual

It is possible that the material balance for a number of unit operations will need to be
repeated. Again, continue to review, refine and, where necessary, expand your database. The
compilation of accurate and comprehensive data is essential for a successful pollution
prevention assessment and subsequent waste reduction action plan. You cannot reduce what
you do not know is there.             .       .                                 .
  Steps 11,12,13 and 14 Summary

  By the end of Step 14, you should have assembled information covering process inputs and
  process outputs. These data should be organized and presented clearly in the form-of material
  balances, for each unit operation.                                           ;

  These data form the basis for the development of an action plan for waste minimization.

Phases 1 and 2 have covered planning and undertaking a pollution prevention assessment,
resulting in the preparation of a material balance for each unit operation:

Phase 3 represents the interpretation of the material balance to identify process areas or
components of concern.     , .

The material balance focuses on the attention of the assessor. The arrangement of the input
and output data in the form of a material balance facilitates your understanding ofhow
materials flow through a production process.                                        ,

. To interpret a material balance it is necessary to have an understanding of normal operating
performance. How can you assess whether a unit operation is working efficiently if you do
not know what is normal? A member of your team must have a good working knowledge of
the process. This knowledge can be supported by texts such as the Rapid Assessment of
 Sources of Air, Land and Water Pollution (WHO, 1982).

 To a trained eye the material balance will indicate areas for concern and he.lp to prioritize
 problem wastes.               •                     .   •,    '

 You should use the material balance to identify the major sources of waste, to look for
 deviations'from the norm in terms of waste  production, to identify areas of unexplauwd
 losses and to pinpoint operations which contribute to flows that exceed national or site
 discharge regulations. Process efficiency is  synonymous with waste minimization.
                                    Training Manual

 .Different waste reduction measures require varying degrees'.of effort, time and financial
 resources. They can be categorized as two groups.

 V      Obvious waste reaction measures, including improvements in management.
        techniques and house-keeping procedures that can be implemented
        quickly.                                                                 ,

 • *•'':-'•  Long-term reduction measures involving process modifications or process
        substitutions to eliminate problem wastes.

 increased reuse/recycling to reduce waste falls between the immediate and the more
 substantial waste reduction measures.

 Steps IS? 16 and 17 describehow to identify waste'reduction measures:            .

 23.1  Step 15: Examining Obvious Waste Reduction Measure*

 It may have been possible tp implement very obvious waste reduction measures already,
 before embarking on obtaining a material balance (ref Step 3). Now consider the material
 balance information in conjunction with visual observations made during the whole of the
 data collection period in order to pinpoint areas or operations where simple adjustments in
 procedure could greatly improve the efficiency of the process by reducing;unnecessary
•. losses. •'..-•      •''    >       .    •'..      ..  ''.  '     '-'••-..".''.././-    '.'•;'''

  Use the information gathered for each unit operation to develop better operating:practices for
  all units.

  Significant waste reductions can often be achieved by improved operation, better handling
  and generally taking more care. The following list of waste reduction hints can be
  implemented immediately with no or only small extra costs.
                          1               "           '* . >-  ,VŖs"~    ' ' "        •    "   .   '
  Specifying and Ordering Materials

 ". ģ••    Do not;over-order materials especially if the raw materials or components can spoil or
         are difficult to store.                                .                    ...
 . •+.   .  Try to purchase raw materials in a form which is easy to handle, for example, pellets
   •    •• instead of powders.    .     .           •            •          • ,
  w      It is often mbre.efficient and certainly cheaper to buy in bulk.
                                      Training Manual

 Receiving Materials
 ģ•      Demand quality control from suppliers by refusing damaged, leaking or unlabeled
        containers. Undertake a visual inspection of all materials coming on to the site.
 ģ•      Check that a sack weighs what is should weigh and that the volume ordered is the
        volume supplied.
 ģ•      Check that composition and quality are correct.

 Material Storage

 v      install-high-level control on bulk tajiks to avoid overflows.
' *.     Bund.tanks to contain spillages.           ,     ,
 >      Use tanks that can be pitched and elevated, with rounded edges for ease of draining
        and rinsing.
 ģ•      Dedicated tanks, receiving only one type of material, do not need to be washed out as
        often as tanks receiving a range of .materials.            .     -
 ģ•      Make sure that drums are stored in a stable arrangement to avoid damaging drums
        while in storage.                        .              .
 >•      Implement a tank checking, procedure - dip tanks regularly and document to avoid
        discharging a material into the wrong tank.
 ģ•      Evaporation losses are reduced by using covered or closed tanks.

 Material and Water Transfer and Handling            ',.':'

 ģ•      Minimize the number of times materials are moved on site.
 +      Check transfer lines for spills and leaks.
 >      Is flexible pipework too long?
 >      Catch drainings from transfer hoses,            .                  . :    ...
, >      Plug leaks and fit flow restrictions to reduce excess water consumption.,

 Process Control

 +      Feedback on how waste reduction is improving the process motivates the operators -
        it is vital mat the employees are informed of why actions are taken and what it is
        hoped they will achieve.
 >      Design a monitoring program to check the emissions and wastes from each unit
  '  , "', operation.                       .             .
 >.      Regular maintenance of all equipment will help to reduce fugitive process losses.
                                     Training Manned

 Cleaning Procedures   \

-ģ      Mininuzetheamountofwaterusedtow^outandrinse
        indiscriminate water use contributes a large amount to wastewater flows. Ensure that
        hoses are not left running by fitting self-sealing valves.          .      .       •
 >      Investigate how washing water can be contained and used again before discharge to
        drain The same applies to solvents used to clean; these can often be used more than
 Tightening up house-keeping procedures can reduce waste considerably: Simple, quick
 adjustments should be made to your process to achieve a rapid improvement in process
 efficiency. Where such obvious reductm measures do not however solve ^ ^rewa
 disposal problem, more detailed consideration of waste reduction options will beneeded
 (Steps 16-18),      :                        -_:•    ...-'"-..        '

 2 3.2  Step ".16: Targeting and characterizing Problem Waste*

 Use the material balance for each unit operation to pinpoint the problem areas associated with
 your process. ,      .'•;•.'                                     .           '>  '- '

 The material balance exercise may have brought to light the origin of wastes with^high
 treatment costs or may indicate which wastes are causing process problems in .which
  operations. The material balance should be used for your priorities for long-term waste
  reduction.                     .,,-.-

  At this stage, it may be worthwhiie considering the underlying causes as to why wastes are
  generated and the factors which lead to these; for example, poor technology, lack of
  maintenance and non-compliance with Company procedures.

  Additional sampling and characterization of your wastes might be necessary involving more
   in-depth analysis to ascertain the exact concentrations of contaminants.

   List the wastes in order of priority for reduction actions.            •      .

   133  Step 17: Segregation
Segregation per sp is arguably not properly part of a pollution prev
by-step sequence, being but one of numerous measures which can Ģ— ^ ---- •—-~  ,
activities. It is however the most central of such options and is a universal issue which needs
to be addressed.
                                      Training Manual

 Segregation of wastes can offer enhanced opportunities for recycling and reuse with resultant
 savings in raw material costs. Concentrated simple wastes are more likely to be of value than
 dilute or complex wastes.

 Mixing wastes can enhance pollution problems. If a highly-concentrated waste is mixed with
 a large quantity of weak, relatively uncontaminated effluent the result is a larger volume of
 waste requirement treatment. Isolating the concentrated waste from the weaker waste can
 reduce treatment costs. The concentrated waste could be recycled/reused or may require
 physical, chemical and biological treatment to comply with discharge consent levels whereas
 ;the weaker effluent could be reused or may only require settlement before discharge.

 Therefore, waste segregation can provide more scope for recycling and reuse while at the
 same time reducing treatment costs.                                .      „ .„;..   .,

 Review your waste collection and storage facilities to determine if waste segregation is.
 possible. Adjust your list of priority wastes accordingly.           .-...•'

 23.4  Step 18: Developing Long-Term Waste Reduction Options

 Waste problems that cannot be solved by simple procedural adjustments or improvements in
 house-keeping practices will  require more substantial long-term changes.

 It is necessary to develop possible prevention options for the waste problems.

 Process or production changes which may increase production efficiency and reduce waste
 generation include:

 >      changes in the production process - continuous versus batch;
 >      equipment and installation changes;
 *•      changes in process control — automation;         . •    ,    .      '•  .
 * '    changes in process conditions such as retention.times, temperatures, agitation,
        pressure, catalysts;
 >      use of dispersants in place of organic solvents where appropriate;
 >•      reduction in the quantity or type of raw materials used in production;
. >•      raw material substitution through the use of wastes as raw materials or the use of
        different raw materials that produce less waste or .less hazardous waste;   ,
 ģ•      process substitution with cleaner technology.

 Waste reuse can ofteabe implemented if materials of sufficient purity can be concentrated or
 purified. Technologies such as reverse osmosis,, ultrafiltration, electrodialysis, distillation,
                                      Training Manual

electrolysis and ion exchangemay enable materials to be reused and reduces eliniinate the
need for waste treatment

Where waste treatment is nec^sary, a vari^^
include physical, chemical arid biological treatment processes. In some cases me treatment
Sod can also recover valuable materials for reuse; Another industry or factory may be
able touse orgeat a waste that you cannot treat on-site..It may be worth investigating the
possibility of setting up a waste exchange bureau as a^^m^fbrsh^ treatment an^
reuse facilities.                              :                   r      -    '

Consider also the possibilities for product improvements or changw'jieldmg cleaner, mpre.
    ttowt*ly-fŖndiyproducts, both for existing products and in the development of new;
  Steps 15,16,17 and 18 Sttmmary                     ;.

  At the endof Step 18 you should have identified all the wastereduction options which could
  be implemented.    ...  . ;                          . .  :'  .-/.,'   •- >„      •. '-  •
 2J.5   Step 19:
                                            Evaluation of Wastes-Reduction Options
 In order to decide which options should be deVeloped to formulate a waste reductionaction
 plan each option should be considered in terms of environmental and economic benefits.

 a)     Environmental Evaluation                                                  -.

    ^nerally true; hoover, there are exceptions to ^ nae.^ example^ r^emg^w
 may give rise to pH imbalances or may produce another which is more difficult to treat,
 resulting in anet envuonmentol disadvantage.

  In many cases,the benefits ^may beobvious such as the result of the removal of a toxic
  element from an aqueous effluent by segregating the polluted waste or by changing the
  process in such a way that the waste is prevented.                         .     .
  in other cases the environmental benefits may
  workplace will increase production efficiency but this may be difficult to quantify. ..
                                                                                       ~ :';j'
                                     Training Manual

 For each option a series of questions should be asked:                                  .

 ģ>     Consider the effect of each option on the volume and degree of contamination of ^^
       process wastes.        .  ,
 ģ•    ' Does a waste reduction option have cross-media effects? For example, does the
       reduction of a gaseous waste produce a liquid waste?
 >•     Does the option change the toxicity, degradability or treatability of the wastes?
 Ģ•"  '  Does the option use more or less non-renewable resources?
 ģ•     Does the option use less energy?

 b)    • Economic Evaluation

 A comparative economic analysis of the waste reduction options and the existing situation
 should be undertaken. Where benefits or changes cannot be quantified (e.g., reduction in
• future liability, worker health and safety costs) some form of qualitative assessment should
 be made; it may be necessary to consult an expert for advice on how to judge a change.

 Economic evaluations of waste reduction options should involve a comparison of operating
 costs to illustrate where cost savings would be made. For example, a waste reduction measure
 that reduces the amount of raw material lost to drain during the process results in reduced raw
 material costs. Raw material substitution or process changes may reduce the amount of solid
 waste that has to be transported off-site. Therefore, the transport costs for waste disposal
 would be reduced.

 In many cases, it is appropriate to compare the waste treatment costs under existing
 conditions with those associated with the waste reduction option.

 The size of treatment plant and the treatment processes required may be altered significantly
 by the implementation of waste reduction options. This should be considered in an economic
 evaluation.   .           .   •                                     ;         •

 Calculate the annual operating costs for the existing process indicating waste treatment and
 estimate how these would be altered with the introduction of waste reduction options,,
 Tabulate and compare the process and waste treatment operating costs for both the existing
 and proposed future waste management options. Exhibit 2-12 shows the typical cost
 components. In addition, if there are any monetary benefits (e.g., recycled or reused materials
 or wastes), then these should be subtracted from the total process or waste treatment costs as
 appropriate.         "             '                         v   ,

 Now that you have determined the likely savings in terms of annual process and waste
 treatment operating costs associated with each option, consider the necessary investment
 required to implement each option.
                                    Training Manual

Investment can be assessed by looking at the payback penod for each opt^
is the time taken for a project to recoverits financtal outlay. A more detailed investment
a^s^a^olve an aUsment of ^internal r^o
(NPV) of the investment based on discounted cash flows,           <  .         .
Analysis of investment risk allows you to rank options.           .

Consider the environmental benefits and the savings in process and waste treatment operating
costs along with the payback period for an investment, to decide which options are viable.
Exhibit 2-12: Annual Process and Waste Treatment Operating Costs
  Process Operating Costs

  Raw Material 1
  Raw Material 2  •
  Labor     ;    ;

  Raw Material e.g.. Lime
  Raw Material e.g., Floccutent
  Trade Effluent Discharge Costt
  Off-SheDisposal •
  Maintenance    .
  Other, e.g^ violatiojnj fires .
                                                  Annual Cost
  Waste Treatment Operating Costs
                                       training Manual

2.3.6   Step 20: Developing and Implementing An Action Plan: Reducing Wastes and
       Increasing Production Efficiency

Consider the immediate reduction measures identified in. Step 15 along with the long-term
waste reduction measures that have been evaluated in Steps 18 and 19. These measures
should form the basis of the waste reduction action plan. Discuss your findings with members
of staff and develop a workable action plan.

Prepare the ground for the waste reduction action plan. Its implementation should be
preceded by an explanation of the ethos behind undertaking a pollution prevention
assessment: Waste Prevention Makes Sense.

It is necessary to convince those who must work to new procedures that the change in
philosophy from end-Ktf-pipe treatment to waste prevention makes, sense and serves to
improveefficiency.     .        .                                ,   .
                . - °         .      *         '     '   '"                     •
Use pdsters around the site to emphasize the importance of waste reduction to minimize
production and waste treatment/disposal costs and, where appropriate,,for improving the
health and safety of company personnel.

Set out the intended action plan within an appropriate schedule. Remember it may take time
for the staff to feel comfortable with a new way of thinking. Therefore, it is a good ideai to
implement waste reduction measures slowly but consistently to allow everyone time to adapt
to these changes. '                                         . •

Set up a monitoring program to run alongside the waste reduction action plan so that actual
improvements in process efficiency can be measured. Relay these results back to the
workforce as evidence of the benefits of waste reduction. Adopt an internal record-keeping
system for maintaining and managing data to support material balances and waste reduction
assessments.         .                             .                        ..

It is likely that you will have highlighted significant information gaps or inconsistencies
during the pollution prevention assessment investigations. You should concentrate on these
gaps and explore ways of developing the additional data. Is outside help required?

A good way of providing waste reduction incentives is to set up an internal waste charging
system, those processes that create waste in great volume or that are difficult and expensive
to handle having to contribute to the treatment costs on a proportional basis. Another method
of motivating staff to offer financial reward for individual waste-saving efforts, drawing on
the savings gained from implementing waste reduction measures.

Pollution prevention assessments should be a regular event - attempt to develop a specific
pollution prevention assessment approach for your own situation, keeping abreast of
technological advances that could lead to waste reduction and the development of 'cleaner'
products. Train process employees to undertake material balance exercises.
                                    Training Manual

Training people who work on the process to undertake a pollution prevention assessment wilt
help to raise awareness in the workforce. Without the support of the operators^wastir
reduction actions will be ineffectual ~ these are the people wlufcari really make a difference
to process performance.                     .
 Step 20 Summary                                         .

 Prepare the ground for the waste'reduction action plan, ensuring that support for the
 assessment, and implementation of the results, is gained from senior management. Implement
 the plan slowly to allow the workforce to adjust.              •   .              ..

 Monitor process efficiency.                                          '    .          .
        .              '      • •       '             ff <             *         .          ,
 Relayresults back to the workforce to show them the direct benefits.

 Train personnel to undertake your own pollution prevention assessment for waste reduction, r

 Company B operates a tannery in south-east Asia processing cattle hides into finished leather,
 mainly for side upper leather in shoe manufacture: Treatment of the hides involves a series of
 batch operations involving application of a wide range of physical and chemical processes.
 Wastewaters discharged contain pollutants from the hides, products from their
 decomposition, and chemicals and various spent solutions used for hide preparation and
 during me tanning process. Solid wastes and some atmospheric emissions also arise.
 the company was required to meet new government standards for discharge of wastewater to
 the local watercourse. This necessitated improvements to existing treatment facilities which
 were then limited to crude ;settlement in three lagoons operated in series. Primary sludge
 produced was disposed of in liquid form on a large area of surrounding land;

 In the light of mis situation, the company engaged a local consulting engineering firm to
 assist their staff in carrying out a pollution prevention assessment.and waste reduction
 program with a view to developing the best and most cost-effective solution to the waste
 treatment and disposal problems.    .         .

 .The principal tannery operations carried out, typical of many_taimeries thrpughout me worli
 may be summarized as'follows.       .  •              "          "   .';."."•      "  •
                                    Training Manual .

                                   A METHODOLOGY FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION ģ 2-32	

                  Pretanning (or Beamhouse) Operations

                         >     soaking of the imported, preserved (wet-salted) hide in water overnightto
                               remove blood, dung, curing salt and water-soluble and saline-soluble proteins;

 I                        ģ•     unhairing (complete dissolving of all hair) by immersion in lime and sodium
                               sulphide - and subsequent reliming;

                         >     trimming and mechanical removal of extraneous tissue from the flesh side of
                               the hides - and subsequent splitting (lime splitting) of the upper two-thirds
                               gram layer from the lower, less valuable split layer;

        ,  '             .  >     deluding by treatment with a weak acid (lactic acid) and bating with an
                           •    enzyme-based chemical to remove hair remnants and degraded proteins;

                         >     pickling' using salt and sulphuric acid solutions to give the required acidity to
                               the skins to prevent subsequent precipitation of chromium, salts on the skin
                               fibers - pickled splits are then sold to other tanneries for further processing,
,  ,                         ,    only the grain layers being tanned and  finished by Company B.

                  Thus, wastewaters from the beamhouse contain high levels of suspended solids and dissolved
                  organic matter,' curing salt and grease, in addition to unused process chemicals (particularly
                  sulphides); they will also be alkaline, having a high oxygen demand.


                  Chrome tanning is carried out using sulphate. The tanning process stabilizes the proteineous
                  (collagen) network of the hide. Acidic effluents are produced which contain unused trivalent
                  chromium salts.

                  Post-Tanning Operation*  "                        .

                  These involve:                   .     .              '  .       .

                          ģ•      pressing (sarnniing) to remove moisture;

                          ģ•      a second leveling by shaving;,                                          •

                         •ģ.      dyeing and softening of the tanned hide with emulsified oils (fatliquoring),
                                preceded by occasional secondary tanning using synthetic tannins (syntans)
                                and tanning extracts;
                                drying and final trimming;
                                                      Training Manual

       ģ.'.:   surfacs c,oating and buffing (finishing)

The following case study describes the pollution preventionassessment/waste reduction
approach taken.      .    ;  /                                          '    ,


Step 1: Assessment Focus and Preparation
         '               ,:   '   •  •*      '   ~ ' .     ** *-* "•'"•.   , "  '        '
It was decided that the study investigations would be carried out by a chemical engineer from
the consulting  firm'sstaff who had previous experience of carrying out polluuon prevention
assessments, assisted by the tannery's  plant chemist

Company B's own laboratory was not equipped to carry out many of the tests normally
associated with wastewater, analysis and so arrangements had to be made to deliver samples
to a local private company providing laboratory analytical services.

In view of government-pressures, it was decided to concentrate on wastewater discharges
arising from the bearrhouse and subsequent tanning operations. However, atmospheric
emissions were also investigated having particular regard to health and safety. Solid waste
arisings/in particular wastewater treatment plant sludges, were also stodied;

The pollution prevention assessment team was keen to gain the support of production     •
personnel in order to ensure that comprehensive infonriation on. aUtaimery operations could
be readily obtained. As a first step therefore, the study objectives were fully explained to
 selected staff responsible for the various production activities.

the investigations were initiated by gathering relevant information from company files. This
 preliminarySearch yielded site and drainage plans; raw material purchase records and water
 meter records associated with on-site bdrehole abstractionr

 A preliminary check on water usagewas carried out bycalcuiatir^mejvaterusagepertonof
 we^SStednSe processed. This was found to be 61 m'/ton. It was noted Aat this was some
 22% higher Aan the typical average working figure of 50 mVfon reported in technical  ,
 literatureVsuggesting that ways of introducing considerable water savings should be possible
 as; a result of the^ollution prevention assessment/waste reduction study.

 Step 2: Listing Unit Operation*

  The consultant and the plant chemist started the tannery study by walking around the   _
  processing and waste treatment areas, listing all the unit processes and making notes on their
  Sanction and  use. Help was also sought from various plant operators who were familiar with
                                     Training Manual

the day to day plant operations. The unit operations were listed in Exhibit 2-13, with
processes which did not produce liquid waste shown in brackets.
Exhibit 2-13: Unit Operations
Unhairing and Reliming
(Trimming, Fleshing and Splitting)
•Deliming and Bating
•Picjding                .    ,
Chrome Tanning                .     '
Pressing   .
(Shaving)   •
Secondary Tanning, Dyeing and Fatliquoring
(Drying, Trimming and Sorting)
(Finishing)^	;	       •
 As part of the company's long-term planningv the plant chemist noted that consideration was
 being given to moving the hide splitting operations further downstream the process line (after
 tanning) in order to improve the accuracy of splitting and hence overall process control, as
 commonly practiced at other tanneries. The existing arrangement and-design of process units,
 many of which were relatively old, did not however lend themselves to this change being
 implemented rapidly.

 Step 3: Constructing Process Flow Diagrams

 A flow diagram was then prepared to illustrate the interrelationship between the various unit
 operations (Exhibit 2-14).                             .
                                    Training Manual

                      A METHODOLOGY FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION •ģ 2-35
Exhibit 2-14: Flow Diagram for Tanning
        wet-salted hid*
        Bacterictbe. sodaash,
                                              Unit Process
Salted Stock
Dirt-laden, saline
        Lime,sodfomsulphide-    '     •  '   J._^->ndRtKmilv "'	'"'   HydrogensuJphid*
                                                                         •*   Akaline waste waters'

                                                                         •>   Trimmings and flashings

         __—;.,_ -hiĢ,M.   ^—•^—^1 Deliming and Bating        ..           ;
        ammonium chloride,      -7-        i                •   I  ''        -ģ•   AfcaHne wastewaters
        water. •,.  •.     •     .    .  .       ^~     T~      . -        •  •:   '           .  •   '  '

              jlphuricacid.'               f      Pickling                   ģ•••'

                                 ".            PickledStock    '.|------^>   Pidded splits

       Chromic sulphate, salt                '—:	"   ~~     |      '  '  ' -'^ '  Acidic wastewates containing
       syntan, sodium formate,             >|-   Chrome Tanning  |"     ,      >,   cr**. syntan. salts
       soda ash, bactericide    . •' ;        L—-^	:	'"

         -.  .•'                           '  'I      Pressing      i         ' .  ģ    PressBquom

                                                Shaving	ģ>    Shavings containing Cr1*

       Tanning extracts,'             .      • 	_i—__	.            /   Acidic wastewater containing
       syntan. dyes, calcium               J  Seeondaiy Tanning.        •	^   Crģ*, ttmiing extracts, syntan,
       formate, ftour,.gluĢv              .  p | Dyeing * FatBquoring ~    "         dyes,Wi /
       titanium dtoiodttt oil, Wertif _                .                       ;                                •

                                           Drying, Trimming and I	i.^..^.   Trimmings containing Cr*


                                             .Leather Product

                   I hair. dirt, organic matter, iaHģnitĢRew                        r   liquids
           lirn*.sodiumsulpnide       '   •'  .

                   '  .    .  .       •  .   ..   .    -            _,  	:••••;•ģ   gases
                                              training Manual


Step 4: Determining Inputs

The assessment preparation phase (Step 1) had already highlighted the availability of well-
documented raw material purchasing records/The data produced also proved to be a good
check on the raw material quantities quoted by the plant foremen per unit operation.

The raw material usage data obtained were set out as in Exhibit 2-15.

Exhibit 2-15: Annual Consumption of Process Chemicals.
                      '.,'''"        "              ' '        i  '   ' •

 Process Chemicals  	   .           	                      tons/annum

 Sodium Chloride (other than curing salt              .                  •••'.              622
        present in raw hide)                                       '      '    '     ' '   \
 HydratedLime                                          .     '   '     .             l'\~.l
 Sodium Sulphide (62% NajS)                 .               ...                  '  .*Ŗ
 Sulphuric Acid                       .        .           .                           .'^
 Soda Ash (anhydrous sodium carbonate)                               •          .         '+
 Bate (95% ammonium sulphate,
        5% enzymes)        .                       -           '
 Calcium Formate         .                                    .                  '    tĢ
 Lactic Acid (30%)             '                                                     26
 Sodium Formate                               •  ,                                    *
 Bactericide                                    -                              '
 Ammonium Chloride

 Sub-total  '                                                                    2'61*

 Chemicals Absorbed by the Hide (I)

 Tanolin (16% chromium)                .                                    .        ^
 SyntansA&B.          •                                                        •   „
 Dyes    .       '          '             ',  '                         .               I?.
 D-lOil      -                       .                       .                  .    JJ
 OtherOils                     ,                                                   190
 Tannin Extracts         '     -                                 '                •     45
 %Soyarich Flour .                                  .   ,                              30
 Titanium Dioxide                                     '                '
 • Methyl Cellulose          '       .              .                          :    •      "
  Semi-Sol Glue
  Sub-total                                                                       lt864

  Total  •   	•
 (1)     Absorption'estimated at 90%, 10% discharged to waste - except for Tanolin, absorption 75%, 25%
        discharge to waste     -                 .         .          '    .     . .  •.   '
                                     Training Manual

Due to the nature of the raw materials and the well-organized materials storage system which
was found to be in Operation, no significant handling losses were occurring:   .

It was noted that the company incurred no charges for consumptiori of water drawn from a   ;
site borehole. A separate town water (potable) supply was available for domestic use.
Domestic wastewater passed to the nearby watercourse via a septic tank.

Having already tabulated the key production stages (Step 2), raw material usage listed in
Exhibit 2 was used to derive average quantities per unit operation throughout me tannery, on
both a daily basis and per ton of hid processed. The data compiled were set out in Exhibit 2-
         "           ;;"; •"        ':              "'"           '   *
 .                     .  .
 Step 5: Recording Water

 The next step was to record the water usage at the tannery and-determine how'it was used. It
 was noted that water obtained by the company from the site borehole was pumped to a
 covered storage tank at ground level and then pumped again to a high-level storage tank,.
 Water then gravitated to the site distribution mains under static head via,a water meter,
 readings for which were recorded weekly in a log book.       ...

 Analysis of these records indicated a daily average total water consumption for the site of
 2 450 mVd ^ This figure was'then broken down into average water usage per tannery unit
 operation in a similai manner to that carried out for the process chemicals. Since the tannery
- wet processes were all carried out in revolving vessels of known capacity, providing
 mechanical agitation to accelerate the wet-chemical operations, batch process water inputs
 were readily quantifiable. Rinsewater usage which was continuous for a fixedduratton per
 batch was also known from previous work carried out by the company. This had involved
 checking the time taken to fill a vessel of known volume for a giveti water valve setting.
 The results ^were summarized as ^set out in Exhibit 2^
                                     .Training Manual

ģ 2-38

Exhibit 2-16: Chemical Inputs per Tannery Unit Operation
Sodium Carbonate '
Hydrated Lime (unhairing)
Sodium Sulphide (62% NajS)
Hydrated Lime (reliming)
Lactic Acid
Bate Ammonium Chloride >
Sodium Chloride
Sulphuric Acid
Chrome, Tanning:
Tanolin (basic chromic sulphate, 16%'Ci*+)
Sodium Chloride . *•
Syntan A
Sodium Formate
Sodium Carbonate
Syntan B .
Secondary Tanning, Dyeing and Fatliquoring:
• Dyes
Calcium Formate
Syntan B , *
• "Soyarich Flour
Titanium Dioxide*
Glue/Methyl Cellulose.
Tannin Extracts & Oils
kg/ton bide
(at unit operation)
58(1) '
• • ' •
10 (ii)
1.3 (ii)
60 (ii)
21 pi)
60 (ii)
60 (ii)
25 (ii)
8.9 (ii)
10 (ii)
1 (ii)
41 (ii)
20 (iii)
44 (iii)
16 (Hi)
. 8 (iii)
8 (iii)
118 (iii)
wet-salted hide
8 '7
18 ^
2,076 .
1 728
/ trO
Based oo 40 tons wet-salted hide per day
Based on fleshed, split/trimmed hide, after reliming - 34.6 tons per day
Based on chrome tanned leather, after pressing/shaving -14.0 tons per day
                                             Training Manual

Exhibit 2-17: Water Inputs per Tannery
Unit • •• • ; ' ' '
VUI* , . - •
Soaking: , ";.
Prewash ,• . ..- :.., ..._„ --ss^ĢĢ~-Ģ-sr--s- -sss™ģ
Process Waiter :
Rinse Water
Unhairing/Rtlinung: " ,
.•process" Water^ . • • "• • ;• . V; ,
Rinse Water - . : •
Soak Water (reliming)
Rinse Water
Pre-rinse ' .
Process Water ;
. Rinse Water "
Pickling: . ' .
Brine Water , ..'".'•
Acid Dilution Water
Chrome Tanning: .
Process Water i

Secondary Tanning, Dyeing and Fatliquoring:
• 'Pre-rJiise .. \ ''•''••''
Process.Wattr' , ' . : •
Rinse Water .
Process Water
General Floor and Plant WaabwĢer'
Total - ProeĢĢ WĢtĢr*
'. :,' ; - RtaseWattr* .. ' ... "...

