Pollution Prevention
for the
Printing Industry
A Manual for  /
Pollution Prevention
Technical Assistance Providers
February 1997


 ' •  •'•,.',.,,, ,uankrr-s EPA -Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics and the Northeast
 and Catherine Zeman (Iowa Waste Reduction Center).


Table  of Contents
   Listof Tables and Figures.................. ...... .......... ..... vi
   Keys, to Using This Guide ....... ..... ........... ....... ..... ...... 1
   The  U.S. Domestic Printing Industry.............. ........ ....3
   Overview ............. „.....,....,... ..... ... .......... ........ ...... i..'.. ....... ...... ........ ....... 3
   Companies, Presses and Employees, ............ ................................... 4
   Geographic Distribution .... ...... ...... .......... . ...... .... ......... ......... ........ ••••*>
   Conclusion.............. ...... .•••••• ........ ................ ..... .......:..... ...... ,.-..,.........7
   Annotated Bibliography. .............. .................. ........ .... ........ ...............8
   Emerging  Technologies ..................... ...... ..............11
   Annotated Bibliography......... ..... ...... .......... ..................................... ,12
   Common  Pollution Prevention Practices in Printing 13
   Major Wasfestreams .............. ... ....... ...... ...... ....... .................... ....... ..13
   How to Reduce Waste ........ ....... .. ........ ................................ ......... •• 1 3.
   Pre Press. ............ ...... ..... ........... ........ •, .......... ••-••••• ....... •••••• ..... • ..... -16
   Press ....,.;...........; ..... ...!...... ............... .................... ...... .................. ..... 1 8
    Inks.......... ............................. ...... .•»..•. ....... ....... v— ........ ..........19
    Cleanup.... ..... .... ....... • ....... ...... ..... ..... ..... ............ ...... ......... ............... 22
                        •;'.•'•      •         '      '.    ''-•-.'    02
    Post Press .............. ..... ..... ....... .................... ......... ............ ....... .........**.
    References Used . ..... ............ ...... ,»... ..... • ...... ••••— ......... • ..... ....... '•;•• 22
    Annotated Bibliography ........ ........ ............ ....... — ........ • .................. • 22
    Places to Look for Waste Reduction ................;.... ...... .- ..... ............ 25
    Lithography.. ..... ............ ..... .................:................ 31
    Overview. ..... ... ......... ............. ••••- ..... ..':......»• ..... • .......... •••• ............ —
   ••'.-.,••..    '.'•'•'•.'••'        -     .    •„•"•••    ' •.    :   3V
    Pre Press .......... ........ .... ......... •••••••• ........ ••••••• ...... ...... "•— ........ ":"""
     Photo Processing

Proofs ... ...................................... ..... ••"••• ................... ' .............. ....•••••
                                                   ...-.., ....... 34
Plates [[[ : ............ ;
                                        .        ..... .............. 35
Press [[[
                                                 ................ ..36
Post Press ................................................ -: ............

References Used .................................. ; ............. • ............................

Annotated Bibliography ....................................... ..... ; ........ : .......... "0
                                               '   ................ 40
Case Studies [[[ •••" ......... '

Screen Printing. ............................. ••• .................... "
                                                   ....... ......... 51
 Overview..... [[[
                                               .    ,..; ........... 62
 PrePress [[[
                                                    , ..... ........ 52

 PreSS ......... • ............................................ ".""" ...... """""    ........ ....53
 Post Press ............................................. ; .......... ••••-•-

 References Used... ..... ...... ........ .............. - .................... ..........

 Annotated Bibliography ........................... .............. ............... "" .......  _

 Case Studies .................... ............... - ........ ' ....... im> ........ ..................

 Flexography ... ......... • .............. • ..... •••• ........ ............
                                                ..... ................. 73
  Overview ........... • ........ ...................... ............... ' ............
                                                   ................ 74
  Pre Press ........................... ...... • ........ • ..... •"" .................. '""

  Press .............. ' ................. •'•"• ........... ' ..... ' ...... ........ ..... ZZZ'/76
  Post Press [[[         _,
                    _                             .......... . ........ /o
  Letterpress ................................ • ..................... " ................
                                                   .................. /o
  References Used ........ . ............... • ........... ;••; ......... "" ..........

  Annotated Bibliography ........ . ..... • ............. • .....................................  .

   .   •  • ••-  - -..-    -•••   . ^       -.               .     ....... ..... 89
Post Press ...... ...... :. ...... ,..;.... ........ ,....- ......... •••_-. ....... ...... ....... :- :

                '-•"•••    •                .-.'•.            90'
References Used ..... ...•.....:............",•••-•••• ............... ;••• ............ ...... ;•••

            '                 •                       .          on
Annotated Bibliography.... ................. •••• ................. ............... .........

•••'••'     -   -      ;••,''•..-."•• -':•.••             91
Case Studies . ..... ... ..... ......... ........... ....... ............ ••— ...... ............ .....

Appendix A/Federal Regulations ............ ..... ..." ...... .97

Overview .............. ..... • ......... ........ .....•...;.....•-. ....... ............ ........ ••• ......

Clean Air Act (CAA)..... ..... . ..... - ...... •• ....... — - ........ <" ...... ....... ..........97
 Clean Water Act (CWA)... .............. ..... ..... ...... • ......... • ............. • .....

 Occupational Health and Safety Act.... ..... ........... ..... •— • ......... -100

 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)..... ..... .... ....... •» 101

                                                              1 03
 Superfund (CERCLA and SARA) ..... ............. ......... • ...... • ..... ••..--- IVJ

 Appendix B/Human Resources ....... . . ..... ...-.,» -'» - - - • • 1 °7

 States/Provinces .......... ......... ............;.......—• ......... ..........

 National and Regional Groups ..... ........ ... ....... -.— ..... •••• ........... .-

                                                      ...... ........110
 Printing Associations;.. ............ ..................... .......... .........

 Appendix a/Electronic Resources...,....,:...— -.113

  Printing  Web Sites ........ ....... - ..... ...••-,•••• ..... - ......... '•• ................... ."

                                                      .:. ........ .... 114
  Listservs ..... ........ ........... ...... >•••- ............ ..........-•- .....
                                                      ..... ;......... 114
  Videos...... .............. ........................ ....... .......-- ..... ......             ^

  Appendix D/Giossqry ......... ...............•-••••-— 1 ] 7

  Appendix E/Summary Sheets .......... ..... ........ v»^» 119

                                                      ........ ...V21
   Index ....v ...... ................ ............... ............

List  of  Tables  and  Figures ====

List of Tables                           .    '  '-
Table 1.    Places to Look for Waste Reduction in the Printing Industry        A3

List of Figures                                             •
Figure 1    Economic Profile of U.S. Printing Industry                       ^
Figure 2    Economic Market Share by Process                   -  .      g
Figure 3    Plant Distribution by Press Type                              6
Fiqure4    'Distribution by Number of Employees                   .  .
FiaureS     Plant Distribution in 10 Leading States
Figure 6     Typical Lithographic Printing Process and Prmaple Releases       ^
           to the Environment                                    23
Figure/    Principle of Offset Lithography                            5]
Figure 8    Principle of Screen Printing       .                        73
 Figure 9    Principle of Flexography                                87
 Figure 10   Principle of Gravure Printing

Keys   to   Using  This  Guide
   Look around your office and count the number
   of items that have some type of printing on
them. There are five principal types of printing
processes that produce the images you see. They
are lithography, gravure, flexography, screen
printing, and letterpress. Each printing process
includes three basic steps: preparing'an image
carrier; transferring the image, either directly or
indirectly onto the substrate to be printed; and
finishing. The finishing steps will differ depend-
ing upon the  printing process. For example,
lithographic printed materials may be folded,
trimmed, collated, bound, laminated, die cut, or
 embossed, depending on the function of the final
 product (Pferdehirt, 1993).         .

     The packet you hold in your hands will give
 technical assistance providers, both those experi-
 enced in workmg with printers and those just
 starting,  a basic reference on a variety of pollu-
 tion prevention (P2) and waste minimization
 suggestions. The packet includes a statistical  ,
 overview of the industry, general pollution
  prevention options based on the process  flow of
  typical printing operations, chapters on each
  specific printing type highlighted by case studies
  and a annotated bibliography.
     ' The annotated bibliography of each section
   provides a basic overview of what the compilers
   of this document believed to be some of the more
   informative references pertaining to each pnnt-
   ing type. As there are hundreds, if not thousands,
   of articles, factsheets, and so forth pertaining to
   printing, the annotated bibliography  should,not
   be considered to be all inclusive of the printing
   information currently available.  :

       the four appendices cover federal regula-
    tions (up to Spring 1996), human resources,
    electronic resources,'and a glossary of printing
    terms. •           .            •   •

        In putting together this packet, we have
     made several assumptions. First, that those
     reading this are already familiar with P2 con-
cepts and the steps needed to implement a P2
program. If not, we refer-you to "Pollution
Prevention:  A Guide to Program Implementa-
tion," distributed by the Illinois Waste Manage-
ment and Research Center. Second, that any
technique or technology presented here as a ;
 possible method to reduce waste will be more
. thoroughly  investigated by the technical assis-
 tance provider as to the applicability to the
 facility they are assisting.

      The pollution prevention options section of
 this packet  was extracted from the myriad of
 factsheets,  brochures, booklets and other  publica-
 tions developed for printers by governmental
 agencies-both state and federal. Of note  is the
 fatt that many, many of these materials did not
 present actual data such as, "technology or
 technique A reduced waste ink by 25 percent.
  from X to  X, for a capital cost of $ 10,000. thus
  the company saved $ 100 in disposal costs for the
  year." Therefore, the material presented here.
  outside of the case studies, has not been  verified
  in the production of this packet. The technical
  reviewers  of this packet helped in pointing out
  things that were off base, but technical assistance
  providers  should be judicious in the pollution
  prevention choices they recommend to their
  clients. Knowing how the client runs their
   printing business, how the process flow of :
   materials and machinery to produce the product,
   will help  the assistance person in choosing the
   applicable P2 technique or technology from
   those presented in this packet.
       Each printing section provides information
    on how the basic process works, inputs/outputs
    from each step in the printing process, any
    specific pollution prevention options for that
    type of process and case studies highlighting
    pollution prevention options in use.

        Appendix A is a shortened version of the US
    EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxic s
    publication. Federal Environmental. Regulations
     Potentially Affecting the Commercial Printing

;,.^,.;r-.  = ?A ~--S- '--uM. March 1994. It is
included as a ba>:c cuthne of federal regulator,
issues that pertain co pnnters. As each state
differs in their regulations, and they usually
chanae fairly often, no attempt was made to
present this "material. Both regulatory and non-
regulatory agency contact information are
provided in The human resources appendix
(Appendix B) for further information. Local and
national trade associations can also provide
specifics on regulations affecting their particular
printing industry.

     With literally dozens of private, governmen-
 tal and trade associations focusing on developing
 pollution prevention and regulatory compliance
 materials tor printers. new information -.\ ill be
•accessible. The fastest growing information
 resource is the Internet and World Wide Web.
 The electronic resource list (Appendix C)
 provides the Internet addresses of use to techni-
 cal assistance providers and printers alike (as of
 Summer 1996). Listservs, electronic mailing lists
 centered on specific topics such as printing
 regulations, are also available via e-mail.

     Appendix D contains'a glossary with often _
 used terms in the printing industry. Appendix E
 contains quick reference sheets to the major
 types of printing, their uses, substrates, and inks.
 An index to the document is also provided.
                                   PRINTING TIDBITS

      ,„ 1985, the overage cost of a magazine was $2.10. By 1994, the cost had risen to $3.10, an
      increase of 47.6 percent over nine years.

      Mor? than 200 magazines are now available online.

      There were 1,552 daily newspapers in 1993, down from 1,763 in 1960.

      More than 30 newspapers have created a home page on the World Wide Web.

      Commercial printing occurs at about 34,000 establishments; it employs more than double the
      number employed by the steel industry.
       The U S Postal Service reports that third-class mail, the category used for bulk-mail printed
       material, increased by 400,000 tons in 1994.

       in 1974, there were 20,000-25,000 quick printers in the U.S. By 1994, that number had risen
       to 38,000-42,000.

        In 1995, there were more than 6,000 plants with web offset presses in the U.S.

        Nearly 60 million newspapers were sold every day in 1994. During the same year, 58 percent
        of all newspapers were recycled.

        Sixty-seven new sports magazines came onto the nation's newsstands in 1994.

        ExeefplJ Iron, "Alive and Kicking-Rumo, of ,he dea.h of pope,based pricing a,, greaHy exaggerated,- in Adobe
        Magazine, January/February 1996, pg. 100.

The  U.S.   Domestic  Printing
              Overview      .

      Who is the bigger employer in the United
      States, the printing or the automotive
 industry? If you guessed printing, take a bow—
 an $83+ billion bow.  Yes, believe it or not, in
 the US, printing isn't just big business, it's the
 biggest. Printers employ nearly 1 million people
 across the country, placing the meager 780,000
 in the auto industry a distant second. Sounds
 pretty outrageous until you stop to think about it.
 In a society that's constantly in search of access
 to information and literally obsessed with record-
 keeping, it stands to reason that printing is
 ubiquitous. From new car manuals to tabloid
 newspapers to t-shirts to those little tags on
  mattresses, nearly every product calls on the
  printing industry somewhere along the line. Put
  in that light, the numbers don't seem quite so far-
fetched. So the big question.is, if it's such a big
industry, how come we've never noticed?

   The relative invisibility of the industry is due
primarily to the. nature of the business and the.
way it has evolved. To understand how the
industry works and how to effectively target
printing facilities for pollution prevention
programs, we need to. understand who they are,
what they do, and perhaps most importantly,
where is everybody?               ..

    According to the 6th Annual Reportto
 Congress by the Printing Industry of America
 (PIA), printers are defined as: "Those, firms
 engaged primarily in commercial printing,
 business forms, book printing, prepress services,
 quick printing and blank books and binders."
 This definition does not include firms mainly
 involved in publishing.  Figure I (PIA, 1994)
                    Economic Profile of US Printing Industry
                                  (Billions of Dollars)
            Commercial $52.60
             Quick Printings 10.00
                                                                Bu»in«ii Formi $6.70
                  Preprwi $4.70 .

              Book Printing $4.40
         Blank Boob $3.50
      Book Binding SI .36
        From: 6* Ann.a/ Report to Con*-*ftfaft, mdustry, WnSng Maries of *«*->«. 1994.

        Figure 1.                      •  •      •

.•• j,-- :,•-..,, •--> .-,  i r::^ "?rej.kvio^n of the
indu>;r'1 in:.: ihe^ >e%en major areas.  Before the
««amin* b«m». according to I'SEPA data.
letterpress realh  did account for 11 percent of
the economic market and screen only 3 percent.
However, of all the major printing processes,
screen printers are the most undocumented. So,
in this case, 3 percent is the number that can be
physically established.

    For the purposes of this report, printers are
defined by the Bureau of Census' Standard
Industrial Classification (SIC) 27. A word of
warning about SIC codes might be in order at
this time. Anyone who has attempted to use them
 has no doubt found them to be vague at best and
 just downright obsolete at worst. SIC 27, Print-
 ing, Publishing, and Allied Industries, is unfortu-
 nately no exception. While this definition of the
 printing industry is similar to the PIA's, it
 doesn't necessarily include firms engaged in
 fabric and textile printing (largely a screen
 process), manufacturers of products containing
 incidental printing or circuit board printers. But,
  it could. Broad headings and subjective interpre-
  tation of various industries leaves the SIC codes
  open to a great deal of confusion when it comes
  to  actual statistics. It's often difficult to deter-
  mine what counts under SIC 27 and what
      There is some good news on the hot. ; A.
   Even as this manual is heading towards publica-
   tion, efforts are underway to clarify and to
   expand SIC 27. In particular, screen printing will
   be given two separate listings. So, hopefully, two
   or three years down the road will see a new,
   improved SIC 27 that will make it much easier to
   get a numerical handle on printing in the United
   States. However, for the moment, and for this
   overview, the current SIC 27, confusing as it
   maybe, is it.

       This sort of uncertainty about the codes leads
    to some large statistical ranging, depending on
    the source consulted, and what the authors chose
    to classify under which SIC. But it should be
    kept in mind that these numbers, while not
    necessarily deadly accurate, still serve to illus-
    trate the magnitude and the diverse  nature of the
    industry. Also, it's good to note that, if anything,
the numbers quoted here underestimate re
So. while the 1994 SIC 21 may leave out a
potentially sizable number of printing operations.
it stitl provides plenty to keep everyone busy for
some time to come.

    SIC 27 is made up of firms printing by the
five most common processes (lithography,
screen, flexography, letterpress, and gravure) as
well as newspaper, book and periodical publish-
ers (whether or not they dp their own printing).
The primary focus of this manual is on the five
 processes mentioned above.  They account for
 about 97 percent of the economic output in the '
 domestic printing industry (US EPA, 1994), and
 by necessity, are the first step to anything else in
 SIC 27. (Bookbinders may have their own
 pollutants, but they can't do much until someone
 has printed their books.) Figure 2 shows the
 financial breakdown of the industry by process-

     At the moment, a number of alternative
  printing processes and technologies are in use
  and being further refined and developed. These
  include various electronic, thermographic ion-
  deposition, ink-jet and Mead Cycolor printing
  processes. While these newer methods currently
  account for about 3 percent of the market, their
  share is expected to be nearer 20 percent by 2025
  (US EPA, 1994). Also afoot are numerous
  "paperless" publishing and recording technolo-
   gies. It's not inconceivable, given the increasing
   popularity of the "information superhighway"
   and new computer imaging and transmitting
   equipment, that a net-reduction in printed
   materials could eventually impact the industry.
   However, that appears to be a few years down
   the road, at the very least, and until that comes to
   pass, there is every indication that old-fashioned
   printing will remain a very growing concern.

         Companies,  Presses and
        Various estimates place the number of
    printing establishments in the US somewhere
    between 60,000-70,000. However, these
    estimates are thought to exclude most-to-all of
    the 40,000+ plants with screen presses, placing
    the total nearer to 100,000 facilities.(US EPA,
     1994).  Apparently, screen printers are even

                   Economic Market sHare by Process
From:. US EPA Printing Industry Cluster Profile, 1994, p. 5

Figure 2.                 .   " ;

more difficult to put a finger on than are the
others.  So, with that in mind, be warned that
many of the numbers in this chapter should be
considered suspect in terms of the impact of
screen printers. Figure 3 illustrates plant distri-
bution by press/process-type.  .   . .

   •  Interestingly, while the industry does ac-
 count for a significant share of the nation s total
volume and goods, services and employment, at
the same time, it is the ultimate small business.
Nearly 80 percent of the printers in the US
employ fewer than 20 people. While there are
some printers dealing in national and interna-
tional scope, most serve local or regional mar-
kets  This is an industry largely populated by
small, neighborhood shops, rather than sprawling
multi-acre industrial complexes. You just don t
                          Plant Distribution by Press Type
    From: US EPA Printing Industry Cluster Profile, 1994,[P,15

    Figure 3.                  ,             t

                   Distribution by Number of Employees
     From:  US EPA Printing Industry Cluster Profile, 1994, p. 18.

     Figure 4.
find that many printing plants employing 20,000

    Of the operating plants in the US, about 46
percent have fewer than five employees, 24.5
percent have between five and nine, and 14.1
percent have between ten and nineteen
Roughly 12 percent employ between 2: -id 99,
leaving less than 3 percent of all printers in the
country employing more than 100 people.
 Figure 4 shows the distribution of plants by
 number of employees. This distribution of
 employment size matches fairly closely with the
 type of presses in operation. Gravureand
 flexographic plants tend to be the larger opera-
 tions. Over half of the flexographic and about
 one-quarter of the gravure shops employ more
 than 20. The majority of the shop's utilizing
 letterpress, lithographic and screen presses fall
  in the under-20category (US EPA, 1994).

      The conclusions, with regard to pollution
  prevention efforts, drawn from this section
  should be pretty clear. The majority of the
  shops that need assistance aren't going to be
  multi-national conglomerates with the corre-
  sponding resources. Odds are, the average   .
printer is running a lithographic or screen press.
employing less than 20, and quite probably,
working on a thin profit-margin, without vast
pools of cash available for major capital im-
provements or process reengineering. Knowing
the profile of the individual operation will help
identify the psychological approach that will be
most effective, as well as the technical consider-
      Geographic Distribution

     At this point, we have, a good idea of who
 constitutes the US printing industry and we know
 that there are thousands of printers out there.
 However, we still don't know where they are
 hiding. With the majority being so small, they
 could turn up just about any where.  And, in fact,
 that's almost exactly the case. From Alaska to
 Wyoming, you will not find a shortage of
 printers. In fact/every single state has at least
  one plant employing over 100 and hundreds of
  smaller plants. But, if you want to play Pm-the-
  Tail-on-the-Printer at a party, ten states stand out
  above the rest.

      California, New York, Illinois, Texas.
  Florida, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New Jersey,

           Plant Distribution in 10 Leading States
                          New York

                                New Jersey
    From: US EPA Printing Industry Cluster Profile, 1994, p. 10.
    Figure 5.            5

    Michigan, and Massachusetts by themselves
    account for more than 60 percent of the entire
    'industry. The top three alone are home to over I/ ;
     3 of all the plants.  Figure 5 shows the ten states
     by their percentage of the total.               .


         The US domestic printing industry is an
      entity unlike almost any other. It's the largest
      employer-one of the largest in terms of economic
      output-and, if you were to judge by the response
      of the average person on the street, the printing
      industry maintains a profile so low that it just
      about disappears  from sight.  Instead of a ram-
      paging giant of economic clout, it's a diverse,
      dispersed swarm of small businesses. The
      average printing  facility is small «20 employ-
      ees), probably runs a lithographic or screen
      press, and has a better than average chance ot
      finding itself in one of ten particular states.  But,
       it could also be 120 people running gravure
       presses in Nome, Alaska. Probably more so than
       any other industry of comparable size today,
 printing is a quickly shifting, unpredictable

    The US printing industry is nothing else, if
 not proof of strength in numbers.  They don't
 take up lots of real estate. They aren't generally
 the major employers in a given area. Individu-
 ally, they are usually not a major environmental
 concern.  But, when you examine the industry as
 a whole, you face an entirely different animal.
 . Comprised of thousands of small, independent
 units, the printing industry employs nearly 1
- million in some 60,000-100,000 plants and
  accounts for somewhere in the neighborhood ot
   100 billion dollars in business every single year,
   while at the same time, contributing to toxic air
   emissions and solid and chemical waste prob-
   lems on an ever-growing scale. It's too big to be
   ignored on all fronts, economic, social and

      Looking at each plant individually, it might
   not seem like the average printer is responsible
   for all that much pollution.  However, whether

-al a^uT*..*n .* grounded or not. 100.000
individual ',our:e> or VOC emissions, petroleum
,nk wastes, and various types of waste chemicals
can add up to a very considerable problem m a
\ery short time.

    Unfortunately, the diversity and wide-spread
dispersion of the printing industry  contributes to
its economic survival and viability, and creates a
number of sticky logistical problems in bringing
wholesale pollution prevention  and waste
 management to the entire industry. With some
 100.000 shops operating in nearly every comer ^
 of the country, there is, at present, no "short-cut
 access to the industry as a whole.  Simply
 reaching these plants presents an enormous
 challenge, to say nothing of the other factory
 such as size, financial situation and location that
 will also have considerable influence on any
 pollution prevention strategies that might be

      Facing that and knowing that the printing
  industry is projected to grow by 3.8-5.3 percent
  annually during this decade (US EPA, 1994), the
  environmental problems created by the printing
   industry aren't going to disappear on their own
   and without action, will simply become that
   much more unmanageable each year.
       Regulatory and legislative actions rr;  -;ome
   about, but the size and distribution of tfe ,:uus-
   try again will insulate it from much of this. It s
   simply not possible to effectively regulate and
   monitor this many institutions. Printers are
   going to have to decide on their own that pollu-
   tion prevention and waste management can be an
   environmentally and economically productive-
    innovation. Like any other industry, the most
    effective policing method isn't a regulatory
    agency, but the bottom line. Nothing motivates
    like the prospect of increased profits. Skilled
    technical assistance with a feel for the require-
    ments and conditions of the printing industry is
    one of the most promising routes to this re-
    education process.