. .'. •: .-.>. ' ! Total "''. . -.-•
m'/ton tilde
(at unit operation)
^ T: Ģ-9'(i) '"" *""
2.i(i) .;••.
. \.9(l)
1-9(1) . .
4.2 (ii)
1.385 (ii)
2.49 (ii)
- 0.84(ii) .-.-• :
0.586 (ii)
; 4.51 (if)
. 0.202 (ii) -
9.15 (iii)
0.4 (iii) '..'•
18.6 (iii)
0,4 (ui)

-• • , ; .
'..'• ' ' •'"' ' ' •
• *-'•'-.-' '-

, m'ftom :
wet-salted hide
• ,1.9
• 2.1
...••.• 19
. • • . . *'1
.' • 3.635 .
.,/'.--. 0.865
•:.;.' '.... . '/ l*
','• 0.215;
.. 0.175
'.'•' '''3^:r
, 0.14
_. : . "-•'•. 6.5 ,
':. -'. '' ";'--'1'5*'.'
> .. , tins
' 33.635

.^;_ 172.0^^-
, 7(5.0
• . 76.0-
O A f\ ' "*'
84.0 :
-•'; -'.Ģ-.'
20.3 ,
128.0 ,'•
_5,6. ' ' '
(I).    Based on 4CTtohs wet-salted hide per day               .
(ii)    Based^pn fleshed, split/trimmed hide, after reliming -34.6tons per day
(iii) •    Based on chrome tanned leather, after pressing/shaving - ;14.0 tons per day
                                        Training Manual


Step 6: Measuring Current Leveb of Waste Reuse/Recycling
It was noted that no wastes were reused/recycled at the tannery.
Step 7: Quantifying Process Outputs           .
The assessment team listed the process outputs from each tannery .unit operation as set out in
Exhibit 2-18 below.

Exhibit 2*18: Process Outputs
Trimming, Fleshing arid Splitting
Pickled Hide'Storage
Chrome Tanning
Pressing and Shaviac
Secondary Tanning, Dyeing and
Process and
Wash/Rinse ,
Process and
Rinse Waters
Process and
Rinse Waters
Process Brine/
Acid Dilution
Process and .
Rinse Waters
Press Liquors
Process and
Rinse Waters
Waste Reuse • ' •
. . • ,• •
Trimmings and
Fleshings ' '
Pickled Splits
• ' •
• Atmospheric
Hydrogen '

. • • '
- :
   Drying, Trimming* and Sorting
   Finishing- ,
   Final.Product    •    .
                                                   Finished Leather
                                                   (grain layer)
Action was then taken to quantify these outputs in Steps 8,9 and 10.
                                                                     Solvent Vapors
                                     Training Manual

Step 8: Accounting for Wastewater            ,

Process wastewater flows were based on totaling up batch water inputs and making
allowances where appropriate for water retention, by the hide at each process stage based on
percentages reported in technical literature.  .

Composite samples of the various discharges were also taken for laboratory analysis.

Theresults of this exercise were summarized in Exhibit 2-19.

Exhibit 2-19: Average Flows, Strengths arid Pollution Loads of Strong Liquors
Unit Operation
Deiime and Bating
Chrome Tan & Press
•' Liquors
Secondary Tanning,
Dying & Fatliquoring
-1st dump
- 2nd dump
Total •-'' •'

m'/d .
37 -


5.6 .



' >ģ


. •'







':.'.:.& Of
. total

-./. 7,0

i j;
i . .
it was decided that havinff Quantified the main, strong-liquor pollution



, . -:

, U15


. ' '' .

• total
1 4.2


loads per unit ^
 operation, separate quantification of running rinsewater pollution loads per unit operation
 was not justified since this would have meant setting up numerous V-notch weirs and many
 additional sampling points, thus increasing significantly the tiihe input and analytical work
•-required..--'   — _•   ... .,'/..     .'; '      .,....'.." .^. . :-.   '      ••   '•'•''...

 The relatively weak continuous-flow rinse waters were thus monitored using a V-notch weir
 located in a common drain within the tannery and combining' frequent spot samples to give a
 daily composite, for the whole tannery. Total rinsewater flow including general floor and
 plant washdown was estimated to be 1,944 mj/d with an associated BOD and SS strength, of
 273 mg/1 and 396 mg;l SS. Corresponding pollution loads (flow x strength) were thus 530 kg
                                    Training Manual

The overall wastewater flows and BOD and SS strengths and pollution loads were then
tabulated in Exhibit 2-20,

Exhibit 2-20: Combined Wastewater Flows, Strengths and Pollution Loads
                            Flow            BOD         ,    .          ,SS
 WĢtcwater    '
                                          mg/1   •       kg/d          mg/1           kg/d
Strong Liquors
Rinse Waters/General
6,130(1) .
4,055 .
 Washdown                       .    '                          ,         '
 Tot.!                    J2.600J  1.430(1)          3.600__'  1.9500)          4.825

(1)     Concentrations calculated from flow/pollution load data

Based on an average 40 tons of wet-salted hide processed, it was noted that these overall
figures equate to 65 mj wastewater/ton, 90 kg BOD/ton and 121 kg SS/ton, ie fairly typical
unit loads compared with average figures for similar tanneries elsewhere bufsome 20-25%
high hi terms of wastewater flow.        ,

An assessment was also made of chromium and sulphide pollution loads based on selected
additional wastewater analyses carried out. This yielded pollution loads of 198 kg Cr/d and
412 kg S"/d, equivalent to 4.9 kg Cr/ton and 10.3 kg S'Vton. Again, it was noted that these
loads were fairly typical in the consultant's experience even for well operated tanneries,
although somewhat higher (14% and.21% respectively) with respect to figures reported by
.WHO, 1982.  -           .   .    .   .               -

A number of other checks were also made. It was noted that while it was difficult to measure
combined wastewater flows entering the wastewater treatment system, the final lagoon
effluent discharged via a rectangular weir. In order to obtain  some cross-check oh the
combined raw wastewater flow set out in Exhibit 2-20, the final effluent flow to the nearby
watercourse was monitored using this weir. An average flow over the study, period of 2,200
•mVd was recorded.                           ,      .-

A limited number of. samples of the lagoon effluent were taken and results compared with the
raw wastewater analyses tabulated in Exhibit 2-20. These indicated pollution load reductions
averaging 40% BOD and 70% SS. Based on an average sludge concentration of 6% dry
                                    Training Manual

                                                                               t.	1
solids, calculations indicated that the volume of primary sludge generated averaged 56 mVd.
The assessment team noted: that while this sludge was periodically being disposed of on
surrounding land, this practice would raot be allowed to continue in the future as liquid run-
off caused additional pollution problems in the nearby watercourse, particularly during wet v
weather.        ,   '••    '""••'     "    '      ','';...   :  -''"" ,   ' . ••    '••'••  •
Step 9: Accounting for Gaseous Emissions

It was decided that consideration of atmospheric pollution issues in the context of this project
did not justify the need for making use elf portable gas detection equipment, such facilities in
any case not being readily available. It we also considered that resources required to quantify
gaseous emissions would be outof proportion to the extent of the problems occurring.
However, various useful observations were made during the site survey.

A strong smell of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas was evident at the primary sedimentation
stage of the wastewater treatment plant. H2S was also evident, although only to a limited
extent, within the tannery processing areas where alkaline beamhouse liquors combined with
subsequent acidic streams within the internal drainage system.  ,     .

The plant chemist knew that the hydrogen sulphide was a highly-toxic gas having a threshold
limit value (TLV) of 15 mg/m3 (100 ppm by volume) in air. He also knew that the extent to
which H2S could be released from solution to atmosphere was pH dependent, high pHs
favoring the ionized form (HS1) and hence reduced risk of sulphide stripping. He therefore   •
noted that any future wastewater treatment scheme would be best designed to allow
pretreatment of alkaline beamhouse liquors (pH at least 10) before they were allowed to mix
with other, acidic waste flows.

No release of ammonia associated with deliming/bating was apparent but it was noted that
release of some solvent vapors in the working areas associated with- leather finishing could be
a potential health risk to production staff. Discussions with the management subsequently
revealed that plans were already underway to install forced-ventilation equipment to cater for
this problem.  •  -'-   ''-:'•••.. .•'•  . *, .  :'..    .•  ''  .  ',/'.'••   '•   '•   ..-"'..•"•   \   '"'.'
Step 10: Accounting for Off-Site Wastes

The only wastes which were recycled were fleshings which were transported to a local
rendering company; these amounted to an average of 9,200 kg/d.

Trimmings and shavings were disposed of to a local municipal landfill site and amounted to
.14,600kg/d.        ;                                  ;     .
                                    Training. Manual

No sale costs associated with disposal of the fleshings could be readily identified at the time
of the pollution prevention assessment. It was later established that no charge was levied by
the                                .'.'"."

tannery in return for the rendering company providing transportation facilities at their cost.  .
Trimmings and shavings were disposed of at an annual cost of US$ 14,000.
                                t,          _                                '

Step 11: Assembling Input and Output Information for Unit Operations

From the information collected the preliminary material balances were started by assembling
me input and output data for the tannery and the wastewater treatment plant. These were
'tabulated under Step 12.                                    :

Step 12: Deriving a Preliminary Material Balance for Unit Operations

A preliminary material balance of data associated with operation within the tannery was first
drawn up on an overall input/output materials basis. The information was tabulated as set out
below.                                                      -
                                     Training Manual

 Inputs    -•'•          ;

 Chemicals (other than curing salt present in raw hides)
 " '        '                -'''•".'-'    '   '
 Total                    !



                                 Overall Tannery Operations
 Outputs.   •

 trimmings and Shavings
 Pickled Split Layer
 Finished Leather
 Gaseous Emissions

                       '   9,200
                          13,500   .
                    5,600- .    v
                       2,600$00      .   -
'  Not quantified but not.considered to be a major output

           '            1,642,900
A material balance was then drawn up on a unit operation basis with specific reference to
chromium and sulphide. A material balance for the wastewater treatment plant was also
compiled.                                                 ;   ••      ;   -,
                                       Training Manual


(a) Based on 1,720 kg/d sodium sulphide containing 25% S"
                                                              "•••• kg/d
Unhairing • ' '. .-* ~= . '
Delime and Bating .
Rinsewaters ,
Total .;•
(a) Based on 103 mVd unhairing liquors at 4,000 mg/1 S"
(b) Based on 1,944 mVd rinsewaters containing 2,5 mg/1 S"
. 412-'- (a)
412 (a).
412 (a)
• • 5 • . (b)
417;. ... '

"f •' ' '


 Chrome Tanning
 (a) Based on 2,076 kg/d Tanolin containing
                                          Chrome Taaoiog
                                               1 •
 Chrome Tan & Press Liquors
 Chrome Leather
 Rinsewaters  •
 Total    "
         83-  .
 (a) Based on 33 mVd chrome liquors at 2,500 mg/1 Cr3*    .                   ....
 (b) Based'on 2,076 kg/d Tanolin containing 16% Cr3-*- and 75% chrome absorption into hide
 (c) Basvi on 1,944 nf/d rinsrvaters containing l.S mg/1 C^	  ••
 Inputs _
 Raw Wastewater
                                      '.  Training Manual

                                                                               f - A
                                Waxtewater Treatment Plant
 Outputs                                     .             mVd
 Primary Effluent                     .     .       .           '
 Primary Sludge            i                  .

Step 13: Evaluating the Material Balance
 ,...-•.  ..  •:  •._  ; !.'•..•'.  ' .'.;•"•'•'-.-•''.',  ' •  -•<•"•  •    ' '' -.'•.,."-•''-•-•"•.-••' >''  •  .  '..'.•'•'.'"."••
The pollution prevention assessment team was confident that the material balance was
adequate (within 5-10%) for the tannery as a whole as well as for the specific chromium and
sulphide chemicals used.                       .                           :

The material balance fpr the wastewater treatment plant was also considered reasonable
taking into account that some water seepage was possibly occurring through the base of the;
crude lagoons, thus contributing to the 13% difference between inflow and total outflows ~
recorded.                                 .    r             :     •      .     .     .
Step 14: Refining the Material Balance

It was considered that the material balance information^obtained was sufficient to meet
immediate requirements butjftat it would be useful to carry out a further pollution prevention
assessment once any waste reduction measures had been implemented.
 PHASE3:SYNTHESIS      :--;-";,:           '••/•'// •'.'..'•'•,;•>:  '••.'".  '•   '•
   " " '   -,','"    '   ~   V  •    -     •               . _   -. *     "          (
                        1-1     • '      '*'-.*.'    '      ' -          •  - '     •  ;   '•
 Step IS: Examining Obvious Waste Reduction Measures

 It was noted that the rinsewater usage following unhairing was appreciable, amounting to
 some 18% of the total watei usage throughout the tannery,             '    .

 It was considered that significant savings could be achieved at this stage by changing from a
 4-hour running rinse to a two-stage batch wash operation, each of 20-25 minutes duration. It
 was anticipated following a short-term trial that it should be possible to achieve a consistent
 60% reduction in rinsewater usage, that is, from 440 m3/d to 176 m3/d.
,  . ,      • .   v          .,  .      .       .. •       • .• •  •           .

 The assessment team also realized that considerable water wastage was taking pjace by
 tannery staff leaving numerous hoses running in between general floor and equipment
                                    Training Manual

washdown operations. On the basis of an average of 15 hoses in continuous use, it was
estimated that water pass>wg to drain surplus to actual requirements could be as much as 136
mVd, some 5% of the total wastewater flow. Recommendations were therefore.made for the
fitting of pistol-grip self-closing valves on all hoses in use throughout the tannery.

Thus, it was concluded that total wastewater flows could be reduced from 2,600 m3/d to
2,200 mVd, reducing the wastewater production to a more respectable 55 mVton wet-salted
hide processed.

Step to-Targeting and Characterizing Problem Wastes

a)     Sulphide Liquors

As indicated in Step 9, it was evident that pretreatment of all sulphide-containing liquors was
needed beforcthey became mixed with other acidic flows; the possibility also existed of at
least partial recycle of fine-screened sulphide Hquors-in subsequent unhairing operations.

The management favored a flexible approach with the treatment system designed to handle
the total daily sulphide liauor flow if required, conscious  that sulphide liquor recycle would
probably require a higher level of surveillance of the efficiency of the unhairing operation
which might not be readily achieved on a consistent basis in practice.

The.assessment team then proceeded to draw up design flow and strength data for the
pretreatment of sulphide-bearing waste streams; and also  for the subsequent combined
wastewater treatment facility required to meet the government's new discharge requirements.

Sulphide-bearing liquors were taken as being all the process and rinsewaters associated with
the unhairing process and all wastewater associated with deliming/bating other than the final
rinse. The resultant average design flow and sulphide load assessed were as shown in Exhibit
2-21."          • •  •'     •       ""  '   ]'  '.             •         '         •
                                   Training Manual

Exhibit 2-21: Characteristics of Sulphide-Bearing Wastewater
                                    Actual                           DerigB
                                                 ,              ..-
                         590mVd       -*-   :.          600m'/d
 Sulphide'            •--.-'"      •'     (700mg/l)        420kg/d      " (700 mg/1 - ave.)
                    •.-..•           ,             .     .600 kg/d        (I, OOP mg/1 -max.)

       assuming unhairing-stage rinsing earned out on a 2-stage bĢch bĢsis; to reduce water usage (equivalent to
       27% of total wastewaier flows following instigation of water saving) ",
An assessment ^as made of foe likely ;BOD reduction due to oxidation of sulphide. The
thebretical oxygen uptake rate due to oxidation of siiiphide was taken as OJ5-2,0 kjg 02/kg S"
depending on the ratio of the thiosulfate: sulphate oxidation products. Taking an average 1.4
kg O2/kg S" and a 97% S" reduction (down to 20 mg/1 S"), this gave a BOD reduction of 560
     '           '             '     '        '           "''   '       '
With reference to Exhibit 2-20; the combined wastewater BOD load; can be expected to
reduce from 3,600 kg/d to 3,040 kg/d, equivalent to 1,380 mg/1 BOD in a reduced flow of.
2,200 mVd. Regarding the effect on suspended solids loads as a result of fine-screening of
sulphide liquors, actual removals were difficult to predict accurately without further test
work. As a conservative approach therefore, it was decided that the calculated total SS load
of 4,825 kg/d (Exhibit 2-20) should be carried forward as a design SS bad for sizing and
budgetary costing of the combined wastewater treatment plant; this gave a concentration of
2,190 mg/1SS at the predicted future reduced flow.

b)     Chrome Liquor*

The assessment team considered the possibility of recovering chrome from the chrorne-
bearing liquors byfinescreening, additiori;of sodium carbonate to precipitate chrome
hydroxide (at pH 8-8.5), filter-plate pressing of the resultant sludge and then conversion of
the chrome precipitate to soluble chromic sulphate using sulphuric acid.

Discussions with the management revealed that this possi&Biry had been considered in the
past but was not favored on overall technical and cost grounds unless the benefits of
economy of scale could bei introduced by providing a centralized chrome recovery plant to
serve all tannerieslin the local area. While some  preliminary discussions had been held
through the national tannery association, such a scheme was. not foreseen at this stage. .
                                     Training Manual

It was agreed therefore that for the present, the design of a new wastewater treatment plant
should assume that chrome would be precipitated and disposed of off-site as part of the
primary sludge generated
Step 17: Segregation

In order to segregate sulphide liquors for separate pretreatment, it was decided to divert
existing drainage outlets in the unhairing area to a batch treatment plant located within the
existing tannery process building.                                          .

Treated flows would then be combined with all other wastewaters at a new treatment plant
located close to the existing settlement lagoon facility.                    -

Step 18: Developing Long-Term Waste Reduction Options        .

The pollution prevention assessment consultant was responsible  for drawing up outline
proposals for the required new wastewater treatment facilities.     .

Consideration was given to available methods of sulphide treatment These included:

       *      acidification to pH 2-3 and aeration, with absorption of the resultant hydrogen
              sulphide gas in caustic soda solution within packed-tower scrubbers, prior to
              discharge of the resultant liquor to drain or reuse;

        ģ•      precipitation with ferrous or ferric salts;

        ģ•      oxidation using chlorine or hydrogen peroxide;

     •  ">      oxidation using aeration with a manganese catalyst  .

 the larter method was considered the most technically satisfactory and cost-effective solution
 following fine screening. This view was supported by reference  to available information
 sources concerning operational experience elsewhere.-

 It was decided to divert existing drainage outlets in the unhairing area to a mechanical self-
 cleaning screen (1 mm) located in a modified floor channel, the  upper end being designed to
 convey screenings to an adjacent skip.                   .

 Screened flows would then gravitate to a submersible pumping  station to lift flows into one
 of two batch-treatment oxidation tanks, one to be used for treatment and the other to be
                                     Training Manual

 available for receiving the next batch of liquor. A diffused-air system, using non-clog coarse-,
 bubble diffusers, was selected to provide mixing and aeration in each tank and a facility for
 dosing a solution of manganese sulphate catalyst was incorporated.

 The main treatment plant for pretreated sulphide liquors combined with all other wastewater
 flows involved the following features:                      ,

        >•     flow/pollution load balancing incorporating coarse-bubble aeration/mixing;

        ģ•     pH correction (if ^required), chemical flocculation with alum and
              polyelectrolyte and subsequent primary settlement;                        .

        *     extended aeration treatment using low-speed mechanical surface aerators
              (si^d to provide a robust biological system capable of withstanding
              fluctuating loads);

        *     batch storage/thickening of mixed primary and surplus secondary sludges
              prior to pumping to drying beds and subsequent disposal of sludge cake to
.' .   '   '  '•-. . landfill.  ..':..;      •  ."/' •   .       , :.'..-;..  -.'. ;/   ..    A  ..  A  -'

 Provision for iron salt dosing to the sludge storage/thickening tank was incorporated to
 precipitate any sulphide formed as a result of anaerobic activity within the tank and hence to
 minimize odor problems occurring.

 A schematic diagram of the proposed treatment plant was compiled as illustrated in Exhibit
 2-22.    ' '••'• .    .   -.  :  ": '","••.;'• '      -  '      - -'   •'  .• •'.'•".;-::'
                                      Training Manual

Exhibit 2-22
                  Schematic Diagram of Proposed Wastewater Treatment
                                               Otmr wmwiora
                                                                   ^ Scnuvnyt
                                                                    Sulphuric Acid/
                                                                    Caustic Soda (V MCMMIV)

                                                                    PMytfoctretytt   • *
                   Slods* CakĢ to UodM
                                              Fiiul 'EflkMflt To WttirceurM
                                        Training Manual

Step 19: Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Waste Reduction Options

Company B was placed in a position of having to upgrade its wastewater treatment system in
order to comply with new discharge standards imposed by the government, part of a new
emphasis on .the need to control pollution of the environment

The new effluent discharge standards laid down were 40 mg/l BOD and 60 mg/1 SS. Hence,
provision of a new treatment facility designed to meet these standards consistently was
expected to improve the qualityof the local watercourse substantially:

There was a clear need to mmimize capital and operatmg costs of the treatment scheme to
ensure the overall financial viability of the company's operations, therefore, in preparing
outline designs for budgetary purposes, particular attention was paid to providing a plant
which would be robust and relatively simple to operate.         :
•  * ..   •      ' :  '       ''!•'''  '• •         •     '   '  ."'•'••"'   '      ''.-.'•...•'
The cost of the treatment scheme drawn up was estimated at US$500,pOO including
contingencies and design/construction supervision fees. This reflected a conservative
approach to the sizing of the-activated sludge process, particularly in. terms of aeration
capacity. It also took into account the availability to two redundant water storage vessels
 suitable for use a s sulphide-liquor treatment tanks.

 This approach was adopted to provide some flexibility over the mode of operation of the
 plant with a view to niinimizing operating costs - it would allow the primary settlement stage
 to operate without additionof chemical  flocculants if desired, with consequent higher
: strength effluent passing forward to the  biological stage; overall sludge yields requiring
 ultimate disposal off-site would also be  minimized. Provision for chemical flocculants at the
 primary stage was included however since it was felt that their use could enable the required
 final effluent quality to be achieved more consistently.

 Step 20: Developing and Implementing an Action Plan: Reducing Wastes and
 Increasing Production Efficiency                                               ,

 The consultants engaged to carry out the pollution prevention assessment/waste reduction
 studies presented-the results of their findings to Company B's management. The data
 presented were used as a basis for submitting a planning application to the local government
 office, for approval to design and install .the proposed wastewater treatment plant

 During a subsequent meeting with the government concemmg timing of the proposed design
  and construction work, Company B was informed that the introduction of a charging system
  for borehole abstraction was under consideration for possible implementation the following. .
. year. This development emphasized to the tannery management the importance of having
                                    • Training Manual

carried out the pollution prevention assessment/waste reduction investigations and the need
to be alive to further water-saving possibilities in the future.

The pollution prevention assessment/waste reduction investigations achieved1 the following
objectives.                                 .

       ģ•     A thorough appreciation of all the sources of waste at the tannery.

       >•     Identification and quantification of the major sources of wastewater including
             waste sulphide and chromium contributions.             .
            t                ' '     .„„,"'•',        .  i          .,       '
       >'     Evaluation of processing efficiencies from assembled information on unit
         .  • operations, raw materials, water usage, products and waste generation.

       ģ•     Reduction of water usage and associated wastewater disposal problems..

       ģ•     Identification of problem wastes (ie sulphide liquors) requuing special

       *     Development of a waste management system which would comply with
             discharge regulations and result in a much-unproved local, environment.
                                    Training Manual


These procedures provide a guide for EP3 consultants and in-country staff in preparing for,
conducting, and following up on pollution prevention assessments at facilities in EP3 countries.
The procedures cover three phases of activities associated with completing EP3 pollution
prevention assessments1.                                       • -     '

ģ     Pre-Assessment, Which covers the steps leading up to an assessment, including selecting  ,
•       facilities, negotiating agreements with facilities selected for assessments, and gathering
       data on facility operations to help focus the assessment team's efforts;

       Assessment, which includes the steps associated with conducting the actual pollution
       prevention assessment. The assessment phase covers the identification and analysis of
       opportunities and preparation of a report summarizing findings and recommendations;
  ':    and                •            .       .               ' ,  '  •'                 ;

       Post- Assessment, which includes the activities that in-country staff and consultants are
       primarily responsible for after an assessment is completed. This phase continues
       indefinitely and is intended to ensure that facilities receive ongoing support in
       implementing pollution prevention programs.

  For each phase of the assessment process, the Procedures identify and describe, the steps
  involved; provide an estimated level of effort; identify the party that is generally responsible for
  conducting the activity, list cautions and assumptions related to the activity, and identify
  deliverables (if any) associated with that activity.

  EP3 emphasizes that these procedures are a guide, not a set of rules, for conducting pollution
  prevention assessments.-For example, the level of effort estimates will vary depending on the
  complexity of a facility's operations. Some assessments may require significantly less time to
  complete  than the estimates listed in the Procedures, while others may require substantially more.
  Similarly, while the Procedures identify a responsible party for each activity, responsibilities
  may vary depending on the conditions surrounding a particular assessment. Also, it may be
  appropriate to streamline the process in certain situations, eliminating or abbreviating certain
'-  steps that are unnecessary. EP3 invites you to use these procedures and intends to use them in its
  ' in-country programs. EPS will revisit these procedures periodically and modify them as
  appropriate.        -                      •                                 ,
                                          • EP3
                                       Training Manual

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              — EP3 —
               Training Manual

                    •ģ  Pollution Prevention Assessment for a Manufacturer
                    p    of Starting, lighting, and Ignition (Sll) Batteries
                               Ģ    CASE  STUDY
 What is EP3?
  The amount of pollutants and waste generated ty  ,
  industrial facilities has become an increasingly -
  costly problem for manufacturers and: a significant
  stress on the environment. Companies, therefor*;
 • are looking for ways to reduce Pollution at the
  source as a way of avoiding costly treatment and
  reducing environmental liability and compliance
  COStS.    .    ; ',    ,..--.'

  The United States Agency for international Develop-'
  ment(USAiD) is sponsoring the Environmental
  Pollution Prevention Project (EP3) td establish   '.
  sustainable programs in developing countries, ;
  transfer urban and industrial pollution, prevention
  expertise and information, and supportefforts to
  improve environmental quality These objectives are
  achieved through technical assistance to industry;
  and urban institutions, development and delivery of
  training and outreach programs, and operation of an
  information clearinghouse.
 EPg's Assessment Process

 EP3 ppiluacff prevention diagnostic assessments
 consist of three phases: pre-assessment.-assess-
 menc, and-post-assessment. During pre-assessment.
 EP3 in-country representatives determine a facility's
 suitability for a pollution prevention assessment.
 sign memoranda of agreement widveach facility
; selected, and collect preliminary data: During
 assessment, a  team comprised of U.S. and in-
 country experts in both pollution prevention and
 the facility's industrial processes gathers- more
 detailed informatwn on tne sources of pollution,
 and identifies  and.analyzes opportuhities'for
 reducing this pollution. Finally, the team prepares a.
 report for the  facility's management detailing its
 findings and recommendations (including cost  ,
. savings, implementation costs, and payback timesu
 During post-cssessmenc, the EP3 in-country repre-;
 sentative worics .with the facility to implement the
 actions  recommended in the report.    .       •
 This assessment evaluated a facility that manufac-
 tures lead-acid batteries used in automobiles and
 trucks. The objective of the assessment was to
 identify actions that would: (1) reduce the quantity of
 toxics, raw ,-r aterials, and energy .used in the manu-
 facturing process, thereby .reducing sollution .and
 worker exposure. (2) demonstrate the environmental
 and economic value otpoHuticjn prevention- methods
 co the battery industry, and (3) improve operating
 efficiency and product quality          :

 The assessment war performed by an EP3 team
 comprised of an expert in battery production and a
• pollution prevention.specialist

 Overall, trie assessment identified nineteen pollution
  prevention opportunities that could save over        ;
  $ 1,531,206 in the first 12 months' for an investment of
  $522,500. if implemented, these changes could reduce
  employee exposure to lead dust, reduce energy and
  water use per unit output, reduce the amount of lead
  purchased, reduce lead-contaminated waste water,
 .and  improve product quality.
                                                  Facility Background
  This facility manufactures starting, lighting, and
  ignition (SU) batteries. Most of the facility's output is
  sold domestically,although about 20% is exported. The
  facility operates one. two. or three 8-hour shifts
  (depending upon the equipment, process/and season)
  and employs 220 people, in 1993. they sold 231,000
  batteries. ,-.  '    '  •      •  - •'-    "

  Manufacturing Process.