         This is still no quick fix.  There is no such
     thing, at least not to be found under SIC 27.
     Faced with such overwhelming numbers, even
     directed technical assistance efforts targeting the
industry v. ill initially be a shotgun approach
But. with personnel armed uith a little back"
around about the printing industry and some
practical knowledge pf the various major pro-
cesses, odds are good that some successes will be
achieved.  This should lead to a snowball effect.
The successful shops that implement new and
more efficient techniques will lead others in the
right direction.

    It's not possible to overstate the value of
 understanding the printing industry as a whole-
 what are each individual printers' charactenstics.
 how do they do business and what are their
 limitations. Going into a technical assistance
 visit with only an understanding of how the press
 works, you can make suggestions that will be
 quite effective in theory, but only by understand-
 ing how the printer works, can you make sugges-
 tions that are going to be practiced.

       Annotated Bibliography

      PIA, "6th Annual Report to the Congress of
  the United States: Printing Industry."  1994.
  Printing Industries of America, Inc.
      The PIA report to Congress provides  a very
  brief overview of the US printing industry,
  including statistics on wages, composition, and
  employment. It also offers a cursory discussion
  of future trends in the industry and a short
   glossary of new technological terms.
       US EPA "Printing Industry and Use Cluster
   Profile " 1994. Regulatory Impacts Branch,
   Economics, Exposure and Technology Division,
   Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, UJ>
   EPA, Washington, DC.
       The US EPA cluster profile offers a little bit
    of everything, although its main purpose is a
    thorough statistical examination of the Ub
    printing industry. From explanations of the major
    technologies and new technologies and a look at
    upcoming industry trends to lists-of chemicals  -
    used  this book is a good introduction to the
    technical side of printing. In termsof staustics
    from values of exports, to payroll by state, to the
    number of actual presses of any giveri type this
     book is hard to beat. Unfortunately, the value_ of
     these numbers is tempered by their age Much^f
     the data presented is from the mid-to-late 1980s
     and is possibly dated by this time..

.Employed over 1.5 million people  •;

-85% of plants employ <20 people
Largest group of small, businesses in.
  manufacturing sector   :'
               .' Accounted for shipments of over $ 136 billion.:
               V Annual-payroll estimatedjn excess,of $3'3 billion

                ,- Lithography; letterpress, gravure,- screen,; -
                :'  and.flekographic'account: for 97% .of market •
. Between 70-1 OQ;000 printing operations in .US
. Nearly 60% locatedin just ]0/states .  :  : /'
                                 *d growth" at 4-5°/o/year in 1990

                           Alternative technologies and processe
                           expecfed to grow from 3% to _2Q%. ov

                           next2Q'yedrs  ,--'•'   / •   ••/.,•
                                ''     •   ' .  ;". •   ' •  Bource:USEPA


Emerging  Technologies
    Computers and other.quickly changing   .  ;
    technologies are having a huge Impact on
the printing industry both at the prepress and
actual printing stages. The computer-to-plate
(CTP) advances currently are being adopted
primarily by lithographic printers.

    Prepress operations will continue to change
with the development of computer-based front-
end platforms that allow creation of entire
documents as digital data. Before the advent of
desktop publishing, customers would provide
printers with a "camera-ready" document that
consisted of the actual text and line-art pasted to
 a special kind of paper ("paste-ups '). With the
 availability of computer desktop publishing
 programs such as PageMaker and Quark Express,
 this mechanical layout is now done electronically
 and all the customer hands a printer is a com-
 puter diskette. Photographs, graphic art, and line
 art can either be scanned into the document by
 the customer or printer.

      With the ability to electronically image
  plates, some potenially large waste generating
  steps will be eliminated since photoprocessmg
  will be greatly reduced if not eliminated com-
  pletely.                      ,-•.'..-

      Press operations continue to change with •
  additional automated features being added to
  presses. Waterless lithography also continues to
  be an option for printers adding new press
  operations. Material substitution for VOC
  containing fountain solutions, press cleaners, and
   inks provides the printer with available options
   to increase the facility environmental "friendli-
   ness." Screen printing facilities are adopting and
   using electrostatic arid ink jet technologies. The .
   SGIA is undertaking a study to determine the  :
   environmental impacts from the use of these two
   technologies. It is uncertain, without these
    studies, to see if these technologies reduce the
    environmental burden of the process,  :
              Benefits of CTP      .        '. |

   improved, print quality, as a result of using first-
   generation digital data to "expose" the plate

   'a reduction in prepress costs, by eliminating film
   from the production1 process

   faster publisher closing schedules, allowing
   advertisers and the editorial staff more time  to
   prepare reproduction  materials

   environmental concerns, to some extent, because
   of the elimination of film and chemicals from the
   process (Sasso, 1994)

   competitive advantages with opportunities-to
   attract new customers

    business survival (Cross, 1996a)

            ,  Drawbacks of CTP

  .  cost of purchasing new and expensive equipment

  >   gaining cooperation from the advertising commu-
     nity and vendors to supply materials, in digital
     form to a common set of guidelines and

     changing the mindset of workers
   Postpress trends include further automation
of all finishing operations as well as the addition
of in-line finishing iff lithographic facilities.
Water-based adhesives have been developed to
substitute for some of the currently used solvent-
based products.

Annotated Bibliography

    Cro«,Li5,a, !996a, "Computer-to-Plate:
Long Wan. Hot Issue." Graphic Arts Monthly,
February 1996. pp 36-42.
    A good article describing the current state ot
CTP technolqgies and processes. Early adopters
of this technology provide their experiences with
CTP  A table provides a complete listing of
manufacturers of CTP products and descriptions
of their systems.

    Cross, Lisa. 1996b. "Early Adopters Report
 Experiences with CTP." Graphic Arts Monthly,
 May 1996. pp. 65-75.
     An informative article with example finan-
 cial project models used by Dupont Printing and
 Publishing to calculate return on investment
 performance for CTP. Also anectodal account
 by printers currently using CTP.

     Cross, Lisa. 1996c. "Dry-Processible Films
  Recover from Setback," Graphic Arts Monthly,
  June 1996, pp. 46-48.
      This article highlights the current product
   statistics in the dry-processible film marketplace.
   It gives first hand accounts of companies who
   have been using this process and the results they
   have achieved.

       Gibbs, Ron. 1995. "Printing Benefits from
   New Technologies," Laser Focus World, Nov..
   1995. pp 77-82.
       A fairly technical article about laser tectt-
   nologies and systems used in the printing indus-
   try.                             t

       Jendrucko. R.J.. Coleman, T.N., and T.M.
    Thomas. 1994. Waste Reduction Manual for
    Lithographic and Screen Printers, University
    of Tennessee.
        A good introduction to lithography and
    screen printing with explanations of the primary
    methods of pollution prevention for these two
    types of printing facilities.

        Sasso, Richard. 1994. "Computer to Plate:
     Why Wait?" Publishing and Production Execu-
     tive. December 1994.
         This article chronicles the conversion ot the
     magazine Scientific American to computer-to-
plate technology. All the problems.c
are presented as well as anticipated benefits to
using this new technology.

    Shuster, Robert. "The Future Meets the
Press," Adobe Magazine, January/February
1996, 42-47.
    An informative overview article on what
digital presses are and how they're changing the
way things are printed. Provides examples of
three different types of digital presses, how they
differ from one another, and how they are
 currently used in the printing industry.

     Toth, Debora. "CTP Vendors Ask:  Which
 Plate Choice?" Graphic Arts Monthly, February
 1996, pp. 61-66.
     This article describes the current state of
 CTP plate materials available to printers and
 providing information on the current trends in
 this technology.

     Wilken, Earl. "Computer-to-Plate: Framing
  the Issues," Graphic Arts Monthly, February
  1994.             '                  .
      A discussion of the issues that commercial
  printers who are considering exploring or adding
  computer-to-plate capabilities to their operations
  must consider.

Common   Pollution   Prevention
Practices   in   Printing
 "Phe composition of wastes from each, printing
  I  type varies, but overall, source reduction of
 these wastes will benefit printers by reducing
 raw material needs and disposal costs, and by
 lowering the long term liabilities associated with
 waste disposal. The pressures from government
 and local citizens to reduce wastes and the
x emission of pollutants has led to changes in the
 operation of many printing facilities. Tradition-
 ally, pollution control focused on end of pipe
 controls. Changing this focus to process im-
 provement will help/to prevent pollution and
 promote profits.                ;
         Major Wastestreams

     The three major types of. wastes in the
 .printing industry include:  •

     1. Solid Wastes - In a general printing
  environment solid waste could consist of the
  following: empty containers, used film pack-
  ages, outdated materials, damaged plates,
  developed film, dated materials, test production,
  bad printing or spoilage; damaged products, and
  scrap paper.                   .
  • '        '    '           .     !
      2  Waste water - Wastewaters from printing
   operations-may contain lubricating oils, waste
   ink, cleanup solvents, photographic chemicals,
   acids, alkalis, and plate coatings, as well as
   metals such as silver, iron, chromium, copper
    and barium.                  ,    ,
       3. Air Emissions - Printing operations
    produce volatile organic compound (VOC)
    emissions from the use of cleaning solvents and
    inks as well as alcohols and other, wetting-agents
    (used in lithographic printing). Larger plants can
    be the source of NO, and SO2 emissions.

        Hazardous wastes, defined and regulated by
    federal, state, or local governments, can be a
    subset of any of the three major wastestreams.
    This section will provide a general overview
 of pollution prevention options applicable to any
 type of printing facility.

       How to Reduce Waste
.   Start at the Beginning-Graphic Design
        " j                  -      "
    Waste can be reduced most efficiently from
 the inception of the printing project through
 graphic design" choices, Preparing layouts that
 use the most efficient image size to the press
 sheet size reduces paper waste at the later stages
 of cutting and binding. Designers should also be
 made aware of inks containing heavy metal or
 other hazardous pigments and provided with.
  information on non-toxic alternatives. Other
  graphic design options to consider include
  decreasing  the amount of ink coverage of the
  layout and using non-coated, non-bleaehed
  paper, and  recycled papers.
                Job 'Planning

      Thorough planning of the overall job load
   will reduce wastes. Planning allows for schedul-
 9  ing of the daily runs to .reduce color changes and
   to run inks from lighter to darker. Both tech-
   niques reduce heavy cleaning steps. Planning
   also allows the press operator to prepare only the
   amount of ink needed for the day' s jobs.  Using a
   computer  controlled mixing program equipped
   with a digital scale for weighing inks can help
   reduce waste. These programs allow the printer
   to custom mix any ink color from colors  already
   on hand thus decreasing the purchase of new
   colors and increasing the use of existing  inven-
    tory A digital scale makes the entire process^
    more accurate and decreases the amount of ink
    wasted as a result of "guesstimation" errors.
    Increased attention to the amount of ink iruxed
    for specific jobs improves material use effi-
    ciency.                       '   . -'•

    g-s.  ,. ,n>. -..-cr/ rr!ic'.toe>  BMPs) are the
— •, f • ^r Jf£*>">• i Ail t«-> decreal-Ctt.^.« •»•   •». •-
of waste  generated.  BMPs require building
emplo>ee commitment and interest in pollution
prevention, as well as managerial support, to
encourage participation in pollution prevention
prozrams.  This includes  careful control of raw
materials, practical scheduling, and job manage-
ment. For example,  a good housekeeping and
maintenace program helps to ensure that all
machinery and processes are working well with
no leaking valves, tanks, etc. Wise planning of a
print job through the entire process accomplishes
The task with a low margin of error, consequently
 decreasing waste generation.

     With any substrate,  consistency is key.
  Inconsistent quality of substrates is a major
  factor in problematic quality of finished product.
  Once a process is set with the correct inks, paper
  and machine conditions, changes in the substrate
  affect all parts of the process.  Many ancillary
  resources are wasted due to inferior and inconsis-
  tent substrates.  All printing companies need to
  be vigilant  in the identification of quality and
  consistency of incoming raw materials.
                                             adopt a polic> of not accepting any material  •
                                             Samples without authorization.

                                                 A prime location for waste reduction is in the
                                             receiving area. The acceptance of unusable or
                                             damaged materials results in unnecessary wastes.
                                             All materials should be inspected and the unac-
                                             ceptable goods returned to the manufacturer or
                                             supplier. The savings here are twofold, the
                                             expense of the damaged goods and their subse-
                                             quent disposal. Use a firstrin, first-out (FIFO)
                                             inventory system, check expiration .dates and
                                             heed storage specifications particularly for
                                             photosensitive film and paper.

                                                 Proper storage of chemicals should, at a
                                              minimum, meet the label specifications.  By
                                              meeting the required conditions, the shelf life of
                                              a chemical can be guaranteed and the likelihood
                                              of spoilage decreased. With paper, proper
                                              storage will avoid damage from temperature,
                                              humidity, and spills as well as physical damage.
                                              It may also be necessary to restrict access to the
                                              storage area. By reducing traffic flow, damage
                                              from dust, dirt, and spills is avoided.  All storage
                                              areas should be clearly labeled as to content.
   Vendor certification programs on all raw
material sources should be strongly evaluated as
a tool to help reduce waste. Each supplier needs
to know how their products are used in the    ,
printing process and the expectations of   r
printer so they can recommend process improve-
ments. Developing partnerships with vendors can
allow the printer to have access to the technical
assistance and experience of each supplier.

      Material Handling and Storage

     As with best management practices, wise
  material handling and storage can contribute to
  less waste generation. These procedures can
  virtually eliminate wastes from spoilage and
  improper storage.

      By limiting purchasing authority to a speci-
  fied individual, a company may be able to avoid
  duplicate purchasing. In addition, a printer could
  have an environmental manager provide an
  approved list of materials to the purchasing
  agent. To avoid unwanted materials that will
  eventually have to be disposed, the printer can
                                                     Once solvent-based cleaners have been
                                                  opened, they should be stored safely. Attention
                                                  must be paid to flammability and flash point. As
                                                  a guideline, consult OSHA regulations on
                                                  flammable storage (29CFR1910.106). Clearly-
                                                  written guidelines should be made available for
                                                  workers on correst usage and storage. Safety
                                                  precautions such as grounding containers and
                                                  bonding wires should be considered. These
                                                  guidelines should be included in all training
                                                  programs and posted near equipment. All
                                                   volatile solvents should be stored in closed,  air-
                                                   tight containers.  If a drum is being used for
                                                   waste solvent, it is important to cover any
                                                   funnels or openings. Open waste solvent con-
                                                   tainers that contain hazardous materials can^
                                                    result in a violation  of the open container rules
                                                    under federal hazardous waste W**™*"
                                                    well as increased VOC emissions (Price 1994,
                                                  -  Cross 1989).
                                                    Waste Segregation, Recycling, and  Reuse

                                                        Recycling plays an important role in any
                                                    printer's waste management program. Materials

, --^-r -j ,n :ns. .::era!.ureas-being recvcleii by  .
 -nrueri.include raper. so-Nents. ink containers,
 rehsabie plite or cylinder boxes, pallets, and.
 sometimes ink. Using retumable/refillable items
 or lar*e totes, when available, can also cut down
 on packaging waste. Vendors or suppliers can.be
 requested" to provide retumable/refillable con-.
 tamers as part of their contract with the printer.

     Cloth cleaning rags/wipes (also called shop
 towels) covered in ink and solvent can be reused
 by seriding them to an industrial laundry service.
 It is advisable to remove the majority of liquids
 by a gravity drain, a wringer, or a centrifugal
  extractor prior to shipping.  Many states "°w
  require this step. Use caution in domg this, as the
  solvents used may be ignitable or flammable.
  The extractor must be explosion proof, This
  recovered solvent can be used,initially for parts
  washing, recaptured, then distilled for reuse or
  sent out for fuel blending.  The wipes should be
  stored in an air-tight, self-closing, flame resistant
  container marked for recycling.  ,
       Contaminated wipes may be regulated as
   hazardous waste and can be a source of regula-
   tory problems. Also, significant VOC emissions
   and personnel exposure are associated with press
   cleaning operations. If the shop towels are    -
   laundered, make certain that the towels are  being
   handled properly. Dry cleaning may also be an
   option for used shop towels. An annual visit to
    the laundry facility should be part of the waste
    management program in order to review the
    handling procedure for your wipes. The printer
    may need guidance from a technical assistance
    person on what to ask and how to interpret the
    answers.' Check with the local POTW (publicly
    owned treatment works) that services the laundry
     to determine if the laundry is complying with
     sewerage discharge limits. A written description.
     of how the printer's towels are handled shouldbe
     requested from the laundry and kept on file. Note
     that the regulations about shop towels have been
     changing in recent years. Check with the proper
     regulatory authorities for the latest statutes.

          Solvent recycling can also be done in plants
      of all sizes.  The most common method is to
      install clearly marked drums on the plant floor.
      Always make sure that the solvent is actually
 spent before it 'is exchanged tor r,e'-\ -o;~ cr,;  Do   .,
 not commit to a scheduled sohent replacement.
 program unless.it is proven through m-plant
' trials that solvent is completely spent after a
 specifically measured amount of time.      .

     The solvents collected from the cleaning
 operations and recovered from the rags can be
 recycled on-site or sent to a professional recy-
 'cler.  Many large firms keep solvent storage,
 baths for each process  ink color, thereby allow-
  ing multiple reuse prior to recycling. In the
  cases where on-site recycling is done, companies
 : generally use distillation. Distillation is the
  boiling off of waste solvent to leave behind a
  sludge of ink, paper dust, and lint. The vapor-
  ized solvent condenses within the still and
  collected for reuse.  It should be noted that all
  equipment in this process must be explosion
  proof. A variety of different  sized stills are now
  on the market making this technology applicable
  to the majority of printers. Some states may
  require a permit, so check with the appropriate
   regulatory agency.  Each printer will have to
   crunch numbers to determine if a particular still
   system is an economically sound option for
               Alternative Materials   '
       Looking for alternative materials that
    generate less waste and/or are less toxic in terms -.
    of human health, can provide a printer with
    economic as well as environmental benefits.
    Searching for alternative materials, however, can
    be a long-term and often frustrating process
    requiring continued initiative on the part of the^
    printer. Trials may be .required of new chemicals
    or processes and additional personnel training
    may be necessary. Working closely, with vendors
    and pollution prevention technical assistance  ^
    providers,  within the constraints identified by the
     printing client, can lead to useable alternative
     materials or processes.
         New solvent alternatives for cleaning are
      continually entering the marketplace. These
      materials  are made of glycol ethers and o*er
      heavier hydrocarbons. The hazard raung of these
      solvents are low due to their high flashpoints
      (usually above 140 °F) and low toxicity.  The

,.f,irru:'.-. - - ' Ain^ y-^n be used for cleaning all
iquipnient jcnuminated with ink. while deter-
2ent*and water can be used for non-ink cleaning.
Problems associated with the new low hazard
solvents include longer drying times, more
difficulty in cleaning, residual film on earners,
and an extremely strong odor.  Alternative
solvents may have a low VOC content but that
does not always guarantee they will have-an
overall lower human toxicity or REL. Always
check the MSDS for this information. However,
the most recent releases in alternatives have
overcome these problems but workers are slow
 to accept the products due to the past perfor-
 mance of their predecessors and the uncertainty
 of changing an accepted practice.

     For a successful substitution, unlike with
 solvent based cleaners, it is important to select
 cleaners specific to the purpose, the cleanliness
 goal  or in some cases the type of printing done
 or equipment owned. The technical assistance
  provider will have to work closely with the
  printing facility, especially the.press operators.
  to find the right alternatives for their situation.
  While environmentally sound, the use of
  alternative solvents is the most difficult pollu-
  tion prevention technique to implement from a
   worker standpoint.

       Chemical process vendors should
   contacted when attempting to alter pre^iess
   chemistries. Some alterations in pre-press
   chemistries that are "home-grown" will result in
   invalidation of any pre-existing service or
   guarantee should the in-house chemistry change
   not work. Often the vendor can suggest ways to
   help extend the life of their products and will
    work with the shop as they "experiment' with
    the best approaches.

        Processes that employ photography in the
     reproduction of artwork and/or copy can employ
     a-number of techniques to reduce waste genera-
     tion Materials used in photo reproduction
     include paper, plastic film, or an emulsion
     which is covered with a light sensitive coating.
     Emulsions are usually composed of silver hahde
salts including silver chl'onde. silver bromide,
and silver iodide.

    After an emulsion (film) has been exposed to
light it must be developed. Developing solutions
usually contain benzene derivatives, along with
accelerating agents (to increase the speed of the
developing process), a preservative to control
oxidation damage to the developer, and a re-
strainer which prevents the image from fogging.

     The developing action must be stopped in a
 fixing bath to prevent over exposure. Small
 amounts of silver enter the bath from the emul-
 sion each time a photographic film is immersed
 in a fixing bath. To prevent insoluble compounds
 from forming, fixer must be diluted before the
 silver concentration reaches the maximum
 among the fixer can work on. After exceeding
 this level, these compounds cannot be removed
 from the emulsion, leaving an often unusable

     Once the image has been properly fixed to
  the emulsion, it must be washed to prevent
  residual chemicals from reacting and damaging
  the image. In some photoprocessing emulsions.
  the image contrast must be reduced or increased
  by additional chemical steps, in order to touch-up
  the image. Reducers oxidize some of the silver,
   while  intensifiers add silver or mercury to the
   developed grains of silver in the emulsion.
       A variety of techniques can be used to reduce
   photoprocessing waste generation. For example,
   in hand-processing, squeegees can be used to
   wipe off excess liquid to prevent chemical carry-
   over from one process bath to the next; in color
   processing, iron-EDTA can be substituted for
   ferScyanlde bleaches as iron-EDTA is less toxic
    and eliminates costs associated with the treat-
    ment or disposal of toxic bleaches. The
    photoprocessing department can also reuse
    rinsewater as long as possible, use fog nozzles
    and sprays, use still rinsing, use nnse bath
    agitators, use automatic flow controls, and
    remove sludge frequently.

        Typical wastes generated from the.
     photoprocessing  stage include: developed films,
     acids alkalis, solvents, spent fixer, silver, waste

- .~e-   _:---"-- .n-'.srut. contaminated ;nnse
•A uer.-pent Je'-i'oper. and  cartridges cannot be reused..
and the effluent contains high iron concentra-
tions. The advantages to this.method are relative
low cost arid availability, and that no special
energy or plumbing connections are needed. • -  ,
Metallic replacement is usually used in conjunc-
tion with electrolytic .recovery as a polishing

    * Silver removal by ion exchange is accom-
 plished by passing the wastewater through a
 mixture of anionic exchange resins, or by using a
 strong base gel anion resin to selectively remove
 the silver. Automated ion exchange units are
 usually only practical for larger processing
 facilities due to their high cost. It is also essential
 that the correct resin be chosen for efficient
 operations.  The printer, technical assistance
 provider, and vendor will need to work together
 to determine the best resin  to be used.

      Reverse osmosis uses high pressure to force
  liquid solutions through a semipermeable mem-
  brane, separating, larger^molecular substances
  from smaller molecular substances.  Up to 90
  percent of the silver thiosulfate complexes can be
  removed from wastewaters using this method.
  Also, reverse osmosis is effective in removing
  most other chemicals in solution, including color
  couplers and ferrocyanide, rendering the water
   suitable for reuse  in final rinses. The disadvan-
   tage of this method is the  high capital investment
       Electrolytic silver recovery applies con-
    trolled current in an anode-cathode array to
    remove silver from the wastewater solution.
    Silver is removed in nearly pure form, but capital
    costs and lower treatment efficiency (effluents
    have 100-200 ppm silver) must be considered.
    Electrolytic and metallic replacement systems
    are sometimes  used in series to;reduce the silver
    concentration in the effluent.  ;

         Metallic replacement involves using iron
     steel wool to react with silver thiosulfate in the
     wastewaters, whereby the iron replaces the stiver
     in solution and the silver settles out as a solid.
     The silver is recovered,as a sludge of silver salt
     compounds, which is more difficult to recover
       Silver recovery technologies can result in a
    net positive economic return because of the
    metals recovered and the reduced waste disposal
    costs Large firms will sometimes make a capital
    investment to.purchase an automated recirculat-
    ing system which includes silver recovery., waste
    recovery, and chemical replenishment. These
    will remove large percentages of silver as they
    will be able to treat the low concentration nnse
    waters as well as the higher concentration
    process waters.,
         Alternative Prepress Technologies

         Electronic imaging and laser platemaking
     allow text and photos to be edited on a video
     terminal and color separations to be prepared

    ..,n.       T--^,,.-,-«a-5fheneedto
ph,Mc^oh"dJ.t. re->h.ot''and photoprocess
£«i' umes - Pnce 1994,. Ves.cular films that

S^ wh f agnates the need to send the
waste film to a metal reclaimer. Electrostatic
films a^l also siK,r-free and have resolution and
[«eds comparable to silver films. However,
 hesesSree films are not being widely used,


          Mechanical  Modifications
                                    •  .
     Improvements and/or modifications to
 existing printing equipment may be a suitable
 choice in a pollution prevention and waste
 reduction program. Changes to press equipment
 such as automatic registration systems, ink
 viscosity measuring systems, revised ink pans,
 revised ink pumping systems, new doctor blade
 technology in gravure and flexo printing and
  vapor recovery systems can go a long way in
  improving the manufacturing processes.

      Ink viscosity measuring systems cannot only
  control the viscosity of the inks to ensur: reality
  printing but can prevent excessive use of solvent
  thereby reducing the potential pollution. Chang-
  ing the design of ink pans to  a shallower depth
  on a lithographic press can reduce the amount ot
   ink needed in each printing station and reduce
   waste ink as a pollutant.

       Web break detectors can reduce waste 'by
    informing the operator of breaks without creas-
    ing or smearing the web. These non-contact
    electric systems detect web breaks and inform
    operators to stop production or automatically
    shut down the presses without damage to the
    equipment. Installing an ink agitator or an ink
    leveller on the ink tray or sump to prevent -
    premature oxidation can reduce ink waste and
    spoilage. UV light can reduce algae, water borne
    fungi and bacterial growth  in fountain solutions,
    further reducing waste solutions.
   Automatic registration 5\ stems -ire ^aiiabl*.
m several different types and styles. Reg,,:rauon
is the precise fitting together ot two or more

registration and high press speeds ^*g *
less waste and improved process output  With
the ability to bring jobs into register quicker and
keep them in quality register longer, less inks
solvent and substrate ^consumed or wasted. ,

 down press speed.

    Installing automatic lubrication systems on
 the critical rollers, bearings and gears will reduce
 waste and conserve resources.  Self contained
 lubrication systems which are properly main-
 ^.^ can prevent contamination of the lubricant
 ^ gxtend Us useM ufe

     other methods to reduce waste involve
 careful attention to operating parameters and
 instrumentati0n: installing automated plate
 benderSt optical scanners to lock onto registra.-
 ^ ^^ automatic key settings, and ink/water
  rati0 sensors. Another technique for sheetfed
  printing is to use both sides of the make-ready
        slipping in clean sheets periodically in
       tQ check  registration and print quality .
      Qujcker make-readies and changeovers can
   reduce the amount Of raw materials that are
   consumed in getting to the press ready stage.
   Efficient ^d effective scheduling plays a major
   role in how prmung companies can reduce waste
   and practice sound pollution prevention. Con-
        ^j^i fog changes will adversely affect the
       Qf programs.
                 printing technology is "corn-
   puter.to-press," currently available for litho-
         c sheetfed print 7^5 technology
   eliminates au wastes associated with prepress
   photoprocessing wastes. This and other equip-
         .g available from iocai equipment vendors
        in     .   numbers of manufacturers are

   •  - .,..,_. _;;jr.:r.g--.-per'Ations. equipment can
 he .-.".-.viujed-'.v.hich-^ill'reduce wipe and
•solvent usage. The least technical of ihese is the
 employment of squeegees to''remove excess ;   .
 liquids from.equipment. This in turn will reduce
 the quantity of wipes required.  Automated
: cleanm'e.systems can.further.reduce.:residual  .    .
 liquids and in turn' reduce cleaner consumption.
 Some examples of these systems are" an auto-   .
 mated blanket cleaner, roller wash-up blades, and
 ink blades. The choice of equipment is depen-  ,
 dant upon the type of printing operation. Any
 new equipment will require training of plant
  personnel as well as their cooperation in chang-
  ing their working .methods.

      Alcohol-and petroleum-based ink systems
  use various  solvents that are major contributors
  to pollution. However, these alcohol and oil-
  based systems allow for faster press speeds then
   some of the alternatives currently available,
   longer cylinder wear and (occasionally) better
   ink transfer to various substrates.  Effective
   solvent recovery systems are needed to develop,
   implement and maintain sound pollution preven-,
   tion programs when using alcohol and oil-based
   systems. Solvent recovery systems can  be
   internal or external.  On-site batch distillation
   systems can be used \vhen justified by volume.
   Off-site professional solvent recyclers can be an
    alternative to reclaim solvents.   ,
                   Recycling Inks
pus. it may/require disposal by a iicen-eu hiz-irUr
ous' waste management companv.  Individual     ;
'states and their industrial waste requirements    .
differ as to whether these petroleum-based    ,  .  ,
materials require special handling.  •

     Some waste ink can be recycled through an
 ink recycling service or in-shop.  Blending
 colors usually requires some additives such as
 toner to fine tune the color quality. Recycling
 allows blending several colors together into,
 darker colors for reuse. Equipment is currently
 on the market with a wide range of capabilities to
 filter and distill waste inks. The recycled ink
 compares favorably to new ink in tests for grind,
 residue, viscosity, tack, water content, and water
 pickup. On site recycling has been found to
 produce satisfactory final products. For large
  quantity generators there are recyclers who bring
  mobile recycling units on site to recycle ink.
  mixed or color separated.  By recycling on site,
  the legal liabilities and regulatory paperwork
  associated with off-site recycling and disposal
  can be avoided. Colors can be produced very
  similar to new inks. Press operators can-adjust   .
  the ink/water balance and produce results
  comparable to new inks without experiencing
  trapping problems. Trapping is the ability to
   print a wet ink film over previously printed ink.
   Ink recovery machines currently on the market in
   a wide range  of capacities make on-site reclaim-
   ing a viable option for larger printers,.
        Inks have traditionally consisted of colored
    pigments and a vehicle or carrier for printing
    fluidity during application and subsequent
    pigment binding. Inks are perhaps the most    •
    important aspect of the overall process because
    different ink formulations bestow distinct
     characteristics to the product and thus affect its
     performance in relationship to the other press
     elements.  Prior to the mid 1970's most colors in
     inks were produced by using metals.  These
     rnetals were often present in amounts that
     exceeded state and federal regulatory limits, thus
     rendering the waste ink hazardous. In recent
     years,.ink manufacturers have developed organic
     color replacements which are not as  heavily
      regulated as their inorganic counterparts.  Unfor-
      tunately, even if waste  ink does not test hazard-
                  Alternative Inks

      The correct selection of alternative carriers
    can reduce the amount of waste ink generated
    without compromising product quality. Ink
    choice is dependent upon the print process, the
    substrate, and the ultimate end use of the prod-
    uct. In lithography, for example, petrbleum-
    based inks can be substituted, depending on the
    application, with EEC (electron beam curable),
    ultraviolet curable, soy/vegetable, water-based,
    and/or waterless inks.
                    Ultraviolet (UV)
         Ultraviolet systems consist of a photo-
     polymerization  process that uses mercury vapor
     lamps for UV photoinitiated monomer inks. This
     method has high initial costs, high ^coating
     costs, low energy costs, and has no hydrocarbon

.— »» c"* ~''i Jri'-.n; :'-:r«:.i cc.use L'V systems
t> low \ DC-  High quality radiation and opn-
mum spectral distribution are the keys in perfect-
ing the use of these .y stems.  There is a wide
range of UV-mk "chemistry-" available for
adhesion to popular substrates in flexographic   •
and screen printing.  UV in flexographic printing
offers good resistive  properties and economical
curing or drying. (Rudolph, 1991)

    UV-curable inks are widely used in the
printing industry for printing primarily on
plastic, vinyl, metal and paper substrate. These
 inks contain low VOCs.  Instead, curing is by
 ultraviolet light-induced polymerization. These
 inks will not dry on  a press or in ink fountains so
 cleaning requirements may also be reduced.
 Some reported advantages of UV curables
     4.  decreased or eliminated VOC emissions
     •  less frequent press cleaning and associ-
         ated solvent use
     •  reduction in required floor space
         (eliminates need for drying ovens or
      •   increased throughput
      •   elimination of ventilated storage of
          sheets during oxidative drying
      •  can be used on web and sheetfed presses.
      On the negative side, the following barriers
   have been reported by screen printers iK-.-ng UV
       •  performance is not always as good
          (insufficient opacity and color matching)
       •  substrates with deeply textured surfaces
          are not currently suitable for UV-
       •  outdoor durability may be a problem
       +  UV curables are brittle and finishing
           operations like die cutting and molding
           present problems
       •  a significant capital investment is needed
           for conversion to UV systems
       •  small printers may not experience the
            increased production speed and ink cost/
            coverage benefits due to shorter average
            runs (Jendrucko et al, 1994)
        •   ink costs are often higher
   +  recycling problems may be e
       with substrate printed with L'V inks.

      'Electron Beam Curable (EBQ

   EEC inks consist of low-molecular weight
polymers that react with a stream of electrons
from a vacuum tube. These inks contain ho
solvents, and do not cure until exposed to light
and may therefore remain in ink fountains for
long periods of time, reducing clean-up needs.
The  electrons drive the reaction, forming poly-
mers and setting the ink.  Problems reported with
EEC inks include paper degradation and worker
exposure to X-ray.

     Electron beam dryers use polymerization by
 electron bombardment to dry liquid and pow-
 dered coatings.  These dryers have high initial
 costs and low to moderate operating costs. They
 are  sometimes  used for higher gloss coatings and
 metal decorating applications.

          Vegetable Oil-Based Inks

     Vegetable oil-based inks are used only in the
  lithographic industry. Soybean oil inks can
  replace 20 to 40 percent of petroleum based oils
  in ink.  The soybean oil replacement is said to
  reduce volatile organic compound content by as
  much as 80 percent.  This advantage is somewhat
  limited due to the continued use of solvents for
  cleaning. The soybean oil inks are more expen-
  sive than petroleum inks and require somewhat
  longer drying times  in non-heatset applications.
  The drying times can be shortened by the instal-
  lation of custom dryers or power sprayers.
      Benefits of soy oil-based inks are: VOC
   emissions into the atmosphere can be reduced on
   heatset presses because the VOC content of soy
   oil-based ink is potentially lower than traditional
   petroleum based inks (based on the percentage of
   soy oil in the  ink); press washes for soy oil-based
   inks can be water/detergent types, thus reducing
   or*liminating the need for high VOC  solvent
   formulations; less paper waste from <9»c™r
   start-ups, as water and ink balance is reached
    more easily;  and spoilage during runs from color
    or variation in tracking is minimized; quicker
    and more even ink coverage to the press blanket
    is achieved. Soy oil-based inks have exceptional

•r.ir.-:'-r rr-rer.i'e-. minimizing plate-;scum.ming.
Brighter',: ?;cr^ and darker blacks,a.r1 Produ!:ed- •
because ;o> oil-based inks have .greater color
retention than do traditional,petroleum-based
'inks. The disadvantages are: longer drying time,
ink sitting up on the paper, cost and substituting
other chemicals for the petroleum-based ink
processes requires -operator adjustment and
training.                     .
       ,       Wafer-Based Inks

     Water-based inks, while  more environmen-•
 tally sound in that there is  little need for petro-
 leum-based solvents in the printing process, have
 several problems associated  with implant usage.
 The most noticeable of these is the significant
 increase in chemical additives required.  It will
1 necessitate the training of workers in basic
 chemistry and during this period the likelihood
 of costly mistakes is high. If incorrect chemicals
 or solvents of any kinds are  mixed into a
- waterbased system, the ink will curdle.  Surface
 tension of the water-based ink is high and
  therefore reduces the transfer efficiency of the
  ink to substrate. Water-based ink also tends to
  foam when pumps are running.  Another problem
  with the water-based system is a somewhat
  limited color choice. Water-based inks require
  increased energy for drying and, there are occa-
  sional difficulties in ink spread.  Paper curl and
  shutting down of presses for-short periods of
  time for more frequent cleaning all contribute to
  the difficulties in using these inks. Another
  disadvantage is that dried ink on the press and
   rollers can'be very difficult to remove.

       Water-based inks, however, do have several
   advantages. They are often classified as nonhaz-
   ardous and no special air pollution control
   equipment is required for  emissions. Disposal
   costs are often reduced and these inks are less  ,.
    toxic to employees.       ;
     .   The best .applications for water-based inks
    are in flexographic printing, gravure printing, as
    well as textile screen operations. Both low
    solvent, and 100 percent water-based inks are
    available. Non-VOC containing cleaners can also
    be used. Inks may still contain heavy metal
    pigments thatmay be required to be disposed of
     as a hazardous waste, however substitutes  for
 these inks are available and should-ce u-e-Jv.
 Testing of the ink.,waste should be done to
 determine- whether it needs to be classified as
 hazardous or not. De-inking of material printed
 with water-based inks may.be difficult..

     •Process changes will occur when using a  t
 water-based system compared to alcohol- and
 solvent-based ink systems. There are manufac-
 turing tradeoffs that need to be evaluated when
 using water-based systems in comparison to the
• cost of solvent recovery systems.        (

     Water-based ink systems may not allow the
  same press speeds to be maintained due to the
  need for extra drying capacity: Because there are
  no solvents that evaporate and help dry the inks,
  the water-based inks must be .heat-set and dried
  in various types of ovens. Generally water-based
  ink systems are run through ovens that are gas
  fired, re-circulating air ovens.

      When presses have limited space available
  for expansion or modification, the ability to dry
  the inks has a definite bearing on the press
  output. Sometimes ,the press ovens can be
  • changed and lengthened between the printing
   units to prqvide a longer drying time in the
   printing process.  When the totallength of a
   press is critical, ovens may be extended by going
   upwards  over each printing unit. Gas ovens that
   cannot be lengthened to allow the substrate to
   stay in the drying area longer may be modified.
   One method would be to add infrared dryers to
   the oven to help in the drying process. Another
    method might be to change the oven configura-
    tion and baffle design to produce the maximum
    drying capabilities of each oven.

        Water-based inks are capable of receiving
    various  additives that assist ink drying, ink
    holdout, ink laydown and printability on various
     substrates. These additives are used by the press-
     crew in different ratios and formulas depending
     on the desired finished product. Complete water-
     based ink systems do not have the vapor recov-
     ery concerns that the alcohol  and solvent-based
     ink systems have. This might be a strong
     consideration to evaluate water-based ink

^,.im>  p:>;%v  .ree.lv >hou!d be evaluated in the
complete oo-i M each t>pe of ink svstem.

               Waterless /nks

    Special lithographic presses or re-fitted
presses are needed to run waterless inks and
special plates, exposure methods, and plate
handling techniqes need to be employed when
waterless inks are used.

    Waterless inks are high viscosity inks with
 characteristics similar to petroleum based inks.
 The major difference in these ink systems is a
 resin which produces high viscosity, but requires
 exact temperature controls. The temperature
 must be controlled with a three stage refrigera-
 tion unit. A waterless system requires a high
 initial capital investment and careful monitoring
 during operations.

     If the printer has an experienced press
  operator willing to leam about proper mixing of
  ink with dryers, ink could be purchased without
  incorporated dryers: Dryers can then be added
  by the printer only as needed. Purchasing inks
  without dryers and adding them when the color is
  mixed will reduce the amount of waste skins.

      Operator experience can also be a factor in
   the success of waste reduction. An inexperi-
   enced press operator will often mix more colors
   than necessary to  achieve the desired specialty
   color.  For a new  employee, using a digital scale
   whenever measuring ink will improve accuracy.
   Planning ahead and using the fewest mixing
   colors will reduce the amount of waste skins
   needing disposal.
        Once the ink has been mixed, the use of an
    anti-oxidant spray will prevent ink skinning in
    the fountain. These substances are physical
    barriers to oxygen, and inhibit the drying reac-
    tion  Once the press is running, the anti-oxidant
    "burns off  on the ink roller, greatly reducing or
    eliminating its effect. The inks can then dry on
    the substrate.  A potential drawback is the same
     ink in the fountain may be wasted during start-up
     because ifdoesn't perform as well a non-treated

    Care should be taken to not use more solvent  .
than is necessary—only the bare minimum
needed to do the job should be used.  Reuse the
solvent if possible. The reuse of inks and
solvents not only prevent pollution through
effective use of resources and materials, but can
reduce costs. Depending on the job, if solvents
are needed to clean press parts, consider using
recovered solvents. Solvent tanks and containers
should be kept closed to prevent evaporation and

    Changing from high VOC content cleaning
 compounds to compounds with low or no VOCs
 will reduce air emissions. For short print runs,
 more VOCs are usually released from evaporat-
 ing press cleaners than from the  inks themselves.
 Segregating and reusing solvent will extend the
 life of these materials. Installing an on-site
 solvent distillation unit for solvent recovery can
 stretch the useful life of the solvent even further.
 Such a unit may need appropriate permits as well
 as trained personnel and a capial investment. It is
  also recommended that aerosol products be
  replaced with manual pump bottles, especially it
  the  product can be bought in bulk and small
  containers refilled.

      Several  simple procedures can reduce the
  quantity of solvent used for press-side cleaning
  and the associated VOC emissions:
      •  Minimize the solvent applied to a rag by
          using plunger cans or squeeze bottles
       •  Use press wipes as long as possible
           before discarding.  Use soiled wipes for
           the initial pass and clean ones for the
           last.                  ,            . .
       •  Store used solvent-contaminated rags m
           OlVJlw «J%*** WW. -	
           sealed, fireproof containers labeled
           "contaminated shop towels" to avoid
           solvent evaporation and a safety hazard,

        Another alternative may be the use of low
    vapor pressure solvents. While they may -have a
    high VOC content, they evaporate at such a low
    rate that less solvent is used.

   ' .  .  ,      • ^arrs Washers  ' : ' •

   ' If parti Dashers are used to perform mainte-
 nance on .press parts, use solvents not character-
 ized as hazardous (ignitability: flash; point < 140
 Fi'or that are not listed.wastes when spent.
 Install a filtering mechanism in the parts washer
 to extend the life of the solvent.  A'solvent still
, may be an option to reduce the waste and re-
 cover/reuse the solvent for the parts washer.


     Finishing operations may include final
 trimming, die cutting, folding; collating, binding,
 laminating, embossing, and assembling opera-
 tions.  Binding methods including stitching
  (stapling), gluing, and mechanical binding. The
  primary wastes are binding and laminating
  chemicals, and scrap paper (Price, 1994).  .

             References Used

     ' Cross, L. 1989.  "Ink Waste Disposal,"
   Graphic Arts Monthly 61: 118-120.

      Department of Defense. April 1995. "Recy-
   cling Photo/X-ray Processing and Printing
   Wastes," Department of Defense Pollution
   Prevention Technical Library.         .   .

       Jendrucko, R.J.. Coleman, T.N., and Tho-
 '  mas T M. 1994.."Waste Redaction Manual for
   Lithographic and Screen Printers," University of
   Tennessee, August 1994.       :

     •'Legnetti, P.. 1992. "Success stories in ink,
    paint and plastics applications." First annual
    Conference for Southern States on Hazardous
    Waste Minimization and Environmental Regula-
    tions, Sept. 22-24, 1992,      •
        Massachusetts OTA. 1994. 'Toxics Use
     Reduction Success Story:  Deluxe's Solvent-Free
     Printing System,"  Office of Technical Assis-
     tance  Executive Office of Environmental
     Affairs, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 4 p..

     .    price, R.L. 1994. "Printing and Publishing
     Industry Pollution Preventio and Recycling.
     Center for Hazardous Material Research
     (CHMR) 530-4296-000.
.' •  Rudolph. A.C, 1991, ^L'V-Flexo'et ji. '  .   .'
 TAPPI Proceedings Polymers. Laminations.±   "".
 Coatings Conference 1991,

      Annotated  Bibliography
- \ ,                  . '•       •      ,          -
    Campbell, M.E. and W.M. Glenn.  1982.
 "Printing" in Profit from Pollution Prevention: >
 'A guide to Industrial Waste Reduction and
 Recycling. Pp. 201-217,
     This chapter, whjch is part of a larger
 document, gives an overview of the printing
 industry and the processes involved in the
 printing. Pollution prevention opportunities
 discussed include general housekeeping and   ,
  process control, conserving photosensitive
 " materials, platemaking, inks (types, wastes, and
  curing), and dirty rag recycling. Briefcase
  studies are included for many of the pollution
  prevention opportunities discussed.

      Legnetti, P. 1992. Sucess stories in ink,
  paint and plastics applications. First annual
  Conference for Southern States on Hazardous
  Waste Minimization and Environmental Regula-
  tions, Sept. 22-24, 1992.
      This article discusses the progress that has
   been made in developing environmentally     .
   acceptable pigments. Replacements for lead
   chromate, barium, and cadmium are listed.

       Lewis, B. 1994. The  Absence of Waste and
   Beyond. FLEXO p. 19-22                     ,
       This article focuses on the advances in the
   printing industry and how business and manufac-
   turing principles such as just-in-time and total
   quality management are being adopted into the

       Alternatives to Petroleum-and Solvent-
    Based Inks.: 1994., Fact Sheet 6. Massachusetts
    Toxics Use Reduction Institute.
        This fact sheet covers all the substitute inks
    available for lithographic, flexographic and
    gravure printing, including radiation-curable,
    .vegetable oil, and water-based inks.  It includes a
     very comprehensive table that gives the applica-
     tions, benefits, operational advantages and
     disadvantages/cost, product quality, and limita-
     tions for each alternative.       ;

    ^1,  ,„  7  ' ---  Elevtrotechnclogies Cures
Ink* ur.a CMttrt'g> m a New Light.  EPRI Journal
Dec 199-i. p, 2-U29,                      .
    This article covers applications for ultravio-
let and electron beam curing for specially
formulated inks and coatings, and focuses on
replacing gas-fired convection drying ovens with
these electrotechnologies to achieve gams in
productivity, environmental compliance, and
save energy.

    Price. R.L. 1994. Printing & publishing
 industry pollution prevention and recycling.
 Center for Hazardous Material Research
 (CHMR) 530-4296-000.
     Student manual prepared for the Illinois
 Environmental Protection Agency. This manual
 gives the history of the printing industry, and
 statistics about Illinois printing establishments.
 Each of the printing processes are explained and
 diagramed. The common pollution prevention
 and waste reduction opportunities are explained.

     Rudolph, A.C. 1991. UV-Flexoetal.
  TAPPI Proceedings Polymers, Laminations &
  Coatings Conference 1991.
      Advances in inks, and curing and printing
  processes have facilitated the break through of
  UV-curing technologies. The process of UV-
  curing, along with its advantages and constraints
  are discussed.

       Stowe, Richard W.  1991.  Ultraviolet curing '
   and recent advances.  Polymers, Laminations &
   Coatings Conference. TAPPI Proceedings  1991:.
       The basics of UV curing are presented, along
    with recent advances in the development of UV
    materials in flexographic printing and silicone
    release  coatings cured with UV lamps.

       US EPA.  1990. Printing and Allied Indus-
    tries. EPA/530-SW-90-027.4 pgs.
       This is a short document that lists materials
    used, including the chemical components, and
    hazardous wastes that are potentially generated
    for each of the processes part of the typical
    printing operation. Readers are referred to the
    RCRA/Supertund Hotline for further informa-
    US EPA. 1990. Guide to Pollution Pre'.etv .
tlon: The Commercial Printing Industry. Office
of Research and Development. EPA/625/7-90/   -
    This document gives an overview of the
commercial printing industry and waste minimi-
zation assessment procedures and methods.
Waste minimization assessment worksheets are
given, along with case studies, and a listing of
organizations/agencies that can provied further
help. This document is identical to the Guide to
Waste Minimization in the Commercial Printing
Industry by USEPA RREL and California Dept
 of Health Services and Toxic Substances Control
 Division (also reprinted by the Hazardous Waste
 Research and Information Center, Champaign,
     Virginia Department of Waste Management.
  1991. Virginia Waste Minimization Program.
  Opportunities to Reduce Waste Generation:
  Printing Industry. Report 27-1, March 1991.
     This document was developed as a compo-
  nent of outreach services to Virginia waste    _
  generators and includes the results of a survey of
  14 printing companies to ascertain the waste
  reduction potential of Virginia printers. The
  document includes industry profile, current VOC
  regulations and hazardous waste codes, waste
  summaries for Virginia generators, waste mini-
  mization techniques, operational costs to con-
  sider, and potential barriers to implementation.
  Case studies in source reduction and recycling
   are given.  Information about the companies
   surveyed is included.