  Facility operations can be divided into.six main step&
  (i) conversion of scrap lead into cast panels, •  -  =  -
  (2) conversion of virgin lead into lead oxide powoer
  and paste, (3) pasting and curing of panels, (4) con-
  tainer formation of batteries, (5) tank formation of
  batteries, and (6):laboraiory analysis and process
  controls as shown in  figure 1. The battery making
   process begins on two parallel tracks: the .facility
   recovers lead from used batteries that are collected
   and brought to the facility, scrap lead is recycled-and
   then  cast into grids, and virgin lead is mechanically

       Figure 1:  Overview of Facility's Battery Manufacturing Process
N         /^cycMdMBfMOMrcmttd)  "N        (^"^^fiST**]
  }         (         (i 3.500 *9Ģay)   .  '}       • ^     (9.000 *9tt"y)	J
(60% of pita?)
. •

 converted into a powdery lead oxide, which is used to
 make a paste. These separate feeds merge at the grid
 pasting machine where the paste is pressed into the
 grids. Pasted plates are cured and then take one of;
 cwo paths to become battery elements! tank forma- .
 tion or container formation. These processes convert
 the paste into active material that win electrkaHy
 charge and discharge thrrjghout the useM life of the
 battery. In tank formation, this process, takes place in
 large tanks, whereas in container-formation, .the cured
 plates are assembled'and formed in the battery case
 itself.            '
 to make the lead ^xide paste. lead Gride powder is
• mixed with de-ionized^water, sulfuric acid, and organic
 expanders. One recipe makes a positive plate, while a
 slightly different recipe makes a negative plate. The
 pasted places then move orr a'convesrcr belt through a
 drying oven. After pasting and drying, .the pl?."^s move
 into a curing chamber for about 48 hours to -.onverf
 the remaining lead into lead oxide.

 In tank formation, the positive and negative plates are
 immersed in canks of low specific gravity sulfuric acid,,
 where eiectrodes pass a current through the plates. In
                                                the positive plates, the current converts lead sulfate
                                                from the paste into lead oxide in the.negative plates,
                                                the reaction converts the pasts into sponge lead, a
                                                very porous, high surface area form of elemental lead.
                                                Conoiner formation employs the same electrochemi-
                                                cal process, but occurs in the plastic battery case
                                                instead of the tank. Cured plans that are not tank
                                                formed must be cut in ha.lf and assembled into
                                               ' battery elements,-which are then placed into batteries
                                                for container formation.          •   '

                                                After tank formation, the plates go through a washing
                                                and drying process to remove any remaining sulfuric
                                                acid. Overall, the plate washing process accounts for
                                                over 60 pe= :ent of the factory's water contaminated
                                                with lead and sulfuric acid.

                                                Existing Pollution Problems

                                                At the time of the assessment, there were a number
                                                of pollution problems at the facility; including:
                                                (D waste acid from the used bacteries that are
                                                 cracked to recover lead is disposed of on site. (2) un-
                                                 covered lead slag and dust piles. (3) excessive energy

               i .     - __    ' -    ' . .           . ,
fable 1:  Summary of Recommended Pollution Prevention Opportunities

Unit Operation '
Conversion of Scrap
Smelting , - . " "
Casting Panels
Conversion of Virgin
Lead into lead Oxide
Powder and Past*

Pasting and Curing
Panels: Pasting

Pasting and Curing
Panels! Cunng

'Pasting and Curing
Panels' Cutting-

Container Formation .
Tank Formation of Plates
Tank Formation: Wasfiin<
and Drying of Plate*
	 r. 	 — 	 : 	
' Laboratory Analysis and
Process Control: .
1 Laboratory Analysis
. [TOTALS ' '. . . •

PoUutfoiK*'Ģvtntion "Action
Cover slag ^^^^^^K°^
-, redw<^ wo*Ģfc|^lf fE^^ffil^^**1!!^^
Buy temperature monitoring instrument to adiusr ;
overt -reduces toxic emisaionMnd slag, and
reduce* energy costs; ' . • •
Purchase improved design mold-, reduces waste; .
owers energy use, and ĢĢiminate* steps in me
Sfwvel spilled lead cylinders back into me. . .
rnechanicalmiUramerman smelting oven*.
conserves lead and energy '
Purchase a liquid lead atorrtization mill - improve*
efficiency and reduces *mission* of lead oxide •
Sel old equipment once me. liquid atomiza-opo mm
is operating • recovers some of m* cast of new
Shovel spilled paste back into paste hopper rattier
man smelting oven • reduces' jead purchases.
reduce* volume of waste water, and saves energy
ncrease moisture content of the paste • reduces
scrap and extends battery life
Reduce! the water flow to the finishing roller on
paste machine • reduce* water use and volume of
waste water ' '
Buy a moisture analyst* oven • makes better lead
oxide and saves energy
Install rack* to cur • larger batches • save* energy
and extends battery life •
Install mist sprayer*. * heater, and two fan* in
each curing room • improve* battery quality
Analyze the free lead content after 12 hours of
curing i swre* energy and extend* battery life
Biminafe ttw cutting procea* • reduce* scrap, and
Reeyd* drape) to strap easting pot rather than
smarting oven - save* Kiad and energy
Immediately apply charg* to batterie* after filling -
improves battery performance
Eliminate me praces* • save* water and natural
.gas. reduce* worker exposure to acid and lead
dust, wduces volume of waste water.and
improves battery quality
3 Stop washing ail pfatea immudiatery • reduces
wastewater .
Accurately measure individual battery cell voltage
-assures .battery quality

*. "J"^ "iS
" 'si'.ooo
' '. $100.000
so • •
SO - ' ;
• ,- so-
$500 ,

, .,53.750 .---ģ•
"' Sf.OOO'
per year '•--
Seen in plate
; PĢr year
.• per year/
Quaiiry •
. $2,000 •
per year
, per year-
Depends on
. $70.956
per year
'per year
per year
per year
• $125.000
per year
Quality .
SI .531 ,206
. per year
->23S? -- .-.. -- • --" •
"" ""^SSiAtiS&toif' '•
• -Payback.*1, r
. i year •
SĢe plate


Two years -

•Not Applicable

Less man 1 8

Less than 3
Ndt ApplicaBle


 use ;n smelting ovens, curing rooms, and trie tank
 forrnaaon process, and i4) excessive wastewater
 generation in die gnd pasting and washing processes.
 in addition, over 2,500 kilograms of lead oxide paste
 was spilled and fed m:o the smelting process each
 cjay. using virgin lead  where scrap lead would suffice.
 Finally several technological problems 
                                                                             'M81-M-S03-51. ?MO.
                                     Pollution Prevention Assessment for a
                                                Cattle Hide Tannery
                                       CASE  STUDY
 What is EPS?
  The amounc of pollutants and waste generated by
  industrial facilities has become an increasing}/
  costly problem for manufacturers and a significant
  stress-on the environment Companies, therefore,,.
  are looking for ways to feduce pollution at the  . .
  source as a way' of avoiding costly treatment and _
  reducing environmental liability and compliance
  costs. •  '    •'         .  ••' ...
  ...        "           r    • • •-       • •
  The united States Agency for International Develop-,
  ment (USAlb) is sponsoring the Environmental
  Pollution Prevention'Project(ŖP3) to.establisn   -
  sustainable programs in developing countries;
  transfer urban and industrial pollution prevention
  expertise and information, and support efforts to
  improve environmental quality. These objectives are
  achieved through technical assistance to industry  - •
  and urban institutions, development and delivery of
  training and outreach programs, and operation of an
  information clearinghouse.                    .
 EPS's Assessment Process

 EP3 pollution prevention diagnostic assessments
 consist of three phases: pre-ossessmenc, assess-
 ment, and; post-assessment. During pre-assessmenc;
 EP3 in-country representatives determine a facility's
 suitability for a pollution prevention assessment,
 sign memoranda .of agreement with each facility
 selected, and collect preliminary data/During     .
 assessment a team comprised of U.S. and in-;
 country  experts in both "pollution prevention and
• the facility's industrial processes gathers more
 detailed information-on the sources of pollution, and
 identifies and analyzesopportunities for reducing;
 this pollution, finally, the team'prepares a report for
 the facility's management detailing its findings and
 recommendations (including cost savings, imple-
 mentation costs, and payback times). During pose- -
 assessment, the EP3 in-country representative
 works with the facility to implement the actions
 recommended in the report
 This assessment evaluated a facility that tans cattle
 hides. The objective of the assessment was to identify "•
 actions that would: (1) reduce the quantity of toxics.,
 raw materials, and energy used in the manufacturing
 process, thereby reducing pollution and worker
 exposure. (2) demonstrate the environmental and ;
 economic value of pollution prevention methods to
 the tanning industry and (3) improve operating v
•efficiency and product quality      ;'

 The assessment was performed by an EP3 team
 cornprised of a US expert in leather tanning and a • „
 pollution prevention specialist.         ,     .

 overall; the assessment identified eight pollution
 prevention opportunities at tliis facility Recommenda-
 tions include recycling the spent chrome tanning,
 wastes, oxidizing the sulfide containing wastes.
_• decreasing the'volatile organic discharge by changing
 finishing materials, decreasing water use by batch,
 washing, and using solid wastes from the waste     .
 stream as fertilizer.

 Facility Background

 This facility is a cattle hide tannery producing chrome
 tanned  shoe upper leather from salted cattle hides.
 The tannery has a nominal-capacity of five hundred
 hides per day. Monthly production is 25 days at 400
 hides per day. with an average hide weight of 23  kg.
 The total weight of hides processed per day is
  9.209 kg.   ••_•.'             .

  The wastes generated'by the tannery come from the
  hides and the chemicals used in the tanning process.
  Tannery wastes are discharged  in a number of
  batches during the production day.

        Figure 1:  Overview of Facility's Cattle Hide Tanning Process
                                                                                0Ģ-hairing machne
                     Hides soaked for 48 hours ģ
                     mmcve ccntamriants andie
                      mhydnMe observed rģde*
                                               Chemical putt applied
                                                                           stnpa hair from hides
                                               to hidee, loosening hair
                                                      Hides limed in paddto vat
                                                      undesirable compound*
                                                          Hide* washed and wang
    Leather manned to cdor
                                    Ammonium salt*
                                                          Hides washed to drima ana
                                                               Milan them
    Leather preosioh cut by
                                       (Salt, acid
                                     iwomium auĢat§
                                                           Hides chrome tahrwa n
                                                                 . darns .
                  tastier products
                                          Rurnng water
                                                          Tamed leatier washed and
    Leather split into 2 tayera:
      the) gran and Hi* split
     (both layen processed
        aw sun* way)
                            Chrcme tanned leafier
                               cut into sector*
Laaaiervegeuae tanned
   without chromun
Manufacturing Process

Figure 1 outlines the process of leather production at
the plane in the production of leather from salted
cattle hides, the hides must be thoroughly re-wet, and
the dirt, sale and undesirable hide substances must be
removed. Soaking and washing the skins is done in:a
series of steps to remove dirt, salt, and organic matter.
and rinse the hides, .me waste water is nearly neutral,
and contains salt and  some suspended solids.

Next, the skins are unhaired by treatment with lime
and sulftdes. The waste water is very alkaline, con-
tains toxic salfides, and is the main-cause of the high
BQO and suspended solids in the total waste stream.

The next step is deeming to remove the lime in the
 skins and soften chem by enzymatic action. The first
                                               dump of this process contains ammonium sulfate,
                                               enzymes, and some protein. The subsequent washes
                                               are very dilute, nearly neutral pH solutions,

                                               The skins are then tanned. The chrome tanning  „
                                               process is'standard for the industry: the solutions
                                               contain chromium as chromium sulfate salt and some
                                               free acid About 75 percent of the chromium present
                                               combines with the hide.

                                               Finally, the color and fatliquor steps are employed co
                                               color and oil the leather to make it as soft or firm as
                                               desired. A number of chemicals are used in these
                                               steps and about 90 percent of the load is fixed to the
                                               leather. The spent solutions are-mildly acidic, with a
                                               pH of between 4 and 6. BOD and suspended solids are
                                                relatively tow.    :

       Table 1
 Unit Operation
:  Summary of Recommended Pollution  Prevention Opportunities
 Fanning "
Solvent Oisch

Water Use
Solid Wasta
 Suspended Solids
 Sludge from
                       Pollution Prevention Action and EnylronmenUV
                                 Product Quality Benefit
Racy*, o^'romr iann
                Change to batch washes • decreases water usage by 20-40 percant
Save leather trimmings for reconstituted leafier • decrease leather
waste by 6040 percent
                Destroy sulfides'by air oxidation - decreases sulfida vyasta tjy 95-98
 Primary treatment • dacreases suspended solids by 70-85 percent

 Dry sludge tor land application - allows dwposal Ģf sludge as fertilizer
                 Treat primary wasta • decreases BOO by 60-80 percant

                                                        $50.000 (bidding
                                                           ' fitters) .
                                                                        Payback Perlo*
                                                                                       To ba determined
                                                                                       -To bo determined
To be determirtBd

To ba determihad
                                                                                       To ba determined
 Existing Pollution Problems

 At che time of the assessment, there were a number
 of pollution problems at the facility, including exces-
 sive d) chromium discharge. (2) VOC discharge.
 (3) water usage. (4) leather waste. (5) sulfide waste.
 (6) suspended solids in effluent (7) oil-and grease in
 che effluent, and (8> BOD of effluenc

 Pollution  Prevention

 The assessment identified eight pollution prevention
 opportunities that could address the problems iden-
 tified, with significant erwironrnentai and economic
 benefits to the facility (see Table 1). Two of the
 recommendations can be implemented with no
 -capital investment         ;

 The 'recommended actions are based on cost effective
  methods that have been proven in commercial
  applications;-    •                            •

  Chromium recycling. This, step allows che collection of
  che spent chrome tanning solutions, without dilution
  or contamination, for use in the piclcle and tanning
  process: Since the tannery also tans splits, the spent
  chrome tanning solution-can be used here as well.   •
 . The  canning of splits resulcs in very good fixation of
  . chromium, so che concencracion of chromium in che
                                     final effluent should meet effluent regulations. This  :
                                     system results in a saving of. about 25 percent in che
                                     chromium chemicals used.

                                     Solvents.-The suppliers of finishing products have
                                     developed water-based lacquers with significantly
                                     lower volatile solvent contents. These materials are
                                     now widely accepted as quality products, and their
                                     use is strongly advised.'••..
                                     Process VVttter. in some hide wetting processes chef e
                                     is an opportunity to recycle the final rinses;. The final
                                     rinse waste water in .this process is compatible  with
                                     fluids used for the first weocing of the hides.

                                     Solid VWste. Elimination of solid leather waste dis-
                                      charges through the use of trimmings in reconstituted
                                      leather will ease.the burden on landfills.

                                      Capita intensive dfJ?catfons. Eliminating suifides
                                      from the effluent is very important, as chey will  ,
                                      corrode pipes." cause objectionable odors, and may
                                      cause fatal accidents. The sul'fide-time solution, and
                                      washes from this process,  can be collected without
                                      contamination from other solutions. These collected
                                      wastes can be placed'in a'tank and che suifides
                                      oxidized by air with a catalyst.  This method is effective
                                     .and can destroy the sulfide in 4-8 hours.

                                      At chis point the lime waste, wich high 800 and
                                       suspended solids, can be used co neucralize che acid
                                       wastes that are being continuously discharged. The

acd and alkaline wastes from cne canning process will
react to produce a co-precipication of much of che
suspended solids^nd BOO. This is done with a mixing
can*, and automatic pH control. Coagulants can also be
added at this pome

The neutral streams can then flow to a primary
clanfier for the removal of suspended solids as sludge.
The sludge can be dewatered in a sand bed co more,
Chan SO percent solids for disposal. Although this  .
effluent is somewhat high in BOD. over 80 percent of
the pollution load has been removed. The sludge is a
good soil conditioner, and if used as such, will elimi-
nate possible high disposal costs.

Secondary Treatment In the future, a secondary   .
treatment system can be added for BOD removal. The
secondary system need only be as large as heeded
for che.cianfied wastes, and ft may consist of a tricWe
fttier. a secondary clarifier. and/or a filter press.
Effect on  the Environment

implementation of the suggestions will lead to a
number of positive environmental benefits. Chromium
recycling will decrease the chromium in the discharge
by 80-90 percent. The reduction of volatile solvents
will decrease voc releases to che atmosphere by 60-
75 percent. Changes to water usage patterns will
decrease effluent volume by 30 percent Elimination
of solid leather waste discharges through the use of
trimmings in reconstituted leather eases the burden
on landfills. With primary and secondary treatment.
che BOD can be reduced by 75 percent In addition, che
suspended solid reduction creates a useable by-
product in the form of an organic fertilizer.
                               *    For Further Information
     housa at (703>as.l-4004tsend:afaxto{70a>:i3S1-et68rof onlnternfltapgmtorgChabaco.com.,  .

                   ^       Pollutidn Prevention Assessment for a Textile
                   p      Dyeing Facility Serving Fabric Manufacturers
                     "•             CASESTUDY
What is  EPS?
 , nĢ amount of pollutants and waste generated by
 industrial facilities has. become an increasingly^
 costly problem for manufacturers and a significant
 stress oh the environment companies, therefore,
 are looking for ways to reduce pollution at the
 source as a.way of avoiding costly treatment and
 reducing environmental liability and compliance
 costs.  '     •  • .   ' ..." -:'  .-,-•,
 The united States Agency for international Develop-
 ment (USA1D) is sponsoring the. EnvironmenHi
 pollution Prevention Project (EP3) to establish     -
 sustainable programs in developing countries.
 transfer urr *.n and industrial pollution prevention
 expertise and information, and support efforts to
 improve environmental quality. These objecwes are
 achieved through technical assistance to  industry
  and urban institutions, development and  delivery of
  training and outreach programs, and operation of an
  information clearinghouse.

 Summary            ^	       —

 This assessment evaluated a dye house serving a
 variety of fabric manufacturers. The objective of me
 assessment was to identify actions that would: (1)
 reduce the quantity of toxics, raw materials, and
 energy used in the-dying process, thereby reducing
 pollution and worter.exposure, (2) demonstrate the
 environmental and economic value of pollution ^
 prevention methods to the dyeing industrx and (3)
 improve operating efficiency and product quahty

 The assessment was performed by an EPS team    .
 comprised, of an expert in textile dyeing and a pollu-
 tion prevention specialist               '

  overall. :ne assessment identified 37 pollution preven-
  tion opportunities -- classified as first second, and
  third priority opportunities - that could reduce energy
 ' use at this facility and avoid the release of over 14  .-
 ' metric -tons of air emissions each year, in addition to
'•• unqualified reductions in the release of global
  warming gases and heavy metals, water use could  be
  reduced by 125,000 cubic meters per year, and cnerni-
 EPS's  Assessment Process

 EP3 pollution prevention diagnostic assessments
 consist of three phases^ pre-dssessment, assess-
 ment and post-assessment. During pre-ossessmenc
 EP3 in-country representatives determine a facility's
 suitability for a pollution prevention assessment,
- sign memoranda of agreement with each facility  :
 selected; and collect preliminary data. During
 assessment, a team comprised of U.S. and in-
 country experts in both pollution prevention and
 the facility's industrial processes gathers more.
 detailed information on the sources of pollution.
 and identifies-and analyzes opportunities for
 reducing this pollution, finally the team prepares a
 'report'for the  facility's'management.detailing its
 findings and recommendations (including cost
 savings, implementation costs, and payback amesi.
 During post-assessment the EP3 in-country repre-
 sentative works with the facility to implement the
 actions recommended in the report
                                                 cat releases to surface waters could also be reduced.
                                                 .finally, it may be ppssiole to avoid the'disposai of 330
                                                 cubic meters of solid waste per year.

                                                 Facility Background

                                                 This facility is a dye house serving fabric manufactur-
                                                 ers. The facility operates two eight-hour shifts, six
                                                 days per week, employing seventy shift workers and
                                                 twenty technical and administrative employees, in
                                                 1992. the facility processed 350.600 Kg of cotton and
                                                 360,000 kg of wool fabric

                                                 Manufacturing  Process

                                                  in general, cotton dyeing involves two procedures,
                                                  desizing and bleaching, and dyeing. Each  procedure
                                                  involve! a number of steps that must be earned out in
                                                  proper sequence and underoptimal condioons. For
                                                  detailed depictions of these processes, see Figure  1.
                                                  Wool dyeing also "involves several procedures-, (i)
                                                  washing. (2) podding (heating thin wool fabrics in.
                  EP3 is sponsored by tfre U.S. Agency
                                                     for International Development.

            "    Figure 1:  Cotton and Polyester Processing
                     Figure 2: Wool and Acrylic Processing
boiling water to improve appearance and brightness);.
and (3) dyeing. For detailed depictions of these
processes, see Figure 2.

White fabric is desized and bleached in becks, with
nominal capacities of 500 liters, 1,000 liters, and r.SOO
liters of water.  Fabrics to be dyed are desized and
then dyed in jets.
Existing Pollution Problems	

At the time of the assessment,'there were a number
of pollution problems at the facility including
d) excessive loss of water, chemicals, and.heat energy
from the becics. U) excessive use of water in the.
rinsing process due to residual solution left at bottom
of the beck, (3) excessive suspended solids, primarily

       Table 1':.  Summary of Recommended:Pollution Prevention Opportunities
                   Pollution Privation Action and EnvironmeniiV
 Unit Option. I              product Quality Benefit
                                                                Financial Benefit
                                Piytack Ptriod
                                            Fģr*t Priority Opportunfttee
Stum System
                                 reduces airem*** and fu- Ģģ.
Evaluate steam system compcnwts and layoui and add at
least tvw steam traps -reajcaseMray use p"reJons of H2SO*
                   mist and tntfgy us*.
                   instaa ģ*aust tģn aftsr iģ*alane8ig *yĢf - avoids VWOMT
                   •xposura to strfurte.add mist and ftjlufajnedicalcosts.
                          ĢnitiTja^anny^                    .
                          compliance w* eltaeffl standards and nslps Ģt

 •nc "asned :f? 'acne * eaxage of. detergent-laden
 water from tne wool wasnmg macnmes. (5) excessive
 OH of efnuenc from the decarbonizing acid bain.    •
 •6) excessively hot effluent. (71 excessive oil and grease
 and sulfate concentrations in effluent (8) leakage
 from swam coils, (9) hydrogen sulfide generaoon at
 tne wool'laundry sump, (10V disposal of dry WOOL
 cotton combings and shavings, and sodium sulfate
 Dags irnaterials that could be recycled), (fl) Ģcessye
 air emissions of paracuiates, and (12) lint and sulfunc
 aad rriist in the wool laundry room.  ,

 This facility uses about twice as much water as the
 average commission batch dyer its size; thus, many of
 the recommendations focus on. reducing water.
 consumption and the energy required to heat it for
. various dyeing processes.             '.  -'•

 Pollution Prevention
 Opportunities	        •  •'

 me assessment identified almost  40 pollution preven-
 tion opportunities that could address the problems
 identified, with significant environmental and eco-
 nomic benefits to the facility. The assessment team
  prioritized' these opportunities based on pollution
  prevented and irnplementatiqn'cost. Table t lists tne
  high priority opportunities recommended for the
  facility and presents the environmental benefits,
  savings and implementation costs, and estimated
  payback period for each (a complete list of recom-
  mendations is available from the  EP3 Clearinghouse).
  Many of the recommendations can be implemented
  with no capital investment. Further, many can be
   implemented almost immediatelx and most are not
   dependent upon other projects for their initiation.

   Of the 19 high priority opportunities recommended.. .
   the savings possible from implementing six have been
   quantified. These six recommendations will, reduce
   operating costs by almost $106,000 per year for an   •
   initial investment of $1.900. The simple payback period
   for these changes is one week. Another $2.600 in
   investments is required to implement other changes
   whose sayings potential cannot be quantified without
   further research.
Effect on  the Environment:	

implementaoon of the recommended actions will
produce positive environmental impacts in three
area* reduced air emissions, lower water and chemi-  •
cat use, and reduced generation of solid waste.

Air Emissions. Mary of the proposed changes will
reduce steam consumption and lower fuel use,
'thereby reducing air emissions. Repairing all traps
should reduce fuel consumption by 36 percent, or 454
metric tons of number 6 residual oil per year. The
expected reductions in air emissions from this change
total over 14 metric tons per year, in addition, this
change will result in reduced carbon dioxide and
heavy metal emissions.

water and Chemical Use. When all rinsing changes
have been implemented, the facility should consume
half the water it currently does, -e yearly reduction
in water use will be .about 125,00- cubic meters.
Chemical use will, decline due to a number of
changes. Sulfate in the effluent will be reduced by.
 more than 70tOOO leg/year by changing to sodium
 chloride and filtering the decarbonizing acid bath.

 Releases to the sewer of other chemicals such as dye.
 dye stabilizers, de-foamers, detergents, sodium
 hydrosulfite, bleach.-optical brighteners, acetic acid.
 equalizers, and boiler treatment chemicals will be
 reduced as a result of the recommended changes.
 Among the changes that will affect chemical releases
 are (D berar process controls, (2) screening drains
 and cleaning*umps regu'lariy to prevent sulfide
 generation. (3) preventing beck boil-over. (4) repamng
 coil steam leaks that contaminate boiler feed water
 and process baths, (5) using a lower-foaming jet-dye
 detergent, (6) calibrating and shimming becks,
 (7) repairing and modifying becks and wool laundnes.
 and (8) determining sizing formulae Until these
 changes are made, it is not possible to calculate the
 , degree to which releases will be reduced.

  Solid waste. Solid waste discarded by the facility
  consists mainly of sulfate chemical bags and shavings
  and combings from fabric finishing. Assuming that the
  eight sulfate  bags generated per day fill one large 10.1
  cubic meter) garbage bag and thai -.he combings fill
  ten bags per day, the yearly un-compressed volume of
  these solid wastes is 330 cubic meters, if both wastes
  are recycled, this volume  of waste can be reused at
  least once before bejng discarded.
                                      For Further Information

                                    Dilution Prevention Assessment for an
                                               Electroplating Facility
                                       CASE  STUDY
 What is EPS?
 The amount of pollutants and waste generated by
 industrial facilities has become an increasingly
 costly problem for manufacturers and a significant
 stress on the environment Companies; therefore.
 are looking for. ways to reduce pollution ae the
 source as a way of avoiding costly treatment and    ;
 reducing environmental liability and compliance.
 COStS.   '    '•-."   . •' '•    '   ....•'  ,     •;

 The united States Agency for fntemational Develop-
 ment (USAlb) is sponsoring the Environmental
 Pollution Prevention Project (EP3) to establish  ,
 sustainable programs in developing countries.
 transfer urban and  industrial pollution prevention
 expertise and information, and support efforts to
 improve environmental quality.- These objectives are
 achieved through technical assistance to industry
 and urban institutions, development and delivery of.
 training and outreach programs, and operation of, an
 information clearinghouse,  .
 EP5's Assessment Process

'EP3 pollution prevention diagnostic assessments
 consist of-three phases: pre-assessmenc. assess-  .
 mere, and post-assessmentDuring pre-assessment,
 EP3 in.-country representatives determine a facility's
'suitability for a pollution prevention assessment.
 sign memoranda of agreement with each facility
 selected,.and collect preliminarydata. During
 assessment, a team comprised of U.S. and. i n-
 countf y .experts in both pollution prevention and,
 the facility's industrial processes .gathers more
 detailed information on the sources of pollution, and
 identifies and analyzes opportunities for reducing .
 this" pollution. Finalfy-the team prepares a report fot
 che facility's managemencdetailingits findings and
 recommendations (including cost sayings, imple-
 mentation costs, and payback times). During post- .
 assessment, che EP3 in-country representative
 works with cne facility to implement che actions
 recommended, in the report.
  Facility Background
This assessment evaluated an electroplating facility.
The objective of the assessment was to propose a
program of pollution prevention dial would: (t) reduce;
the quantity .of toxics, raw materials, and energy used
in the manufacturing process, thereby reducing
pollution and worker exposure. (2) demonstrate the.
environmental and economic valueofpollution
prevention methods to the electroplating industry, and
improve operating efficiency and product quality

The assessment was performed by an EP3 team
comprised of an .expert in electroplating and a pollu-
tion prevention specialist.  .        ;

 Overall, the assessment identified 18 pollution preven-
 tion opportunities at this facility. Recommendations
 for.pollutipn prevention include'replacing the solvent.
 degreaser with an alkaline cleaner, improving'process
 solution monitoring, and capturing and returning 100
 percent of chromium  dra'gbut to the process solution.
  This facility is an electroplater that performs zinc.
  nickeh brass, and chrome plating. Seventy percent of
  production is comprised of brass articles. The facility
  operates with 23. workers who work in .a single 8-hour
  shift, 300 days a year. Approximately is m2 of metal
  surface is finished per day:  .    .  • l-

  Manufacturing  Process

  Facility operations can be divided into five main steps:
  d) polishing; (2) cleaning, (3) racking. (4) electroplating,
  and (5) gilding as shown in Figure 1..  "

  Parts are first polished. Polishing paste is applied to
  stationary belt sanders to provide  the necessary
  abrasion. The parts are then polished with the sand-
  ers. Dust generated by the polishing process is
 ' collected by vacuums connected to each  machine.