           Places to  Look for Waste Reduction
                      in the  Printing  Industry
Good Housekeeping
*   keep hazardous wastes segregated^ .nonhazardous wastes and nonhazardous from
    each other to increase opportunities for recycling      •.'     _
.   do not allow personal 'caches of hazardous materials (e.g., cleanup, solvents) and establish
    satellite accumulation points for hazardous waste
*-  check for and repair all leaks and spills from equipment    .
 *  keep shop clean and, orderly to prevent accidents and spills

 ,  maintain spill kits and instruct all personnel on their location and proper use
 .'  consider secondary containment where appropriate           ,  _            . .   .
 Waste Accounting
  .  collect accurate data on waste and emissions generation from each source/press
  .  establish accountability for waste generation and provide incentives for reduct.on
  .  provide feedback on waste reduction performance to employees
  »   order and manage materials to minimize
  »   use "first in, first out" inventory policy
  •„   centralize responsibility for storing and distributing solvents
  •".  use returnable containers and returnable plastic or wood pallets and, buck totes
   .   require that all potentially hazardous product samples be ore-approved and requ.re vendor
       to take unused portion back     .
  ,.   materials with expired shelHi,. should be tested far effectless before discards    .   ;
   .   materials should be inspected v,hen received and ^.specification or damo9ed motenais
       returned immediately to the manufacturer or suppher                 .    ,      .
    .   store inks accordina to manufacrurer directions ,= P-en, sKlnning and drv,n, and ,n loca-
       tions that will preserve shelf life                  ,                     ,  • nrn^ca\
       order morals in bulk containers ma, are returned ,o ,h. supplier for refill,ng. ,f pr=c,,a, ^
        keep lids on containers ,0 reduce evaporation or spillaae and to prevent contom^on v,,,h
        water, ,dirt or other materials                                      	==

.   .nstaH Hooting lids to exc.ude air and reduce evaporation and contamination. This can
    double the life of the solution.

    life and the life of the bath.
    extend lives of photo and film developing baths by adding replenishes and regenerators
    {detailed description in Jendrucko, 1994)
    reclaim and recycle silver from wastewater
    keep sensitive process baths  covered* prolong potency
    squeegee chemicals from films or plates to minimize cross contaminate
     use squeegees to wipe off excess liquid from film and paper in non-automated or tray
     developing operations
     increase use of electronic imaging  when practical
     recycle used photographic film and paper
     always follow the recommended storage conditions for photoprocessing chem.ca.s and Mm
     to increase shelf life               •         .
  •  use countercurrent nnsiny      ^     j  t    cnK/pnt for final clean'tno) also in
     . .«.?it/** c4ir4\/ cnlvent for initial cleaning ana t
     using uiny awivwm >*^

   .'   us, pres.nsi.ized p.a,es ,ha, are processed .* «*r « Wmetollic plo.es i. chemisT, is
       recycled •
   ,   use laser plate-making with an electronic imaging system
   .   eliminate once-through coo.ing water for .compressors by reuse/recychng
   '.   reduce drag-in of contaminants,  reduce drag-out of solutions  by add.ng dr.pboard. and
       extending drip time
    *   use nonhazardous developers and finishers
        sell used and damaged pbles to an alummum rewcier
Alternative Materials
.   use inks that reduce VOC emissions:  e.g., vegetable-based;
    electron beam drying where applicable

  •sw.tch to. ink with pigments that do not contain hazardous heavy metals.       '     .
   eliminate or reduce alcohol in fountain solutions            .'              .      :
   consider using waterless offset printing, if possible for the particular printing process
   use non-hazardous; low- or |no-VOC solutions to clean equipment            '
   use alternative fountain solutions "in lithographic printing (low or no-lPA)    ;%
    quent batches                                  ,  '
    run similar jobs back to back to' reduce waste generation between cleanup and start of the.
    next run  .           • ,                                                •      •

     print quality in large web presses.
    . dedicate  one press for inks with hazardous pigments or solvents

     dedicate  presses for specific ink, colors, if feasible  •
     improve  quality control to- reduce rejects
   "  improve  accuracy of counting methods, reducing excess quantises printed to accomodate .
     inaccuracy                                 ,       ,       •
   '  use web break detectors and  automatic  splicers  -
     use refrigerate cooling to reduce evaporative losses of fountain solution     .           •

     reuse  waste paper or collect for recycling (if sheetfed, print on other side)
      non-drying anti-skinnmg materials.           .
   ,   use solvent hoods to recapture solvent losses from presses
   »   recover solvents with an pn-site distillation unit
                         '  . •  !    ,     _      •    i              .        '• V  •'...'

   Cleanup                                                                       , .
   .   segregate and recover spent solvent according to color and type of ink. Reuse to th.n future
       batches of the same ink
   .   use dry and non-'solvenf cleaning procedures when feasible                        -
   •   use automatic blanket washes          '    •    '
    .  : us,hi9h-pre,SHre washing ,,.ip.n-..<, reduce amoUn, of waste wa,e,9en.™«d,n,c,Mn

       printing                       ...                                  ',   ._

.r-prove cperat.ng practices, for efficient press , clean-up
^se c'oth towels which can be cleaned and reused
reduce dean up waste by cleaning ink fountains only after a color change, if you are runnmg
cdor sequenang (light to dark) you shouldn't have to clean the fountam
wring or centnfuge used cloths to recover solvent before laundering and reuse solvent ,n
parts washers or for additional press cleaning
        excess solvent out of used towels. Collect and reuse the liquid fok initial cleanup with
           xcess soven                   .
            Slowed by clean solvent on clean rags for Anal cleanup
  avoid soaking cloths in so.vent,us.e plunger or squeeze bottle to dampen cloth with only what
  is necessary to complete the task
   the storage drum.
   use cleanup solution with lower VOC content and lower vapor pressure
.   provide marked, accessible  containers  for segregated collection of used solvents, if feas.b.e
,   use an on-site distillation unit for solvent recovery
,   use less toxic cleaning 'solvents or detergent solutions instead of solvents
»   avoid cross-contamination of cleaners
.   set up an in-house dirty rag cleaning operation if quantity of rags warrants, or send out to
   approved industrial laundries, if available
.   squeegee excess ink off equipment fc^re cleaning                              •

'                                                                                     "
.  increase cleaning efficiency by maintaining press clean-up equ.pment
«.  save old inks and consider reusing as house colors                .

 Waste Inks
 *   carefully label and store special-order colors for future reuse
  „   mix to make black ink for internal or external use
  •  recycle after processing
  .  donate for reuse by printing schools or  others
  .   control inventory and buy only as much ink as needed for the near future
  ,   scrape or drain ink and mixing containers before disposal
                                                ,     	...:_„„ c,-r«ner or soatula instead o
  „   remove ink from stir sticks, adhesive tope and
                                    "   '        —

                     shop towels. Return-excess iok to the original-or waste container. Use
        acs Steel, plastic vs. wooden'stir sticks. Wooden stir sticks can absorb add.hves
    and solvents and degrade ink quality if left sitting in cans of ,nk. •   ,
 , :; return excess ink to supplied whenever possible         _            '.,''.      '     ".:
    .-                •         1     ;      '         *•  .  '                  •:      '  .  • •  -
              i                t •         • ••         •            • •• •                    •
                      " ' .      i                 •                       • v
..;  .use water-based adhesives j rather than solvent-based, if appropriate
 .-  minimize coatings and adhesives that hinder -recycling..
 V-  reduce paper use by selecting properly sized paper and 'recycle waste paper and cardboard
  .' 'use mechanical binding  methods instead of  glues or .adhesives, if  appropriate
                            L I      •           '                      , L  '

                    list other ideas below for future reference


   Lithography dominates the U.S. printing
   industry, accounting for as much as 50
percent of all conventionally printed materials.
Approximately 85 percent of these printers
employ fewer than 20 people. There are two
types of lithographic printing: sheetfed and web.
Sheetfed presses run individual sheets of paper
through the press, while web presses feed paper
continuously from a large roll and can use either
heatset or nonheatset inks. Once the image is . •
printed onto the substrate, the paper is either fed
 back onto a roll or cut and/or trimmed  into
"specific shapes and sizes. Web lithography is
 designed to print large jbbs and is used for
 newspapers, books, catalogs, periodicals, adver-
 tising and business forms. Sheetfed lithography
 is used mostly for short runs of books, periodi-  .
 cals, posters, advertising flyers, brochures,
 greeting cards, packaging and fine .art reproduc-'
' tion.

      Preventing pollution at the source may be
  achievable at each production step used in
  lithographic printing.  To begin evaluating and  .
  implementing pollution prevention opportunities
  within  the printing process, principal input
  materials and processes need to be outlined. The
  principal materials used in lithographic printing
  are inks and paper substrates (Figure 6). Addi-
  tional input materials are photographic films,
   photoprocessing chemicals (developers, fixers,»
   wash baths, reducers and intensifiers), printing
   plates, plate processing chemicals, fountain
   solutions, cleaning solvents, correction fluids,
   rags and water.                    .'..-.

   '  - The lithographic process can be divided into
   four major steps: prepress, makeready, press,
    and post press. Prepress operations involve a
    series of steps for which artwork or design for
    the pVinted image is converted onto an image
    carrier-the printing plate. During this step raw
    materials such as photoprocessing chemicals and
    solutions are used. This process continues to
    change as digital prepress, with computer
transfer of digitized images,' replaces much of the
photographic process and related wastes.
    Makeready are the steps taken to prepare the
press to; print. This involves attaching printing
plates to the press: adding ink and fountain
solutions to each print unit; testing the press to
make sure the image is aligned properly (regis-
tration); and, printing according to customer
specifications. While essential, paper, inks and
solvents used during makeready are basically all
waste.  Anything done to reduce makeready
 saves time* money and reduces waste. -
     The press step is the actual printing operation
 in which inks, cleaning solvents and substrates
 are used (Figure 7).

     Postpress involves any finishing work
 performed to the printed product. This includes
 any cutting,,trimming, binding by gluing or
 stitching,  and final packaging. This step may use
 large amounts of binding and/or tape and adhe-
 sives when producing books, directories, and    •
 pads'. A specific look at each step in lithographic
  printing process follows.

      Prepress includes all the steps involved in
   getting the printing plates ready to be mounted
   on the press. In the image processing step, the ^
   material  to be printed, whether a "camera-ready _
   paper copy or an electronic version, is converted
   to film images. Pollution prevention for this step
   involves techniques and technologies used in
   photo processing operations. Wastes generated
   from image processing include empty containers,
   used film packages, used film, outdated materials
   and chemicals, spent fixer solution containing
   silver spent developer solution, and waste nnse
   waters.  Color separations for the four primary
   colors (yellow, magenta, cyan and black) are also
    done in the prepress stage.


• c
 in .

/ -^


                                    O -a
                                                   u. —

                          Dampening     Ink  rollers
                          rollers              _,/             ;.  ,
                     Fountain  \^^    Plate cylinder
                                                           Blanket cylinder

Sheet transfer
                                                                  tinted image
     Figure 7. Principle of Offset Lithography
    Most printing operations begin with artwork
and/or text. The "camera-ready" is the final copy
of the materials from which the printer will make
the  film used to image the printing plates. Prior
to the use of electronic desktop publishing, these
camera-readies involved gluing or waxing the
back of the, art and text to another sheet of paper.
. This board was then photographed. If any errors
we're detected after this step, the board would be
corrected and re-shot. This process is still in use,
 but is being replaced  by electronic imaging.

     Electronic imaging allows text to be edited
 and digitally manipulated on a computer screen
 to  also reduce waste  generation in the prepress
 stage. The image is scanned or created with
 digital cameras.The cameras digitize the image
 and then send it to a computer for editing. After
 correction, the master copy is saved to a disk file.
  Color separations can also be prepared electroni-
  cally , This reduces or eliminates the need to
  photograph, edit, re-shoot, and repeat photo
  processing. The advantage is the elimination of a
  labor intensive and  time intensive process
  involved in the manual layout and color separa-
  tion for the film. Once the film has been devel-
  oped and proofed (checked for accuracy) it is
  sent to the plate making operation.

             Photo  Processing

       As previously noted, lithographic printing
   employs photography for the reproduction of
                                       artwork and/or copy. The materials used include
                                       paper, plastic film or emulsion. Emulsions are
                                       usually composed of silver halide salts, including
                                       silver chloride, silver bromide, and silver iodide.

                                           One of the major areas for waste reduction in
                                        the printing process focuses on photographic
                                        chemistry management. The three separate
                                        processes of photo processing include develop-
                                       , ing, fixing, and washing. Many methods exist to
                                        better manage the ray/ materials used, reclaim
                                        valuable raw materials from the process such as
                                        silver, and to extend the life of the chemical
                                        baths. Additional help for assisting printers, in
                                        reducing waste in their photo processing labs can
                                        be obtained from vendors. New prepress pro-
                                        cesses are regularly being brought to the market.
                                        Some printers are installing automated recirculat-
                                         ing  silver recovery (fixer), water recovery and
                                         chemical replenishment systems. ,


                                             Proofs are made from the film produced in
                                        'the initial photo processing step described above,
                                          to compare the press image to the customer
                                          approved artwork and act as a final check prior
                                          to making the printing plates. The proof will
                                          show whether all images are in line (registered),
                                          whether the color is right, and how the final
                                          printed image will appear. Most proofing is now
                                          done electronically.  All major prepress manufac-
                                          turers produce proofing systems that come in

   \i*t .r- Ti "-"Ai-r Jtqueeuj-based models;
Pr-vV* ari m-iiii t'e-.iuie the platemaking step
>A»U affect tone reproduction. Proofs are also
used to check camera and scanner separations
and correction in color printing.


    There are a number of different type plates
used in lithographic printing: photomechanical,
electrostatic, bimetallic, relief, paper, and
polymer plates.  Photomechanical surface plates
 are most common. They are made from thin
 anodized or grained aluminum coated with a
 light-sensitive material. The most common plate
 coatings are diazo compounds and  photopolymer
 resins, although asphalt, shellac, gum arable, and
 polyvinyl alcohol are also used.  An image
 transparency is placed over the sensitized plate.
 Then a framed glass sheet is placed over the
  transparency and a vacuum is applied to pull
  them tightly together. The plate is  exposed to
  ultraviolet light,  which passes through the
  transparency and hardens the coating on the plate
  to make it insoluble to water or other solvents
  (Jendrucko, 1995).

      The next step in the platemaking process is
   developing. Plates can be additive or subtractwe.
   Additive plates  are developed using a one step
   emulsion developer that contains an oleophilic
   resin. This is used to make the hardenec  -nage
   areas receptive  to ink. Subtractive plates Dually
   have an oleophilic resin included in the coating
   or applied over the coating as a lacquer. When
   the plate is placed in the developer solution, the
   non-coated image area dissolves. The image
    carrying plates accept ink from a roller and
    transfer this image to a rubber blanket. The
    blanket, in turn, transfers the image to the
    substrate-thus, offset printing.
        Electrostatic plates are non-metallic paper'
     plates and are made using the same process as
     making office copies. The plate is coated with a
     photoconductor, which is ionized by an electro-
     photographic camera. The charged paper is
     exposed to the reflection of light from the image
     or copy to be reproduced. The white areas of the
     image reflect light to the plate, which causes a
     dissipation of the charge on the image areas. The
     dark areas of the image absorb light, which
      causes the electrostatic  charge to remain on these
areas of the plate. Toner, which is attracted to the
charged areas, is applied to the plates and torms
a visible imaae. During press operation, the toner
attracts ink and the white areas are water recep-
tive (Jendrucko, 1995).

    Photomechanical plate making is the most
common method used in lithography. The plates
are coated with a photosensitive emulsion that
changes chemical properties after being exposed
 to light. The exposed area, hardens, becoming
.hydrophobia .repelling the water-based fountain
 solution and being receptive to  ink.

     After the photographic emulsion has been
 exposed it must be developed. In developing the
 plate, the unexposed areas are hydrpphihc
 (attracts water in the fountain solution) and
 become water receptive but repel the oil-based

      Printers should work closely with chemical
  vendors and ask them to supply nonhazardous
  materials and inform them about any new
   products that are less toxic to replace currently
   used materials.

       One of the recent technologies used in
   lithographic printing includes moving away from
   solvent-based plate developing systems. Switch-
   ing to aqueous developed plates causes little  .
   disruption to the plate processing system or
    printing operations (Kasper, date unknown .
    Optimum performance is achieved by keeping
    the liquid volumes up to the fecommended level
    and closely monitoring the developer The, pnce
    these systems are similar to other high-quah y
    plates, and chemistry costs are less because there
    is  only one developing chemistry and no
    replenisher. Glass marbles can be used to bnng
    liquid levels of process chemicals to the bran
    each time the liquid is used, which extends  the
    chemical's life by minimizing contact with
    oxygen (Price, 1994). This technique can also be
    used for film developing  chemicals.
         Plastic or photopolymer and etoctrosWK
     plates are all alternative plate *P£ *"£££«
     on alternative plate materials can be obtained
     from printing trade associations as well as

 •ver.J.orv Crun^mg .:o a computer-tor-press print
 environment ma> eliminate the need for'plate
 chemistry totally, but this technology is cur-
 rently expensive and may not be applicable to'
 all types of printing.        .     ,.''-.


     During makeready, printing plates are
 attached to the cylinder. Printing occurs when
 the plate rotates so that the npn-image areas can
 be treated with an ink-repelling fountain/
 dampening solution. The plate is then coated
 with the ink, which adheres to areas of the  plate
 that contain the image. As the cylinder rotates;
 the image is transferred to the substrate via the
 impression or blanket cylinder. The press is then
 fine-tuned to ensure registration and ink density
 are accurate and identical on  all copies coming
 off the press. A final check for acceptability
 usually .occurs, then the press run begins.
  Although an essential step, everything generated
  in makeready is waste. Finding ways, to reduce
  makeready yields multiple benefits by  saving
  waste paper, chemicals and time which in tumx
  results in less waste disposal costs and money
  saved.       1  :

,       A strict quality control program will help
   eliminate waste by correcting problems as they
   arise. It is helpful to include in this program a
   process where periodic "press checks" are
   performed by an unbiased party to verify the
   quality of the product during a press run. The
   majority of the techniques available to printers
   to reduce waste at the press can be classified as
   good housekeeping and material Substitution.
   Figure 6 shows a typical lithographic press
    roller arrangement.  ,         ,,
        The printing process itself produces scrap
    paper, waste ink, cleaning solvents which result
    in VOC emissions as does the ink drying
    process. According to one study on VOC
    emissions, the average VOC emission at three
    offset printing shops was 2 tons per year. In
    . lithography, a majority of the VOCs from the
    ink stays with the product. With ribn-heat set
    inks, approximately 95 percent of the VOCs
    from the ink stays with the product, while in
    heat set inks approximately  60 percent remains.
                                               Materials Substitution
                     Inks '      ,                  .
'' .. Ink substitutions for the standard petroleum'-.
based inks are now available in the form of
ultraviolet-curable or electron beam inks, and
vegetable-based inks, including soy oil-based
inks. Customer requirements can dictate the type:
of ink used.
                Fountain Solution

     Isopropyl alcohol.(IPA), added to the foun-
 tain solution at a rate of 2 to 15 percent, has been
 the most common additive used in fountain
 solutions and holds the distinction of being one
 of the main contributors to VOC emissions from
 lithographic printing facilities. Refrigeration of"'
 the fountain solution is usually used to reduce the
 evaporation of the IP A. Switching to an alterna-
 tive fountain solution with lower or no VOCs is a
 good pollution prevention option. Typically low
 or no VOC fountain solutions cost more based on
 volume because the cost to produce these prod-
 ucts is significantly greater compared to IPA.
  Due to stringent federal air quality standards the
•  use of these alternative products is beginning to
  increase. Additionally, due to permitting and
  recordkeeping requirements, no VOC fountains
 ' solution may prove to be more cost effective in
  the long-term.

      In lithographic printing, alcohol substitutes,
   such as glycol ethers, can be used in some
   dampening systems. These substitutes reduce
   the surface tension of the fountain solution but
   have a more complex chemical structure and
   higher boiling point than the alcohol dampeners.
   To determine if a substitute is applicable it is
   important to consider the ink, press type, paper,
   type of dampening system, and printing con-
   straints. This is one of the easiest ways to
    minimize emissions.

        Of concern with determining the substitutes
    compatibility and performance with the fountain
    solutions are the temperature, pH, and conductiv-
    ity  The conductivity of the incoming water
    affects the performance of the alcohol substitute.
    An automatic mixing system will accurately mix
    fountain solution to the proper concentration and
    can somewhat reduce risks of problems from
    varying conductivity. Hard water causes calcium

 JecoMU aw r^u.res in ^d-.uenal water sotten-
 tn« >vstem.  Tht* problem was formerl>  masked
 when uiina an alcohol fountain solution. Some
 large operations have chosen deionizing units or
 reverse osmosis to remove salts, minerals and
 organic matter which would affect the perfor-
- mance of the alcohol substitute. Water  tempera_
 ture will now affect the viscosity of the  substitute
 and therefore the ink transferability.

      Alcohol substitutes also have a foaming
  problem. This problem can be eliminated by use
  of a foam free recirculating system which
  mechanically eliminates foam rather than
  chemical anti-foaming agents.  Adding filters to
  the recirculating units will remove contamination
 ' and ink residue, effectively extending the life of
  the solution. Evaporation of the mixture can be
  reduced by the installation of a refrigeration unit.
   However,  ink viscosity could be increased with a
   cooled sump, which may effect the printing
   performance. Any changes implemented will
   have to go through a "shake-down  period of
   trial and error until the best working conditions
   are determined. The roller condition and durom-
   eter (hard/soft) will become much more impor-
                  Cleaning Solutions

        Cleaning of the press occurs most often
    during make-ready as adjustments are UK-? to
    the press and plates, during the "™*^.™<
    between press runs, and at the end of the uay
     (shut down). The frequency of press washes
     depends on many factors including paper dust
     and dried ink accumulation, the quality of the
     paper, and the habits of the particular press
     operator. Ink rollers and plates are typically
     cleaned in place with a solvent. Residual ink is
      dissolved in the solvent and scraped from the
      roller with a blade. The resulting solvent/ink
      waste is collected in a tray. Blankets are cleaned
      during  and following a run or after a color
      change. Most blanket cleaning is done with
       solvent wetted rags. Common cleanmg solvents
       include methanol, toluene, and mchloroetnane,
   '   while naptha, methylene chloride  and a vanety
       of specially formulated solvent blends may be
       used (Jendrucko, 1995).

           For larger presses, installing automatic
       blanket washers can increase press efficiency and
 safety. The blankets can be cleaned during a
 press run rather than stopping the press and using
 manual cleaning methods. Due to speed of
 cleaning there are fewer wasted impressions
• (paper) and less cleaning solution used. Worker
 safety is improved through less exposure to
 moving equipment, air emissions,' and harsh
 cleaning compounds.
                 Parts Washing
     Any parts washer at the printing facility may
  have the ability to be retrofitted or replaced with
  units containing filters  to extend the life of the
  solvent. One type of parts washer now on the
  market utilizes a cyclone type filter that removes
  the solids and then recirculates the solvent.
  Alternative cleaning solvents are available as
  well Many products such as d-limomne based
  compounds will work just as well as petroleum-
  based solvents. They are less harmful to workers,
  emit less VOCs into the air and can be disposed
   of as non-hazardous waste. However, they emit a
   citrus smell to which workers will need to
   become accustomed.  When leasing parts wash-
   ing units ask the supplier about how the solvent.
   is treated/recovered and what options are avail-
                   Post Press

       Wastes generated from the finishing process
    include waste paper and VOC emissions, con-
    taminated or spilled materials such as glue and
    laminates. Waste paper is created from trimming,
    off spec product and printing overruns.
               References Used

        "Waste Minimization for the Commercial
     Printing Industry," Factsheet, State of California
     Department ofToxic Substances Control, 6 p.,

         "Hazardous Waste Minimization Checklist
     & Assessment Manual for the Printing Industry,
     California Environmental Pw^J^Ste
     Deoartment ofToxic Substances Control  Olfice
      of CLn Prevention and Technology Devel-
      opment, Sacramento, CA,  1994.