            Figure 1:  Overview of Facility's Electroplating Process!
Prior to electroplating, mary parts are cleaned in a.
vapor degfeaser that uses trichloroethylene (TCE) to
remove grease and other impurities. Parts removed
from the degreaser are dried with paper towels.

The facility electroplates many different kinds of
parts. Several parts are hung on special racks that are
constructed specifically to handle the part. Other
pieces are plated in baskets that are placed directly in
the solutions.     ~ •              '   .

The electroplating line cphsists of washing tanks.
rinsing tanks! and nfckel and chrome plating and
recuperation baths: A copper cyani'de  bath is located
across from the line and is used to plate zamak
 before it is plated to nickel and chrome. All plating is
manuaJ. Times are not exact, and there is consider-
able variation in soaking times among different parts
and different workers.-

Before aiding, parts are rinsed in .special rinse baths.
They are then immersed in gilding solution for less
than a minute.

             Pollution Problems

'•At the time of the assessment, there were a number
 of pollution problems including (1) polishing debris.
 (2) the use of organic solvents for degreasing, (3) acid
 dip contamination; (4) inefficient cyanide eiectropiat-
' ing. (SI unnecessary chrome and nickel waste, and
 (6) excessive water use.

Table 1:  Summary of Recommended Pollution Prevention Opportunities
r"~""" 	 _— —
Unit Operation
Polisnmg •- Option
'•1 ' "
Polisning •• Option
Polishing <• Option '
1 Polishing -Option
••^ •-••—"
Alkaline cleaning
~ Option. Ģ1
Alkaline cleaning
Acid Dip - 10%
Acid Dtp -10%
AadOip-r V
0Ģpasswatioh ol •
Acid Dip •• Mixed
[copper cyanide
Cyanide brass
electroplating .
electroplating -
t Optionee '•
• 	 ' . .
' Chrome '
Chrome , -
alĢctropiadng -
Option #2 • . . . '
Rinsing -
; Effectiveness
Pollution Prevention Action and Environmental*
Product Quality Benefit
Raduca ģmĢ bo wsen butllng and daanmg
RĢpiac. polishng compound with on. eompadbto with
aouaous a*alinĢ duanm '
"'.'•• • • j . ,'•-,-•--
mprov* opwakx pwformane* by purchasing iWur**,
and jigs: provide training .
Reduce compound andwfw** us* mrough prop*
operator prac**.. •. ,
Replace thiģ process st^ wift aqueous alkaline
deanery . ' '• =.-•_/• •->..'
esminate cyanide us* in deaning
Improved process conW aiKJaoWton monitoring
isolate acids for steel and bras* ' ,
Improved process conird and sduBon nwnitormg,
Elminate ma proeas* step: doaner is adequat*.
Replace with solutions in smaller tanks: practice
segregaton and recovery. ',_ ".
improved process control and solution monifermg
Improved procese control and solution monitoring ,
Improved prbceeģ conW and eoluSon moniloring
" • .'• • . '- -, .' •' • •- ' ,';
LesĢIreojientpurifcaBion ' • .
Capture and return 100% ol dragout to fte process
solution ' .' .' .-.'-•
Improved process control and solution monitoring:
porous pot '
Add agitation and sprays: control water use: reduce '
water use '

.• :*>'•• -'
, ģ•.
<$100 '
$0 .. •
• . ?°
1 • ; •
.:. <$ioa '
-... <$100

Already incurred in
'• : ģ' •
$Ŗ00 ģ $1.000
< $100
SS.SOO'to $6,500
Financial BeneHt-
Savmgs in costs
Savings in costs
Savings in costs
$1 SO -$300 par
, vear
$11. 134 par year
• $895 per year
•. ' ~ , S*0
; $144
$672 ,
• .improvement
• impfowni0nt
. Owaity ,
- . tow.
$4.130 to $5,875
peryeat -.
Reduced need tor
Could elminate
need to invest in
treatment • .
H •• — ^ ^ ^^—
$1,728 per year
At least $19.783
peryear •
Payback Period
N/A '
< 6 montns
• Immediate .
, N/A.

. N/A
• , N/A
i_ 	 '• . '
1.1 -2 years
. < 3 months
_J — m 	 _, — . — . — i

 Pollution .Prevention
The assessment identified 18 pollution prevention
opportunities chat could address the problems
identified above, with significant environmental and
economic benefits to the facility. Table 1 lists the
recommended opportunities for the facility, and
presents the environmental benefits' and implementa-
tion costs for each.

Polishing Debris. As currently performed, the polishing
process leaves considerable debris (consisting of a
mixture of polishing compound and solids from the
polishing wheel) inside the pieces. These deposits
cannot be removed by scraping or wiping.

To alleviate this problem, the facility can take several
.steps-. Reducing.tne amount of polishing compounds
used will reduqe the amount of debris. Removing
visible residue will allow less debris to harden on the
pieces. Reducing the time between buffing and
cleaning will.also allow less debris to harden on  the
" pieces. Lastly, employing a polishing compound that is
 compatible with alkaline cleansers will improve the
 efficiency  of the cleaning process (along with recom-
 mendations outlined in the next section).

 DegreosJng. The facility currently  employs the chlori-
 nated solvent TCE to degrease parts. TCE is highly toxic
 and chemically reactive, and has been linked to  liver
 cancer and ozone depletion. Parts can be cleaned
 equally well, or better, through the use of aqueous
 alkaline cleaners. Thus, the facility can greatiy reduce
 its environmental impact and  improve product quality
 by implementing an alkaline cleaning system. Further.
 the alkaline system is more cost effective than the TCE
 system. A $5.000 investment will yield savings (from
 eliminated solvent purchases) of $12,000 per year.-   .

 Add Dips, in this facility's plating process, an acid dip
 (usually to percent sulfuric acid) is. used to remove any •
 oxides that may have developed on the brass or steel
 surface. With time, copper arid organic contamination
 accumulates in the acid bath. If more than 300 mg/l of
 copper is present in the acid dip. the bath can cause
 adhesion problems fbc the steel substrate. Further,
' copper contamination also impacts the nickel electro-
. plating solution. While the facility utilizes nickel
depassi'vation co remove the copper contamination, it
is not efficient, wasting nickel, bnghtener, and energy.

Separate acid dips for steel and brass substrates will
improve the quality of both the steel substrate
cleaning, and the nickel electroplating solution, and
hence reduce the number of rejects the facility
produces. Additionally by employing tighter-process
control over the acid dips, the facility will save $816 a
year in reduced solution cose              /   .

/nejfldenc qjonWe Electroplating. Cyanide electro-
plating cannot be eliminated at this facility because
the known, non-cyanide alkaline alternatives do not
function well in this application. However, improved
process control and solution monitoring could en-
hance product quality, and hence reduce the number
of rejects the facility produces,  .   •

Unnecessary Nlctel and Chrome Waste Currently the
facility purifies the nickel bath six times per year. By
improving process, control and purifying the nickel
bath only once peryear. the facility should save
between $4.100 and 55.900 a year from recovered
nickel solution.   •         '     .      •  '

The- lost chrome solution is only valued at $ 180 per
year. However, if 100 percent of this chrome could be
captured, the facility would not have to install expen-
sive chrome waste treatment required  by the facility's
government. A porous pot-purification system (priced
between $500 and $1,000) is capable of removing the
chromium from the waste water. While the expected
costs of meeting chromium discharge limits have not
been determined, they are sure to be greater than the
cost of the purification system.

Excessive Water Use Waste water is generated in
significant volumes from the facjlity's rinse steps.
Some fairly simple changes can be made that will
 reduce water use by 25 percent. The use of air or
 solution agitation would increase the efficiency of the
 rinses, and reduce the frequency of changes. Spray
 rinses would also be more efficient than the current
 practice, lastly, water inputs should be installed with
 switches that turn off the inputs after a set period of
 inactivity. For an investment of less than $ too, the
 facility should save $1,728 a year from  reduced water
 usage.              '        '       •    •
                                     For Further Information:
     For further infomalton on this assessment or other actfctffes sponsored by EP3* call thģ EEP3 Clearing-
     hous* at (703) 351-4004. sentfa faxto(703|35t-61^or^

                     ^        Pol ution Prevention Assessment for an Oil
                     p        fraction and Soap Manufacturing Facility
                                       CASE  STUDY
 What is EPS?
  The amount-of pollutants and waste generated by
  industrial facilities .has become an increasingly    '
  costly problem for manufacturers and a significant
  stress on the environment. Companies, .therefore.
  are looting for ways to reduce pollution at the
  source as a way of avoiding costly treatment and .
  reducing .environmental,liability and compliance
  costs.  .                •         •

  The United States Agency for International. Develop-
  ment (U5A1D) is sponsoring the Environmental
  Pollution Prevention project.(ŖP3) tp- establish
  sustainable programs in developing countries.
  transfer urban and- industrial pollution prevention
  expertise and information, and support efforts to  •
 . improve environmental quality. These objectives are
  achieved through technical. assistance to industry
  and urban institutions, development and delivery of
  training and outreach programs, and operation of an
  information clearinghouse.       .    .
 EPS's  Assessment Process

 EP3 pollution prevention diagnostic assessments
 consist of three phases: pre-ossessmenr, assess-
 ment, and post-assessment During pre-assessmenc,
 EP3 fn-country representatives determine a facility's
 suitability for" a pollution prevention assessment,.
 sign memoranda of agreement with each facility
 selected,'and collect preliminary data, burihg
 assessment, a team comprised of U.S. and in-- ;
 country experts in both pollution prevention and.
 the facility's industrial processes gathers more
 detailed information on the.'sources of pollution,
 , and identifies and analyzes opportunities for   •   .
 reducing this pollution. Finally, the team prepares a
. report for the; facility's management detailing' its
 findings and recommendations (including cost
 •savings, implementation costs, and payback times).
 During post-assessment..the EP3 in-country repre-
 sentative works with the facility to implement the
 actions, recommended in the report.

 'This assessment evaluated a facility that extracts and
 refines olive oil and manufactures domestic soap from
 resulting side products. The objective of the assess-
 ment was to identify actions that would: d) reduce
 the quantity of toxics, raw materials, and energy used
 in the manufacturing process, thereby reducing
 pollution arid worker exposure..Ž demonstrate the
 environmental and economic value of pollution
 prevention methods to the soap industry and
 (3) improve operating efficiency and product quality.

 The assessfnent was performed by an EP3 team
 ' comprised of aaexpert in oil extraction and soap
„.- manufacturing and a pollution prevention expert. -

  Overall; .the assessment identified  13 pollution preven-
 •, tion opportunities that could provide first year savings
  of S42Q-.000 for a one-time investment of $236.000. if
  implemented, these changes could reduce energy and
  water'use per unit output, reduce contaminated
  wastewater, and improve1 product quality.     .
                                                   Facility Background
  This facility extracts and refines oil from spent olive oil
  pressing waste (grignon) for sale as consumable oil.
  Any oils that cannot be used for consumption are
  used in the manufacture of soap. The facility operates
  three eight-hour shifts, employing eighty permanent
  workers and eighty seasonal workers'. Sales exceeded
  S2.6 million during the 1992-1993 operating season.

  The facility is the only company in trie area that
  extracts olive oil from grignon. it represents approxi-
  mately 30 percent of the national .market for oil seed
  refining and sells about 15 percent of the nation's bar
  soap used primarily for clothes laundering.

  Manufacturing  Process

  The plant has five main unit operations: grignon
 •. drying, oil extraction; recovery of hexane, oil refining.
  and soap making as shown in Figure l.

Figure 1: Overview of Facility's Oil Extraction and Soap
               Manufacturing Process

Table 1:  Summary of Recommended Pollution Prevention Opportunities

Gngnon Drying.
Oil Extraction:
Oil Extraction:
Oil Extraction:
Control Hexsne -
Oil Extraction:
Vapor Vent •

Distillation: Water
Misceila '
Hexane Vent
Refining Oil:
Wash Water

Pollution PrĢvĢndon Action and environmental
product'Quallty Benefit
•ave 12 percent residual moisture Mislead of trie current 7
Mrcent • reduces hexane emissions from extraction and
partcuute and NOx erwwioiw from boiler*.
urchase and insUĢ *heat exchanger to pre-heat the gngnon
and hexane to Ģ0 degrees C- roducee nexane emisaiorw.- ;
Design, budd. and inaUH a hexane distribution manifold for ,
oacn extractor • reduces hexano emissions.
urcnase and install flow metws tor each extractor • reduce*
exane emissions.
Purchase a shel and tube condenser to maintain a negative
pressure (vacuum) on the systtm • reduces hexane emissions:
Purchase and install flow meters and pressure gauges -

Purchase and insta* a heat exchanger to pre-heat the rrasceUa
with the hot od .xrtngtie stripper.- reduces hexane air
emissions: reduces by 96 peccant the volume of hexane
contarrunated waste water {equivalent to9l,200 kg o< hexane .
and 96.000 cubic meters of walsr per year).
Purchase and Instat an efficient coofing tower with a tan •
same as above. . ^
Purchase and instal a mineral oil absorber - same as above.
Purchase and instaN wash watnr flow controller and meter-
reduces waste water volume.
Purchase and nsttftashei and ģ*• heat exehanger:l8 cool oil
before storage - reduces toering on decofcxtzing syskm and .
reduoM wajief vduHtex * • '

Increase Ihe hoMng time in fte Meaeher Irom 1 S minute* to 30
rrenutes - reduce* operaUng warts* and costs in

Purchae* and intOf^a shel and lube vacuum condensers -
reduces (any add* dumped Into lie sea.

$12.000 f>

$1S,SOO:- •.

• .$58.000
. $4,000.

. .. „
:-~ None • "'

cofnbtn^Q :
< CORlbtfMM .
$213.000 '

$162.000 .
S 162.000

.HJB i tiin ei'rl '


Partod .



     say: raw g<"grcn  s ground and dried in three
"arge noc air rotary dryers to 1 percent moisture •
sefore cne extraction process begins. The plane
operates two systems of six 13-con extractor/de-
solventizer vessels. Each system uses three tanks at a
time in series for oil extraction. The grignon is placed
in the tanks, and an un-metered amount of hexane is
added through the top of the first tanK. It extracts oil
as it percolates through the grignon. The mixture of
hexane and olive oil (called miscella) flows to fill the
second tank, overflows, and then fills the third before
going to temporary storage to await separation.

The miscella drains from the extractors and is
pumped to the evaporators. The evaporators use non-
contact steam to evaporate the hexane from the
mixture.            .                ' '   -   ,
The neutralization process separates the oil from the
wastel called "soap stock.' The neutralized oil is then
decolorized and deodorized. The refined oil is sold for

"oil of insufficient quality for refining and the soap  .
stock, from the neutralizing step in refining are used as
feed for soap making. In large, steam-heated cylindri-
cal tanks, oil and/or soap  stock mix with sodiCim
 hydroxide, salt, and a variable amount of water,
 reacting to form a soap that floats on top of the tank.
 The wet soap is filtered, steam heated, and vacuum-
 dried. The soap next  passes through a high-shear
 mixing machine to an extruder where it is cooled and
 molded into a continuous rectangular solid. The soap
 bar is cut, inspected, dried, and boxed for shipment.

  Existing Pollution  Problems

  At the time of the assessment, there were a number
  of pollution problems at the facility including:
  (D excessive hexane emissions during oil extraction,
  (2) paniculate and NO, emissions from'boilers. (3) fire
  hazard from dned grignon. (4) excessive waste water
  from hexane evaporation. (5) oil loss to the water .
  stream, and (6) excessive fatty acids dumped directly
  into the sea.                       . .

  Pollution Prevention
  Opportunities	•___

  Overall, the assessment  identified 13 pollution preven-
  tion opportunities that could provide first year savings
  of $426.000 for a one-time investment of $236,000.
 The predicted s'avrgs could rise dramatically by
 including ct-.e avc.ded ^pital costs for a waste water
 pre-treatrrerc sia-cn designed for pre-assessment  .
 operating ccrc.c:ors Table i presents the pollution
 prevention ccccrv-nties in order of unit operation

 A number of ere recommendations can -help the
 facility produce superior oil for consumpcion. including
 (D cooling. :r.e oĢi from the oil/hexane stnpper,
 (2) adding process low meters and controls in the
 refining stage. 3rd • 3) upgrading equipment in the
 deodorizing process, in addition, several of the recom-
 mendations will reduce waste water volume by nearly,
 50 percent, ir.d :cwer the COO level, hydrocarbon
 loading, and  :r.e amount of solids .in the waste water.
 These changes could help the facility improve its
 competitiveness ,m  tne domestic and export markets.

" if implemented  tnese pollution prevention improve-
 ments will reduce n'exane emissions to the atmo-
 sphere and to waste water by over. 160,000 kilograms-,
 reduce waste water volume by 96,000 cubic meters
 per year, reduce oaraculate and NO,, emissions, and
 reduce tne nsn. of fire or explosion from hexane.
  Implementation Status       _

  The facility nas appointed a follow-up team that is
  working under tne supervision of the local EP3 office
  and a specialized local consultant in order to imple-
  ment the assessment's recommendations. After
  setting pnonties relative to the implementation plan,
  actual execution began. The folloW-up team is
  conducting experiments to determine trie most
  suitable way of obtaining 12 percent moisture in the
  dried grignon and whether such a moisture level
  yields the desired results, for both oil extraction and
  combustion purposes.  Two shell-and-tube heat
  exchangers have been  purchased to pre-heat hexane
  (before extraction) to 60 degrees C and are scheduled
  for installation by the end of September  1994.  The
  Follow-up team is screening the market for appropn-
  ate flow meters and pressure. gauges to ensure better
  measurement and control of its production opera-
  tions  The facility has also purchased two NIAGARA,
  filters to reduce the volume of waste water and
   hexane losses in its  deodorizing operation effluents.
                                     For f-urther information
      For further nrfomwtion oģ the assessment ot carter aetwffiee sponsored by Ef^,
                                   tfaxta^O^SSI^hie^oronrnf	^

                                  CHAPTER 4
                     FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS'

As companies incorporate pollution prevention approaches in their strategic planning, capital
investment priorities, arid process design decisions, it is vital that they understand both the
quantitative and qualitative dimensions of assessing pollution prevention projects. These
projects tend to reduce or eliminate costs that may not.be captured incursory.financial       ;
analyses due to the way the costs are categorized and allocated by conventional management
accounting systems. Additionally, pollution prevention projects often have impacts on a
broad range of issues, such as market share; and public impact, that are difficult to quantify
but that can be of strategic importance. Identifying and analyzing ail costs .and less tangible
items is an important step in an evaluation of the potential benefits of a pollution prevention
project. .: §  •.•"'• ."'•    j  .    '   '••     '      "   ,''.--'!-•,.•"•    •••.       :  .  ••  -. .

The process for assessing pollution prevention projects, particularly the financial analysis
component, fits with the framework of the standard capital budgeting model. However, the
process described here,;referred to as capital budgeting for pollution prevention projects
expands on and broadens the way capital budgeting is often practiced.2 The approach
described here attempts to address this, tendency of financial analyses to omit
environmentally-related costs, which typically are lumped into overhead accounts, allocated
to products, or overlooked in the cost identification process. This chapter also focuses
relatively greater attention on. the more-qualitative impacts of projects. While this is riot the ..
only way to evaluate a project, it does provide an accurate method for ensuring that important
benefits and potential impacts are included in the analysis.

Section 4.2 provides an overview of capital budgeting and the key concepts and factors used
to perform a financial analysis of a pollution prevention project. Section 4;3 describes how to
 establish a cost baseline, a necessary first step in any evaluation of pollution prevention
 projects. Section 4.4 presents a process for evaluating projects against the baseline. Section
  '.     This chapter is derived from the United States Environmental Protection Agency document "A Primer for
 Financial Analysi* of Pollution Prevention Projects".

  2     The standard capital budgeting model inj&fiojy, incorporates ill changes inoperating and administrative
      -mrcdmal fvM"""-. HĢ™Ģ"*, suggests that in practice many "indirect costs" are excluded.
                                        • EPS
                                     Training Manual

                          FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS' ģ 4-2
4 5 introduces the various intangible qualitative costs to be considered in conjunction with a
financial analysis to determine the isal impact of a proposed project        .

 Pollution prevention can take many forms - from simple "housekeeping" improvements
 which cost little to carry out, to the installation of expensive capital equipment Although
 manV pollution prevention projects, such as material substitution or process redeslgn, do not
 requirelarge butlays for the purchase of equipment, they may require significant engineering
 expense' create incremental costs or savings, or may require extensive qualitative assessment
 reK^h issues as product quality or employee health and safety. Tte analytical tools
• described in this section are applicable to the assessment of most pollution prevention
 initiatives that fit under the .umbrella of the capital budgeting process.

 Pollution prevention projects are a recent addition to me list of typical capital budgeting
 projects and generally include:          ,                            .
              • New manufacturing equipment;
              Replacement equipment; and
              Plant expansion and construction.
 Capital budgeting is a process of evaluating capital investment options based on a company s
 needs and analyzing the impact of an investment on a company's cash flow over time.
 Pollution prevention and other capital projects are justified by showmg how the project w,ll
 increase revenue.and how the added revenue will not only recover costs, but substantially
 increase the company's earnings as well. Financial tools demonstrate the importance of the
 pollution prevention investment on a life cycle or total cost basis; in terms of revenues,
 expenses, and profits. Key concepts and factors used in capital budgeting are described
 below:                 •   .                                 .

 * Life cycle costing: Also referred to as Total Cost Accounting, this method analyzes the costs
  and benefits associated with a piece of equipment or.a procedure over the entire time the
  equipment or procedure is to be used. The concept was first applied to the purchase of
  weapons systems for the U.S. military. Experience showed initial purchase price was a poor
  indicator of the total cost: costs such as those associated with maintainability, reliability,
  disposal/salvage value, and training/education needed to be considered m the financial
  decision making, process. Similarly, in justifying pollution prevention, all benefits and costs
  must be spelled out in  the most concrete terms possible over the life of each option.
                                         • EP3
                                      Training Manual

                         '  FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ 4-3
Present worth- The importance of present worth, or present value, lies in the fact that time is
       ^Sence^tween a dollar now or a dollar a,year from now is dnven by the fact
       do^Tn-hand can earn interest. Mathematically, this relauonship is as follows:
                .-•'"       !      •       Future Value
                                 (1 + interest f"""e-aflr""
where P is the present worth or present value, F is the future value, r is the interest or   .
discount rate, and n is number of periods, In the above example $1 in one year at 5% mterest-
compounded aimually would have a coiriputed present value_of:
                                       S1-00 •.--:-. Ģ:95
 Because money can "work," at 5% interest, there is no difference between $.95" now and.
• $1.00 in one year because they both have the same value at the present time. Similarly, it the
 SI was to be received in 3 years, the present value would be:
                               :f .=. .  si. QQ .
                                      (1 +.05)2
 In considering either multiple payments or case into and out of a.firin, the present values are
 additive. For example, at 5% interest, the present value of receiving both $1 in one year and
 $1 in 3 years would be $.95 4- $.86 = $1.81. Similarly, if one was to receive $1 in one year,
 and pay $1 in 3 years, the present value would be S.95 - $.86 = $.09. As a result,  present
 wor*calculations allow both costs and benefits, which are^ expended or earned in the future
 to be expressed as a single lump sum at their current or present value.

  Conwarattefactors for financial analysis: The more common methods for comparing
  investment options all utilize the present value equation presented earlier. Generally, one ot
  the following four factors is used:

         •• ~   Payback period.' This factor measures how long it takes to return the initial
               investment capital. Conceptually, the project with the quickest return is the
               best investment. .                            '                  .

    /••ģ'-   Internal rate of return: This factor is also called "return on investment" or-:
     '   >   :     ROI/It is the interest rate that would produce a return^n the invested capital
                                      training Manual

                           FFNANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ 4-4
                          ..               - .

              equivalent to the project's return. For example, a pollution prevention project
              with an internal rate of return of 23% would indicate that pursuing the project
              would be equivalent to investing the money in a bank and receiving 23%
              interest.                      •
       ,.      Benefits cost ratio: ttes factor is a ratio determined by taking the total present
              value of all financial benefits of a pollution prevention project and 'dividing by
              the total present value of all costs of the project. If the ratio is greater than 1 .0,
              the benefits outweigh the costs and the project is economically worthwhile to

       >      Present value of net benefits: This factor shows the worth of a pollution
              prevention project as a present value sum. It is determined by calculating the
              present values of all benefits, doing the same for all. costs and subtracting .the
              two totals. The new result would be an amount of .money that would represent
              the tangible value of undertaking the project.      ;  ;  .
   „    '            '        •""''    •    " *     • "  '" ;,..'.'     j '        '
 While firms can use any of these factors, the importance of life cycle costing or total cost
 analysis makes the present value of net benefits the preferred method;
                 \     •      ,     •        ,             „ '     i •  •• ,


 The first step in determining the cost of a project is to establish a baseline forthe analysis.
 The "do-nothing" or "status quo" alternative is generally used as a baseline. Then any
• changes in material use, utility expense, etc., for other options being considered are measured
 as either more or less expensive than the baseline.

 McHugh3 outlines four tiers of potential costs that should be examined relative to pollution
 prevention projects:    '.                                     .   ^ •  ,     ,.
        ģ•  " •   Tier 0: Usual costs such as dbect labor (wages and benefits, including
               vacation, holidays, etc.), raw materials used m the production process, and
               equipment used for production;

         > '    Tier 1 : Hidden costs such as monitoring expenses, reporting and record
               keeping, and permit requirements. :
3      McHugh, R.T., "The Economics of Wiste Minimization," Hffl
                                                           w      mization. McGraw-Hill,
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                                  ,'' •.  Training Manual

                           FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS > 4-5
              Tier 2: Future liability costs such as costs to respond to or clean up accidental
              releases of contaminants or other incidents, personal injury, property damage,
       >      Tier 3:"Lesstangible costs such as consumer response,Employee relations,
              and corporate image.

 McHugh's Tier (Tand Tier 1 costs cover typical direct and indirect costs such as engineering,
 materials, labor, construction, utilities, depreciation, recordkeeping, etc., as well as waste
 collection and transportation services, raw material consumption (increase or decrease) and
 production costs. Conventional cost accounting schemes tend to spread Tier 2 costs
 indiscriminately over all activities, regardless of actual use. Full cost accounting seeks to
 uncover these costs and properly assign them to specific activities. Often such determinations
 require an estimate of the amount of a resource that is consumed in the production process
 (e.g., the amount of electricity used by a piece of equipment).

 Tier 2 and Tier 3 represent intangible costs, which are more difficult to define, and include
 liabilities that could arise from third party lawsuits for personal or property damages, and
 benefits of improved safety and work environments. Although it is difficult to accurately
 account for these intangible costs, they can be most important Section 4.5 provides
 additional information on these costs and their role in any analysis of potential pollution
 prevention projects.                .       , A-      •     ;

 4 J.I   Measuring Baseline Costs                                    .

 The simplest way to establish a baseline cost is to add up the relevant input and output
 materials for the process and then compute their appropriate dollar value. This is done by first
 completing a material balance for the process (see chapter 4 for a discussion on preparing a
 material balance). Exhibit 4-1 shows an example material balance.