          Barwick, Kathryn. "Pollution Prevention
       Assessment of the Office of State Printing,

 California Department,.of" Toxic Substances   -^
 Control. Sacramento; CA, 1991.    .;  ...'..

    .-Printing and Publishing Industry,, Pollution-
 Prevention and Recycling:, Student Manual,"
 Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Office
 of Pollution Prevention, Springfield, IL .and
 Center for Hazardous Materials Research,
 Pittsburgh, PA, 1994. •            '       •

     "A Guide for Lithographic Printers," Wash-
 ington State Department of Ecology, Environ-
 mental Management and Pollution Prevention,
'  1994.          -         ,         ' •

     "Prevention Factsheet: Offset Printing
  Businesses," Stimular, Netherlands, June 1994.

     "Printing and Publishing Industry Workshop
  Manual," Illinois Environmental Protection
  Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention, Center
  for Hazardous Materials Research, Springfield,
  IL.      ..   .  .  :•''•       -•     < '-..

      "Guides to Pollution Prevention: The Com-  ;
   mercial Printing Industry," EPA/625/7-90/008,
   ILS: EPA Office of Research and Development,
   Washington, DC, August 1990.

      "Multimedia Compliance/Pollution Preven-
   tion Assessment Guidance for Lithographic
   Printing Facilities," DCN: RZ3-SAI-R11012-
   WA-00393, U.S. EPA Office of Enforcement
    and Compliance Assurance, Washington,  DC,
    August 1995.             ••-,.".

        "Environmental Management Program,"
    Printing Industries of America, Inc. and Minne-
    sota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M),

  '  l992-            •         •

        Wadden, R.A.; Scheff, P.A., Franke, I.E.,
    Conroy, L.M., Keil, C.B. "Determination of
   Annotated Bibliography

,   "Compliance Plus Guide—Environmental
Compliance and Pollution Prevention for Illinois
Lithdgfaph'ic Printers," 1996, Printing Industry
Publishing Corporation.
    A good general reference for all lithographic
printers, even thought the document targets
Illinois-specific regulations. Has worksheets to
follow for determing compliance status.

    "Pollution Prevention Assessment of the
Office of State Printing," California Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic
Substances Control, Doc. No. 519,44p.
    A good report of an assessment on California
 lithographic operation and the pollution preven-
 tion suggestions to be examined for further
 consideration and implementation.

     "Waste Audit Study-Commericial Printing
 Industry" by Jacobs Engineering Group Inc.,
 Hazardous and Toxic Materials Division for
 California Pollution Prevention and Technology
 Development, Department of Toxic Substances
 Control. Doc. No. 303.
     A good overall report with descriptions of
  various waste minimization techniques; also
  presents a number of case studies of California
  printers.                         .

      "Guide to Pollution Prevention in the Com-
  mercial Printing Industry," U.S. EPA Risk
  Reduction Engineering Laboratory and Center
  for Environmental Research Information, 1990,
  45 p.
      This report  covers basics of all printing
  wastes and pollution prevention efforts; includes
   worksheets for  conducting an assessment of a
   printing facility.              /

       "Control of Volatile Organic Compound
   Emissions from Off set Lithographic Printing-
   Guideline Series Draft US EPA Office of Air
   Quality Planning and Standards, September

       Lengthy report on methods and techniques
    used to control VOC emissions at lithographic
    printing facilities; includes a variety of control
    strategies, costs associated with these techniques,
    impact analysis and selection of reasonably

av Alibis ..-r.:r:i wonr..:i..>g«es. and factors to
joniiAtr :n implementing a control technology

    "A Guide tor Lithographic Printers" Wash-
ington State Department of Ecology. Environ-
mental Management and Pollution.Prevention,
Report No, 94-139. September 1994.
    A good primary- resource for the lithographic
printer. Has good checklists of Do's and Dont's
for each major wastestream.

    "Pollution Prevention Manual for Litho-
 graphic Printers," Iowa State Waste Reduction
 Center, 1995.
     An excellent resource with current informa-
 tion. Geared toward printing plant personnel,
 rather that technical assistance providers. Covers
 every step in the lithographic printing process
 and provides alternatives to current waste-
  generating practices, provides real life examples
  with case studies.

      "Pollution Prevention: Strategies for the
  Printing Industry," Center for Hazardous Materi-
  als Research Factsheet, n.d.
      Has very general information on pollution
  prevention and list options for paper, waste
  lubricating fluids for machinery, waste chemi-
  cals, equipment cleaning wastes, and process

      "Water, Water Every where...But Not a Drop
   5n the Ink," Graphic Arts Monthly, November
   1991.                         .    -
      The article details the conversion of a
   company to waterless offset lithography.
       "The Seminal Soybean," Graphic Arts
    Monthly, November 1991.
       Article contains information on soy-based
    inks, examples from companies who have
    switched from petroleum based inks, procedures
    needed to  get soy oil seal.

        Chuang, J.C, D.A. Burgoon, B.E. Buxton,
    S.C. Liao, and G.M. Sverdrup. "Ink Oil Loss is
    Sheet-Fed Lithographic Printing" Battelle,
    March 1993.                       .       .
        In-depth scientfic report determining fraction
     of ink oils lost from ink during printing process
and ink loss from sheet'fed lithographic prints
during storage.

    Cross, Lisa "Ink Waste Disposal." Graphic
Arts Monthly, vol. 61, May  1989.
    Lists current options for ink waste disposal
and alternatives to disposal through waste
minimization techniques.

    Cross, Lisa "Litho Plates Get Eco Friendly,"
Graphic Arts Monthly, May 1993.
     Discusses new governmental regulations clue
to Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and how
 some printers have switched from solvent-based
 plates to aqueous-based plate systems. Provides
 good overview on wastewater treatment plant
 operations with respect to printers.     •

     Erhan, Sevim Z. and M.O. Bagby "Vegetable
 Oil-Based Vehicles, News  Ink Formulation and
 Their Properties," 1992 Proceedings of the
 Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, pgs.
      Technical article on vegetable oil-based
  printing ink vehicles. In-depth information on  the
  chemical and physical properties of inks pro-
  duced in this study.

      Gavaskar, A.R., R.F. Olfenbuttel,  and J.A.
   Jones  "On-site Waste Ink Recycling," US EPA
   RREL, EPA/600/SR-92/251. February 1993.
      Good example of process modification to
   recycle waste ink, specific to newspaper presses.

      Gtlbertson, T.J. "Mixing Water with Electri-
   cal Energy: Successful Printing with Water-
   based inks," 1991 Polymers, Laminations &
   Coatings Conference.
       Technical paper on developing successful
    water-based printing operations.
       Hultquist, S.R. "Overall Waste Disposal
    Management," 1993 Proceedings of the Techni-
    cal Association of the Graphic Arts, pgs. 511-
       '•This article is a regulatory overview that lists
    current techniques available for disposal of;
    common waste streams. Contains lots of infor-
    mation on federal regulation and compliance

    "John-. Da1-iJ'R. "Environmentally Safe
 Fountain'Solutions for the Printing.industries" in •,
 Innovative Clean Technologies Case Studies '
 Second? Year Project Report. US EPA, Office of
 Research and Development. EPA/600/R-94/169,-   ..
 p/202-214.   •  . .         '     " '
     Report details methodology behind the
 development of a fountain solution for offset
 web presses  with high speed printing and other
 sheet-fed presses that eliminates isoprop.yl
 alcohol and mineral acids; includes demostration
 procedure, evaluation parameters, performance:
 results, and incentives and barriers to using this

     Telschow, Roger. "Reducing Heavy Metal
 Content in Offset Printing Inks" in Innovative
 Clean Technologies Case Studies Second Year
 Project Report. US EPA, Office of Research  and
 Development. EPA/600/R-94/169, p. 117-125.
     This report details the methodology behind
 development of a printing ink with reduced
  heavy metal content for sheet-fed lithography;
  includes performance results from test press
  runs, cost/benefit analysis, and incentives and
  barriers to using this ink.

      Toth, Deborah. "Waterless Web: Steady, Not
  Spectacular" Graphics Art Monthly, May 1996,
.  pp. 61-62.   •
       A review  article about the current state of
   waterless web, with information on the plate
   producer, Toray. Also opinions from printers
   using waterless web are presented.

       Wadden,  R.A., RA/SchefU-E. Franke,
   L.M. Conroy, and C.B. Kell "Determination of
    VOC Emission Rates and Compositions for
    Offset Printing," July 1995. J. Air  and Waste
    Manage. Assoc. 45:547-555.
        Technical paper on methods used to test the
    concentration of VOCs in indoor air of 3 differ-
    ent size printing facilities.

        Watkins, L.A. "A Multi-Disciplinary Ap-
     proach to Ink Recycling," 1992 Proceedings of
 =   the'Technical Association of the Graphic Arts,
     pgs. 604-615-:                .       '  .
       ' 'Easy to  read and understand article on ink
     recycling. Provides examples of processes and
     equipment used to reclaim ink, and case studies
     with numerical data.

Case  Studies
  Case Study 1                           ,   .   im,
  Aetna's in-house Printing Plant Leads the Way
  Pollution  Prevention:  Environmental Management s Next
  Michael Feldman
  GAFTWORLD Vol. 5, Issue 6, 1993

different projects.

   They eliminated alcohol
ink and water balance. The problems we e
cut off the dampening system
vendor assistance; 3) switching
     figuring all the roliers
 yearvith a savings of S42.000 annually in
                                                                  ^   inks with
                                                £ he dampening solutions; 4)
                                                 "      rol,ers and experimenting to
                                                         .. The results from this
                                                   from , 1 ,000 ga,./year to 5,000 Sa,/
                                        isposal costs.
        Dampening solution disposal
     Holvent was dumped at a designated sink ^^^'^lewe^Tystem.  Contamination prob-
     canisters. and then discharged d.rectly into the TJ1"^1 s     (Q develop a ..putnp mobile."
     lems from other materials dumped into the sink «        *   gss ^      ^ used dampen-
     This is a cart with a 55 gal. drum and pump-tnai mo     ^ j^ ^^.^ ^.^ whe(e dmm

     tS!^ ±X;^el^^^rcoal system.  This project costs S2.000 annually to
     Srgetheactiv'ated carbon and saves 548,000 in disposal costs.

                           •         . finA nnn in ink disDOS&l costs fllonc ana a>~  *
         Ink reclamation saves the company SZUU.uuu in IHR. u«^ ^ ^^ ordered on a job by job
      reduced new ink purchases each year. Previousl^pr?™fXtehisl ink was special ordered and if the
      basis resulting in 7,500 Ibs. of ink _m ™™^   «     Computer software was ordered to
      print job changed or was cancelled, the ink was unusawc     P        new pmwas co,ors
      Other efforts'
   chlorinated to nonchlorinated'
       with environmental regulations.
                                                                  te mnnte »d

Case Study 2
Pollution Prevention Works for Iowa:  Case Summaries
Moore Business Forms & Systems Diyision
May. 1994             ''''•*'•;•        - -               •  ;
         .'..,.•.•'     •  t     • •  -     • •-  •   '     -  -      •

   Moore prints custom business forms for a wide range of customers: The company wanted
to find ways to use the paper waste not amenable to recycling such as carbon-backed coated
mixed and "dirty papers".  In partnership with a number of different groups, Moore developed a
refuse-derived fuel cubing program in 1992. .The process shreds waste matenals, adds moisture
 orproper mixing and compaction, removes tramp ferrous metals w.th magnets and extrudes
mate S foe?pellets. The product is^sold to coal fired power plants that m,x the cubes w,th
coda^approximately a 10 percent ratio of total fuel. The company m now able tc.divert
Ssentiallv all unrecyclable paper waste to fuel. Through diverting 912 tons/year from the
 landfill, Moore saved $10,032/year in'landfill fees. When transportation savings are included the
 savings total SI 1,832/year.                       .   '   .  '
 Case Study 3
 Toxics Use Reduction Case Study            ^ „ '       ,
 Alcohol Free Fountain Solution a* Amencraft Carton, Inc.
 Office of Technical Assistance, Massachusetts
 September .1993                  .        •     •     V  ;

           ft Carton Inc is a $30 million a year folding carton manufacturer and printer.
         ist 1991 Americraft mixed-fountain solution for its presses in the traditional manner
  A solution of 15-25 percent isopropyl alcohol (IPA), tap water, and .etch.material ""n^"™1
  by hand into a drum and stirred with a wooden paddle. Amencraft received bulk delivenes of
  IPA every two to three weeks. Up to six 55 gallon drums of waste solution were generated
  monthly by the company's four sheetfed offset presses.          ;

   volatile organic compound (VOC), thereby increasmg the costand complex.ty of atr em.ss.on
   permitting and reporting.



       tor '-d-in.* <* 10 microns and for further chilling as well as solution recharging. The
      « I hoidmjunk ,,th a 250 gallon capacity to ensure adequate quantu.es at all umes.  .

i                 L      i  A-  ,hp,>nri of losses and costs associated with hand mixed

     v reduced use of VOCs and VOC emissions through the replacement of IPA The S108.00U

                     of Cos. Saving Through Waste Reduction by
   Small Industries in Tennessee
   TVA8:  Magazine Printing
   Tennessee Valley Authority                  '
    estimated S200.000 to 5250,000 annually.
     Case Study 5
                                                Proiec, Case Stud,
US EPA, 1994
   The John Roberts Company in Minneapolis employs :
brochures, catalogs, formsjimited edition fine^t pnnts ;
                                                             because the mdus-
      discharging to the sanitary sewer.

   The.-ompanVthoroirahlv investigated the.reasons they were using the solvents, the properties
that the solvent requ.red foriheir needs, and how. the solvents were applied by the pres: person-
nel  The-goal was to- find a substitute solvent, that was better matched to-the task that did not
substantially affect' work procedure or productivu'y.-

    The raisin- of awareness in the effort to find a substitute resulted in a reduction in the misuse
of the all-purpose cleaning solvent. .Usage of the solvent which was a mixture of -acetone,
toluene, MEK, and isopropyl alcohol, was reduced from 152 fifty-five gallon drums to   m the
firsTyear  A new replacement solvent, an ultra-fast blanket wash, was blended espec.ally for the
company' and performed well with respect to speed and lack of an o.ly film.

    Only 38 fifty-five gallon drums of this new blanket wash were 'purchased in the first year.
 Even a L including the purchase of , the replacement solvents, the company saved more than_   ,
 S  oSo   the first'year by changing solvents and using them more prudent^ In add.uon, the
 contribution of -the company.* the laundry's effluent no longer exceeded hmus.
     An additional effort undertaken was the purchase of a centrifuge to
 'price.   .•''•-'     , '•  '    . i   •          •       •    .-'."•'
                 continued making improvements on the solvent alternative, and replaced it

  fewer drams of solvent each month.
  Case Study 6                                  ,  „        ,
  Pollution  Prevention Efforts at the Journal  Press,  Inc.
   States, NEWMOA
   December 1993

    sells the used plates and film to a scrap metal dealer for resale.
    cals used in the printing prpcess. Isopropyl al

recycling outlet for its waste ink.
 Case  Study 7                         .
 Waste Water Reduction at the Stinehour Press, Inc.

 States, NEWMOA
 December 1993
   The Stinehour Press has ha
generated from their printing and
charge waste waters from these processes
under the auspices of a NPDES permit. No
discharge to the Connecticut River was co-
infeasible. In the late 1980's the comipany
as hazardous waste. Costs related "
    The volume ofwast

 combination of closed-loop
                                                           waste to surface waters
                                                       „ the Stinehour Press and
                                                          difficult and economically
                                                          waters and managing them
                                                           waste mounted.and
                                                            issues, cost and .lability.
                                                                 and up to 5456
                                                           i water streams to 77
                   rough recycling ana ruis icuuv.su .,-«..
   jtdiiw*'-* f" ""	
   gallons per month.

   R%^P™ a..hefaciiUy use ,2gaiionsof rinse w^r to,^^^
   proceed. During peak operadon, thiscouU be « ^^^S wa«e,s w«re
   waters contain low concentrations of silver (.vt .   w  ^ ^ ^ whether the material would


    wafer from the company's well system.
        On-site discharge of film processor waste
    tion has been drastically reduced. This has been ^7^"'"'^ mm processors. Rinse water
                       "  ^ I*:r^vloSe -ycling unit. A small pump then forces

 the rinse walkthrough the ion exchange 'column. Silver ions within 'the nrise water are ex-
 changed with ions from the resinf column.: De.-silvered,water leaving the resm column is further.  -
 filtered to remove any resin particles which may have been dislodged during the recycling
.process. The recycled wateris then pumped back into film processors.          •

     The plumbing within the ion1 exchange systems' is equipped with valves which allow the
 operator to back flush the system. This is considered to be an important feature because ,t allows
 °he operator to "fluff" the resin within the non-exchange column. "Ruffing the resm  reduces the
 effect of channeling within the ion exchange column and helps to maintain the effic.ency of the
 system. '   •.       '           '     '              ,    .    •"    '  •

     Company personnel collect '25 gallons ofspent rinse water from the ion exchange-units on a
       v7as"s  The water is evaporated on site under the terms of a state permit. The ,on exchange
   oumns within the recycling system, are removed every three months. The spent jon exchange
  columns are rimed to" the manufacturer for silver recovery and regeneration, After regenerate
  the ion exchange columns are returned to.the Stinehour Press for reuse.
      The company uses a batch type electrolytic silver recovery unit equipped with a tailing
  system to remove silver from spent fixer. During, the electrolytic process an elec.tr.cal current.„
  applied^?woelectrodes which are immersed in the fixer. Silver from the solute collects on
  the cathode. Silver flake is removed from the silver recovery -unit penod.cally and sold.

       An ion exchange tailing system is used to.further remove silver from the spent fixer. This
   second Tver ecov'ery step'enLes.that spent fixer is not a hazardous waste based on ,ts silver
   content  The tailing cartridge is also sent off-site for silver recovery and regenerate. The de-
   silvered fixer is storedon-siteuntiUtcan.be evaporated.               ,

   Evaporation               , ^ ^    er de-silvered fixer, fountain solution, and press bucket
                           *" .      '    „         .1    'i	„£•...«»,» ',n ftijac«» u/nQtp *;trehms.

    replacement for this solution was found.                                     :             ,
        A cost analysis outlihinglthe expenses and savings associated with the project appear below:
     Gross Annual Savings      l

     Operating & Disposal Costs

     Net Annual Savings

     Gross Equipment Costs
        ...•''.,    .      i
     Amount of State Grant

     Stinehour Investment




;S 15,020


Puvback period en Gro^ Cost , I..6 >ears
Pas back period on Sunehour Investment
Percentage of Waste Reduced
                                                •0.9 years
                                                92.5 percent
   Th,s onalvsis does not include figures relating to the reduction in the
sor rinse water used prior to recycling. The amount of nnse water requ.red by
been reduced by more than 99 percent.
 Ill   "^
  Case  Study  8
  Case Study:  McNaughton & Gunn, Inc., Saline, Ml
  Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Environmental Assistance Dms.on
  November 1995, #9509                   -                    	

      Through ft. effom of a voiumeer emp,oy=e conjmtaee. dubbed the "Recyding Fanatics.-
  ,h= company has achieved source reduction in ,he follow.ng »ays.
  ^  Purchased two new ink pumping systems

   with cardboard separators.
   «,  Modified beverage vending machine to eliminate disposable cups
   The company provides each of it's 250 employees with a ceramic mug to use in place of poly-
    styrene cups.
    *   Modified purchasing policies
    Janitorial supplies are now purchased in bulk and aerosol cans have been eliminated.
    .   Modified all three film processors so they are on a complete chemistry recycling system
                                 dded to it to prolong its' life. The fixer goes through a silver
    The developer has a rejuvenator aaaea       F    B               system and the only
                  H i« then returned to the processor, i nis is «i c.iv»cu iuv/f "/
     repkn^hment needed is to compensate for oxidation.
     *  Purchased an office copier capable of two-sided copying
     This resulted in a major reduction in paper use and a savings in paper purchase costs^
                                  * m that reauires less film and fewer chemicals for develops
                      reSron^comm^n                eliminated the need for most memos
         All Requests for"uTes'and purchase orders  are also done electronically, thereby reducing
      paper use.

    I  • -)o; M -Nau^Hton &. (junto eenerated -an income .of 5280.000 from.recycling film plate'
and paper'NewVecvclina programs, along with source reduction strategies, allowed the corn-
pans to reduce solid Bastes by half. The company isrecycling in the followmg ways:

    V^oPtnble based colored ink is stilPreceived in. five pound cans due to the small quantities
Jrde«d SS cans and lids are all recycled™! the cardboard boxes and separators are P,cked up
 sy the ink manufacturer.fbr reuse-.
                                    b ceiling pipes to a paper baler where it is compa
                    t  juw  ^	j. The bales are then loaded on semi-trailers and trans-
 ported to a paper mill.for recycling.      ,              '     ';....',
 »  Film scraps are sent off-site and processed to reclaim their silver content.
 *  Over  125,000 pounds of aluminum printing plates are recycled each year. •
 *  Each workstation has a recyclingJiasket to collect office paper for recycling.      .
 ^  Batteries used in the plant and in the employees'homes are recycled.  .

 *  Wood waste from broken pallets is shredded (by an outside vendor) :into wood chips.
     Other steps the company has often to contribute to preserving the environment include:
 Changed to an environmentally ^friendly chemistry system for plate developing.
  »  Now use vegetable based ink on oil sheetfed presses.

  *  Totally eliminated isopropy! alcohol form the dampening systems of all presses.

  T  K.^Mo.lnw-VOC solvents for blanket and roller washes.    ,
   Case Study 9
   Techn,.ogy Crea.es  Re«,..y "Green" '"^Ne« fr=
   Autumn 1995

    quality ink.                           ,

       Mil has discovered how .ocha^ in. sW,e
    ous »as,=, i«o high grad« ink. ta addkion ,o

    prints better on recycled paper.

            process, known us LUhographic .nk-W.Me Recovery ™^**£Z£

     The waste ink which once represented a disposal and reporting liability for printers is now a
] S-000 per barrel asset. In addition to the money savings this process represents, it also con-
' se"rv« na ura  resources. Prasil estimates that his ink recovery system can save an equ.valen of
1 560 million cubic feet of natural gas and 660,000 barrels of crude oil, and can reduce air pollu-
 tion by 3 780.000 tons. The ink recovery also uses 98.5 percent less energy than manufacturing
 SniSm virgin raw materials. European countries, which lack the richness of raw matena,    -
 resources of the United States, could prove an eager market for LIRT ink.

     The to,«oc *™$£%^^^£%^^
          nerzv ,n cooperation with the University of Tennessee Center for Industrial Services
  %	and ihe-Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Th.s grant was  .
  awarded and the project in underway.                               ,

      If you have an interest in trying the LIRT ink or learning more about;fc We  recycling
  process, contact the UT Center for Industrial Services m NashvUle. 615/847-8007.

   Update From: Tennessee Materials  Exchange Bulletin, Summer 1996, Bulletin Na. 3

      The black ink is produced from ink wastes that would normally be disP°^df°^^n^hSaht"Up
   s^Slies of "recycled black" are available now, and various earth tones w,ll be devel-
   oped in the near future.
    Case Study  10                        .„•«..•
    Running "Green/' An Environmental Case Study
    Stu McMichael                             „
    Business Management, Printing Industries of America, Inc.
    1993                                                    •'
     alternatives whenever possible.

         Using OSHA and EPA standards as benchmarks, the company took steps to go beyond
     existing requirements. Some examples:

  ,  ' Corrp.erey changed the way they .made plates', switching to an a'queous plate processing :  •
  system, arast.caily cutting'polymer waste.'  ::       '   -•      v.        ,.:.'.

  ••   Converted to soy inks', now using them exclusively with excellent results.