 Once the material balance is completed, detenntoing the baseline cost becomes a simple
• matter of pricing each input and output and multiplying their volumes by the appropriate unit.
                                     .Trainirig Manual

                         FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ4-6
           Exhibit 4-1: Aanunl Material Balance for the Hazardoui Solvent
                 Fugitive Emissions

                               100 Gal
                            (Solvent Vapor)
Fugitive Emissions
  New Solvent            , _   t
 	>..  Cleaning Tank
  1000 Gal
                                    900 Gallons
                 SO Gal
              (Solvent Vapor)
                      Wiute Water
  Rinse Tank   :  ,  .  • '-  ">
                                                                       SSSO Gal
                                                               5000 Gal
An example using a small electronics firm illustrates how to compute baseline costs. The
firm cleans metal parts with a chlorinated solvent that is hazardous to workers. In addition,the
wastewater that results from rinsing the parts must be treated before it can be
discharged to the environment For these reasons, the company is considering ways to
reduce the volume of wastewater generated. The firm's current costs for parts cleaning are
provided hi Exhibit 4-2.

                                     Exhibit 4-2
                          Current Costs for Parts Cleaning

Waste Treatment
. • . $3.25/gal.
•52.10/1,000 gal
. ģ Units
1,000 gal
. ' 5,000 gal
Total Annual Cost
. Cast/Year
' $3,250.00
S 10.50
 Although the next step would be to examine expected business changes such as business
 expansions, new accounts, rising prices, etc., for simplicity, the Exhibit 4-2 costs and .
 volumes are assumed to be constant. This means that the current annual costs will be same in
 the out-years .except for one very important aspect, the time value of money.
                                        • EPS

                           FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ 4-7 •
Due to the assumptions made regarding.constant cost, the $17,885 annual cost shown in
Exhibit 4-2 can be assumed to repeat each year. The present value calculations shown earlier
in the chapter enable this annual expenditure to ,be expressed as a single sum which includes
the effects of interest, the first year's cost, assuming the bills are paid at the end ofthe year,
would be the amount of money that would have to be banked starting today, to pay a $17,885
bill in one year. Using a 10% interest rate, the calculation is as follows:
                              P  =
  (1 MO)1
This means that if $16,260 is banked at 10% interest, it would provide enough money to pay
the $17,885 bill at the end of the year. Similarly, the second, .third, fourth, etc., years
expenditurescan also be expressed in present value. This is done.in. Exhibit 4.3.

         ....-."  :   .    '   ''''..'''' Exhibit^  /  ".' •"."'.••'• '   '
                 Present Value Calculations For Tbe Electronics Firm
                                      $ 17.885
  The bottom line to the analysis is that the total cost of the current cleaning system over the
  next 10 years, given a 10% interest rate, is $109,896 in present value terms. In other words,
                                          • EP3'-
                                       Training Manual

                           FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS > 4-8
Si 10 OOO4 invested today at 10% interest would be sufficient to pay the enure material and
dispo'sal costs for the parts cleaning operation for the next 1.0 years. Hence, .any changes to ^
the7peration of the firm can now be compared to this $110,000 baseline. Any. change which
would result in a lower 10 year cost would be a benefit because it would save money; any
option with a higher cost would be more expensive and should not  be adopted from a
financial or economic standpoint.

Siinple  pollution prevention projects often require little more financial justification than the
savings related to Tier 0 or possible Tier I costs. However, as a firm gets more sophisticated,
the less tangible Tier 2 and 3 costs are likely to become more important. Even if these, costs
cannot be accurately predicted, in cases where two investment options, appear to be
financially equivalent* if one is a pollution prevention project, the Tier 2 and 3 consideration
can favor that option.                                        .        .

4.3.2   The Effect of Pollution Prevention Projects on Revenues and Expenses

With few exceptions, the goal of most business endeavors "is to make a profit. As a result, the
costs and benefits cash flows for each option can be related to the basic profit equation:

                             Revenues - Expenses = Profit

The most important aspect is that profits can be increased by either an increase in revenues or
a decrease in expenses. A benefit of pollution prevention is often lo.wered expenditures and
increase profit. The remainder of this section examines the different categories of pollution
prevention revenues and expenses.                      .        .              .     '

Revenues: In its simples definition, revenue is money coming into the firm; from sales of
goods or services, rental fees, interest income, etc. From the profit equation, it can be seen
that a revenue increase leads to a direct increase in profit and vice  versa if all other revenues
and expenses are held constant5                       '

 Because a pollution prevention project can either increase or decrease production rates, it is
 important to examine the project's effects on revenues. For example, often firms  can cut
 wastewater treatment costs if water use (and in turn the resulting wastewater flows) is
  4     'Given the number of assumptions'regarding costs, gro^, etc.. that must be made in these calculations,
 rounding the calculated- values to 2 significant figures is. generally wise.                  .

  J     The condition of other expenses/revenue being held constant is assumed throughout this chapter.
                                          • EP3
                                      Training Manual

                           FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ 4-9
regulated to non-peak times at the wastewater treatment plant. However this limitation on
water use could hamper production.

Consequently, even though the firm's actions to regulate water use could reduce.wastewater
charges, unless alternative methods are. found to maintain total production, revenue could
also be decreased.      ;   .              .        '.::_,

Conversely, a change in production, procedure as a result of a pollution prevention project
could increase revenue. For example, a process change such as moving from liquid to dry
paint stripping can not only reduce water consumption, but also affect production output
Since cleanup time from dry paint stripping operations (such as bead blasting) is generally
much shorter than from using a hazardous, liquid based stripper, it could mean not only the
elimination of the liquid waste stream (the direct objectives of the pollution prevention       ,
project), but less employee time spent in the cleanup operation. Hence", production, and in
turn revenues, could be enhanced through pollution prevention.

Although less common, one more potential revenue effect is the generation of marketable
byproducts as a result of pollution prevention .efforts. Hence, pollution prevention has the
potential to either increase or decrease revenue and profits.

Expenses: Expenses are moneys leaving the firm to  cover the costs of operations^
maintenance, insurance, etc. The major cost categories for pollution prevention investment
consideration and their effects on total expenses are outlined below.
;.-.''            "•              r"    •       '       "-''"•">.,'
       >      Depreciation expense: If the pollutionprevention project involves the
              purchase of capital equipment with a  limited life (such as storage tanks,
              recycle or recovery equipment, new solvent bam systems, etc.), the entire cost
              is not charged against the current year. Instead a systemof depreciation
              spreads that expense over time. Depreciation expense calculations allocate the
              equipment's procurement costs (includingdeliverycharges, installation, start
              up expenses, etc.) by taking a percentage of theicost each yearover the life of
              the equipment.
             -->•-.    '          -   -     .      ''"'.,   -.--','  ',,-..-   '            ?'
               For example, if a piece of equipment was to last 10 years, an accounting
               expense of 10% of the procurement cost for the equipment would be charged
  .           _ each year.6
  6 -    This method is called straight-line depreciation. Although there are other methods available since straight-
 line depreciation is easy to compute, it is the method, of choice in the chapter. Investment projects under consideration
 at any given time should use jhe same depreciation method to. allow for accurate comparisons of expense and revenue
 impacts between the alternatives.                                '  :
                                      Training Manual

               FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ•*-10
  Interest expense: Pollution prevention investment implies that one of two
  things must occur; either a firm must pay for the project out of its own cash, or
  it must finance the cost by borrowing money from a bank, seeking funds from
  private sources, etc. m the case wherei a firm pays for a pollution prevention
  project out of its own cash reserves, the action is sometimes called an
  opportunity cost, which is discussed later. 1 f cash for the project must be
  borrowed, there is an interest charge connected with using someone else's

  Labor expense:  In most cases, the firm's Iab5r requirements will change due
•  to'the pollutiori'prevention .rroject. As pointed out in the dry paint stripping
  example, this could be a positive effect that increases available productive
  time, or, if extra man hours are required to run new equipment, perform
  preventive maintenance, etc., there could be a decrease in employees'
  productive time.      .                                   .          •

  When computing labor expenses, the Tier 1 costs could be significant. For
  example, if a material substitution project eliminated'a hazardous input
  material which eliminated a hazardous waste, there could be a significant
  decrease in labor required to handle and store the waste in a safe manner.
  Hence; both direct, Tier 0, expenses and secondary. Tier 1, expenses (e.g.,
  hours per week for preventive maintenance on equipment) can have an effect
  on manpower costs.

   Training expense: Pollution prevention may also involve the purchase of
   equipment or new, non-hazardous input materials which require additional
   operator training. In computing the total training costs, both the direct costs
   and the man hours spent in training must be considered as an expense. In
•  addition, any other costs for refresher training or training for new employees,
   which is above/toe level currently needed, must be included in the analysis.

   Floor space expense: As with any opportunity costs, the floor space cost must
 "  be based on the. value of alternative uses. For example, multiple rinse tanks
   have long been used to reduce water use in electroplating. If a single dip rinse
   tank of 50 square feet is replaced with a cascade rinse system of 65 square
   feet, then the floor space expense would be the financial worth of the extra 15
   square feet and must be included as an expense in the financial analysis for the
   pollution prevention project. Unfortunately, computing this floor space   -
   opportunity cost is not always as straightforward as it is with the case of :
   training costs. In instances where little square footage is required, there may
   be no other use for the floor space which implies a zero cost. In other cases, if
   the area is currently only being used for storage of extra parts, bench stock,
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                          Training Manual

                          FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS Ģ• 4-11
             feed materials, etc:, the costs may involve determining the worth of having a
             dnun of chemical or an extra part closer to the operator.     -            .

       ģ>     Insurance expense: Depending on the pollutionprevention project, insurance
             expense could either increase or decrease. For example, if a heat recovery still
             was added to a process operation^ fire insurance premiums could increase. Or .
 '  •'.'         if-the us? of a hazardous material is eliminated, health insurance costs for .;
             employees could go down. Depending upon the premium change (if any);
             expenses, and.in turn, profits could increaseor decrease as a resultof the
             pollution prevention project.

Other factors that could affect the decision whether to implement a pollution prevention
project include cash flow and opportunity cost. Although cash flow does nothave a direct
effect on the firm's revenues or expenses, the concept must be considered before undertaking
any pollution prevention project, If the project involves procurement costs, they often must
be paid upon delivery of the equipment. Conversely, cash recovery could take years. Hence,
three things can affect a firm's available cash. First,, cash is used at the time of purchase.
Second, it takes time to realize financial returns from the project through enhanced revenues
or decreased expenses. Finally, depreciation expense is calculated at a much slower rate than
the initial cash is spent As a result of the investment, a firm could find, itself cash poor.

Opportunity cost is also important because to the extent a firm uses its cash to purchase
equipment for a project, it forgoes the opportunity to use that cash for other investments. As a
result, revenues that could have been generated by the cash (e.g., interest resulting from
saving the money) should be treated as an expense and reduce the value of the pollution.
prevention project.            '              .

Although it is true that the cash will not be available for other investments, opportunity cost
should not be considered as an expense-. The opportunity lost by using the cash is considered
when the pollution prevention project competes for the firm's funds and is expressed by one
of die financial analysis factors discussed earlier (eig., net value of present worth, pay back
period, etc;). Ifģ this competition for a firm's limited funds that encompasses opportunity
cost, and opportunity cost should not be accounted directly against the project's benefits.

 A minimum rate of return or hurdle rate is often used to express this opportunity cost
 competitiptt-between investments. For example, if a firm can draw 10% interest on cash in
 the bank, then 10% would be a valid choice for the hurdle rate as it represents the firm's cash
 opportunity cost then in analyzing/investment options under a  return on investment criteria,
 not only would the highest returns be selected, but any project which pays the firm a return  .
 less than the 10% hurdle rate would not be considered.
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                           FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS > 4-12
 Pollution prevention has good investment potential. In reducing or eliminating waste
 generation and the related disposal/treatment expenses, pollution prevention can nave a
 significant impact on the firm's bottom line. Even in cases where revenues are not generated
 reducing the expenses and liabilities associated with managing wastes represents a substantial
 reduction in overall expenses and an increase in profit

                        (   ' •• -:    •    ''.••;..   X	;•.. •          ' •  .     '


 This section describes how to analyze a pollution prevention project The hypothetical firm
 introduced in the previous section takes in used parts, cleans them in a dip tank using a
' hazardous solvent and applies anew finish. Tfie financial analysis will compare the current
 solvent cleaning operation with two pollution prevention alternatives: a solvent recycle
 system and non-hazardous material substitution.               .    •

 4.4.1  Establishing the Baseline                                .

 As indicated "in Section 4.3, the first step is to define the baseline cost. Once this is done, it is
• possible to evaluate the financial effects of any change to business as usual. Exhibit 4-4
 shows the material balance for the current system.
                        Exhibit 4-4: Baseline Material Balance
                                      Emissions  "'
                                      '.On- ģ .•••'•
                                           39SO Gat
             New Solvrat
                                                      3950 GĢl
. Waste
 To Disposal
  Based on the material balance, annual costs can be assigned for the process. .The resulting
  cash flow is shown in Exhibit 4-5.                             '   •
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                           FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ 4-13
                                      Exhibit 4-5
                                     Baseline Costs
'Element " ••' •

Procurement Expenses
' - • - - ' - 1 ' .-> ' "
Operations Expenses
-Utilities .
-Operating Expense
- Maintenance/Spare Parts
- Input Solvent , ."-...
- Waste Disposal
.-.'.. ' Kate '- • • • -':

' " -'' • ' ' " '!
-. ' '' . ', "•"'..- - -... •--

S3,50/gal ,
AnnuaUzed Costs
•' : •-•''' • .-
" None
. ' -
- '
• , ' N/A7' , ' .
-•' ,. ... -N/AV . .
, $14iOOO
- . . S9.875.
 To express ^iese annual costs in present value terms, a time reference must be selected so that
 each option can be considered over the same length of time. Since the recycle equipment has
 an expected life of 10 years, the baseline and both options will be examined over this time
 period.                                .        •'•"."-         ,

 For the purpose of illustration, the firm's discount rate (the firm's internal interest or "hurdle"
 rate) is assumed to be 15%, and the inflation rate is assumed constant at 5% per year. Since
 the discount rate and inflation rate work against each other (i.e., interest makes your money
 more valuable over time and inflation makes it less valuable over time), they can be
 combined. However, for simplicity, they are treated separately in this analysis. All present
 value computations are made using 15% interest and all expenses are increased at an
' inflationary rate of 5% per year

 To account for prices that rise faster than inflation, annual real price increases (in excess of
 inflation)' of 1% of the  cost of solvent and 4% of the cost of disposal are assumed. In these.
 cases, the cost of solvent increases 6% per year (5% inflation +  1% real price increase) and
 waste disposal increases 9% per year. Given these assumptions, the baseline expenses for the
 next 10 years are shown in Exhibit 4-6;                                 '       ,
  7     These expenses are not applicable for the baseline because it is^nly necessiry^ consider
  increases/decreases when analyzing the options.                  .                •
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                FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS > 4-14
                     Ten Year Baseline Costs
                             Annual Cost
                  New Solvent

                  Waste Disposal
                  New Solvent         $14,840
                                    w/o Recycle

                Annual Total
                   New Solvent

                   Waste Disposal
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                         'FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ4-1.5.
Ten Year Baseline Costs
. . •

9 - ' •

10 .
' •
• ' • . -
New Solvent
Waste Disposal

New Solvent
Waste Disposal

New Solvent
Waste Disposal

SI 8.051




'-• •
In many cases, firms simplify these calculations by assuming costs will be constant over the
life of the project If this is the case, then all outyear costs would be same as was done with
the Exhibit 4-S example.

the intermediate !step in the financial analysis will ;bc to compare, the annual costs of the two,
pollution prevention options with the annual costs of the baseline process. Then the present
value of the annual cost savings (or cost increase) of the options can be calculated. This will
be done for the base line and both options simultaneously at the end of the analysis.

The final step will be to sum die present values from each year to obtain the net present
value. The net present value represents the quantifiable worth of the project
 4.4.2  ExudaiBf The Recycle Option

 As before, the first step will fee establish the mass balance, as shown in Exhibit 4-7.
 As is the case with many recycle options, a salable by-product is generated (the recycled
 solvent), but instead of offering the solvent for sale, the firm is using it as an input to offset
 the cost of new solvent so there is.no revenue impact Further, since the actual cleaning
 operation has not changed, mere should be no change in production rate as result of this
 option. As a result, there are no revenue impacts to consider.
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                          FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS > 4-16
                                Exhibit 4-7: Man Balaacc
                       Nrw SelvaU
                       3M Oil
                                         50 Od
To OiipoMi
 HO Oil
                                                 3640 Oil
This material balance is converted to a cash flow in Exhibit 4-8. As mentioned earlier, the
recovery equipment has a life of 10 years. Further, there is no salvage value; the solvent must
be chemically treated at the end of year 5 to retain its effectiveness at a cost of $1000; and no
additional permits are required to operate or install the equipment
                                      Exhibit 4-8
                              Costs for Solvent Recycling

Recycle EquipoMOC
Tanks. Pi,inipi> MDMft, Ģ*e- * • .
Insaltekxi; Ovfe Pfp&f. Labor, Ģc.


Total: .

Base Sf tor Costs

• •

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                          FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ 4-17

Maintenance/Spare Pans \ ;. •
• Input Solvent
Waste Disposal
5% of Capital
Base Year Costs
.. ., .. S3.325
' '- .. - ,5775
Other expenses to consider include:        .                 .    ,

  ģ     Depreciation. It is assumed to be straight line, with the procurement costsi expense at
 .      10% each year for 10 years.

  ģ     Interest, The firm borrowed the capital costs, will make annual payments for 3 years,
       and must pay 12% interest annually. Note: the principle \S66,500J will be repaid in
       three equal installments. The interest expense is-calculated for each year based upon
       the current balance. (The actual monies borrowed, or repaid, are neither revenues nor
       expenses and do not appear in the financial analysis).  .
                            ---     '       '     ',      ,."•-.                 -
  ģ     Labor. The equipmentrequires 1 hour of maintenance per day^ This expense
       (S20/hour) is included in the operations expenses listed above. For simplicity, the
       wage rate is assumedconstant except for cdstof living increases due to inflation.

  ģ    Training. Training was supplied by the recycle equipment supplier with training on
       site so there are no direct costs. Three operators must spend 2 hours each learning the
       operations. Their wage costs are also taken as $20/hour.

  ģ    Floor Space. The equipment is relatively compact, will be^^ installed integral to the
       process,:and carries a zero floor space expense.

 As done with tbe baseline, annual costs for the recycling option must also be spread over
 time as they wffl actually occur. Exhibit 4-9 shows the costs, by year,  for the 10 year life of
 the recycle equipment.    ,                           ...
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           Exhibit 4-9
Ten Year Costs for Recycle Option


• 3


Interest Expense (566,500 x 12%)
Depreciation Expense
Initial Training
Operating Expenses
(Labor, Utilities, Maintenance)
New Solvent • .
Waste Disposal

Interest Expense (544,333 X 12V.)
Depreciation Expense
Operating Expenses (5%/yr. increase) •
New Solvent (6Vo/yr. increase) (360 gal.)
Waste Disposal (9%/yr. increase)

Interest Expense (522,166 x 12%)
Depreciation Expense
Operating Lxpenses
New Solvent
Waste Disposal

Operation Expenses .
New Solvent . .
Waste Disposal . .

Depreciation Expense
Operating Expenses
New Solvent
. | Waste Disposal '




. 5921

1,004 '

51,591 .





• ii i ••
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                        FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ4-19
••— -n^— >^^—



'- •-



//Ģm ' ' •
— •"^^•™^^^— ^""^ . - . _
Depreciation Expense
Operating Expenses
New Solvent '
Waste Disposal

Depreciation Expense
Operating Expenses .
New Solvent
Waste Disposal
Depreciation Expense
Operating Expenses
New Solvent ' .
Waste Disposal

Depreciation Expense
Operating Expenses .
New Solvent
Waste Disposal ,
• _ • • ' . - . - •
Depreciation Expense -
Operating Expenses . •
NĢw Solvent
Waste Disposal .

,S 1,686
$1,192 ~

• $11,477 .

. , $6,600
'-. : . • $1,895

— $12,654
: $2,008

- . $2,129
:••-:•• $1,683

Totd .





Agairu-these annual coste will be compared to the baseline after all cash flows for the options
have been computed.                       -
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                           FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS * -*-:Q
 4.4.3   Evaluating Material Substitution

 This option consists of replacing the hazardous solvent used for cleaning
 wMt a non-hazardous cleaner which is used in the same manner. TTie firm has.been
 to find a cleaning solutioniwfaich is sewerable and does not require disposal as a hazardous
 waste. The cost of sewering the 3,950 gallons is assumed to be negligible.

 In pollution prevention projects that involve substituting a non-hazardous material for a
 hazardous material, part of the analysis must consider how well the new product or process
 works in relation to the current practice. In this example,  it is assumed no operational
 chanaes are required so production levels can be maintained. However, the cost of the new
 cleaner is nearly 25 percent higher S4.60/gal. The first-year costs for implementing this
" option are shown in Exhibit 4-10.    .            .         .                 ...
                First Year Costs for the Material Substitution Alternative
   Procurement Expenses
                                                          4ntiuaiized Costs
   Operations Expenses:
   Operating Expense
   Maintenance/Spare Parts
   Input Solvent
                                       ' S4.60/gat
   Waste Disposal

  Other expenses to consider include:                                         .

    ģ    Depredation. Since there is no capital expenditure, there is no equipment to

    *    Interest. The company has the cash to absorb the additional cleaner cost without
     •    borrowing'any additional capital. Hence, there is no interest expense.

    *    Labor There, is no additional equipment maintenance requirement and toe wage rate
   •  .    "is again constant except for cost of living increases due to inflation.
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                         FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ.4-21__

 .-    Trainina  As before, it is assumed that the vendor provides the training and 3
      ooeratoR spend 2 hours learning how to handle, test, and maintain the new cleaner.
      iSir wage rate is taken as $20/hW (from the previous example).

 ,    Floor space considerations. The current solvent storage capacity for the firm is
      adequate for the new material.  -               ,

With the same assumptions regarding cost increases, the annual costs for switching to the
non-hazardous cleaner, over ;the ten year period, are shown in Exhibit 4-11.
                                   Exhibit 4-1 1
                  Year Material Substitution Cosb (5%/Yr. Increases)
' 1
2 . • ,
3 "< - .
' 4 ' . '
' . '" . . 5 •-..-•'
New Cleaner
New Cleaner
New Cleaner" . •
New Cleaner, ;
New Cleaner .
New Cleaner
New Cleaner
New Cleaner
New Cleaner
Annual Cost
 4.4.4  9takfaŖthe Financial Comparison

 With all theannual costs computed, me firal comparisons can be made. ExWbiU-ll.shows
 the annual baseline costs (from Exhibit 4-6) in the first column; columns 2 and 3 show the
 annual costs for recycle (from Exhibit 4-9) and the increase or decrease from &e *Ģ™Ģ
 and finally, columns 4 and 5 show the annual costs for material substitution (from Exhibit 4-
  li) and-their associated change from the baseline.
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                          FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ4-22
                                    Exhibit 4-12
                              Annual Cost Comparison
5. '
Recydt .
21,039 .
20,409 ,
21,963 .
If an option's annual costs are less than the baseline, the difference is considered a benefit.
Conversely, if the option's annual costs are higher than the baseline (indicated by
parenthesis), the difference is considered a cost So that the.two options can be compared, the
final steps are to bring each option's costs and benefits back to present value, compute the net
difference, and make the financial decision. These calculations are shown hi Exhibit 4-13.
The present value calculation uses the .formula from page	widi the interest rate set at 15%.
(Recall that 15% was set as the example firm's "hurdle" rate or acceptable internal interest
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                        , FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ 4-23
                                   Exhibit 4-13
                      Present Values of the Costs and Benefits

"; , • ' .4 '
5 -•' • •
' 6 • . '.'
7. •• •
9. , ..
. 10
Recycle Option
• 15,256
. 17,138 ,
. 18,183
; 21,400
. (1239)
5r- : 5,970 , .
5.735 ; •'.•'
.." 5,602
Material Substitution
. 5,355
• 10,444
11,762-. '
• -13,210
; • 14-.804
- , ,16.555
-' . , -.
Present Vtlue
4,515 ' ,
' 4,422 •
4.318. ...
. 4008
4.4.5   Making the Final Decision                                .

in this example, both opttens display a positive effect on profitability. The two proposals
each generate a new benefit compared to the baseline. Likewise, the proposals also meet the
firm's internal hurdle rate (15%), because their present Values are positive when calculated
using a15% discountrate.        .

The final talk iģto setect between the two options. In that they have the same present worth
of new boiefiK, they are equivalent under the financial criteria. However, as.previously
discussed, when, projects appear financially equivalent, consideration of other tier costs can
swing tavor toward a particular option. The above analysis considered only Tier 0 and Tier 1
costs. Eliminating the use of hazardous solvent limits the potential intangible Tier 2 and 3
costs for cleanup, lawsuits, etc. Given these considerations, and the fact that material
substitution is higher on the pollution prevention hierarchy, the material substitution option is
clearly the most beneficial option.                                          .
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                          FfNANCiAL CONSIDERATIONS > 4-24

 As stated earlier, Tiers 2 and 3 include less tangible considerations such as effects on product
 quality, productivity, public image, market share, stakeholder relations employee health and
 safety- anil financial liability which, while very important, are more difficult to account for.
 This section provides some guidance on addressing these factors and highlights their
 significance. Some of these issues, such as public impact, tend to be straightforward. The
 impact of a pollution prevention project is presumed to be positive, and the question is ' to
 what extent and how quickly". Other issues, such as product quality, anse as (possibly)
 unintended consequences of the effort to reduce waste. In these cases, pollution prevention
 changes may have either a positive or negative impact. After determining the nature of the
 impact, it is important to consider ways to restructure the project to minimize unwanted
 consequences.        ,                                                    .

 Product Qualify. Customers are increasingly demanding environmentally-friendly products
 yet are rarely willing to surrender price or quality to achieve their demands. A pollution
 prevention project that is detrimental'to product quality (e.g., through inferior material
 substitution or process changes that fail to meet design specifications) will rapidly translate
 into lost sales or into increased costs of rework and downtime. Alternatively, a pollution
" prevention initiative may improve quality and/or enable a product to be marketed as "green,"
 a benefit that may engender greater market acceptance and boost sales. Concerns about
 impacts on quality need to be addressed up-front by:

   *>'.    Conducting sufficient engineering review and testing before specifying equipment or
        changing a product or process;

   ģ•    Securing guarantees from the vendor;
                      '  •• '.  „ '     ••.  Ģ     . .   •     M  .: i      .  • •'  .
   ģ    Planning for incremental ramp-up of production using the new process or new
        material; and/or

   >     Securing customer feedback to determine what impact changes may have on
         consumer acceptance,                               ,     •     .

  A project proposal should include a section on product quality that outlines possible concerns
 ' and describes in detail the measures that have been taken to anticipate, address,
  and resolve these concerns. Almost nothing can.kill a project faster than the fear that rt may
 , harm product quality, and the justification package must allay those fears as much as
  possible.                       .

  Impact on productivity/capacity: Process changes resulting from implementing a pollution
  prevention project could potentially  increase or decrease the productivity and/or effective
                                      Training Manual

                         ; FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS "> 4-25
         of a plant. For example, an aqueous degreaser may reduce solvent use but may
  aatoLer cycle time to remove contaminants effectively, thereby increasing
 Z^putSTe and lowering productivity. On the other hand, mstallingnew equipment to
 a?d aSldprocess line might both, reduce solvent use required for product changeovers
 and increase productive capacity. As with determining effects on product quality engineering
'review of new process specifications is crucialto assess a project's effect on production.
 Thorough review should enable the impacton productivity/capacity jo be ^estimated with _
 sufficient accuracy to permit its inclusion in the financial analysis. If this is not possible, the
 potential impacts should be explored and described qualitatively, perhaps using-sens^itivity
 analysis to quantify their effect   ;

 Public image. Having an "environmentally-correct" image.continues ta become more
 important Manycompanies now tout their "green" credentials. For exampte^un Oil
 Company recently launched a major ad campaign to publicize rts sigrung of the CERES-
 (formeriy Valdez) principles, the first Fortune 500 company to do so.While a good pubhc
 image is important for its own intangible reasons, its value is increasing as the link between a
: company's public image and market acceptance of its  products becomes stronger. Image can
 be especially important to acorapany that has suffered a poor environmental reputation. ,For
 example Polaroid, whichhad received a lot of negative publicity for its toxic discharges,
 now promotes its pro-active strategies of pollution prevention and recycling. The company
 has received widespread recognition for many of its innovative environmental programs.

 Although almost any pollution prevention project can bolster the environmental record of a
 business,  one that directly addresses publicly-recognized problems can be especial y
 valuable.  If a proposed pollution prevention projecteliminates a source of bad publicity, such
 as the discharge of effluent that discolors a waterway, the public relations benefits of the
 project should be strongly emphasized in the justification package.