' V Use water from four dehumidifiers controling moisture buildup in their paper in press water,

I j fountains.  .--.-.      "            "''".•"
  V .Recycle all paper, including office paper waste.         '               _    /

  „ . PHn, the great majority of their jobs on recycled paper and educate customers on what's
  available.       '         .                         .            '   ' .
  rlpwpioo na TUia is extraaea, coiieuicu, HIBH —••• — i-   ..,_.-,    .-_,..          4
  pure silver These coi.s are given to the people Corking at the press for Chnstmas presents.

        '     The transition to environmentally friendly materials has been expensive due to the •
  need to ekp^TSS, diffeieni chemicals, plates and papers. On-the bottom hne, for th.s press
   t doe°cost more to produce their products. But the marketing edge ,„ the.r.env.ronmentaily
            community is a benefit that far outweighs the downside.
   Case  Study  11
   Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment for
   Lithographic Blanket Washes
   Design for the Environment, US EPA
   August 1996                                                   '
            •     ur  ,-™ r,f. HP nn
•The.first.major publication of the pf
                                                   Project, the draft Cleaner Technologies
                                                         '     is now available. The DfE
        Results of the blanket wash performance demonstrations and a cost ana.ysis for each prodoct;
      " Descriptions of the individual chemicals used^inthe 37 ^washes and of the human
     health and I environmental hazards associated w.th these chem.cals,
     V Discussions of the environmental and occupa^ona, risks inherent to each b.anket wash solut.on
     as a whole, including VOC content and flommabihiy;  ;                                ,
     .   Discussions of re.evan. international trade issues, energy and natural resource issues, and
     Federal regulations; and,                  .                  ,       _    ,         ,
     -.   Descriptions of pollution prevention opportunities, emphasizing simo.e changes that can
     made to everyday work practices.                                            .
         '   The CTSA is valuable resource for anyone intersted in the lithographic printing .ndustry.
      For example:                                                               •    • i

be* Miied tor the current market. Suppl.ers interested in manufacturing new b anket washes can
u« r^ Ironlntul and human health data presented for individual chem.cal components as a
building block for designing more environmentally friendly .formulations.     .

   Technical assistance programs can use the CTS A as a source of background information on
HthoIraX  blanket wastes and the DfE Lithography Project. They will find ^e comparatwe
nsk! perforrnance. and cost analysis useful when working with pnnten to reduce VOC emissions

and hazardous wastes.

    Printers will be interested in the in-depth information on blanket washes arid their chemical
    Printers wm «          methodology used to evaluate blanket washed may also be

blanket washes or of other alternative products or processes.                 .     .
     , as of Aug. 23. 1996).

Screen  Printing

   There are about 40,000 graphic art screen
   printing and textile printing shops in the
 United States, These mostly small- and medium-:
 sized businesses perform diversexfunctions
'•ranging from the printing of billboard advertise-
 ments, greeting cards,.art books, clothing and
 posters to printing onto electronic equipment (US
 EPA, 1995a),                           .

     Screen printing is probably the most versatile
 of the printing techniques, as  it can place rela-
 tively heavy deposits of ink onto practically any
 type'of surface with few limitations on the size
 and shape of the object being printed. The
 ability to print variable thicknesses of ink with a
 hi^h quantity of pigment, allows for brilliant
 colors, back lighting effects,  and durable prod-
  ucts which are able to withstand harsh outdoor
  weather conditions or laundering. Unlike many
  other printing methods/substrates for screen
  printing can include all types of plastics, fabrics.
  metals papers, as  well as exotic substrates such
  iis leather, masonite, glass, ceramics, wood, and
  electronic circuit boards. While  screen printing
  does compete with other printing techniques for
   some products (especially for small paper
   substrate products), it has a  specialized, market
niche for many graphic art materials and textile
printing applications.  Comparatively low
equipment investment costs allow for low-cost •
short production-runs (US EPA/I994a).'

    Screen printing uses, a porous mesh screen
with an ink-resi'stant image on its surface as a
template to transfer ink to substrates. The type of,
material used to make a screen depends on the
substrate being used as, well as the desired
 appearance of the product. Screen preparation
 begins by tightly stretching and securing the
. material in a rigid frame so that it is level and
 smooth. Non-image areas of the screen must be
 blpcked and image areas open tq allow ink to
 pass through to the substrate (Figure 8).

     The image can be transferred to the screen
  manually, but it is more common,to use a direct
  coating photomechanical stencil, which consists
  of an emulsion of bichromated gelatin or bichro-
  mated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) applied to the
  screen's surface. The emulsion is spread and
  leveled either manually with a squeegee or -
  automatically. When,the coating has hardened, a
  stencil is applied and the screen is exposed to
  UV light that causes a photochemical reaction
  and makes the emulsion insoluble. The unreacted
  emulsion, which is still water soluble, is rinsed
           Figure 8. Principle of Screen Printing.

 on, A rubber-:.-pe b;jde • -queegeei is swept
 acroi-, she screen surface, pressing ink through
 the unco%ered mesh to print the image defined by
 the stencil.  Many screen printing facilities
 reclaim their screens for reuse because the screen
 material is valuable and costly to replace (US
 EPA. 1994a).

     Screen reclamation has three steps. First, any
 residual ink must be removed with a solvent,
 usually sprayed directly on the screen. Some
 common ink removal solvents are d-limonene-
 based products, glycol ether and dibasic ester
 blends, mineral spirits, methyl ethyl ketone,
  acetone, butyl celusol, cyclohexane, toluene, and
  methyl isobutyl ketone (Jendrucko,  1994). If the
  image on the screen is not going to be reused, the
  emulsion that blocks the non-image area needs to
  be removed. Emulsion remover is generally
  sprayed onto the screen then brushed into its
  pores. Typical emulsion removers contain
  sodium metaperiodate or salts of periodic acid
  After the ink and emulsion have been removed.
  there is often a ghost image that, remains on the
  screen. A haze remover, which usually contains
,   potassium hydroxide  and aliphatic ether alcohols,
   is applied to the affected areas to remove the
   ghost. The use of these screen reclamation
   products, however, can pose potential risks to the
    people who work with them and to the environ-
    ment (US EPA, 1995a).
       The number of workers exposed to screen
    reclamation products in the graphics section of
    the screen printing industry is estimated to be as
    low as'20.000 or as high as 60,000 depending on
    how many workers at each facility spend part of
    their time reclaiming screens (US EPA, 1994a).
    A Workplace Practices Survey for screen print-
    ers,  conducted by the Screenprinting and Graphic
    Imaging Association International (SGIA),
    reported that almost 36 percent of the respon-
    dents had implemented changes in workplace
     practices to reduce their use of ink removal/
     reclamation products (US EPA, 1994b).

                     Prepress -
     Stencils and Screen Preparation
         Several types of emulsions or stencils, such
      as  indirect or direct photo stencils, are used in
      transferring an image to a screen. Most direct
stencils are water-soluble, and thus incompatibly	
with water-based inks. -However, chemical
curing of water-soluble stencils can improve
their resistance to water. A water-resistant
stencil must accompany a solvent-based ink, and
a solvent-resistant stencil must accompany a
water-based ink.  Solvent and UV curable inks
are typically coupled with water-resistant emul-
sions. Thus, a commercial facility using 90
percent solvent-based inks and 10 percent UV
curable inks can use the same water resistant
emulsion systems for both inks.  If, however, the
 screen printing facility wants to replace some of
 its solvent-based inks with water-based inks, a
 new type of solvent resistant emulsion will have
 to be used to complement the water-based inks.
 Using solvent-resistant emulsion with water-
 based inks will cause the emulsion- to erode
 quickly and pinholes will show up in the stencil.


      A simple way  to reduce waste is to keep the
  various waste segregated. Do not mix various
  waste streams in an effort to conserve space.
  This will cause problems and cost money in the
  disposal or recovery of reusable materials from
  the wastes.

      Ink categories'include  traditional solvent-
  based inks (which include  enamels), ultraviolet
   (UV)-curable inks, water-based inks, and plasti-
   sols (for textile printing).
      The most common screen printing inks are
   solvent-based. They dry through solvent evapo-
   ration, which produces VOC emissions.  De-.
   pending on the quantity of ink used, VOC
   emissions can create regulatory problems for
   printers, especially those located in
   nonattainment areas as designated under the
   Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990
   (Jendrucko. 1994).

        Water-based inks include water, emulsion
    resins, other resins, pigments, and additives
    Many printers observe that these water-based
    inks have more vibrant colors and print more
    crisply than their solvent-based counterparts.   .
    The sharper definition possible with water-based
     inks allows printers to use finer dot patterns tn

 ;..--,_.„.; • -r-.^jv-N onnune  \VjterLbased inks do
 noTrequire c^amc solvents when.cleamng the   '•
 rr-^es and., if free of heavy  metals, do not      .
 produce hazardous wastes. They are usually less
 expensive than solventrbased inks and are simdar
 in quality, gloss, and adhesion. However, water-
 based inks require a longer drying time than
 solvent-based inks (Alaska Health Project,
 1987).            '       :    •

     Excess ink used in the screen printing
 process is currently recaptured. The ink left on
 the screen is squeegeed back into the can prior to
 washing the screen. This not only reduces the
 amount of ink used but also decreases the .
  amount of cleaning emulsions needed to wash
  the screen (Alaska Health Project,. 1987).

  Screen Reclamation
      While screen reclamation techniques may
  vary significantly from one screen printer to
  another, two basic functions must be performed
  in order to restore a used screen prior to reuse:
 . removal of ink and removal of emulsion (sten-
  cil).  A third step, removing any remaining
-   "ahost image" or haze, may be required depend-
   ina upon the type of ink used, effectiveness of
   ink removal and/or emulsion remover products,
   and the length of time that ink and stencil have
   been on the screen (US EPA, 1994a).

        Screen reclamation activities generate
  -  solvent waste and wastewater. VOC emissions
    may also be associated with the solvent used to
    remove  inks, (Jendrucko, 1994).
        Ink removal (also called screen washing or
     screen cleaning) precedes stencil removal so that
     excess ink does not interfere with removal of the
     stencil.  Ink is also removed at other times prior
     to screen reclamation (for example, when dust
     gets into the ink and clogs the screen mesh, or at
    , lunch break, t6 avoid ink drying on the screen).
     This "process cleaning" usually occurs at press
     side, in a separate ink removal area of the shop,
     or in an area where emulsion and haze are
    . removed.       .     .'

         Most emulsion removers are packaged in a
     ' water solution or as a powder  to be dissolved in
 water, the water acts as a carrier tor :he ac'.uai
-.redaimiiig chemical.  The predominant.chemical     '
• in.ah7emulsion remover is often sodium'
 metapenod'ate-'' Because periodate needs^water as
 a carrier to reach certain chemical groups in the
 emulsion, it is more difficult to reclaim a water-
 resistant emulsion than  one which is only sol-
 vent-resistant. Most commercially available
 emulsion removers are  able to remove either
 water resistant or solvent resistant emulsions.
 High pressure water'spray can also facilitate
 emulsion  removal and may lower the quantity of
 emulsion  remover required. The rinse water  ,
  should be evaluated for recycling possibilities
  since the  major contaminant would be suspended
  solids. Special care must be taken to ensure that
  the emulsion remover does not dry 0n the screen.
  as the screen willbecome almost impossible to   .
  clean even with repeated applications of the
  remover, thus adding to, regulated waste quanti-
  ties (US  EPAv1994a).

      A haze  or ghost Image is sometimes visible
   after the emulsion has been removed. This
   results from ink'or stencil being caught in the
   knuckle (the area between the overlap .of the
 •  screen threads) or dried/stained into the threads
 '  of the screen!  Staining of the mesh frequently
   occurs when petroleum-based solvents are used
   in the ink removal process. The solvent dis-
   solves the ink, leaving behind traces of the
   - pigment and resin in the screen.  The residual
    pigment and resin bonds to the screen after the
    solvent .evaporates, leading to haze accumula-
    tion Ghost images are especially common when
    dark inks (blue, black, purple and green),are
    used or if an excessively long time period
    elapsed prior to ink removal from the screen. A
     «host image is particularly likely when using
     solvent-based ink systems, as opposed to other
     ink systems. If the ghost image is dark or will
     interfere with later reimaging Or printing, a haze
     remover product can be applied until the image
     disappears or fades. The level of cleanliness     :
     required  at the end of the process vanes depend-
     ing on the kind of printing job that the screen
      wfll be used for after reclamation. Some printers
      can use screens with light ghost haze, others
      cannot.  Haze remover can potentially damage
      the screen mesh, particularly caustic haze
      removers that are traditionally used in the

mJiMr\  The s\.:e<.Mve u-e of thes-e products.
such as applunc the chemical and leaung u_on
the screen 100 long, can \seaken the mesh (LS
EPA. S*)94ai.

    The major health impact on the general
population for screen reclamation products is
probably their release of VOCs  that may be  •
detrimental to the worker's health and contrib-
ute to the formation of smog in  the air. The
traditional products, because of their volatility,
are likely to have a much greater impact than
the alternative products on ambient air quality.
The major benefit identified for switching from
 traditional screen reclamation methods to
 alternative methods is a significant reduct.on in
 inhalation risks to workers (US EPA,  1994a).

     Issues which are important in the selection
 of chemical alternatives are: risk, performance,
 disposal, quantity used (is more required to do
 the same job), cost, employee  acceptance
  (perceived benefit), effectiveness (cleaning
  time), effect on substrate (detrimental effects to
  the screen), and effect on print quality.
  Equipment  Modification
      Several types of  equipment can be used in
   screen reclamation to prevent pollution.  Many
   of these systems can save money as  well as
   reduce regulatory requirements, facilitate
   compliance and reduce the amount of chemicals
   used in screen reclamation. Each printer needs
   to examine his or her particular process to
   determine the applicability of any or all of these
   equipment modifications.  In addition, printers
   should consult their operating permit and
   applicable water and waste disposal regulations
   to ensure compliance before making equipment
   changes (US EPA,  1994a).

        The current practice of screen printers is the
    use of hand held pump bottles to apply screen
    reclamation chemicals to the used  screen which
    can help reduce emissions and potential expo-
.,   sures with more effective application (US EPA.
     1994a). By allowing the screen reclaimer to
     control the amount and direction of ink re-
     mover, emulsion remover,  and/or haze remover
     pump bottles effectively minimize the amount
     of solution used and reduce chemical waste at
the source.  Other sprayer/application systems
are also on the market, but the printer will be the
one to best determine what will work for their   •

    To further minimize chemical throughput,
the more complex systems frequently combine
solvent recirculation systems with a spray
applicator system. For the smaller printer who
spends minimal time in reclamation, the rela-
tively inexpensive spray bottle might be the most
cost effective.  However, companies that spend a
 substantial amount of time and effort in reclama-
 tion might find the more extensive spray systems
 a viable option. While the initial costs may be
 substantially higher, some or all of the cost may
 be recovered through decreased solvent use.
 Further, these systems may decrease labor costs
 because they tend to be quicker and easier
 methods for cleaning screens. In addition to
 surveying product literature, a printer may wish
 to check with several suppliers as well as other
 printers to determine feasability for their situa-
  tion '(US EPA, 1994a).
      A washout booth can also minimize expo-
  sures and waste by containing the reclamation
  process in a confined area and collecting spent
  chemicals for proper reuse or disposal (US EPA,
   1994a). The premise of the washout booth is that
   concentrating the ink and/or emulsion remover
   within a specific area will  minimize the quantity
   of solvent necessary for reclamation, while   •
   maximizing the cleaning potential of the quantity
   used.  Consequently, these booths are built to
   focus the cleaning solution in a small semi-
   contained area (usually box shaped).  Although
   some booths consist of multiple cleaning areas to
   separate the ink and emulsion removal functions,
   single unit booths are equipped to remove both
    ink and emulsion. Waste solution is usually
    funneled into a drain where it may be recycled or
    disposed of in several ways.

        A booth can be made to specifications;
    however, the price increases according  to size
    and level of complexity. For the small  printer
    that reclaims very few screens, such an apparatus
     may not be a prudent or feasible investment.
     However, for printers with a sizeable reclamat.on
     operation, a washout booth may be a positive

      'n  P-.r.'.-Jr^ -hvuld consider their indi-.. ,   ;
•   u  situation, as weH'as other sourcesof' ; '•   ;
Product information to make .a choice that    .
remains consistent with good business practices
lUSE.PA. 1994a).                .

    Filtration systems can be used to remove,
specific substances from the waste Stream,  -
facilitating cpmpliance and allowing reuse of
some chemicals (US EPA, I994a). They work
by several different processes. Used indepen-
 dently, these products may not provide unique
 pollution prevention  opportunities; however .
 when used in conjunction with a recirculator/
 recycler, the filtration of solvent may allow for
 substantial decreases in the quantity of solvent
 used A filtration system's function within the
 solvent recirculation process is to filter  out
 particulates (filters), heavy metals            -
  (nanofiltration, reverse osmosis), hydrocarbons
  (ultrafiltration), and other waste products. This
  process of treating the effluent makes it possible
  for conditioned solution to recirculate back for
  'reuse in subsequent reclamation.
      By screening the effluent resulting from the
   reclamation process, filtering systems also
   facilitate compliance with effluent .guidelines.
   The cosrof these systems should be carefully
   considered by a printing facility.  Printers should
   also consider potential savings generated by
   reducing the use, of chemicals and by avoiding
   fines that could result from noncomphance with
   federal, state, and local environmental regula-
   tions (US EPA, 1994a).

        A recirculation system, through a combina-
    tion of several technologies, allows a printer to
   'minimize solvent usage, and consequently,
     minimizes pollution at the source.  Its purpose is
     to filter contaminants from.the cleaning solution
     so that the filtered solution can be reapplied to
     future screens. Generally, a recirculation system
     consists of an applicator/sprayer system, a
     filtration unit, and a recirculating  mechanism.

          A recirculation system can take on a variety
     of different forms. From a simple ink remover
      recirculator, to a system that involves complete
      reclamation, these systems can be made to fit
      almost any operation.  If a printer dec.des that
th"is is an appropriate.me-ihcti of.poiiu'.ion pri- .
\entton. he/she should carefulU consider the va.jt ^ -
array of options in order to properly match the
system to their facility. Further,  printers should ,  ,
keep in mind that recirculation-systems are not '
closed systems. Printers  should consult appli-
cable water and wastewater disposal regulations
to ensure compliance (US EPA,  I994a).

     Distillation devices that can be used to,
 reclaim used solvent represent another alterna-
tive for addressing screen reclamation waste
 issues.  These devices separate the contaminants
 from screen reclamation effluent and provide an
 effective way to recycle and reuse spent solvent.
 Thus like a filtration and recirculation system,
 these solvent distillers provide an opportunity to
  reduce solvent use, raw materials purchased, and
  operating costs.

      Distillation units can provide a cost-effective
  method to reclaim solvent used in screen recla-
  mation, and this may result in other benefits as
  well (lower cost, compliance benefits).  Differen-
  tial distillers can vary in size (two-to three gallon
  capacity up to 250 gallons) as  well as in cost.
  The relatively high'cost may prohibit many-small
   printers from utilizing this technology.  When
   purchasing these units, printers should consider
   cost relevant environmental regulations, and
   changes in the Uniform Fire Code-affecting the
   availability and use of distillers (US EPA.
    1994a).                .'--.•
        Use of an automatic screen wastier for ink
   . removal may significantly reduce air ermss.ons
    of certain volatile ink remover components,
    although the amount of reduction depends on the
    chemical components of the formulation (US

    EPA, 1994a).

        Totally enclosed systems.are commercially
    'available for ink, emulsion, and haze removal or
     ink only removal. These systems can reduce the
     quantity of chemicals necessary for screen
     cleaning and reduce air emissions  Labor
     involved with screen cleaning will also be
     reduced. These systems arexurrent y expensive
     and may be cost prohibitive for small printers
     (Jendruckb, 1994).

    Man% printers have found that by making
-imple process modification* they can reduce
>olvent use. waste disposal costs and employee
exposure to harmful chemicals.

    Whenever possible, avoid delays in cleaning
and reclaiming the screen. The quantity of
chemicals needed to remove ink, emulsion, and
haze can be reduced if screens are cleaned
promptly (US EPA. 1994b).

    A printer in Minnesota reported that he had
 identified chemical overspray not directed at the
 screen during emulsion and haze removal as one
 of the biggest sources of chemical loss. Employ-
 ees butlt~a simple "catching frame" to place
 around the screen during the chemical applica-
 tion  steps. The catching frame is used to capture
 the overspray, which is then recycled or  reused
 (US EPA, 1994a).
      A printer in New York said his facility keeps
  chemicals in safety cans or other sealed contain-
  ers to minimize solvent loss from evaporation
  They used to use a pump and spray unit to apply
  ink degradant and emulsion remover, followed
  by a high-pressure water wash.  They only use
  haze remover if it is absolutely necessary. This
  facility has now gone to manual, spot application
  of the ink degradant and manual application of
   the emulsion remover, followed by a low-
   pressure rinse. A  Final high-pressure water blast
   follows this rinse step.  Results of industrial
   hygiene monitoring at the facility indicate that
   this new method of applying chemicals results in
   no overspray of chemicals and reduced worker
   exposure, since the high-pressure water blaster
   no longer disperses the chemicals as a mist in the
   air. They have also reduced the accidental
   discharges from crimped or cracked discharge
    lines in the pump system. This printer estimates
    that the new methods of applying chemicals to
    the screen have resulted in a 15 percent reduction
     in material use (US EPA, 1994a).
        An alternative technique for ink removal is
     to use a high-pressure water blast.  The high
     velocity fluid impacting the screen loosens the
     emulsion and increases the removal efficiency.
     Pressures up to 4,000 psi have been used without
 damaging screens. The combination of this and :
 previous~measures could potentially reduce
 emulsion remover use by as much as 75 percent
 (Jendrucko, 1994). Precautions will have to be
 taken to protect the employees from the noise
. generated by the high pressure jet.

     Using haze remover can cause screens to
 become brittle and tear more easily. It also
 contributes chemicals to the wastewater stream. •
 Therefore, it is beneficial to'minimize its use.
  Several simple techniques can be used to accom-
  plish this reduction:

  • Apply haze remover only to the  affected area
  instead of over the entire screen

  • Avoid allowing used screens to sit for a long
  period of time before reclamation because the
  longer ink and emulsion remain on the screen the
  more likely "ghost" images will form

  • Apply an ink degradant to the screen before
   reclamation to prevent "ghost" image formation
   (Jendrucko, 1994).
   Screen Disposal
       Many screen printing facilities reclaim their
   screens for reuse because the screen material is
   valuable and costly to replace.  Screen fabric can
   be one of the most expensive supplies that a
   screen printer uses and can have a large impact
   on cost of operations. For example, the most
   commonly used fabric, polyester, costs $10 to
    $40 per square yard.  A shop that wastes S100,
    $200 per week in fabric costs from ruining
    screens or failing to reclaim them, increases its
    production costs by as much as $5,000 to
    $10,000. The average monthly expense for fabric
    is $360. In addition, reclaiming screens has the
    advantage of saving labor time needed for
     stretching mesh across the frame and adjusting it
     to the correct tension. Some printers believe that
     using retensionable frames when stretching the
     mesh "work hardens" the fabric, improving the
     printability and longevity of the screen.  Other
     printers note that reusing screens for other jobs,
      instead of storing them in an imaged screen
      inventory, saves both screen fabric-costs and
      storage space often  needed for  presses (US  EPA.

                       with lor(g, production
        extremely small screens; such" as those
     10 print en medicine bottles,simply cut the
screen mesh out of the- frame after completion of
the  production run. By simply disposing of the
screens, printers could eliminate the high cost of
reclamation chemicals and labor time associated
with screen reclamation, as well as reduce the
risk associated with occupational and population
exposure to these chemicals. However, printers
have to dispose of more screens, some of which
may be designated as hazardous waste due to the
chemicals applied to them during imaging and
printing. "Due to the different types of source
 reduction involved in these two options, they are
 difficult to directly compare in terms of pollution
 prevention. Based on Design for the Environ-   -
 ment (DfE) analysis, it is clear that screen
 disposal is not a cost-effective option for a
 majority of screen printing facilities. However,
 printers should riot view this cost estimate as a
 final analysis, because the operations of any one
 facility can be different from the assumptions
 used in generating this analysis: Screen. disposal
  would be more cost-effective in circumstances
  where production runs approach the useful  life of
  a screen and where the size of the screen is
  relatively small (US EPA, 1994a),

             References Used

      Alaska Health Project. "Waste Reduction
  Assistance Program (WRAP)  Cm-Site Consulta-
  tion Audit Report: Printing Company." 21 p.,
   1987.                      • •     :

       Jendrucko, R.J., Coleman, T.N., and T.M.
   Thomas "Waste Reduction Manual for Litho-
    craphic and Screen Printers," Department of
    .Engineering Science and Mechanics, University
   'of Tennessee.  August ,1994,

        US EPA "Designing Solutions for Screen
    Printers" 'Design for the Environment Printing
    Project Factsheet. US EPA.  1.995. 2p.      '

 !      US EPA, 1 994a "Cleaner Technologies
     Substitutes Assessment: Industry: Screen
     Printing Use Cluster:  Screen Reclamation.
     (Draft)" US EPA, Washington, DC, 1994.
    US EPA. 1994b "Work Practice
for Screen Reclamation-Case Study 4: Screen
Pnniina." Design for the Environment Printing  -
Project^actsheiet. US EPA. 1994.'4 p. '

     Annotated Bibliography

    "Chemical Alternatives for Screen Reclama-
tion-Case Study 5: Screen Printing." Design for
the Environment Printing Project Factsheet. US
EPA. 1994. 4 p.
    Factshee.t compares chemical alternatives for
 screen reclamation to traditional systems (in-
 cludes only chemical composition of alternative, •-
 not product name). Tests were conducted at two    .
 facilities-includes performance,'risk and cost

'  .   "Designing Solutions for-Screen Printers."
 Design  for the Environment Printing Project
 .Factsheet. US EPA. 1995. 2p.
     Factsheet gives overview of DfE project,
  gives no information about results of study.

     "Reducing the Use of Reclamation Chemi-
  cals in  Screen Printing: Screen Printing" Design
  for the Environment Printing Project Factsheet.
  US EPA. 1993.4 p:
      Very good factsheet. Case study of Romo
  Incorporated gives  lots of good basic ideas, some
  easy and inexpensive to apply-includes cost and
  waste  reduction data.

      "Technology Alternatives for Screen Recla-
   mation-Case Study 2: Screen Printing." Design
   for the Environment Printing Project Factsheet.
   US EPA. 1994. 4 p.
       Factsheet discusses three alternative tech-
   nologies for screen reclamation-compares risk.
    performance and cost to traditional methods.

       US EPA. 1994a. "Cleaner Technologies
    Substitutes Assessment: Industry. Screen  -
    Printing Use Cluster: Screen Reclamation
    (Draft)" Washington, DC: United States Envi-
    ronmental Protection Agency, 1994.
        Massive technical document including lots ot
    data Compares alternative and traditional screen
    reclamation products, technologies, and pr*
    cesses in terms of environmental and human
    health exposure and risk, performance and cost
     Includes general screen printing information and

: ,vd o-.eMtl •v/.ut-.on pre'.emion opportunities.   .
An executive summary is Bailable.

    US EPA  1994b. "Work Practice Alterna-
tives for Screen Reclamation-Case Study 4:
Screen Printing," Design for the Environment
Printing Project Factsheet. US EPA. 1994. 4 p.
    Very good factsheet lists general pollution
prevention opportunities including process
improvements and materials management/
inventory control.

    "A Guide for Screen Printers." Washington
 State Department of Ecology, Environmental
 Management and Pollution Prevention, 94-137,
 September 1994.
     A good primary resource for the screen
 printer. Has good checklists of Do's and Don'ts
 for each major wastestream.

     Pollution Prevention for Printers and
 Preprocessors. Metro-Dade County Depart-
 ment of Environmental Resources Management,
 October 1995.
     A good booklet on general pollution preven-
 tion practices applicable to all types of printing
 broken down by process.


      "Removing solvent and ink from printer
  shop towels and disposable wipes" MnTAP
   1991,6 p.                     -
      Presents options for removing solvent from
   shop towels and management of disposable
   wipes, includes some vendors.

      Office of Waste Reduction Fact Sheet,
   Washington State Department of Ecology Nov
    1988, Printing Shops, 4 p.
       A listing of general pollution prevention
    opportunities for all types of printers.

       Center for Hazardous Materials Research
    "Pollution Prevention:  Strategies for the Printing
    Industry," 4 p.                         .
       Reasons to practice pollution prevention and
    general tips for all types of printers.

        "Waste Reduction for the Commercial
    Printing Industry" California Department of
    Health Sevices Toxic Substances Control Dm-
    Alternative.Technology Division. Aug 19S9..
6 p.                           .   .
    Waste reduction incentives, requirements
and alternatives .including inks and solvents.

    "Waste Reduction Checklist" Office of
Waste Reduction Services, State of Michigan,
Departments of Commerce and Natural Re-
sources, Dec 1989, 6 p.
    Checklist of general pollution prevention
opportunities for all types of printers.

    "Management of Solvents and Wipes in the
 Printing Industry" SHWEC Waste Education
 Series, May 1994,4 p.
    Proper management of cleanup wipes and
 methods of reducing solvent waste.

     "Hazardous Waste Reduction Facts: General
 Commercial Printers" City of Santa Monica
  Department of General Services, 2  p.
     General pollution prevention tips for all
  types of printers.

      "Pollution Prevention Opportunities in
  Printing" USEPA Region 3, Oct 1990
      General pollution prevention tips for all
  types of printers.

      "Lithosraphic Ink Wastes: How to Reduce.
  Reuse,'and Recyle Ink Waste" SHWEC Waste
  Education Series, Aug 1995,6 p.
      Discusses ink management techniques
  including 2 case studies and some ink recycling
  services providers.

      "Waste Reduction Opportunities for Print-
   ers" SHWEC Waste Education Series, Aug 1994,
   4 p.                               ,  .
       Lists potential sources and types of printers
   waste and to waste and emission reduction
   opportunities for printers.

Case  Studies
                             of Reckon  Che.icoU in  Screen
   US E?A, 1995,4 p.

       Romo incorporated of
    wide variety of products'•'
                               ,:' Wisconsin is a commercial screen printer that produces a
                               '•• ^  baHners. pomt-of-purchase displays and original
                        M,out o. percent of the company's printing uses traditional solvent-
                        uses ultraviolet (UV) curable inks.

                             '» ,-  « prevention opportunities in the screen reclamation-
                      - r P X!sc S^° cre'n durability and the quality of printing, but
                      •eclamation is crucial to        oroducts the process seemed to
  aso requ,. - ,,-™ of expenii^ ^^^^T^ concentrated on ail three
  provide a large &w™\lo?n**"l^™£m cleaning), emulsion removal,and haze or
i   Poll°ution. through three strategies:
i)    : .   reducing the volume of all products used
!i" '   .   testing alternative application techniques

   ,       .       . .
   In-process recycling
                                                                    screen cleaning product
                                                                      . i weeks
                                                                      g and filterine system

         curement costs alone.           •   •   ,._  • .   •     •
         Alternative application techniques                    uosine the solvent onto the screen. •

             Forvears the screen^^^^^^^^£^°*



•ti '^e :
                                -reside .creen deanmg product. Romo was able to redu,.
                              a'ue.onebv -approximately 70 percent- Although the new
            ene .ind methyl ,>cbu  1 Wewne    PP          ^ ^ ^^ u pertomed
             xpene -SI 3 per ga o n v  ^ ^ucl for press.slde cleaning. Saving,

 S2.450 that harnessed the physical power
 emulsion remover product used on
 .uremi^ disturb K
 confident enough that
1 hmher pressure »l. 500
l amount of emulsion remover needed was
'  screen and creating U
           (It £/»w~~ ——
           pressure to reduce the amount of <    _
                vas concerned that the increased pres-
                ,esh. After five years of use, they were
                the mesh that they bought another even
               *00  Another way Romo reduced the
               U with water before applying it to the
               aver.  Formerly, employees dipped a scrub
                containers before bringing the brush to
                    adding a spray nozzle to evenly ™
"!  he emulsion remover onto the screen.
   company almost 53,800 per year

   Haze remover use change
              has ,ak«n »«
                remover precisely ». he pan of , he
                                                                 First the screen reclaimer
               i before applying emulsion,

       '   ....   ..                   Advantages
      Modification                ^      9.
   *'t  Sprayer-applicator systems
       W&shout booths
       Filtrat.on systems

        Recirculation systems'
        Distillation units
        Automatic screen washers
Minimize cleaning solution used,
reduce chemical waste at the source,
may decrease labor costs because
screen cleaning will be faster and eas,er

Minimize exposures and waste
Minimize cleaning solution used,
 recycle solutions
                                    Reclaim solvent for reuse
  Reduces air emissions
  of chemicals used, labor
                                                                         .             .
                                                                     for a|temMive c,eml.
                                    Cost of sprayer system
Expense of systems
Disposal of filter and/
or concentrate

 Expensive and pro
 hibitive for small
 printers.  Disposal of
 Expensive and pro- •
    • •   for small
                                                             l be

                          Boosts Productivity for Indianapolis
Apparel Decorator'
EPR! Journal, October/November 1994
 .                   .
 Materials Fabrication recently evaluated the Me g ' *™^£      Four ,R   els, each rated
 cunng ovens a, Logo 7, ,nc  . major   ^^^ were =,a,Ld through a

                                                                  savings of
! nearlv S900 per silk-screening machine.
     •           •   -  •
  Case Study 3
;  bcreenpnmmy «•'—	r-
1! and Massachusetts Office

.; September 1993

Th= facility is Printing a wide

                                                lhe regulatory environment that was
                                                                   -» -
  l! technpjogies.
                                                           _              miv

                                                              iwo uv
 and then' into
               the us. of water based technology.

  screen priming process.             ,              ,

  ;   The following a. SCM, recommenda-ions and wor, prac.ce
                                                                    for eftecttve

.   .-.-,- -=:, -.-:.
                                              on wo»r.fc«e
', laraef am
''   "' . of solvent based ink.

      The facim, did no. find ,h Jw-f*-"!* •%%^ S?i" Sh^hW
   system, but they are difficuk to dry.                                     ,   ^	
                          Case Study-Waste Water Issues"

    September 1993   .
         ply with state and. federal regulations,
                                                    products with both solvent and UV
                                             „„ .... screen printing operation was re-
                                             operations producing a waste water stream to  ^
                                                             to clean and reclaim       J-
                                                            ink removal and reclaiming. ||
         sys,em »as designed^, dlows for .
          X. This mm-maes the use or »«
                                                     teili.y. To ins.a.1 .hi. **. »a«r

                                    ~cre=n reclairu..on area has reduced.S9.000per>ear
       ion Prevention Opportunities in Screen Prin«ng

Operations:  A Case Study
     ,^iwuii>"£? r -
     • efficient use of cleaners

*'' .ndustries. which involves passmg the

!" through two or ideally three baths of cleaner
 i ltirouS"  .   .__ .  ..  TT,,, col vent (or nnse)
                                                   ln, requiring ctemiog (o, rinsmg,

                                               Fresh solvent (or rins=*a«0 ,s only
                                                               in the case of

  l! mple countercurrent system.                                         •    •   t d

  1 J— ^^
   ,i further review in the future.          -


  Case  Study 6
  Technology Alternatives for Streen Reclamation
  Design -lor the Environment Printing Project
 • US EPA      '.  .           ,        -            '•      .      '
'I S^lobiro down/cod torn EnviroSense h,p://e,ine(.gov/)  -
This case study focuses on
                     how the DfE eoncep s can
                                                                   reclamation.   .
                                                         ,, change both the types and
   sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) spray. -

      This case study presents:         '                                     '-,..-'
 ,,-„ Oescnptions of two commercially avai,ab,e ,echnolosies ,ha, can reduce a factiuy, Usai8

 11 of traditional solvent-based ink removers.   . _     . _.                                    ,
 !i :   ,)Descrip,ionofa,echnoiogXnowunderdeve,opr,en,,hatcouldfunherreduc,,h=cos,s


 I    3, Comparative cos, performance and risk .nfonnation for three reclamat.on ,=chno,og,es.

 ',!'•'   ThecOstsandHs^reachoftheth^^e^hno^-comp^

    risks of a traditional screen rec'ama"O"^b   . sodium periodate solution as the emulsion
    consists of lacquer thinner as the in* remo   '/cvcbhexane b)end as the haze remover. These
    remover, and a xylene/acetone/mineral spi  .    .^.^^ they.were commonly used in screen
    chemicals  were selected because ^^^.^ }| WM ^^ lhat these chemicals were
                                         2,127 in: (approximately 15 ff) m size.
      IT I                           ,
     High Pressure Screen Washers
       . TWO high pressure screen — o^
     of one^ysiem was evaluated ,n a pnn shop as part ^of the U          screen     M
     pressure washers typically work as follows. Exces * mk ,s :^          f .$    ,ied and aUowed
     No ink,emover is »PP»W^^^A^Tte»S one minute. The ink and stencil are
        work, typically for anywhere fro"srled L both sides of the screen at a pressure of
            are formulated ,o allow
                                                  .    =         ^ manufilcwr=rs also
                typically disposed of as hazardous

     •• — - — -
. nsks associ
      ic solvents. *ere
                                              jt this system were notably lower'
                                              reclamation chemicals, particularly with
                                            pressure screen reclamation system, health
                                                 '  the reclamation chemicals. Dermal
                                                                 _   .   •--] risks from
                                                                           high pressure
.  printing' facility where the technology
  'performance was very good. On screens wuh
5! r  •:.  .   .	..icinn residue on tne sci
                                                       w«er-based inks, the stencil dissolved
                                                            ^ ^^^ ^ complgtely
    in- in size, the cost estimate for the h.gh Press^            Using the- same assumptions, the
    ^compared to that of «^^^£^E7 per fcreen: 30 percent more that
    estimated reclamation cost using the tradition* I sy i                     labor cQSts for lhe

                    *ash. with the greatest             ^nslM) account for just 12
      complexity 0f.

          The bas, component or,he                          .

            A m manual application of the traditional screen reclamation chemicals, the DfE

 volatile orzantcs-used in solvents (mineral spin  and ac^™5 of the chemicals remained
 as 70 pe^  - Al*6ujh the ^
 high, these risks could be «^.dR^^f fJLval only, the risks associated with
                        rema,ned the same as the traditional system'.risks for these steps.
                         are several
ers were not conducted as part of this project.            .
             Screen Printin,^
  ing that the washers were ^^^^n^aMmatic screen washer ranged from alow
  claimed per day. Screen reclamation^ ^SlotlsA reclamation. The largest cost component.
  of $4. 1 3 to S 10J4 compared to SA27    t  ad uc^al    ^     ^ ^.^^^ ^ savings  f


                 to its capacity of over 100 screens per day..
  Sodium Bicarbonate Spray

     A sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) spray technc^y
  Prinung Project to determined it is P
  technology/This technology   curren
  .teflon from metal P
  hazardous cleaning
 ' appears to be a promising
 : ' soLm bicarbonate spray technology
  conducted a one-day site visit to
 .  were inked 'with three types
                                                            *** as paint, grease, or
                                                       .   ^       ^ ^       g

                                                           in other applications, it
                                                                    -f    _
                                                      for screen' reclamation. DfE staff
                                                       -  ^  Three imaged screens
                                                   P^ced inside an enclosed cleaning
                                                   the sodium bicarbonate spray. No

spray for screens with solvent-based ink and ^™«        m ., area took approximately 15
 n stringy rolls- and ,nk flaked of f noher thand ^d.^     ificmt haze or ink res.due sops.
minutes to clean. Following this cle^ng. ^e were e      ^ ^ ^ ^ damage of a  _
^r^S^                          No evaluation of sabse.uent use of

 these screens was made.
                                    .    i
     Based on these limited demonstrating ,
  research, this may be a promising new sc« n
  needed to clean the screens faster and
  Jhvsical support behind the screen great y
!  suggested as a means of impiov,ng emul  w

I                                   C
Ji  performance can be given.
       •      '
                                             results indicate that with further testing and
                                                    technology. Some modifications are
                                                 my of screen damage. For example, the
                                                . stress on the mesh. Use of hot water was
                                            ioval Other modifications may include de-
                                             modifying the delivery rate and pressure of^the
                                                 .      ,_ _, u»f«,» , H^finitive evaluation ot
       Sta. d. «"««-
   assumed to the cost of equ.pmcnt
   The eq uipmen, used in fe performance
   S-P-.OOC ' 
              "._  r.^..~s Corked together, to evaluate-jUername screen reciarriati-cn sr:duc:
            >• ^aU^ndir.:e,cherriicai:Nystems--were evaluated: Most"svstems;; included an
            '.an emulsion remover, and a haze remover,;           ;•.           ,-
  cost of a traditional system.

                           .and ermronmental risks ,f the alternative system compared to a
                            system; arid the cost of the alternative system compared to the

   substitute for their current reclamation products.
I) systems, as with all
  reclamation system
                                                 cts are .masked. The actual trade name for  - ;
                                                 or in the final project report. Trade names

;   ' able, some manufacturers asked
   .     O
 :  MUblished using a 'rad'llOTal'sol*"''
 :[ US5d in .he comparison cons,S,s of '
 !  solution as the emulsion remove, and a
 ,  the haze remover. These
                                           ^     ,h= ink remover, a sodium periodaK
                                             "o*/minVr° I ,pin,S/cvdohex3non. blend ns
                                                ^'^'een printers indicated they were   '
                                                ec» ^.^^ it was

                                             . s,reens pe, da, each      in= in si.e.
      Promising Performance
    -    performance was evaluated in
    Technical Foundation's laboratory
    field demons,,a,,ons a, volunteer pnnters
                                                      dedrformance information' under
                                                  ?       ^monslrated in.lwo or three
     operating conditions.   .

     Laboratory Testing

         DurinB laboratory testing, three
             o'ne tha, had been inked
                                                                  lication, sevens were

 .Sv$!e~" °"                          pr were required to remove the solvent-based ink. The
     T*o apphcaiions of the Chi inkhre?wo screens UV-curable and watered ink), however.
,  ink dissolved more eas.ly on the other ™£™^ applying the ink remover. On two of
   System Epsilon                              .  was easy to 'use, and rinsed clean of
    stains of all three screens.

  I On-Site

   ! follows.
    i !r»k Remover Performance
                                                    some of the workers who    .,
                                                               ". Facility D  j
        Haze Remover Performance
System Cbi
                                               .     , .  manufacturer recommended apply-

       .. . :_ ,,-,,-  . -„ r-.rnoAer.iand a,haze.remover v.as net.needed. AL Facilii;- C. ±^a;e   .
 ' t" "'-".^"^-7'ne h'az- howler, a shost.l'nuge remained on the.screen-fhat ccnunuea ;o
 i,y.^ o-^:r ume/For l(£ht haze, the haze remover was acceptable, but m most cases, this tacduv
 needed 'to de'haze the screen again with another product.   ,    .             •   .         •
 System Epsilon-    '           ,  .  •  -    ,    •      •• . •
     Both facilities evaluated the haze remover performance as "acceptable." and similar in
 efficacy to their standard haze removers. '      •   •.
 Overali Evaluation                                   .
 System Chi
!l- printing operations.
'• System Epsilon
 1  pnms Mhyl^d ^™*™^^^^L^^ ,hese d.fferences.
    Reduced Risk
    traditional system.
    Cost Savings                                                          M
     ceduce their costs for screen re^amat.on by switch m> o an ^ ^ J y.    u        included
     alternate,systems were compared to .osts of -^^'^onal and alternative

      traditional system ink remover only.  ,

li SreeTas recorded by employees.
;i       '  ,     .          ,
ii System Epsiion       '     ffom $6 27 tq S3.08/screen. This |l

 •  -           Overview

    Flexographic printing uses a printing plate
made of rubber.' plastic, or some other flexible.
material. Ink is applied to a raised image on the
plate, which transfers the image to the printing
substrate. The fast-drying inks used in
flexography make it ideal for printing on materi-
als like plastics and foils. This makes
 flexography  the predominant method used for
 printing flexible bags, wrappers, and similar
 forms of packaging. The soft rubber plates are
 also-well-suited to printing on• thick, compress-
 ible surfaces such as cardboard packaging. Inks
 used in flexography are usually eit.herater-
 based or solvent-based (Pferdehirt.
     The print area or image
  consists of a raised surface,.
  known as relief printing,
  that can be inked and
  pressed onto the substrate.
  Non-image areas are below
  the printing surface and do
  not reproduce (Price, 1994).
  Both sheet-fed presses and
  web presses are used in
   flexographic printing. A
   diagram for flexographic
   printing is shown in Figure
 .  9.    '  ••'  •   '  '  .

  .   •  All original text,
    pictures, and illustrations
    are photographed to convert
    them into the proper
    positive or negative films to
    make the plate which
    reproduces the image on the,
     substrate: This step in-
     cludes the use of photo-
     graphic chemicals, paper,
     and film. The plates are
     made photomechanically,
     using a flexible material
 such as plastic or rubber, and coated with.solu-
 tions to make certain areas insoluble in water.
 Wastewater from this process may contain acids.
 alkalis, solvents, plate coatings, and developers.
 If Using metal plates, non-image areas are etched
 with an acid solution-ihat result in high-concen-
 trations of heavy metals in the waste water: If
 using rubber or plastic plates, no metals are
 introduced into the waste water. Ink is applied to
 the image on the plate. From the plate ink is
 transferred directly to the substrate.  Wastes
 associated with this process are waste paper.
 waste ink. and cleaning solvents. Air emissions
 containing VOCs from inks and cleaning sol-
  vents are important waste streams (Price. 199-li.
Rubber/\  / Anilox
                                   Figure 9.  Principle of Flexography


         p           plates,

,nks. and hydrocarbon solvents. as w
 (Shapiro. I993a)
    ure wuh processor and dryer/light Urn
units. Liaht finishing via UV sources w.th
advancedautomation and computerized controls
ensures accurate platemaking and reduced
operator handling. These systems work wen   .
with a solvent-reclamation unit i
    Water-based inks have been used most
  ^"1***inUO WQStCS RO***e            .   r;—A fh»*ir

      1 hazardous wastes (Shap.ro, 1993a).

                Plate  Preparation
             .based solvents and other more accept-
   particularly troublesome with frozen

      (Thompson. 1994).
      Systems (Shapiro. I993b),

       tendency to bridge. Pnn«n^ P       ^
       using ceramic an.lox cyhnde« an j ^
       release the ink more read ly toth
       Good ink trapping msures gooa j ^ ^^

               -    aiachol. i.e.. increase warm
a:r moemr.:.  Enclosed ink s>stems and ink
temperature control can reduce arnine loss and  ;
retain the color strength at the  original viscosity.
\Vater-based.inks dry in a 3-step process; water
evaporates from the ink. amines must leave the
ink for the ink to have water resistance, and the
polymer emulsion panicles must join to create a
film or network in the dried ink film. Water inks
are more stable,in high humidity conditions and
do not suffer solvent loss and-the resulting
 changes in viscosity that solvent inks do. To
 maintain good process printing with water-based
'inks, it is necessary to prevent excessive rne-
 chanical agitation, maintain suitable pH, keep
 temperatures below 110 "F.refingerpnnt press
 using water inks, and.change to ceram.c anilox.
 cylinders (Matthiesen, 1993),     '\
      A new class of water-dispersible polyester
  resins is finding application in water-borne
  flexographic printing inks and overprint lacquers.
  Unlike other aqueous ink systems .that rely on
  relatively hiah acid resins for water
  dispersibility, the new  polyesters require no
  neutralizing agents, such as ammonia or .amines.
  to maintain water dispersibility. The need to
  balance ink PH on  the press .is thus unnecessary.
   and odor problems associated with volatile
   amines are avoided. These polyester systems dry
   faster on the  substrate, allowing faster press
   speeds or lower oven  temperatures, and they
   exhibit rewettabiUty on the press (cylinders,
   plates, anilox rolls). This is all made possible
   because the linear aromatic polyesters contain
    sodiosulfo groups (Barton, 1991).