 Market share (Li, consumer acceptance). Numerous surveys have documented the trend of
  green consumerism, and companies have responded by emphasizing environmental attributes
  in new product development The growing inclination of consumers to buy S^J^ ?°
  purchases of BWductscr services that are environmentally-benign or that are offered by
  LrripaniavS^eBviKmmental records. A pollution prevention project that "creates  a
  raenpmce* oc product may have a significant impact on sales, depending upon customer
  d7marŖT^ectitistificatioE proposal could promote the value of this factor by including
••> survey datandated to the particular industry or product type. Additionally me report could
  show how a specific product or company, in a similar situation or industry, either gained
  market share after emphasizing its green qualities or lost market share due to a poor
  environmental record. To further demonstrate the sigmficance of this issue, develo
  computer-generated scenarios based on experiences of similar ~mP^TO
  in demonsttating how even small impacts on market share can generate large
   bottom line.
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                          FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ģ4-26
Stakeholder relations, the term "stakeholders" can broadly include almost any person,
group or organization with which a business has contact: employees, stockholders, lending
institutions, customers, suppliers, surrounding communities, and others. Though small,
privately-held firms may not be as susceptible to shareholder pressure as large corporations,
they may be equally or more sensitive to the interests of such other stakeholders as the
surrounding community and employees/For businesses in small towns where they are one of
the major employers, many of these interests overlap. Benefits of a pollution prevention
project may affect relationships with these groups in different ways, as detailed in some of
the other issues (public image, employee health and safety, market share). Generally, most
firms place importance on the value of being recognized as a good neighbor.

Employee health and safety. Improving working conditions can have substantial short arid
long-term benefits, including lower worker compensation rates due to safer conditions, lower
health care payments, increased productivity, and reduced absenteeism. .

Pro-active environmental strategy. Environmental regulations-in Egypt.and elsewhere show
a clear trend toward increasingly stringent limitations for contaminations in air emissions,
'wastewater, and solid waste. Companies that incorporate these anticipated tougher levels in
their strategic planning will have advantages over those companies that continue to avoid the
requirements. Pollution prevention projects have the ability to position a company to meet or
surpass projected future toxic use and discharge limits. A strong argument for a pollution
prevention project is its capacity to alleviate such unknown factors as purchase price, waste
disposal costs;** new health issues, that accompany the use of substances known to be
environmentally damaging.

 financial liability. Financial liability can be associated with storage, transportation, and
 disposal of wastes; property damage associated with the misuse of wastes or materials; civil
 actions; or fines or penalties imposed by government entities. Although reducing liability can
 be one of the most significant advantages of a pollution prevention project, this benefit is
 usually difficult ta characterize and thus may be "underweighted" in a project assessment,

 Companies, environmental consultants, the academic community, and others havĢ'developed
 a variety of methods mat attempt to characterize potential liability risk. These range from
 precise projectiomof financial exposure based on historical data of actual occurrences to
 current efforts to use fuzzy logic to translate managers' qualitative responses into quantitative
 assessments. As no method has gained wide acceptance and many are  complex and require
 considerable time and expertise to employ, it is beyond the scope of this chapter to describe
 their design or use in detail.
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                           FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS *•• 4-27

 The key point to remember is''that, firms are in business to make a profit, and pollution
 prevention can be critical to profitability. In the past, environmental expenditures were seen
 as pure cost sinks with no payback potential. It is becoming apparent that in the realm of
 pollution prevention there are a number of areas where expenditures can be cut significantly.
 One study of waste reduction projects showed that in 29 cases that included data, on-payback
 period, over 80% had payback periods of less than 3 years.

 There is no doubt that environmental management can make a difference in reducing
 accompany's expenses. The task becomes one of selling improvements in the expense side of
 the profit equation. Reducing an expense is as effective as increasing revenues when it comes
 to profit.                             '      '-.,.--              •   .
•:'      * •    '     '  i  .     ••    ,    '     '   '    ':..'••'••.'       •     '•••'...''•'.••.
 The final consideratipns-in justifying pollution prevention investments are. the Tier 2 and 3
 intangible costs.  Many types of projects can affect revenues, expenses, and/or cash flow, but
 pollution prevention projects are relatively unique in their .additional positive effects.
 Although difficult to express in concrete financial terms, both .environmental compliance and
 pollution prevention can have far ranging benefits in terms of reduced long term liability,
 customer relations,,public goodwill, and employee morale. While these factors may not serve
 to justify the investment in a project by themselves, they must enter into the analysis.

 This chapter has introduced the basic financial  tools arid described a preference for using Net
 Present Value as an appropriate method of financial comparison. Suggestions were made on
 what types of costs should be considered in evaluating pollution prevention projects., and hqw
. those costs should be calculated over the project lifetime. An example case study using an,
 industrial process and two pollution prevention options illustrated the key concepts presented
 in the chapter. Finally, the financial results of the case study were evaluated and the meaning
 of those results wais discussed.

  In conclusion, this chapter presents financial tools and a suggestion of other less tangible
  benefits which can be used to justify pollution prevention projects pn.an equal basis with
  other fundjnftequests.
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Ifpollution prevention is such a great thing, why doesn't it just happen? Plenty of case
studies show it is beneficial to industry, environment, and people. However, not all
companies have found pollution prevention cheap or easy.

Pollution prevention is a complex subject ranging, from small changes in operating practices
.to massive, research-driven endeavors to create new products and processes. For the purposes
of this manual, implementation of pollution prevention will mean incremental changes to
existing technology. In this.cohtext, incremental change means the substitution of one or two
steps in a production process; it may also mean changes in the relationships between
production steps. Examples of this type of pollution prevention traplementation might
include changes in a washing step or redesigning the processW eliminate the need for
washing altogether. Eliminating chlorofluorocarbons and saving energy by replacing a
refrigeration process with a heat exchanger that can exploit waste cooling from, another part
of the process would likewise be an incremental change.
                                 ,,',,'       ' i              i   ,        f      .
For these incremental changes, three decision-making stages are critical:

       *      Identifying a pollution prevention opportunity;
       ģ      Finding a solution appropriate to that opportunity; and
       ģ      Implementing that solution.

The first two stages above have been addressed in chapters 4 and 5. Implementation, more
than the other stages,  is  a function of organizational elements. It is useful to examine how
three important aspects of an organization - its culture, its ability to process information, and
 its politics- affects implementation. This .chapter, highlightsithe importance of thinking of
 pollution prevention as a social, rather than simply a technical activity.
        This chapter is derived from "Coipottie Obsacles to Pollution Prevention", by Petet Cebon.
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                               IMPLEMENTATION > 5.2

What makes pollution prevention difficult in practice? The question can best be answered by
first considering a second question,."How is pollution prevention different form end^of-pipe
pollution control?" A key difference between the two is that pollution prevention
opportunities are embedded deep within the plant and are tied to very specific physical-
locations. To determine whether a particular solution is feasible, people need a very thorough
understanding of the way the plant works. This kind of understanding does not come from
design drawings but from the uses and working idiosyncracies of the individual pieces of
equipment                                                                   ^
         "  V       '  I  ' '   *    -      •.-,'•   "•'',•'".      '-'••./.'     •   t    ģ•'.•••
Pollution control devices, on the other hand, are physically quite separate from the rest of the
production process. Ail-that is necessary to understand them is the composition of the
material coming out the pipe. Because that tends to be the same from one plant to another,  .
the solutions can be relatively independent of the process. One example: Despite different
makes and ages of conventional boilers, different control systems, different histories, and
different operating strategies, a scrubber is always a viable emissions control strategy for
high-sulfur, coal-fired powerstations.                    ••   :            :.

5.2.1  How An Organization's Culture Affects Implementation of Pollution Prevention

Organizations tend" to recruit people who think in a way compatible with the organization's
viewof the world, or else socialize them to think that way. They train, reward, and punish    .
employees to reinforce the organization^ beliefs, and they allocate resources in accordance
with those beliefs.

If att organization makes a cultural assumption that technical expertise is the only really valid
form of knowledge and, therefore, that knowledge built from hands-on experience has very
little value outside of day-ttwby operations, people in such a company are likely to make at
least two kind* of erroWi First, engineers who are reasonably'- but pot intimately r familiar
with the proctMmiy conclude that there are no pollution prevention opportunities because
they can't seetfaem, Second, the company may call on technical experts to identify
 opportumtieĢoniparable to those found in many case studies. Not surprisingly, the team
 may not find many conclude thatthey don't exist (the Ford  Case presented in section 4.4
 provides an example of company engineers outperforming; the technical experts in identifying
 pollution prevention opportunities).
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                                IMPLEMENTATION ģ 5-
 5.2.2  How an Organization's Ability to Process Information Affects Implementation
       of Pollution Prevention Opportunities
 Other important cultural beliefc also affect companies' behavior regarding pollution      /
 it in terms of technology or people? How do they see their jobs and the jobs of.others ? Da
 mey look for opportunities to improve things or wait for things to go wrong? Finally do they
 ^ unusual even* as problems to be solved or opportunities to get even deeper insights into
 the way things work?

 Pollution prevention presents a different information processing problem because it requires
 Se to understand more than the intimate details of the production process; they must also
 Sr^theScal possibilities. Such specialized information is generally earned into
 the organization by technical specialists or vendor Such information is, for the most part,
 accessible only to peoplewith the skills and communications links to get and understand it

 Pollution prevention solutions, then, require a nexus between two very dissimilar types of
 information: contextual and technical. The organizational problenvhes m bringing the two .
  Si  This is notorfously'difficult because they tend to be held by different actors m the
  °rgganStionS cast As mentioned above, the engineers and technical consultants are unlikely
 to find opportunities and solutions.

 Instead of looking to individuals, combinations of personnel ean provide the organizational
 a^wer. The production operators - the people who turn the knobs and run the process  - and
 production engineers the people who help solve technical problems and design and
 Cement changes in the^uction technology - could work together to fmd solutions.
' Xefce operators know exactly where the possibilities are, they rarely have the skills to
  realize themor knowledge of the variety of available solutions Together with Potion
  engineers, however, they have all the information. And, sometimes, the production engmeers
  ISegood enough relationships with the operators  to find the problems and the skills and
  contacts to get the technical information to determine solutions,

               that a pollution prevention manager wants to get engjneersand operators
                             intensely political                               r°US
  ™o*~                                               n                 .
  other rn.fl.geri. Production engineers and operators generally report to production
  supervision, and most of their time is taken up with immediate production issues. The
  enjneersmust understand and remedy the day-to-day crises, ^n*'?todvctl*u*"   .
  standards, deal with the latest spill, make sure people work safely, and do a mynad other
  S Operators spend mostof their time actually running the plant TTie pollution prevents
  ąa^mŖtŖfo^^^                                                       •
  and fining manager All these managers have top management' s endorsement, but that
  generally amounts to permission to compete, not to succeed.
                                          • EP3
                                      Training Manual

                               IMPLEMENTATION •• 5-4
5.2.3   How an Organization's Political Structure Affects Implementation of Pollution
       Prevention Opportunities

The pollution prevention manager's solution requires the engineers and operators to work
together. For that to happen, both groups must be amenable, in many American plants,
engineers have been young, they have lacked the interpersonal skills to solicit and obtain
good help from operators, and they have not fully appreciated the operators' skills and
knowledge. The operators, on the other hand, have been older .and arc hot necessarily willing
to share information with the newest young engineer.

Even when the pollution prevention solutions are identified, resources such as capital and
people are allocated by intensely political processes. Largely because pollution prevention
projects are so often deeply embedded in the technology of the plant, assessing the return on
a pollution prevention investment may be difficult This is important because, in many
companies, discretionary capital is scarce and money for new projects is bird to come by.
Unless the true costs and potential profitability of pollution prevention opportunities can be
properly assessed, these| projects are at a disadvantage ja competition with other projects for
discretionary resources.                    ,-             :    •  :

In sum, rather than being simple, as many case studies might lead one to believe, pollution
prevention is often quite difficult to.put into practice. But these.barriers are not    .
insurmountable, there We many encouraging casestudies. A number of companies have
managed to overcome existing barriers and find cost-effective pollution prevention solutions
to their environmental problems. The case study presented in section 5.3 illustrates how Ford
Motor Company has overcome many of these problems.

 5J4: Introduettoa                                         .               •

 Seeing the benefitt of preventing waste at the source, Phil Lawrence of Ford's Plant
 Engineering Oflte decided to develop a pollution prevention2program thatcouldbe
 implemented a*Foid plants woridwide. To achieve this, measurables had to be defined, a
  2     " Many terms exist for pollution prevention. They include, waste minimization, waste reduction, and tool
 quality environmental management (TQEM). Because^? intent of these various programs U the same (only the way
 of affecting it is different),.the term pollution prevention-will be used in this case for clarity. TQEM can be viewed as
 the employment of TQM tools to pollution prevention issues..          ;            .       .
                                    Training Manual

                               IMPLEMENTATION ģ5-5
pollution prevention methodology had to be develop^ -dimportantly, senior management
had to understand the need for and benefits of such a program.

 Lawrence knew that waste prevention prograrns could result m the following:

                               These arise from the more efficient use of resources and >
                                       requests, and reduced waste hauling, and disposal
                              it, The environmental impact caused by plant
                      ;„               .
                                                      conscio^ pnxtoion process
       may be an important requirement for many customers.

       -* rmnm^A fluafitv. Tnis is a natural outcome of an analysis of the manufacturing
     '  process. As theprocess becomes better understood, it is easier to identify
       opportunities.                      .       .  "  •     -
                         ; While mis is especially true if any of the waste materials are
                     cThis also important for astute management of other matenals .such as
       oils, detergents, and packaging products. Improvements m worker safety result ui
       better work, environment.
                                       federal ^ local t*^**00* dealillg      . .  .
                                        continually more smc^ the company should aun
        S onlymeet or exceed these regulations, but to develop and unplement processes
    -   and procedures that reduce their implications within Ford plants.

  With these benefits in mind, Lawrence setout to develop an aggressive pollution prevention
  program.            '               .          <                              •

  to 199
quality-oriented company-wide pollution-prevention program. To assist in the initial
"pollution prevention opportunity assessment" and reduce the inhibitors to the program,
Lawrence contracted a pollution prevention consultant.

The Livonia Transmission Plant was selected for the study, and funding for the project was
provided by Ford's Research Staff Lawrence hoped that Ford personnel would learn the data
collection and evaluation techniques from the consultant, and then apply them to other plants;
The Livonia Assessment Team (LAT) was established^with representatives from the
consultant and various levels of Ford (see Exhibit 5-1).     ,

The Livonia Transmission plant is located in Livonia, Michigan, west of Detroit Livonia's
production in 1991 was over 1 miffioc transmissions. Two types of transmissions details .the
plant layout. Upon completion, these transmissions are sent to Ford assembly plants where
the AODEgoesirito Broncos, F-150s, E-i50s, Crown Victorias/Grand Marquis,
Thunderbirds, Cougars, and Mustangs, while the AXOD is installed into Tauruses, Sables,
andILincolns. The, transmission plant is part of the Transmission and Chassis (T&C) Division
of Ford. T&C is in turn part of Powertrain Operations. Staff support is provided by members
of the Environmental andSafety Engineering Staffs Environmental Quality Office.3
Additional support comes from the Research Staff.       '    :   '         ^

533  The Livonia Project            ,                          •

The pollution prevention opportunity assessment took place between October 199 land
February 1992. Livonia Plant representative, John Connor, coordinated the Livonia
Assessment Team's work in the plant A large part of the team's efforts were spent identifying
and gathering relevant data. Unlike production and/or product quality data which are often
 very detailed and easily available, data pertaining to wastes are widely .dispersed about the
 plant, and often unavailable to the level of detail needed for study. For example, the
 purchasing department is responsible for material input data, the waste water treatment plant
 handles waste water dataand the environmental engineer (in this case, John Connor) handles
 manifested toxic wMte.* Because specific departments are not responsible for information dn
 the quantity ofwastes leaving their management area, some data is not routinely gathered. As
 a result, assucaptos and extrapolations are a necessary part of the assessment Exhibit 5-2
 shows an exampk calculation.
  3     AStrf this writing, the Flint Engineering Office's personnel and responsibilities hive shifted to the
  Environmental Quality Office.  •     ,      •  ,  .

  4     United States environmwal regulations require toxic wastes to be manifested (or documented) upon ^
  removal fĢm the site. The paperwork involved represents a large part of the environmental engineer's responsibility.
                                         • EP3
                                      Training Manual

                                                                          •L.  i
                               IMPLEMENTATION ģ5-7
After five months of data collection and detailed plant and process evaluation, the team
J^iSftŖPrevention opportunities of 4WW**,^™^^ģ<
SI 2 mniiol These wastes included solid and water waste as well as toxic waste Exhib t5-3
p ovid  a Hst^ese initial recommendation, These results quickly came to, tta.mention^
of the plant management and an internal Livonia Transmission team was developed to venry
the results and make the warranted process improvements. The plantiP^oaaA discovered
several opportunities beyond those realized by the initial team (20,000,000 Ibs/year, saving
$8.2 million/year). Exhibit 5-4 displays a summary of the ongoing recommendations. The
specifics of these opportunities will be discussed in the next section.

5 J.4- Waste Prevention Opportunity Examples

Listed below are the thirteen waste prevention opportunities identified by the consultant and
Ford personnel. In some instances, the Ford engineers improved upon the consultants
suggestions in other they came up .with innovative solutions of their own. In still other, cases,
they simply demanded more of outside contractors or demanded more of then: own
operations personnel.                            .         "
        As of December 1992, several of the projects are still under management review.
                                         • EPS
                                     Training Manual

                         •  •  IMPLEMENTATION ģ5-8
 1. OPPORTUNITY:                      Collect fluids on AODE test stands

 WASTE GENERATED:                   Transmission fluid

WASTE PREVENTED /YEAR:             20,000.000 Ibs.

SAVINGS / YEAR:   '.      -; /           $4,000,000          ;.

IMPLEMENTATION COST:                Not applicable*

IMPLEMENTATION TIME:  ,             3 months

PREVIOUS PROCESS:                   Faulty reclaim

Departments 306 and 307 both test AODE transmissions. These Departments access a Central;,
System for transmission fluids. Large quantities of "red" fluid were showing up at the. waste
water treatment facility, and a root cause analysis pointed to Departments 306 and 307. First,
there was considerable leakage in the reclaim system's piping, Secondly, degraded screens and
filters caused the fluid to overflow the system. .  -     "                         -

PROCESS IMPROVEMENT:             Repairs and maintenance

The leaks were repaired and the screens and filters were repaired or replaced. Further, screens
and filters were put on> maintenance schedule to prevent future overflows. These adjustments
are expected to save Livonia $4,000,000 per year in reclaimed transmission fluids.

 2. OPPORTUNITY:                      Collect fluids on Test Stands

 WASTE GENERATED:                   Transmission fluid in water    _
          *'"',.'   :  -  ,  '  •      '  .*    •       ''  ' --     ••'-(•''• l
               '•   • \   : '   ,      . "' 1.','^ .   '   >   ' '-  '     -   ' . '  - '    '   ,     _  ' r
 WASTE.PREVENTED/YEAR:    '        20,000,000 Ibs,                  .

 SAVINGS/ YEAI6: -         '       .      $4,000,000

 IMPLEMENTATION COST:    .-;       r   $288,500

 IMPLEMENTATION :TIME:                4'mpnths
 6     ImpiementaJion costs relate to additional fiwding related to completing the project. As the process
 improvement can be made within the existing budget, there is no implementation cost associated with this
 opportunity.              ,     .      •      ' •       .  '. .'.  •
                                     • EP3.
                                 Training Manual

                               IMPLEMENTATION ģ 5-9
 CURRENT PROCESS:                     Traos fluids to wĢte

                   that at least 270,000 Ibs. of torque oil from Department 454 alone and
                            fluid from Department 406 alone are lost to waste treatment
some departments are-set up to reclaim and recycle fluids;
                                                              from the
 does noaiwayswork as specified. For example, in Department 406
' fl"r d^aTsystem arelumped through a Hilco Oil Reclaimer. However, dm reclaimer
 c^ctpTMe cottmuous'treaWent of oil with high levels of water in it It ,s estmiated that
 inefficient oil reclamation costs Department 454 $175,425 per year.

 PROCESS IMPROVEMENT:              PĢ,rtĢble oU reclwiatiOB syatem

                  ,heapp^                                                .  .
                  the fl^co^trol valve and installing water removing filter; on the reclaun
              ther investigation, it was determined that the recbumer was obsolete - its
 outdated design made it impossible to repair.

 The present proposal," which is under evkluation, calls for an automatic, portable oil
  volatile impurities.
  For Department 40^ ihe reclaiming system is expected to save $1 67,054 per year in recycled
  Sns^S fluid, waste treatment deterred, maintenance and fitos. Extrapolated to the
  whole plant, the reclaiming system should save Livonia $4,000,000 a year.
                                         . EP3 •
                                     Training Manual

                             IMPLEMENTATION ģ'5-lO
3. OPPORTUNITY:                       Capture carry-off oU
               .-,'••'         "     '            ' • ' '             -  '  -
'WASTE. GENERATED:-                  • Transmission fluid in water

WASTE PREVENTED/YEAR:             4,000,000 Ibs.;

SAVINGS./YEAR: "•;                     $1,000,000                    ..       ;

IMPLEMENTATION COST:               $7,000 (prototype)

                                       ,  $600,000 (plant wide)

IMPLEMENTATION TIME:               1 month                .              ;

CURRENT PROCESS:                   Dump to wast* treatment

Departments 306 and 307 contain transmission test stands. Currently, test transmission fluid is
dumped to a subterranean trench where it goes to a sump that-directs  it-to the plant's waste
water treatment facility!. It is estimated that up to- a gallon (7.5 Ibs.) of fluid per transmission
tested ends up in waste water treatment.

 PROCESS IMPROVEMENT:             Pump back to Central System 330

 A procedure change would be implemented to collect the carry off oil that drips from the test
 transmissions. First, the oils would be drained from the collection pan on the transmission
 carrier. The oil would then be pumped through a treatment system that will dehydrate, the
 substance. Lastly, the oil would be pumped back through Central System #330 for.reuse. The
 capture system would oe prototyped in Departments 306 and 307 with successful performance
 resulting in a plant-wide implementation. Savings in reclaimed transmission fluid in
 Departments 306 and 307 is expectedto approach $1,000,000 pet year.
 Amongthe Sssaetaffefting the implementation ofthis process improvement is the use of
 reclaimed transmission fluid in transmissions shipped as product from the facility. At question
 is the public impression of buying new transmissions containing reclaimed oil.
                                   Training Manual

                             IMPLEMENTATION ģ 5-11
4. OPPORTUNITY:                       Implement oil tracking system

WASTE GENERATED:                     Hydraulicoil

WASTE PREVENTED / YEAR:              2,46V,2i3 Ibs.

SAVINGS / YEAR:                         $880,000
                   . • ' /      •' ,              . •' ,-i • • ••      .   •
IMPLEMENTATION COST:                To be determined.

IMPLEMENTATION TIME:                3 months

 CURRENT PROCESS:                    Tracking numberof oil add* taa machine

 Using PFIS (Plant Floor Information System), it is currently possible to report when oil is
 added to a process machine. However, several limitations KSUK Srom the current process:
            -Some oilers do not record oil adds in PFIS: '
            -Only oilers report oil adds to PF1S (not operators).
            -The amount of oil can not be recorded in PFJS (it must be estimated).
            -Run time is not recorded in PFIS (does the machine leak only when operating or
            all the tune?).                    '    "         .
            -Oil usage" by department is very difficult to determine.
            -Direct piped tanks do not have automatic shutoffs (if technicians are pulled to
            another job they overflow).                                       ...
            -Most drops and oilers'  trucks do not have meters to determine amount ot oil
  added, and many of the meters that do exist are non-functional. With the current reporting
  mechanism.it is extremely difficult to track wasted oil let alone minimize it

  PROCESS IMPROVEMENT:              Tracking amomit of oilPadded to.
               . . ,  .  ••     • •  •  ...'._../  -  machine     • •  ..       •  .

  Rectifying the-limiiations identified above will enable Livonia to better track and thus
  mmin^Twaste hydraulic oil. A preliminary pareto chart of the 21 top doUar hydraulic oil
  users pointed to a yearly oil usage of 287,664 gallons of oil for those 21 machines alone.
  RouaMy 2/3 of this amount is considered excessive. Thus the Livonia engmeer sees* savings
  closeto $200,000 for these 21 machines alone. Extrapolated to the entire plant, the Livonia
  engineer thinks the $880,000 figure is attainable.

  ' To achieve this, functionality must be added tp PFIS that aUows aU oil adds and the^amount
•  of those adds, along with the time of the add to provide the necessary tracking information.

                        -  ' •  • • '  '  '    EP3 —	—	;	:—:	
 ,   '                 '        .     Training Manual

                               IMPLEMENTATION •• 5-12
Reporting functionality that tracks oil usage by department will also be beneficial. To      •
determine the amount of oil added, meters must be installed on both the oilers' trucks and on
direct drops. The installation of automatic shutqff mechanisms will immediately reduce some
wasted hydraulic oil. And lastly, with the functionally robust reporting procedures in place,
Livonia engineers will be able to effectively identify and" rank the largest oil users. With this
information, they will be able to-repair those machines that provide the largest cost sayings for
theplant.            ,      -        .        .          .                       .
                                         • EPS
                                     Training Manual

                            IMPLEMENTATION ģi5-13
5. OPPORTUNITY:                      Reclaim rinse water fc Anodfeer room

WASTE GENERATED:                   Rinse water    -

WASTE PREVENTED/YEAR:  ""       •   192,720,000 Ibs.

SAVINGS/YEAR:  .'                    5539,419   '

IMPLEMENTATION COST:               S278.500

IMPLEMENTATION TIM?:,,   .     ,.>.    3 months

CURRENT PROCESS:      • ! '          Rinse water to waste treatmeat

Currently, all rinse water systems in Department 469 are supplied by city water. Acids used in
process along with this water are dumped to waste treatment.

PROCESS IMPROVEMENT:              Recycle rinse water

A reverse osmosis recycling system has been specified by plant engineering that will recycle
city and process water continuously at 50 gallons per minute. This will reduce city water in
the rinse process by 98%, and reduce the rate of waste water by 90%. The system will enable
 100% recycling of acids back to the plating bath.

The cost savings associated with the rinse water reclaim are made up of several components:
Savings         -  recycled process city water + wastewater. treatment deterred
                +  recycled chemicals + reduced maintenance + reduced scrap
                +. -reduced sewer, maintenance (due to acid reduction)
These savings translate to $539,419 per year.

 As the systea taeycks rinse water, it eliminates all suspended contamination, this reduced
 contamisatMB can only effect product quality in a positive way.
                                      • EP3
                                  Training Manual

                             IMPLEMENTATION' ģ 5-14
6 OPPORTUNITY:                       Install heat-exchanger for cooling mill
                                         water and replace city water

WASTE GENERATED;          .          City water .

WASTE PREVENTED / YEAR:          ,   175,564,800 Ibs.

SAVINGS/YEAR:" .                      $240,734           :    ;

IMPLEMENTATION COST:         :      $ 60,000

IMPLEMENTATION TIME:           :     2mbnths

CURRENT PROCESS:     '...              Niagara coolitag tower Using city water

Department 294 performs a deburringoperation that requires part cooling as part of its
process. Presently; the equipment used to perform this cooling function is a Niagara
cooling tower that employs city water at a rate of 60 gallons per minute. The water is then
dumped to waste treatment.                        ;
            . •       .  .        .  -     .     y     .'    - \ ' .  .     ' ,  •'        '" '  .

PROCESS IMPROVEMENT:              Heat exchanger using mill water

A heat exchanger with a self cleaning system can be utilized to achieve the necessary
cooling without employing city water. The self cleaning system allows the use of mill
water that can be totally recycled without waste treatment This self-cleaning component
of the heat exchanger system has been uniquely developed by the Livonia engineer.

This reduction in city water usage is calculated at 21.945,600 gallons. At $.01 per gallon,
this translates to a $219,456 savings pet year in city .water alone. Reductions in electricity
usage translate to another $12,070 per year. Additionally, the heat exchanger is easier to
maintain — uijiMainiirr savings are projected at $9208 per year. Total expected savings
from this pfi*Ģi improvement: $240,734 per year.         .\
                                  Training Manual

                              IMPLEMENTATION ģ5-15

 7. OPPORTUMTY:                       Manage and track soluble oU

 WASTE GENERATED:                     Soluble oil

'WASTE PREVENTED /YEAR:      '     :  375,000 Ibs.

 SAVINGS/YEAR:                       -S192.234

 IMPLEMENTATION COST:                within supplier contract

 IMPLEMENTATION TIME:     .           <1 month.
i         ^"              *       .ģ        • •                                       .

 PREVIOUS PROCESS:                   Modern Treatment Service!

 A water soluble cutting oil is used on machining tools throughout the plant Often, the coolant
 for several machines is supplied by one central coolant system. Modem Treatment was
 responsible  for assessing the central systems' performance standards and reporting their
 condition to engineering.
     '     it '  i  ! ģr      :   "'             ',     "  i   :  '

 PROCESS IMPROVEMENT:             Modem Treatment continuous
                               ..."'. improvement

 The Livonia engineer developed a new contract that holds Modem Treatment more
 accountable for the performance of the central coolant systems, and requires them to show
 continuous  improvement in the reduction of waste cutting fluid. Modem Treatment is
 allocated a blanket 10,000 gallons per month to dispense throughout the plant. This means
 that oilnot  used in one piece of equipment can be carried over to one that does need it If oil
 usage exceeds 10,000 gallons; however, maintenance pays for the excessive oil. Modem
 Treatment bos developed control charts for each central system, and Modem Treatment
 reports moathiy oil usage and reasons for discrepancies on these charts. Additionally, Modem
' TreatmefliaMmting fund requirements for implementing engineering solutions discovered as
 a resukotpoeĢģ control practices.
  It is estimated that this new relationship with Modern Treatment will result in a 50,000 gallon
  per year reduction ($192,234) in the use of soluble oil in Livonia. Modem Treatment is
  obligated, through its contract, to reduce waste cutting fluid by 15 percent a year. Modem
  Treatment understands that to continue doing business with Livonia Transmission, it must
  continue to reduce its waste cutting fluid. The Livonia engineer sees further ways to reduce
  cutting fluid waste. Reducing hydraulic-oil contamination and system pump downs for
  maintenance repair would reduce wasted oil.
                                       • EPS
                                    Training Manual

                             IMPLEMENTATION * 5-16
8. OPPORTUNITY:                        Install media reminders

WASTE GENERATED;                     Aluminum & cast iron media, .-..*,>Ģ• •._'.•'.'

WASTE PREVENTED / YEAR:              1,500,000 Ibs.            ^               .

SAVINGS / YEAR:     ,_                   &6S&5 .          .

IMPLEMENTATION COST:                $30,000 per rewinder

IMPLEMENTATION TIME: .               .-
        „  '   -.    •'      •       ģ  • - - ,   ,;,•'"-••   <-~J       ' -  '

CURRENT PROCESS?        .         ''"Filter media in scrap hoppers

There are several chip separation systems throughout the plant that use rolls of filter media to
filter metal chips from cutting fluids. Oa ten of these,systems, the media is deposited in the
hopper with the salvageable chips. This aluminum/paper mix has a salvage value SO. 11  per'
pound less than straight aluminum. -With 1,518,760 Ibs produced a year, this translates to an
opportunity of $165,545 per year for aluminum. Cast iron and Steel contribute an extra
$49,125 in cost savings potential per year. Together, this accounts for a potential cost savings
of $230,748 per year.   .               '              .          ':.

PROCESS IMPROVEMENT?              Install media rewinders

Media rewinders will rewind the filter media and deposit only the  chips in the hopper. This
will allow the plant to receive the highest price (without the $0, 1 1  penalty for filter
contamination) for its scrap aluminum. This value will show the plant $165,545 per year in
 cost savings! Sirfce the cast iron and steel cost savings potential is not much more than the
 rewinder cost ($30,000 + labor), reclaiming these metals without the filter paper is not cost
 effective.       •:'..   •• ••:    :''-••'  • •    '  .:••   •  ... -  ;'   '".   '  ' -.-  ;  :   '    .-.
 Among th*ai^*BfeĢmg the unpleinetttation of this process improvement is the question of
 project fiiada*. ^^Mfe the plant would be saddled with the project's implementation and
 mamtenance costs, any ^^ cost savings resulting from improved scrap value reverts to a corporate
 fund: Thus, the plant has difficulty justifying such expenditures. Additionally, use of
 rewinders has proven infeasible at some scrap locations in the past (due to process layout, and,
 equipment ^^unreliability), and may not prove feasible for future use.     .            •
                                       • EP3
                                   Training Manual

                             IMPLEMENTATION ģ 5-17




                 'i     '.',''
Install new conductivity meters on
parts washers
       i < <•
Washer chemicals

263,560 Ibs.

$91,525                 '


To be determined
Defective conductivity meten
Washers are located throughout the Plant to wash dirt, oil, and-nietal chips off transmission.
Parts After operating for a period of time, these washers become contaminated with tramp oil,
chips and dirt. A cleaning schedule is maintained whereby the solution tank is dumped to
waste treatment, and replaced with a fresh chemical water solution (usually 2%). Because a
washer is in operation, the chemical concentration decreases due to solution carry-off on the
patts. The washers have conductivity meters to measure concentration and control the addition
of washing chemical from adjacent drums. However, the meters do not work properly,
become fouled, and the chemical drum is either emptied or underutilized. In many areas,
chemicals are added manually. The cost differential on washer chemical usage attributed to
the faulty meters is $91,525.                           ...        .    •
 New meters, different chemical
 The installation of new conductivity meters would greatly reduce the variation chemical usage
 and would also improve product quality. Meters free of fouling problems are available at the
 eost of $500 ($493.00 for plant-wide implementation). With the introduction of new meters,
 the maintenance of the washers is critical to their success.            .

 While new meters will reduce concentration variance (thus better insuring product quality),
 their effect on the amount of chemical used needs to be verified. It might well be that, with the
 introduction of meters, more chemical willbe used in the aggregate.

 * Additional investigations are underway to determine the effect of using smaller washers (with
 less waste per recharge) at certain locations. Also, alternatives to the chemical ATF-571 are
 being evaluated. ATF-571 is not compatible with conductivity meters, is expensive, and is not
 waste treatable.                                  .    ,
                                       • EP3
                                    Training Manual

                             •. IMPLEMENTATION ģ 5r 18
10 OPPORTUNITY:                       Implement oil analysis plant-wide

WASTE GENERATED:   ;                  Hydraulic Spindle Oil

WASTE PREVENTED /YEAR:              102,490 Ibs.

SAVINGS / YEAR:    .      .  '"           $34,720

IMPLEMENTATION COST:      ,          Not applicable

IMPLEMENTATION TIME:                <1 month

CURRENT PROCESS:                    Periodic oil change

Preventative maintenance requires the periodic change of hydraulic spindle oil in process
machines throughout the pliant. This change is performed whether -the oil quality is still within
specification or not-While this form of preventative maintenance prevents machine wear and
assures a smooth running process, it also generates a significant amount of waste oil.

PROCESS IMPROVEMENT:              Oil analysis before change

Maintenance area 1 -South is analyzing the oil before changing it on atest basis. If the oil is
still within specification, no oil change is performed, thereby saving oil and labor. An
economic analysis of this operation resulted in the following conclusions:
o        pil analysis has deterred the disposal of 52,920 IbsJyear of clean oil ifl Area 1-5.
          The rest of the plant uses about as much oil again as area 1 -South. Using the
          double size estimation fector,jf oil analysis was employed throughout the entire
          plant, 102,490 IBs. of clean oil would be spared early disposal each year.

o        The cost savings associated' with oil analysis are made up of several components:
                      '         '   '               ''''"''     "  '        '
    ,                    .,.  ..      ,     . .   ..     .....        -   .   .      ..
          oil ••Hpfe-' Vwailei*ater treatment deterred.                        :
              ;  :    4-oiI disposal deterred + oil change labor saved
                    -lab fee - sampling labor.
          The savings for Area 1-5 was $12,165 per year.         '

 Those machines that undergo .several samples before requiring a change provide the greatest
 opportunity for savings> Conversely, some machines require a change almost every time they
 are tested. It is not ecpnomical to test these machines before changing hydraulic oil. By
 eliminating testing of those' machines that do not demonstrate cost savings, Area 1-5 would
 save $ 1 7,928. On a plant-wide basis this results in an optimized savings of $34,720 per year:
                                   Training Manual

                              IMPLEMENTATION ģ 5-19
 11. OPPORTUNITY:                      Install shield in Central System 111

 WASTE GENERATED:                    Cutting fluid

 WASTE PREVENTED / YEAR:             614,250 Ibs.

 SAVINGS/YEAR:.                        $17,035

 IMPLEMENTATION COST:              .  Not applicable

 IMPLEMENTATION TIME:                
                              IMPLEMENTATION ģ• 5-20
12 OPPORTUNITY:                      Eliminate non-operational part cleaners

WASTE GENERATED:              ;       Safety Kleen     ;

WASTE PREVENTED/YEAR: '.        12,000 Ibs.     -.

SAVINGS / YEAR.                         $12,000

.IMPLEMENTATION COST:                within supplier contract

IMPLEMENTATION TIME:                ;<1 month

.PREVIOUS PROCESS:                    Safety Kleen services

Part cleaners are drums filled'with solvent with a removable sink basin on top. Part cleaners
provided by Safety Kleen are used throughout the plant. The plapt .is charged a fee each time
the solvent is changed. The waste solvent leaves the plant as a. manifested hazardous waste.

Previously, the Livonia engineer tracked the waste generated by these parts cleaners, arid
assigned cost/year and cost/department figures. Safety Kleen was responsible for assessing:
washer performance standards.      •'-••••              .    •

PROCESS IMPROVEMENT:             Safety been continuous improvement

The Livonia engineer developed a new contract that holds Safety Kleen more accountable for
the performance of theirparts cleaners, and requires them to show continuous improvement in
the reduction of waste solvent Safety Kleen was instructed to evaluate usage of each part
cleaner. From this evaluation, they identified cleaners that were not used or used so  .
infrequently as to merit consolidation with other cleaners. They also developed a servicing
 schedule more m tune with actual usage. The Livonia engineer also created a new inspection
 form that ill nimft * more comprehensive inspection from Safety Keen representatives.

 This new relationship with Safety Keen has resulted in an estimated 12,000 Ib. reduction in
 the hazardous solvent waste, at a yearly savings of $12,000 to the plant Further, Safety Keen
 is obligated, through its contract, to reduce waste solvent by 15 percent a year. Safety Keen
 understands that, to continue dping business with Livonia Transmission, it must continue to
 reduce its waste solvent.
                                       • EP3
                                   Training Manual

                            IMPLEMENTATION > 5-21
13 OPPORTUNITY:                     Install baffle on Central System 111

WASTE GENERATED:                 .   Cutting fluid

WASTE PREVENTED/YEAR:   .          357,563 tbs.

SAVINGS/YEAR,           .             $10,397

IMPLEMENTATION COST:               $1000

IMPLEMENTATION TIME:            .   <1 month

CURRENT PROCESS:                  Overflow of vacuum filter

Central System 111 has a problem with turnings clogging up the port to the vacuum filter.
This flow restriction causes the cutting fluid level to back up and overflow the weir.. The fluid
falls into the trench and is dumped to waste treatment Itis estimated, that 25 percent (or 3814
gallons per year) of the waste oil generated by system'! 11 can be attributed to such overflows.
The waste cutting fluid (at 8 percent oil) is then estimated at 47,675 gallons (357,563 Ibs) per
year. This translates to $ 16,397 per year in lost cutting fluid due to overflow.

PROCESS IMPROVEMENT:            Install baffle

To eliminate the cutting fluid overflow, turnings have to be kept free of the port to the vacuum
filter. To address this, a baffle will be installed at the inlet to  the fluid tank. This baffle will
direct chips away from the vacuum filter outlet and towards the front of the conveyor. The
baffle will consist of sheet metal elbows at the ends of the inlet trenches. It should take less
than a week for members of Ford trades to perform this fix. Without turnings clogging the
outlet, the controlled flow ofcutting; fluid will bemaintained in Central System 111.
                                     • EP3
                                 Training Manual.

                               IMPLEMENTATION ģ• 5-22
5 J.5 Developing a Pollution Prevention Program

The success of the Livonia Transmission Plant Waste Prevention Opportunity Analysis gave
Phil Lawrence the proof he needed to demonstrate that waste prevention was a viable and
fruitful activity. The next step was to formalize the waste prevention procedures so that they
could be disseminated to Ford plants worldwide. To accomplish this, Bill Schneider, who had
been actively involved in the Livonia Assessment Team was requested to head an ad hoc
team. With members of the LAT and other environmental and process personnel, Schneider
reviewed the Livonia findings along with pertinent material from other corporations and the
United States Environmental Protection Agency. While many publications exist on pollution
prevention, a priority objective was to develop procedures that would be extensions of Ford's
existing quality program. "The resulting guidebook, "Roadmap to an Effective Waste
Minimization Program," has been distributed to other Ford pjants. A summary of the
guidebook's main ideas follows:                                .  .  ,

 1. A plant-wide team should be set up to coordinate waste reduction efforts. The team can be
an existing plant team, or a pollution prevention team created for this project This team
should be made up of representatives from all the departments in theplant, workers, and
environmental experts. It is essential that both senior management and line workers be a part
of the drive to reduce waste;          .

 2. The most effective wcy to eliminate a specific waste at each level of plant operations
would be to create teams at each segment of the manufacturing process. These teams would be
made up of people who already work on the process and would include a member who has
been trained in the specifics of pollution prevention.

 3, The coordinating team for the plant would begin the pollution prevention process by
setting goals and carrying out a macroscopic analysis of plant operations focusing on waste
streams (steps A and B below). The teams specific to the particular waste of area of the plant
•could then take over the planning and implementation of the pollution prevention plans
selected.   ,'   •'     .-. ''     .  "  ".  -  •'•  '    •     •         . . •'.- / ..-     .'  •'•'•''•

The steps to be fallowed in implementing a pollution prevention program are:
 A. Identify Waste Streams                     L   .
 B. Establish Pollution prevention Priorities
 C. Focus On Waste Sources
 D. Develop Solutions
 E. Verify'Results  :   •   ,                          .   ,,.
                                        • EPS
                                    Training Manual

                                  IMPLEMENTATION ģ• 5-23
 A. Identify Waste Streams

 The coordinating team should start by identifying the process streams leading intd attd out of
 the manufacturing plant The streams that do not contribute to the final product are waste^
 streams The quantity of waste material produced by the plant must be measured so that the
 cost of each waste stream can be estimated. The costs of waste arising from each unit of a
 particular product, whether defective or not; should also be estimated. These costs can be used
 as factors in the production planning and costs analysis for the products made.
                                    '  •         .    , ,        '             '         "*
      1 ģ    .    "" ,,        ,,s •y--_,at*fcr'tr-Ģp ' 	"-'- '           '_                 , '   ' .

. B. Establish Pollution Prevention Priorities          i?>    .

 After determining what the waste streams are,it is essential to establish poUution prevention
 priorities on a plant-wide basis. The factors that will affect this prioritization may include raw
 material cost, amount produced, and environmental effects, among others.. The priorities will
 be specific to the plant arid the overall pollution prevention objectives will be set by the
 coordinating team. Once the priorities have been set it is also necessary to establish realistic
 goals and timelines for achieving them. As witK.aU process improvement programs, pollution
 prevention requires a sustained, incremental effort if lasting change is to be.achieved

 C. Focus On Waste Sources

 After the macroscopic analysis of the waste streams has been done and appropriate goals have
 been set, a more detailed analysis of each targeted waste stream is required. The source of
: each waste stream should be located. This will require extensive coordination within the  plant
 especially if the same waste material comes from several operations in the plant Specialized
 teams that will deal with each targeted waste should be formed at this time to cairry out the
 detailed analyses. The waste quantities should be measured and compared to the goals set for
 pollutioA prevention. This process should begin on a plant-wide basis and steadily get more
 focused, cuhninating in measuring waste from individual machines or parts of machines.
     D.Devetep Solution*

     Once the targeted waste streams have been identified, options for reducing each stream have
     to be developed and screened. The options must deal with the waste directly rather than just
     switching to alternate means of disposal. The aim is to reduce as much of the waste as
     possible. Materials should be captured and reused where feasible. Only when waste is
     unavoidable, should it be disposed of safely.                          .
                                            • EPS
                                         Training Manual

                              IMPLEMENTATION * 5-24
An action plan should be developed fiom each option that is selected. The action plan should
fulfill the goals set for the plant and must itself have verifiable goals. The plan should be
implemented as soon as it has been approved by the coordinating

E. Verify Results

The efficacy of the pollution prevention program can be evaluated only if measurables have
been used throughout the planning and implementation process. When it is time to verify the
results, the goals can be compared to what has actually been achieved: Haying a quantitative
.basis for evaluation will-also'be helpful in calculating the monetary gains from the success of
such plans. ;        ••  ••••.   .. ;,'    •,.•;'•.'    •-;•.••  •.;,    /'•'.'-.."  •..'•  ,  -..'.",'  *'''.•.'
            '-      '      i -     -          .•'•"''i •••.      ..'••'•.•''"'   •    •x' '.•
After evaluation, the plans that have been implemented should be adjusted as indicated by, the
results. A reevaluatiori of the process may reveal new insight that will prove to be beneficial
for the overall system. This-will enable the company to apply the. plan to-other facilities. The
plans should be continued and enhanced after each evaluation. Following the "Plan, Do,
Check, Act" method of Total Quality Management (TQM), the overall pollution prevention
process should then return to the analysis phase. •

Total Quality Management employs continuous improvement to strive for the goal of zero
defects. While some defects are inevitable, the goals of TQM drive companies to
improvements they-might not .otherwise seek. Similarly, pollution prevention is a process of  •
continuous improvement and assessment that should not be considered complete until all
wastes have been eliminated from the plant.        .,

  ' ,.. •-       •••..-   •'•  . • .  .;    '"   Exhibit5-1               -  .    -'  ,' .   -  -  .
                         i     Livonia Assessment Team
 JohnConnor        '''.'.•            Livonia Plant        .    "     .         .
 AlanAmber^:'  — -'V - :•!•v''•->.     Environmental Quality Office
 Ron Bums?: ;^fi'WTn'                 Transmission and Chassis Division
 David Choiij^^^ ''"';' -:.   '•  --.'"'  Research Staff  -•.'._-.:..•   :';•.-.••'
 Phil Lawrtt^Ste1^                    Plant Engineering Office  .
 JackMurra^                        Plant Engineering/Environmental Quality Offices
 MarkPanetta-                  .    Truck and Chassis Divisioa
 Bill Schneider                       Research Staff        ,:
 Two consultants                     Outside consulting firm
                                       • EPS
                                    Training Manual

                              .•   IMPLEMENTATION ģ5-25       	,	


                                   Waste Calculation

.  System 111 has a problem with oil foam being carried, out of the system on the chip conveyor.
  Observations showed that 50 gallons of cutting fluid were lost per.hopper. The system has
  been generating seven hoppers per day. Waste costs for the first six months of 1991 were
  calculated as follows:

   7 hoppers/day X 50 gallon/hopper - 350 gallons/day

"  350 gallons/day X 130 days/6months - 45,500 gallons/6 months

   45,500 gallons X 8% oil in cutting fluidilost - 3,640 gallons of oil wasted

   Projected waste oil for one year 2 X 3,640 = 7,280 gallons of oil

   7^280 gallons of oil X$2.60/gattbn = $18,928 per year
                                          • EP3
                                       Training Manual


      Exhibit 5-3
Initial RetommendjittQns

.SSR,V. ,.,,., ..... . .... '-!:^^
Activate AXOD reclaim unit
Oil tracking, system •
Eliminate no-operational parts
Insair media rewindeh
Reduce rubbish contamination
Install shield-on Central System ,1 U
Install Baffle on Central System 111'
Install new conductivity meters on .
Update PFIS oil tracking
Needle bearing grease accountability

'-SiSifiilir , s-
Transmissibn fluid
Hydraulic 8c. spindle oil
Scrap metal & filter
Scrap metal -
Cutting fluid
Cutting fluid •
Washer chemicals

, N/A
357,563 .
Unknown ••

•;-;. 109,911 .
', 174)35
91,525 .
      Training Manual

       Exhibit 5-4
Ongoing Recommendations
Waste Prevention Opportunities
Activate AXOD reclaim unit
Collect fluids on test stands
Capture carry-off oil
Oil tracking system
•= ornate no-operational parts
Install media rewinders
Reduce rubbish contamination
Install shield on Central System 1 1 1
Install baffle on Central System 111.
Install new conductivity meters on
Update PFIS oil tracking
Reclaim Anodizer rinse water
Install heat exchanger to cool mill
Reclaim cutting oils, broach oil,
mineral-oils , ' •

Type of Waste .
Transmission Fluid
Transmission Fluid
Transmission Fluid .
Hydraulic &spindle oil
Scrap metal & Filter
Scrap metal
Cutting fluid .
Cutting fluid .
Washer chemicals
Rinse water
City water
Misc. oils
„ 307,470
• - . N/A
. 48,000,000
272,200,000 .
S Savings/year
. 9,000,000
           • EP3
        Training Manual

                              IMPLEMENTATION ģ• 5-28
               • -        •'•-.-
                 •        - -       ,~- ._  vgi

1) What are the benefits toFord ojFredue
                 ••-•  '• ~- '
                                                                              '.-,-.'.4- -?'-*,-i->'
2) How do total quality management principles relate to pollution prevention?
3) What data management techniques would improve the waste assessment process?
4) The case presented only improvements to existing processes.. From a TQM standpoint, what

might Be done to design processes with the intent to prevent pollution-?
                                       • EP3
                                    Training Manual

       CHAPTER 6
           • EP3
         Training Manual

                 Office of Technical Assist&.ze  *^v
                 Executive Office of Environmental Affairs
                 CJfamonwealth of Massachusetts
      Toxics  Use  Reduction
                      AT AMERICRAFT CARTON, INC
 . •  ' SUMMARY'  •          •   ••  .  ••  ,• .     ' v'     •"    ''.'  ;' ' .  .  _ ;   :   '   •   • '
     Americraft Carton was using large quantities of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in the fountain solution for the
 offset printing presses used to print the papertooard cartons for its client's products — food, health and beauty
 and children's products. Concern for the health and safety of its employees and the environmental concerns of
 its clients required Americraft to change its process. Introduction of a S 108,000 new fountain solution delivery
 system has resulted in the elimination of IPA, cost savings that will yield full payback(in materials costs alone)
 in less than two-ahd-one-half years, and a likely end to toxics use reporting.

     BACKGROUND                                                           ,
     Americraft Carton, Jnc.-, In Lowell, Massachusetts, is a S30 million a year folding carton manufacturer and
' printer HealthandsafetyissuesandenvironmentalconcernsofAmericraftclients^rnakersofhealthandbeauty
 products, children's toys and games, and foodproducts —influenced Americraft's efforts to introduce lesstoxic
 printing materials.                                            •                      .    ,
     Until August 199 1 , Americraft mixed fountain solution Tor its presses inthe traditional mariner— a solution
 of 15-25% isapropyl alcohol (IPA), tap water, and etch material was measured by hand.into a drum and stirred
 with a wooden paddle. Americraft received bulk deliveries of IP A every two to three weeks and up to six 55 gallon
 drums of waste solution were generated monthly by the company's four sheetfed offset presses.
     There are significant economic, health and safety, and environmental drawbacks to this method of
 and material costs, and it can require disposal of inadequate, unused, or waste solution at a cost of more than S2
 per gallon. Inhalation of alcohol-laden vapors present health and safety concerns for employees. And IPA, an
 and reporting,      •     .                     •;•-..      ; -:      ",  '
                                     _                  _
      Americraft Manufacturing Manager Jim Klecak knew that inconsistency in fountain solution formulation
  as well as air er -;sion concerns needed to be resolved. Jim .moved quickly to.research the available options and.
  was initially received with some trepidation by management because of the expense. Now, .because the system
  has proven cost-effective and efficient, implementation of similar systems is underway at two other Americraft
  plants! in Memphis. Tennessee, and St. Paul Minnesota, St Paulutilizes a modi fied version of the mixing system
  and is pleased with early results. In Memphis; "black-box" technology that irradiates the water forthe dampening
  system, enables operation with plain water and fountain concentrate; completely eliminating IPA and its

fc.hĢitutes In Lowell when Jim began introducing no-(PA solution, he even had to prove to his pressmen that
substitutes, in LOWCII, wnen jĢn ocga           *                              installed a drum, visible
hich standard Druitins IS DOSSlbid wiCiiuui It A — ne .iĢ.K.a me ir.1^. iiuia6>.                         .  .
threughthe storeroom window, labeled IPA but filled with water with a hose leading to the presses. Ten.days
later, Jim told the pressmen that the system was operating without IP A.                   •

     Americraft installed the Frisco system and (because water quality could vary even_from hour to hour)
made it possible to use IPA substitutes, which are less tolerant to variations in water quahty and parameters than
is IPA. The reverse osmosis filtration system has five micron carbon prefilters, a reverse osmosis membrane, and
astorage and distribution tank, Americraft first replaced IPA with Hi-Tech solution and Alkaless R. a fountain
concemrate with 20 percent monoglycol ether, a VOC Release of VOCs was greatly reduced by usmg a c osed
loop system, but introduction of the glycol ethers required reporting under SARA (Title: ffl, section-3113) and
TORA/Prisco Q-l 1, a new substitute introduced in April 1993, has nearly eliminated VOCs and will likely end
the required repotting.              .       .
at up to 15'gallons per minute (gpm). Recharging of the solution (made up of water obiainedby reverse osmosis^
IPA substitute, and used.fountain solution) is-computer
      Economics:  Americraft invested 5108,000 in trie new equipment required to reduce the VOC emissions
 from its offset printing operations. Payback resulting solely from the reducedcost for materials will occur about
 30 months after introduction of the new system — there are substantial additional sayings from increased press
 efficiency, reduced wastes, and reduced and eliminated permit costs. Americraft has a^o found that alcohol
 system ahl-lnWnew cl^tistry, a reduction
 producing the savings (from materials costs alone) shown;in the I
 *      - W      ,            '        •- ---r.-_- j^gV-^Ti-aiKSfcS—'* "uCs—- "ģ1*^:'" 'Ŗ
^placement (AJkaless R) is^time^greawtthanlPA; thecost ofQ^tt

     Americraft has introduced other pollution prevention changes^ Approximately 85 percent of its products
are made from recycledpaperboard. Printing on recycled board is technically more difficult, hut the introduction
of a consistent fountain solution greatly facilitates printing on recycled material. Americraft also uses water-
based coatings, instead of UV-based coatings which may make paper non-recyclable; and Americraft recently
'switched, from petroleum-based ink to soy-based ink. Soy-based inks produce a higher quality print and result
in substantial further VOC reductions. Finally, Americraft is exploring ways in which to cleanse and recycle its
cloth filter bags to reduce its overall waste toad and improve disposal methods of the filtered-out hazardous
'material.    •' '  •    . •    • '  •   .   •   .     ..  -.    .-.-"'    '.     ".-.''  .-•'   • '•.. ' •' ;.'.    ..'
  Tliis Ccse Study is atie.ofa series of such documents prepared by the Office of Technical Assistance for Toxics
  Use Reduction (OTA), a branch of the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, whose mission
  OTA's non-reguiatory services are available at no charge to Massachusetts fastnesses and institutions tiiat use
  toxic chemicals. • For further information about this or other case studies, or about OTA's'technical services.
  contact: Office a/Technical! Assistance, Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, Suite 2109,1 QOCanibridge
  Street, Boston, Massachusetts-02202, (617) 727-3260, Fax - (617) 727-3827.
                                                             • C10I-3.M3

               Office of Technical Assistance
               Executive Office of Environmental Affairs
               Commonwealth of Massachusetts
     Toxics Use  Reduction  Case  Study
                        AT F.C. MEYER COMPANY


as reduced costs for raw materials.  ••
    S^e^Stoys 200 people and has eitft printing presses and operas
company uses a fiexographic printing process with rubber prating plates.                         ;
                                  -      ks to water-based inks, andreduced its VOC etjusaons from
waste a week, now it generates one to two dnims a week of nonhazardous waste.
              dat reduction of the volume of water used in cleaning process could be achieved by training
                                    as grey, in

                    - Modifyinf me pcesscleanup procedure reduced the solids in spent washwaiĢr from more
 is now used oca time a pĢaiia washed. •                                                   ,
     By reusing moĢor*Ģwģfcwaler, the amount of waste which had to be disposed has decreased from ten to one to
 two 55-callon drums Mrwwfc.       v                    -                   •           ,. .
     Economics: TbĢ 55 talloa drums of waste cost approximately S 1 00 each to dupose. ^ Implementing tlĢ reuse of ink
 wastewater has reduced me yearly cost of waste disposal from about $52.000 to 55,200.
  TTii, QutStvfyisoKofastrteofsuchdocumena prepared ^^°^°fr^^As^aV*
  Redman (OTA), a bralxh oftte Mavachusca* Executive Office of EnvironmentallAffan ™*™
  indvty in reducing the use o/Ģmc chemicals and/or the generation ofuwc ™^^^*W
                   yj Htff 4rĢģĢMģ^ģĢ^Ģ^™ģģ™ —•- Ģ •	 -+f
                   of toxic chemicals and/or the generation o,
                         9 charge to Massachusetts businesses at*,..ģ~~.~-	  -_.  . .  .
        rmaion about this or other case studies, or about OTA's technical services, coiuaa: Office*/ Techntcal
	,^Lw S^ "/Environmental Affairs, Suite 2109,100 Cambridge Street, Boston, Massachusetts
02202, (617) 737-3260,Fax- (617) 727-3827.                                    -0101-2,8/93

Case Study: Prepared by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources,
               Pollution Prevention Division

Pollution Prevention Efforts at the Journal Press, Inc.

          Summary:   '     '            *---••;-•.. -     - . _ •.    -  •   -   '''..'•;'"
     - -       •. '-...!    .      '     '  , ,    .             -       ...%•'.        . . ' '  '
      As a commercial job shop, the Journal Press, Inc. prints a varietyof products including
posters, college catalogs,'arid financial reports. The president of the company, Charles Colvin,
has been directly 'involved in  keeping hazardous material-usage and waste generation to a
minimum. As an employer, Mr. Colvin is concerned about the health of his employees and the
impact that his business has on the community. As a smaU business owner he is also concerned
about reducing costs - and reducing waste reduces operating costs. In particular the successes
at the Journal Press have included recovery of silver from spent photo processing solutions, a
99.9% elimination of isopropyl alcohol from printing poerations, and reductions in the volume
arid toxidry of the ink used.            .   ^      -
       The Journal Press, Inc. is a small commercial offset lithographic printing business. The
company has been a fixture in downtown Pbultney, Vermont since the 1860's. Originally the
company published a local newspaper.  Newspaper publishing ended in the 1930's, however,
the business has continued to thrive as a commercial job shop.  The business i* currently .owned
by Charles and Katherine Colvin who purchased it from his parents.,

       Production activities at the company include photo processing, plate making, printing and
book binding. The company presently employs thirteen people on a full time basis and  five
additional people on a part time basis.                   '

Ha-zardous Materials Usage and Waste Generation

       The four major production activities mentioned above all use hazardous materials or
generate solid or hazardous waste.   Mr. Colvin  has worked hard.** minimize the use of
hazardous materials and prevent the generation of hazardous waste.  He has also tried to  find
recycling outlets for the solid waste streams which his company generates, including successfully
locating a means of recycling the waste paper generated in the bindery. There, are two main
 reasons behind tfase efforts.  First, Mr. Colvin is concerned about the health  of his employees
 and the community at large.  This has led him to seek out those chemicals available to the
 printing industiy which are the least toxic.  Secondly, as a small business owner, Mr, Colvin
 has to keep a close eye on the bottom line.  Waste generation is viewed as lost profit In light
 of this, all personnel at the facility are encouraged to try very hard to conserve the materials
 which they use and prevent waste  from being generated in each area of production.

Plate Making and Photo Processing
After *= saver to brc                                  an^ u

 purchase new products.                                .  .

 industry.                             .                                  •

  located for the mylar waste stream.
  Printing   . "-     . .     .                                        .    .

         ģ  POTW means publicly ovģned treatment works.
                   ''•'".              33 .    •'"


Hazardou s  Waste  Reduction
Spence Engineering Company, Inc.  •
150 Coldenham Road^             *
P.O. Box 230, Wtldia, NY 12586
Contact: (914) 778-55^
By changing a parts cleaning process, an engineering firm has eliminated toxic air
emissions and reduced costs.

Spence Engineering Company, a manufacturer of automatic fluid controls, used the sol-
vent trichloroethylene (TOE) to clean? components in a vapor degreasing process. TCE,
a toxic chemical compound, is Hsted by EFA-as a priority pollutant. Stack emissions of
trichloroethylene averaged i?200 pounds a year;

The company replaced the vapor degreasing system in 1989 with an efficient parts washing
system that uses a waterbased, nontoxic detergent cleaner instead of trichloroethylene.

As soon as it was put into operation, the new process eliminated stack emissions of
trichloroethylene.      .           "                 '

• Elimination of solvent emissions                .
• Elimination of ail related sludge and fluid waste streams       >.
• Maintenance and operating costs reduced
•t Parts cleaning time reduced                   .            V
Mmpcoweowm in employee safety                  . .
                 v  -   . .   .; .         . 48.     • ••  •••: ' .      . *, '   •   .'  "-

                  New York State Department of Environmental .Conservation
               Mario M  Cuomo, Governor   "Thomas  C. Jorling, Commissioner

                                 Hazardous Waste Reduction Programs
It's the law
  For more
 The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) is putting
 new emphasis upon reducing or eliminating hazardous wastes at their source—in.
 the commercial or industrial processes where they are generated. In the preferred
 sequence of hazardous waste management techniques, as outlined in state law, source
 reduction ranks first. Wastes that cannot be reduced are to be reused or recycled
 Any remaining wastes must be detoxified, treated or destroyed Only treated residual
 wastes can be landfilled; all other land burial of haza^lous wastes must be phased
 out by May, 1990.      .

 To help commercial and industrial enterprises in New York State comply with the
 laws for managing hazardous wastes, DEC'S Division of Hazardous Substances
 Regulation has developed technical assistance programs and a series of publica-
 tions, available upon request Technical experts are available to visit individual plants
 and to present information to trade and professional associations;.  DEC program
 sfaff also provide telephone assistance for industries, using up-to-date waste reduc-
 tion information through a computerized bibliographical, clearinghouse.   . .

 In addition to DEC'S programs, the New York'State. Environmental Facilities Cor-
 poration (EFC), a public benefit corporation, is actively involved in providing on-
 site technical assistance. EFC helps small and mid-sized  industries comply  with
 regulations and  apply waste reduction and waste treatment technologies.

 DEC cosponsors an annual hazardous waste redaction conference in Albany, where
 participants can learn about techniques for reducing and recycling hazardous wastes.
 DEC is publishing a series of success stories to recognize companies that have achiev-
 ed significant reduction, of hazardous wastes*

 • oh DEC'S technical assistance programs for industry, contact:
   Bureau of Pollution Prevention
   NYSDEC                                 .         '
   50 Wolf Road
   Albany, NY 12233-7253
   (518)457-6072              ...
                 '      '     '           '-:,'•
• • on the annual Hazardous Waste Reduction Conference, contact the same office.

 •-oa die services available from EFC, contacts
   Industrial Materials Recycling Program    ...
   NTS Environmental Facilities Corporation
   50 Wolf Road
  ..Albany. NY 12205

             Division''of Hazardous Substances Regulation

                   Hazardous  Waste  Reduction
Improved Process:
    Cost Savings:

     .   Benefits:
 Atochem North America, Inc.
 Organic Peroxides Division                       .
 P.O. Box 188
 Geneseo, N.V. 14454
 Contact Environmental Manager (716) 243-0330                    .

 By installing a collection and recovery system for suspended solids, Atochem increased
 product yield and saved money.           ;     .     •                .       •

 During the drying of a solid product, fine particles are lost to the circulating air stream  |
 and scrubbing water. In the past; this slurry was pretreated to convert it to a soluble
 biodegradable substance for subsequent processing at the on-site waste treatment facility.

 The company installed a collection and recovery system consisting of piping, lined cir-
 culating tahk, pumps and mixers. The scrubbing water containing the suspended solids
 is transferred to a mixing tank through a coarse magnetic screen. The solids are isolated
 froni the slurred material by a basket centrifuge and used in the manufacture of a paste
• product. ; •    •    "'  .-'••.'.''.•'."'   '    •' •  '    ''••.••'•

 More than 550,000 per year, payback in nine months on investment.

 •On-site treatment cost reduced.     ,-; "'.V,* ...            .          .
 '•Material recovered .yields at least 8 percent more usable product.
 ' •The recovered- fine solids provide an improved, less grainy paste product:
                       New. York State Department of Environmental Conservation
                   Mario. M. Cuomo, Governor    Thomas C. lorllng, Commissioner

It's the law
 , Technical
 . assistance
   For more
                    Hazardous Waste Reduction Programs

The New YorkSute Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEQ emphasizes
redloion of hazardous waste generated by commercial and industrial1 enterprises atithe-
2urĢoSAe basis of a four-part waste management hierarchy estabUshed m 1987 m
^Preferred Statewide Hazardous Waste Management Practices Hierarchy Uw.
(ECL-0105) The Hazardous Waste Reduction and RCRA Conformity Law of 1990 (ECL
27-0908) requires hazardous waste reduction plans from generators of 25 tons or more
of hazardous waste per year and from generators required to obtain a Part 373 permit.
Under the federal Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, facilities required to report releases
to EPA for the Toxic Release Inventory (TRO now must also provide information of
pollution prevention.

To help commercial and industrial enterprises in  New York  State comply with the
laws for managing hazardous wastes, DEC'S Division of Hazardous Substances Regula*
tion has developed technical assistance programs and a series of publications, available
upon request. Technical personnel are available to visit individual plants and to present
information to trade and professional associations. DEC program staff also provtde
telephone assistance for industries, using up-to-date waste reduction information through
a computerized bibliographical clearinghouse.   •

In addition to DEC'S programs, the New York State Environmental Facilities Corporation
(EFQ  a public benefit corporation, is actively involved in providing on-site technical
assistance. EFC helps small and mid-sized industries comply with regulations and app-
ly waste reduction and waste treatment  technologies.

DEC cosponsors an annual hazardous waste reduction conference in Albany, where
participants can learn about techniques for reducing and recycling hazardous wastes.
DEC is publishing a series of success stories to recognize companies that have achieved
significant reduction of hazardous wastes'.

 • on DEC'S technical assistance programs for industry, contact:
     Bureau of Pollution Prevention
     NYSDEC, 50 Wolf Road.                             „
     Albany, NY 12233-7253                              ,                .
 • On the annual Hazardous Waste  Reduction Conference, contact the same office.

 • On the services available from  EFC, contact:
     Industrial Materials Recycling Program         .
     NYS Environmental Facilities Corporation
     50 Wolf Road
  -  Albany,'NY 12205
     (518) 457-4138                ...
                            Division oŖ Hazardous Substances Regulation

Number 10
                                                                          October 1990
 Improved Process:
     Cost Savings;
Hazardous  Waste  Reduction
Atochem North America, Inc.                               .      .
Organic Peroxides Division                 ...
P.O. Box 188
Geneseb, N.Y. 14454
Contact Environmental Manager (716) 243-0330

By recycling and retiring a solvent, Atochem North America reduces waste by 90% and
reduced raw material costs.                      ,.                .

The production of a semi-solid organic peroxide required that the solvent be extracted,
after whicK the product was recrystalize'd to achieve the necessary purity. In the past, the
filtrate (a mixture of by-products and solvent) was discarded.        .   '

The solvent is recycled approximately IS times. The spent solvent is then stripped and
the recrystalized product is blended into regular production material. Both the quantity
of solvent needed and the amount of waste have been reduced by 90 percent.

Operating cost reduced by approximately $50,000 per year.
Payback time on investment—six months.

•90* reduction in waste.                              •  . \
•Raw material costs reduced, production capacity increased.  .         .
                       New; York State Department of Environmental Conservation
                   Mario M.^ Cuomo, Governor   .  Thomas C. Jorling,  Commissioner

                   ••"''.".   ,   '•''•/   52   '   '. •••'-••••  ".•.'••-••'    :: ••    '•

It's the law
   For more
                  .   Hazardous Waste Reduction Programs

The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEQ emphasizes
reduction of hazardous waste generated by commercial and industrial enterprises at the
source on the basis of a four-part waste management hierarchy established in 1987 in
the Preferred Statewide Hazardous Waste Management Practices Hierarchy Law.
(ECL-0105). The Hazardous Waste Reduction and RCRA Conformity Law of 199Q (ECL
27-0908) requires hazardous waste reduction plans from generators of 25 tons or more
of hazardous waste per year and from generators required to obtain a Part 373 permit.
Under the federalPollution Prevention Act of 1990, facilities required to report releases
to EPA for the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) now must also provide information  of
pollution prevention.

To help commercial  and industrial enterprises in New York State comply with the
laws for managing hazardous wastes, DEC'S Division of Hazardous Substances Regula-
tion has developed technical assistance programs and a series of publications, available
upon request. Technical personnel are available to visit individual plants and to present
information to trade and professional associations. DEC program staff also provide
telephone assistance for industries, using up-to-date waste reduction information through
a computerized bibliographical clearinghouse.

In addition to DEC'S programs, the New York State Environmental Facilities Corporation
(EFQ,  a public benefit corporation, is actively involved in providing on-site technical
assistance. EFC helps small and mid-sized industries comply with regulations and app-
ly waste reduction and waste treatment technologies;

DEC cosponsors an annual hazardous waste reduction conference in Albany, where
participants can learn about techniques for reducing and recycling hazardous wastes.
DEC is publishing a series of success stories to recognize companies that have achieved
significant reduction of hazardous wastes.         .    '    -   •

•  on DEC'S technical assistance programs for industry, contact:
     Bureau of Pollution Prevention
     NYSDEC, 50 Wolf Road
     Albany, NY 12233-7253                          .             /

• Off the annual Hazardous Waste Reduction  Conference, contact the same office.

• Oa.the services available from EFC, contact:
     Industrial Materials Recycling Program
     NYS Environmental Facilities Corporation
     50 Wolf Road
  -  Albany, NY 12205
     (518) 457-4138

Number 15
                                                                              March 1991
 Improved Process:
Hazardous  Waste  Reduction

Ayerst Laboratories, Inc.
(a.k.a. Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories)               .,'•'.''
64 Maple Street
Rouses Point, NY 12979
Contact Environmental & Safety Engineer (518) 297-8714

Ayerst Laboratories has redesigned a manufacturing process to reduce air emissions by
96 percent and a solvent waste by 89 percent.        '

Ayerst Laboratories manufactures  spheroids for its long-acting beta-blocking  drug
INDERAL LA, which is used in the management of hypertension, angina pectoris and
migraine headaches. The manufacturing process produced large quantities of solvent-based
waste from a coating solution. The waste was incinerated at an approved facility.

The manufacturing process was modified using larger equipment with a fluid bed dryer
and * highly efficient air emissions control system, the emissions are condensed in a clos-
ed loop system at -40 degrees Fahrenheit to recover clean solvents which are then reused.
The improved process reduced the solvent-based coating solution waste stream from 17,200
pounds per year to 1,900 pounds per year and reduced the amount of virgin solvent re-
qoired from 160,600 pounds per year to 4,400 pounds per year.

• 89 percent waste reduction.
• 97 percent reduction in the amount of solvent" required.
• Improved process control.                        .               '
                        New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
                    Mario M. Cuomo, Governor ,   Thomas C.  Jorling, Commissioner

                                   Hazardous Waste Reduction Programs
It's the l*w
  For more
The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEQ emphasizes
reduction of hazardous waste generated by commercial and industrial enterprises at the
source on the basis of a four-part waste management hierarchy established in-1987 in
the Preferred Statewide Hazardous Waste Management Practices Hierarchy Law,
(ECL-0105). The Hazardous Waste Reduction and RCRA Conformity Law of 1990 (ECL
27-0908) requires hazardous waste reduction plans from generators of 25 tons or more
of hazardous waste per year and from generators required to obtain a Part 373 permit.
Under the federal Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, facilities required to report releases
to EPA for the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) now must also provide information of
pollution prevention.

To .Help commercial and industrial enterprises in. New York State comply with the
laws for managing hazardous wastes, DEC'S Division of Hazardous Substances Regula-
tion has developed technical assistance programs and a series of publications, available
upon request. Technical personnel are available to visit individual plants and to present
information to trade and professional associations. DEC program staff also provide
telephone assistance for industries, using up-to-date waste reduction information through
a computerized bibliographical clearinghouse.

In addition to DEC'S programs, the New York State Environmental Faculties Corporation
(EFC), a public benefit corporation, is actively involved in providing on-site technical
assistance. EFC helps small and mid-sized industries comply with regulations and app-
ly waste reduction and waste treatment technologies/

DEC  cosponsors an annual hazardous waste reduction conference in .Albany, where
participants can learn about techniques for reducing and recycling hazardous wastes,
DEC is publishing a series,of, success stories to recognize companies that have achieved
significant  reduction of hazardous wastes.

•  on- DEC'S technical assistance programs for industry, contact:
    Bureau of Pollution Prevention              .
    NYSDEC, 50 Wolf Road
    Albany, NY 12233-7253                                            .
.   (518) 457-€072 .

•  On the annual Hazardous Waste Reduction Conference, contact the  same office.

•  On the services available from EFC, contact:
    Industrial Materials Recycling Program
    NYS Environmental Facilities Corporation
...  50 Wolf Road
     Albany, NY 12205
     (518)457^138                      •
                         ; Division ot Hazardous Substances Regulation.

                Office of Technical Assistance
                Executive Office of Environmental Affairs
                Commonwealth of Massachusetts
   Ibxics Use Reductioii Case

                         IMPROVEMENTS AT
                   NOVACOR CHEMICALS INC.

':    SUMMARY •'   •   ••-/''....  •••'  '  '    \" ,  -     V V '/'•'  .    ' •-;  .
     Hie U.S -based polystyrene division ofNbvacoe Cbemicili lot upd^tlĢequlpmĢt of fl>eir monomer
potential liability. This j*ojeĢeliniini4ednte volatile hydrocarbon em^
     oersioragetanks, spelling t50%ģdoctioo in thelkemty>ovĢaUemisĢkĢ.Tliediantealso.redu?sdaie
           "^      •  '      • .  _ •    • ••__••	•*_.*	*t	ģ,__...i..t ti^^Ŗis*Ģ • •'• ••!•Ģ• J ģ.IĢb ^M^Ģ11•                      •              •'             •'**.'"

     Before 1990; the finn stored monomer - a raw material used in the manufacture of certain plastics -in three
 hydnxarbonvapcn-TTieyhadalsobejuģtosbowsiģTJS of declininj structural in      Earthen dikes protected
                  ttMiinationbyfimittlint^                           Ladtint the ability to
                  rit tij Tinlr 'TrfiTT1-! "" •"*" — i~~' i7fĢ~*t~Ģ>->r fl *"" r~*~** "^ vfar nf v"biile
                was more man 50* of the facility's tool hydrocarbon emissions.        .

     Novacor's insurance company had recommended that the firm update tomooomer storage and handling
 system in order to tighten control over fire and groundwater contamination risks. The firm was further motivated
 to update these storage tanks because managers believed that such action was consistent with membership in the.
 Chemical Manufacturers Association's Responsible Care Program. As part of the program's codes, pollution
 preventionisstressedasameaniof unprovmgajeenvinxunentandpubBchealthi Managers state that the success
 of the program has created enthusiasm at corporate headquarters forsimilar projects which employ equipment

Set promised to reduce the firm's potential liability foe groundwater and sod ^oa^i^.f..
     TheiĢv7facUityha$aeooUnijysĢemwhiclicondensesvapocs. These vapcĢarereiuraed to the tank through
a vaix^^SSTSSy. there is a nitrogen gas bl^ which proteos the tank and fills the
bead space of the tank, preventing the monomer from volatilizing.

     RESULTS       .

     Reductions AcUtrĢd: By providing for toe recovery of hydrocarbon vapors in jtoe tank's beaidspace. the
     telimiaatedhydrocarboo emistwos &om Novacor's monomer storage system. Novacor now emits 8.800
       lĢs>year of hydrocarbon vapors, a reduction  of 50%-of the facairy's wol annual hydrocarbon
emissions.  •     _                .     .                                   .

     Econoraks- The new system represents a $995.000 capital investmenL Tliis investment will not lead to
direct ģd quanU^abte reducSnTin operating costs.  However. Novacor's managememjudged  the project
         e in part because of other economic effects that are difficult to quantify,  to particular,  UĢ pro Ģa
          reduĢNovacor-sexposuĢwl^^^                                  Moreover, the projea
          regulatory requiremĢB by taking into account the emissions reduction goals of the Massachusetts
Toxics Use .Reduction Act.               •

                    rorbon emissions are eliminated.  Second, the new tanks offer improved fire and sp.ll
                  wifle still protecting against soil and groun-lwater contamination.  A fabe bottom and
to nieet future air regulations.
                         structural integrity. And finally, these upgrades place Novaconn a better pos,uon
                      :  Offic. of Technical As*i*taĢc., SĢit, 1904,100 Camhridg. SģĢt, Boston,
Massachusetts 02202, (617) 727-3260.            v

Hazardous  Waste  Reduction

By installing a computer monitoring system and replacing a pomp, a manufacturer
has reduced hazardous wastes *y 90 percent and'saved $45,000 a year.

       :    "•-..  '-."QEfifcX  '.-'  •'••'.   '  .   - ' •' -  •''••'    .-.-..  '".•••'•.'''•'•
RIM Division   '•        .                                      ;  „;
Chardon Rubber Company               ,-        ..
6 Apollo Drive      .                        :
Batavia, NY 14020 *
Contact: Randy Cooker Facility Coordinator, (7 l€f 344-1221

The Chardon Rubber Company, RIM Division^ manufactures sliding rear windows for
the automotive industry. The company encases the window units in a poiyurethane molding
that is fabricated from a mixture of polyether polyol and aromatic isocyanate prepolymer.
The molding process requires precise control of the component chemical compounds. In
the past, workers determined the amount of-material needed by manual weighing. Excess
materials were discarded as hazardous waste; .                   ,
Another aspect of the process requires transferring isocyanate from drums to a day tank..
In the past, workers had to flush the drum pump with dioctyl phthalate (DOP) to prevent
pump failure, because contact with air crystalizes the isocyanate.
           •  '~^,*~*     , " •        '           "         "'  >       *             •
By mstalling  an in-line computer  system,  workers  are now able to monitor the
system and obtain precisechemical measurements at ail times. The process eliminates waste
chemkalt.          -.'•'•''"    -.    . •  '  .,•''.•••'•'.'-   .   ,-    .•'•'   .•
By installing a diaphragm pump, the company has prevented isocyanate from contacting
ttaafe and forming crystals. Consequently, DOP is no longer needed as a flushing agent.

Improvements to the molding process and the pumping system have reduced hazardous
 wastes by 90 percent and saved more than $45,000 annually in raw material and waste
 disposal costs. As the division grows, managers plan to incorporate similar improvements
 into future production designs. The company is working actively to reduce waste and im-
"prove processes by eliminating as many hazardous chemicals as possible.
           •     - •. •   •    '     -   -      •'  '    '      • -          *       >
 • reduced .qosts of raw materials and maintenance
 • hazardous wastes reduced 90 percent              .           .     .
 • reduced Waste disposal cost*        .
 •  improved worker safety
 •  quick payback on capital expenses      '•  •'- ' -                 •

     New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
  Mario M, Oinmo. Gnvrrnnr ]    thorns  C.  .Torling.

It's the law
  For more
                    Hazardous Waste Reduction Programs

 The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) is putting.
 new emphasis upon reducing or eliminating hazardous wastes at their source—in
 the commercial or industrial processes where they are generated. In the preferred
 sequence of hazardous waste management techniques, as outlined in state law, source
 reduction ranks first. Wastes that cannot be reduced are to be reused or recycled.
 Any remaining wastes must be detoxified, treated or destroyed. Only treated residual
 wastes can be landfilled; all other land burial of hazardous wastes must be phased
 out by May,  1990.               •

 To help commercial and industrial enterprises in New York State comply with the
 laws for managing hazardous wastes, DECs Division of Hazardous Substances
 Regulation has developed technical assistance programs and a series of publica-
 tions, available upon request Technical experts are available to visit individual plants
 and to present information to trade and professional associations. DEC program
 staff also provide telephone assistance for industries, using up-to-date waste reduc-
 tion information through a computerized bibliographical clearinghouse.

 In addition to DEC'S programs, the New York State Environmental Facilities Cor-
 poration (EFC), a public benefit corporation, is actively involved in providing on-
 site technical assistance. EFC helps small and mid-sized industries comply with
 regulations and apply waste reduction and waste treatment  technologies.

 DEC cosponsors an annual hazardous waste reduction conference in Albany, where
 participants can learn about techniques for reducing and recycling hazardous wastes.
 DEC is publishing a series of success stories to recognize companies that have achiev-
 ed significant reduction of hazardous wastes.

 • on DECs  technical assistance programs for industry, contact:
.   Bureau of Pollution Prevention
   50 Wolf Road
.   Albany, NY 12233-7253

 • OB the annual Hazardous Waste Reduction Conference, contact the same office.

 * oft the services available from EFC, contact:
 •  Industrial  Materials Recycling Program
   NYS Environmental Facilities Corporation
   -50 Wolf Road
   Albany, NY 12205                          '.'-•:
   (518) 457-4138

Number 6
                                                                                     July 199Q
Hazardous  Waste  Reduction

By installing a computer monitoring system and replacing a pump, a manufacturer
has reduced hazardous wastes by 90 percent and saved $45,000 a year.

RIM Division   :           .                                      .
Chardon Rubber Company                        .
6 Apollo Drive
Batavia, NY 14020'
Contact: Randy Cooke, Facility Coordinator, (716) 344-1221

The Chardon Rubber Company, RIM Division, manufactures sliding rear windows for
the automotive industry. The company encases the window units in a polyurethane molding
that is fabricated from a mature of polyether polyol and aromatic Ssocyanate prepol ymer.

The molding process requires precise control of the component chemical compounds, in
the past, workers determined the amount of .material needed by manual weighing. Excess
materials were discarded as hazardous waste.
Another aspect of-the process requires transferring isocyanate from, drums to a day tank.
In the past, workers had to flush the drum pump with dioctyl phthalate (OOP) to prevent
pump failure, because contact with air crystalizes the isocyanate.

By installing  an in-line computer system,  workers  are now able to monitor  the
system and obtain precise chemical measurements at all times. The process eliminates waste
chemicals. ';   .    •.'_•.'   •').>•'.   ''.-.,   v,    : .    , .-;'. -';'. -\  , •    •      .
 By installing a diaphragm pump, the company has prevented isocyanate from contacting
 the air and forming crystals. Consequently. DOP is no longer needed as a flushing agent.

 Improvements to the molding process and the pumping system have reduced hazardous
 wastes by 90 percent and saved more than S45.00Q annually in raw material and waste
 disposal costs. As the division grows, managers plan to incorporate similar improvements
 intrfuture production designs. The company is working actively to reduce waste and im-
"prove processes.by eliminating as many hazardous chemicals as possible.    .

 •  reduced costs of raw materials and maintenance   •
 .•  hazardous wastes reduced 90 percent        -                ;     ,
 f  reduced waste disposal costs        :
 •  improved worker safety            ,  ,        ,
 •  quick payback on capital expenses

     New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
         M, runmn. rPovornnr     THom^  C. Jorlm^.

It's the law..
  For more
                    Hazardous Waste Reduction Programs

The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) is putting
new emphasis upon reducing or eliminating hazardous wastes at their source—in
the commercial or industrial processes where they are generated. In the preferred
sequence of hazardous waste management techniques, as outlined in state law, source
reduction ranks first. Waste* that cannot be reduced are to be reused or recycled.
Any paining wastes must be detoxified, treated or destroyed. Only treated residual
wastes can be landfilledf all other land burial of hazardous wastes must be phased
out by May,  1990.               •

To help commercial and industrial enterprises in New York State comply with the
laws for managing hazardous wastes* DECs Division of Hazardous Substances
Regulation has developed technical assistance programs and a series of publica-
tion^ available upon request Technical experts are available to visit individual plants
and to present information to trade and professional associations. DEC program
staff also provide telephone assistance for industries, using up-to-date waste reduc-
tion information through a computerized bibliographical clearinghouse.

In addition to DECs programs, the New York State Environmental Facilities Cor-
poration (EFQ, a public benefit corporation, is actively involved in providing on-
site technical assistance. EFC helps small and midsized industries comply with
regulations and  apply waste reduction and waste treatment technologies.

DEC cosponsors an annual hazardous waste reduction conference in Albany,, where
participants can learn about techniques for reducing and recycling hazardous wastes.
DEC is publishing a series of success stories to recognize companies that have achiev-
ed significant reduction of hazardous wastes.

 • on DECs  technical assistance programs for industry, contact:
   Bureau of Pollution Prevention
   50 Wolf Road       •       .
.   Albany, NY 12233-7253

 • on the annual Hazardous Waste Reduction Conference, contact the same office.

 • on the services available from EFC, contact:
   Industrial Materials Recycling Program
   NYS Environmental Facilities Corporation
   50 Wolf Road               .                          .         .  ,
   Albany, NY 12205
   (518)457-4138            .                 ,
                 " ' '  :     Division'i of "
                                                  •r '.**?*$ v."^^^^!-.:;..^--^-:
                                                 _Regiilatio n.-.\ • ••.•• ^_:_' ;=•' :^-

                              IMPLEMENTATION > 5-28

1) What are the benefits to Ford of reducing waste?

2) How do total quality management principles relate to pollution prevention?

3) What data management techniques would improve the waste assessment process?
4) The case presisnted only improvements to existing prpcesses. From a TQM standpoint, what

might be done to design processes with the intent to prevent pollution?
                                       • EP3
                                    Training Manual