        Achievements in doctor blade technology
    have resulted in high quality flexographic
    priming and pollution prevention through
    controlled ink transfer from the ink container to
     the substrate. The average two-roll system with
     us ink fountain, fountain roller and amlox.roll is
     a veritable  open  reservoir, exposing large quanti-
     ties of solvents that are readily evaporated.  The
     chambered doctor blade halts this evaporation
      Ink enters the chamber from the reservoir or ink
      sump by a pump. The ink  is held in,the.manifoU
      area  wLa small area exposed to the anilox roll.
      A' doctor blade is positioned to shearoff the
 e\ce>i mk'.us the anilox vurn-s. re'.'-irry.r.i. -.« t. «.•.:_, ...
 ink to the chamber.  A second plastic or, rr.eul    -;,
..blade retains the ink within the chamber.  The  •
 chamber is sealed off completely so that no ink
 goes beyond the width of the unit. Anilox roll  -
 technology has advanced to accommodate the
 wear of the doctor blade. When cleaning anilox
 rolls, use automated systems with ultrasonic or
 high-pressure, and liquid cleaning (versus
 mechanical) to reduce damage to rolls or cells.

      Chrome-plated rods have been replaced by
  laser-engraved ceramic surfac.es. The blades
  now wear instead of the roller (Shapiro. 1993b).

      By using the chambered doctor blade system
  and other related improvements, the fountain and
  the ensuing solvent exposure and evaporation
  have been reduced. The only ink solvents
  evaporating are those carried b^ the anilox roll to
  the printing plates and then to the substrate.  No-
  matter what the press speed, the ink amount
   deposited using doctor blades will be consistent.
   Laser-engraved ceramic rollers wear better with
   the doctor blade in place. An innovative cham-
   ber blade system with automatic washing system
   (automatic blanket cleaners and .ink levelers)
   built  into the unit solves problems of ink rem-
   nants and reduces the amount of water previ-
   ously used to clean the printing system (Price
    1994 )' Some continuing problems with the blade
    systems include end-seal leaks, inks spitting-up
    from seals on impression drums, set up-and
    cleaning time on chamber systems, and part .
    corrosion with water-based inks (Shapiro,
     1.993b).       -       >
        Several new and innovative drying and
     curing technologies have been developed that  •
      educe energy costs and work well with new ,nk
     formulations (Wold, 1991). Infrared drying uses
     electromagnetic radiation and high energy
     conltrafion. It requires moderate capita, cost.
     and has high operating costs; it is often used ,n
     conjunction wiVh convection air dryers to provide
      the sensible heating load to the coated web.
      Radio frequency uses high frequency^ ectnca
      energy to dry water and solvent based coatings
    :Sighlrgy concentrate.  There.e high
      capital costs and moderate operating costs.

   >                      rad.o frequency
              Post Press
   Refer 10 the general pollution prevention
                   , 'letterpress uses a plate
  euerpress continues to decline dramatic
     The three tvpes of letterpresses in use today
                                     C-n'er tor Hazardous Material Research
                                     ,CHMR) 530-4296-000. 1994.
                                         Shapiro F. I993a. High-quality nexo can be
                                     ehv,ronmUuy responsible. FLEXO 18(8):68-
                                         Shapiro. F. 1993b. Pollution Prevention.
                                      Boxboard Containers. May 1993.

                                         Thompson, D.F. 1994. Green nexo: Con-
                                      verter can create competitive edge.  Paper. FUm
                                      & Foil Converter April 1994: 68-70,
                                          Wold JL.  1991'. Maintaining productivity
                                       with convection air dryers when switching
                                    '   fromSolvent based to water based applications
                                        nTuding between station C.I. flexo pres*.
                                       Polymers, Laminations & Coatings 1991. 3U3
                                                   Annotated Bibliography
                                                                        -based inks based
              References Used
                                                                     energy m=asur,
    on a new class of
    Laminations & Coaungs Conference
                  . D.
                            Water Based Inks
                                                                       Water inks can offer
    pfe,d=hir,.WP.  .993.^= Study: Ro"
                                                  ing water-based printing
                                                                         Kirsch, and G.P-
           Price RL. 1994. Printing & publishing
        indusuy pollution prevention and recycling.

         -., s  '.'.SEPA'RREL Environmental    .
          3nef: EPA,600,S;93;OOS.;   . ,'
      m< brief reports on an assessment at a plant
 manufacturing high density polyethylene product
 earners and printed polystyrene packaging -_
 labels  ' Most of the waste 'was generated .by the
• cleaning  of printing presses and printing plates.
 Opportunities  for minimizing solvent waste were

     Kirsch, F.W. and G.P. Looby.  1990.  Waste,
 • minimization  assessment for a manufacturer of
  printed plastic bags. USEPA RREL Environ-
  mental Research Brief. EPA/600/M-90/OI7.
      This is a report of art  assessment at a plant
  manufacturing - 1.8 million Ibs. of printed
  plastic bags for snack foods annually.  The
  lamination process waste could be handled -with
  an automatic adhesive/solvent mixing system.

      Matthiesen.D. 1993.  Water Based  Inks-
   Techniques in process printing. fTAPPI Second
   Annual Converting Short Course.  May  1993.
  '    'This paper provides a thorough overview of
   the phvsical properties of water-based mksjmd  ,
   how those properties affect print quality. Nu-
   merous recommendations are made on how to
   maintain and improve print quality.

        Parsons. R., B. Donovan, and M. Hayward.
    Ultrafiltration for the treatment of ink and starch
    wastewater in the corrugated container industry-
        This technical'paper describes the use of
 ,    Ultrafiltration in treating flexographic ink wash-
     water and dilute starch adhesive waste.
         Pferdehirt,W.P.1993.  Case Study:  Roll
     the presses but hold the wastes: P2 and the
     printing industry. Pollution  Prevention Review..
     Autumn'1993.                      . '      '
     ,    A review of the printing industry, including a
     description of the basic printing processes, is
      ajven  Waste reduction opportunities are ex-
      nlai-ned  along with a review of progress that has
     . been made in pollution prevention in the printing
      industry.                      .
          Price RL.  1994. Printing &  publishing
       industry pollution prevention and -recycling,
       Center for Hazardous Material Research
       (CHMR) 530-4296-000.
    Student manual prep-u=u ;•-•-•••-•	
Environmental Protection Agency  T-hu rranu.iv
2iv es the .history of the printing industry, and  '
statistics about-Illinois'printing establishments.
Each of the printing processes^ are explained and   •
diagramed. The common pollution prevention
and waste reduction opportunities are explained.

     Shapiro. F. 1993. High-quality flexo can be
 environmentally responsible. FLEXO 18<8):68-   ,
 71. The effects of environmental legislation and
 resulting compliance on the printing industry is

     Shapiro. F. Impact of hazardous waste on
 the package printer/converter. FLEXO
     Wastes generated at each step of the printing ,
 process are described, along with ways to
 . minimize those wastes.

      Shapiro, F.  1993.  Pollution Prevention.
  Boxboard Containers.- May 1993:             «
      Pollution prevention and waste reduction in
  the boxboard industry are discussed in relation to
  compliance with regulations and quality manu-

       Shields G.N.  1994. New method to clean
   aniloxrools. FLEXO 19(4):36-40.
       Automated cleaning'systems with multiple-
   nozzle spray bars, and liquid-through-hqutd
    spray cleaning are discussed.            ,

       Strutt, D.B. 1991... Photopolymers achieve
    new quality levels in flexographic P""^g-
    Polymers, Laminations & Cqatmgs 19V l. JJ'-
    "   The use of photopolymer printing plates and
     their impact on quality and printing speed are
        Thompson, D.F. 1994. Green flex* Con-
     verter can create competitive edge  Paper. Film
     & Foil Converter April 1994: 68-70.
         A brief overview of P2 and waste reduct.on
     opportunities in flexographic printing.

         WoldJL  1991. Maintaining productivity
      with convection air dryers when switching from
      Tolvent based to water based applications mclud-

UmD *tr z V*"rin.-"ecologies are res,ev,ed.
The techmcal aspects of drv.ng. including heat
transfer and e^ aporation rates, are presented
along wuh actual data from test drying stanons.

       Related industries

  Hang M. 1994. Alternative Plate Process-
 ing. aEXO 19(1): 50-52.
Case Studies
                               wuh svater-^ashable plate systems
                        as alternatives co perchloroethylene washout

                           Mounsey, G. 1994. Alternative Washout
                        Solutions. FLEXO 19(4): 31.       .
                           The hazards of perc/butyl washout soluuons
                         and the benefits of alternative washout soluuons
                         are discussed.        '.,
             ^Hazardous Material in Wide Web

  ' ^xographk .^"9^^^

  !* USEPA RREL Project Summary.
                               . 1993.

   1 ^srissgsKSSSSS.

 Cose^tudy 2                                         /    _
 Achievements in Source Reduction and Recycling for Ten

  Industries in the United States

;j iiSEPARRETReport.  EPA/600/2-9W051. 1991      .            '.

     Amko Plastics. Inc., in Cincinnati, Ohio is a decorative printer for packaging of consumer
     Amko Piast.es.          ^ industrial packaging employing approximately 280 people.
                                to water-based inks, they have minimized their volatile

  ambient air' quality of the press room.
                                                  ' st°tions 10
                                                                          ...   I j
                                                              heated air onto the  ; j
                          gtween sut.v's'31 *^ '-*•"-'• f* ••----.      •   r              i

printed film (increased drying capability for water-  ase  m s         ...               .

,   redesign of in. metering sys^emsTor handling a higher strength in. and thinner applicat.on     ;;

..,  replace metal anilox rails, wHich were having their wear-life drastically reduced, with more     ;,

expensive ceramic rolls
   ceramic anilox rolls
                           from Flexographic Printing inks

                           -        -                   ' "Waste
                                               ^              ( j

             Greensboro to recycle used solvent

Case Study 4
Case Summaries of Waste Keauaiw  i
Waste Reduction Resource
'''        I^^^MT——~"^^"^^"
                        , Raleigh, NC, 1989
                      Jve teen redu«d by approximately 55

                      c          been more dlff,.
than surface-print inks.
               Red«dion at «. Meyer Company
 FT M v'er sSed ?rom solvent-based jn^1"^ ^omumce quality was un-

 S amount of water used.
 1   ,
   toS5.200                     ^^

Case Study  6
VOC Reduction at Hampden
Toxics Use Reduction Case Study, C201-1, 8/93
Massachusetts Office of Technical Assistance  -

 .equipment.              '                                  .".,''''..

    o   j  f nrf,hM 1C I acrylic cop»lym« tesin inks and coatings have fa* drying charac-
   : HarafKicn found that I C.I, acryuc co^ ^y                ^ fint £nergy Science5

 Brislics. ThemuUly sensu.ve H 1ms a"™Snology is also used to. improve drying. The

   Case Study 7
   A (UV) Cure That's Eco-Fnendly
   Graphic Arts Monthly, November 199 V.S6


Case  Study 8                 ion Case study
Tubed  Products, Inc. Usej^     , h of Massachusetts
Office of Technical Assistance^ Cornmonwe  ^^_____

     StUdy N0' 3^^	7'MA is a manufacturer of p I asuc squeeze tubesand
                             rwceutical. and household chemical market. About 40
                             Hubes wuh specific logos and information specified b

Trials wUh their firs, U
canllv reduced emissions,
dot dry on *= press, and
after Corking »llh coating
        «£ir first production , i™
                      less energy

                                        space. reduced w»,,e i
                                                  ^^j,, colors. In I97V.
                                              UV-curabie «b. coarings. -hey
                                              inks and coalings. La"'.. on-

                                                            for vu
  transfer mechanisms.
     The benefits of switching to

                                           Problems When
 Converting to Water
» F. Lamar Jones, Label America, Inc.
*'Flexo, July 1990
         *   *                  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^•^^•^^•^"^^

      —"	"^	    "^   '   ~-'-      • n^d but only with solvent-based inks.

   vt .:,..>= ,..- ,.---.--.•-•.•.- -- — ,    anowed us to "w-ork off thS inventory
•™c; t-ss 5^;^^- r-»' "^^r • tooli;"d:mk •
 UUU Ull>-^"'^	         : ,   , ;_|,c  -   .                 -   .
 tant. than heat: in the drying of water-based mics.

 , ...-j :„ ,^» nrpcsronm and large enough to accommoaaic u   v       _   .    d
                       the ink container. Residual ink in the pan, ouc*ei. anu
                         circulates through'until they are clean (about 3
                fij Label America. Inc. specializes in EDP labels, both pinfed
    Substrates - paper vs film. Label Amer  • ^ v         be rough. Ink cover-,
  and,heetfed,so the bulk of th< ^m. • ^   ^P P^ ^ ^ ^ proper pn  and
      .: With the SWilchtoJater-based inks, we had, make .ore use. fZahn cups .dpH

  meters to maintain the -ink quality.              ......
  i record of ink inventory
    Case Study 10
    The Spirit of Innovation
    Martha Ortmann
    Boxboard Containers
      Lawrence Paper decided to retrofit

          >      .
!heFla«^tem  The ,e, » stern ^-  ^'
more cfwn. and blade pressure , , *  erm.n
rolls are used as opposed to  mechanically ens
                                                    automatically. Laser engraved amtox
                                 u   M cv^tem used 30 to 40 Ibs. of ink per ink change
    Advantages of the new system: the oW sy«em used            ^ ^^ Qf .^

           lS^ no^^S "nutes versus an hour with the o« system; the

           liable, making repairs easier.
11  -       ---•• Institutes, Inc.
   million product carriers each year.

 Case Study 12                                       .
 Thinking Positive about Compliance Pollution Prevention

 through Process Improvement

 Fred Shapiro        •                    ._' - ^«n     -
 Polymers; Laminations & Coatings Conference: 315-320             .   •

j    A nexographic printer 'of stationery items and coating paperboard with overall solicT colors
Added in

purchased so
                                  ™ f  ^  ,     5d !Ch8duling of colors



     Gravure printing process is used for long
     runs of multi-colored, high quality jobs at
high press speeds/Examples of gravure printed
- products include art books, greeting cards,  ,.
advertising, currency, stamps, wall paper,
 wrapping paper, magazines, wood laminates and
 some packaging. Gravure printing is a direct
 printing process that uses a type of image earner
 called intaglio.  Intaglio means the printing plae.
 in cylinder~form. is recessed and consists of cell
 wells that are etched or engraved to differing
 depths and/or sizes. These cylinders are= usually
 made of steel and plated with copper and a light-_
 sensitive coating. After being machined to
 remove imperfections in the. copper, most      ;
 cylinders are now laser engraved Jn the past.
  they were either engraved using a;diamond stylus
  or chemically etched using ferric chloride which..
  creates pollution. If the cylinder was chemically
  etched a resist (in the form of a negative image)
was transferred to the cylinder before etching.
The resist protects the non-image areas of the
cylinder from the etchant. After etching, the
resist was stripped off. The operation is analo-
gous to the manufacture of printed circuit boards.
Following engraving, the cylinder is proofedttnd
tested, reworked if necessary, and then chrome  ,
plated (US EPA, J9S(p). Often corrections and
touch-ups are still done using the old process.

     In direct image carriers such  as gravure
 cylinders the ink is applied directly to the
 cylinder and from the cylinder it  is transferred to
 the substrate. Modern gravure presses have the  •
 cylinders rotate in an ink bath where each cell ot
 the design is flooded with ink. A system called a
 "doctor blade"  is angled against  the cylinder to
 wipe away the excess ink, leaving ink only in the
 cell wells. The doctor blade is normally posi-
 tioned as close as possible to the nip point of the
  substrate meeting the cylinder. This,is done so.
                                                               Printed image
              Impression clinder
       Doctor blade
                      Plate cylinder
      Figure 10. Principle of Gravure Printing

                   rut be tore :t
 .: .r.
                 e substrate ind the
                 i rollers drav./force the
  isiirc ircm HUI.H = -'J>»"' 'u"v-'-1        ,
,„„ cut of :he ceil cavity and transfer it to the
>ubstrate Figure 10).

   Gravure printers usually use solvent-based
,nks although use of water-based is increasing •
due to lufatorv issues. Processes that continue
to u e  ofvent inks can run considerably faster
 han processes that have changed to water-based
 nks The nature of solvent evaporation allows ,
 he inks to dry much quicker and allows for
 fatter press runs. This is especially true on
 mult -color jobs where the basic process color
 ThemeCMYK (cyan-magenta-yellow-black [or
 key]™' used to produce many different hues.
 Ses,and colors. This is commonly called
  process color printing.

             presses use the gravure process
HeaVeT^ers'for theVbod .ndu5cr%. foil,, and
rnetaihzed papers. Less common substrates are
cellophane, polvurethanes and tissues^ Coated
papers and board probably make up the bulk of
the more common printing substrates One of
the more popular coatings used is a clay coating.
This™ ati'ng'is generally applied when the paper
or board is manufactured. There are single.
double, one-sided, and two-sided coated papers.
The end use is generally decided by end product/
 customer specification and the manufacturing

    Engraved cylinders are stored by th? printer
 untifttfe job is scheduled on the press. Cylinder,
 (only one if a single color) are then mounted on
  he press and matched with the correct size and
 hardness of impression rollers. When all of the
 flinders have been mounted in the press, each
  printing unit is set with the correct inks and
  Sirs A proof is then pulled by the press crew
  "ometimes on a proof-press). Press^rooft; can
  be done on non-virgin substrates or obsole*
     er'and end rolls to reduce waste and pollu-
      Color adjustments and registration correc-
     ' are made. Once customer approval.s
 The basic raw materials used in
                  » remove excess

   Substrates have an impact on
                                      with new designs.
                                               Cylinder Preparation


 .'.'..'     •• • •-  ~~->. '- • ^rrrference o-f the  '-.-..
 ..,„._,.-  ---..-a, .-,•-.:'.;:'Ape.of press and the
^"•^at c' vneJe^iiH. if any.' '  • \    ..  .    ..-."•

 .   Dependina on the press, cylinders can be
 made of copper-plated steel oraluminum.  In
 preparation for plating, cylinders are heated in
 warm- water and then put into a muriatic acid   .
 bath that str.ps the chrome plating and rust from
 the cylinder.' They are then  rinsed clean. Steel
 cvlinders are nickel-plated to promote the
 bonding of the copper, and the aluminum cylin-
 ders are zinc-plated for the same reason. Alumi-
 num cv-linders are also  treated with cyanide prior
 to copper plating.  The final process after engrav-
 in-is To chrome plate eachcylinder and ready it
 for proofing (EPA/600/S-93/009). If the printer
 does not.make its own cylinders,.they are
  proofed at the manufacturer before shipment to,
  the printing company. During proofing, design.
  engravin- and color separation approvals are
                                                  underSiancUng.rr ihe
            Process Modification
    There are several methods'available to;
 address pollution prevention and waste reduction
 in wavure printing environments.  Each me hod
 should be evaluated for its practical application.
 both in cost and resource consumption. Caut.on
 should be used to ensure that a prevention
 proaram or waste reduction program is not
 discarded based solely on cost.  ,

      In conjunction with shallower ink pans,
  improved doctor blade technology results  in
  reduced ink usage.  Vapor recovery systems can
  be one of the largest contributors to reducing
  pollution in solvent-based operations. These
.  svstems  need to be matched to the specific
  environment and have been successfully earned
   out -in many printing companies, I" addition
   alternative  chemical solutions can significantly
   reduce pollution. Test runs and trial projects
   should, be-considered'when searching for safe
   alternatives.,              '.

       Printers need to develop partnerships with
    each of their major raw material suppliers..
    Within these partnerships there needs to be a
matched uith- materialise a'quatu> jirii^eu '   -
product is achieved;  Suppliers, have, technical
assistance available to their customers so an . ; ^
acceptable product can be manufactured with as
little pollution and waste as possible. Develop-
ment of partnerships with ink vendors is essential '
 so that use of the. technical assistance that the  ink
 and solvent suppliers can provide is used.
 Partnerships with ink vendors allows printers to
 take advantage of dn ink technician's assistance
 with "ink kitchens" 'that automatically mix inks
 to the correct color and quantity thereby reducing
 the opportunity for waste and pollution.

                 Post Press
           Equipment Modifications

-  .   There are many types of equipment modifi-
  cations that printers can use to 'help reduce
  pollution. The type and degree of modification
  depends upon the cpmpany goals, financial
  health, commitment to improvement, and
   availability of new technology.  Printing press
   makers have taken advantage of new technology
   and installed several types of process .improve-
.   ment controls on their equipment. After market
   items that improve the printing process are also .
   available to modify existing equipment. High
   temperature ovens, solvent and vapor recovery
   systems (afterburner) can be improved or modi-
   fied to reduce pollution.  In many cases the
    improvements used to reduce pollution result in
    increased manufacturing output that justifies the
    capital expenditure for these projects.  Any
    reduction in wasted resources will  improve the
    overall pollution prevention program.   :

                Process Modification
        The degree to which vegetable oils
     replace petroleum oils in inks to reduce VOCs
              n several things, including the type of
      drying temperature needed to set vegetable oil
      Inls will nonnally scorch the substrate and
                   Vegetable inks dry slower than

                                             Annotated Bibliography
      , ,„.".-  . • •• - x ;u jjntin: '.hat c.
     u*he ~nk  \c-^r«m papers hold the ink
                •    \ * (~\f~   \ rr* rtalriLlS'—^
in (nt£ ^LiO^ir*lt?i ^>0 s^-^s   vjv^.3 ***
compared to coated papers which normally nee
heat to dr. (he inks - thereby releasing >O^_
Sov L vWeuble based mks provide beneficial
pnnung propert.es-but dn slower than petro-
leum based inks.

     Water-based inks, while environmentally
 friendlv. pose their own special kinds of corr-
  ems in gravure printing. As a rulegate -
 based inks dry slower than solvent-based mks
 resulting in initial obstacles when making a
 switch to water-based.  They are more abrasive
 and cause increased cylinder wear and they
  require somewhat different engraving and
  etchL processes. Water-based mks tend to
  nav  surface adhesion  and lay-down problems
  that solvent-based inks do not have. Pnnung
  process adjustments are needed to maintain the
  quality of finished product.

      Some of the more common solvents used in
   solvent-based gravure Prmtl"^f "'i
    xvlene. methyl ethyl ketone  (MEK). methyl
    .^obutyl ketone. acetone, methylene chlonde

    their use should be considered.
   Duzmskas. Donald R. 1983. "The
Approach to Pressroom Ventilation in Solvent
Recovery." Gravure Research Institute. Report

N°' ^formation on how one company installed a
new ventilation  system for its seven rotogravure
presses and gives an in-depth description of the

     Norman, Edward C. 1987. "Recent Develop-
 ments in the Use of Foamed Aqueous Inks in
 Rotogravure Printing," Paper presented at the
 Annual Meeting o£ the Air Pollution Control
                                             This paper presents technical information on
                                          the use of foamed aqueous inks, which can lower
                                          VOC emissions significantly in rotogravure
                                          ooerations. Good basic information on this
                                          technique- author works for Foamink Company.
                                               Pferdehirt,W.P.  1993.  Case Study.  Roll
                                           the presses but hold the wastes: P2 and the
                                           printing industry. Pollution Prevention Rev.ew.
                                                       of the printing industry- including a
         References Used

   Fleischman. M., Kirsch. F.W., and Looby,
G  199  • Waste Minimization Assessment for a
Manufacturer of Rotogravure Printing Cylin-
ders " US EPA Risk Reduction Laboratory,
EPA/600/S-93/009.  1993.
     Pferdeh,a.W.P. 1993.  Case Study: Roll
 itw nresses but hold the wastes: P2 and the
 pHn^mdusto, Pollution Prevention Review.

 Autumn 1993.
     • ic EPA 1990. "Guides to Pollution
  Prevention; The Commercial Printing Industry.
  CS EPA Office of Research and Development,
  EPA/625/7-90/008. August 1990.
       •Rosen, D.R. and M.R. Wool. 1986. "Micro-
    processor Control of Rotogravure Airflow.
    Office of Research and Development, US EPA.
    EPA/600/2-85/068.             .
        The  report discusses the technical and
     economic viability of using m«°P^f*£['


     ,- • ....  3   .-  •n.pre'.enuernn ine COITK
—'-j-,1"?":^.-.:^ Industry." L'.S. EPA Risk,   .   •'.
R^uo'"^ En.-me'enns Laborutor> and Center  .
to'r Env ircnmental. Research Information,  1990.

~~  PThis report covers basics of all printing'
 wastes and pollution prevention efforts; includes
 worksheets for conducting an assessment or a
 printing facility.  •   .   .       .    •

              Related Processes
     Jendrucko. Richard J., Thomas N. Coleman,
 and Gwen P. Looby "Waste Minimization  .
 Assessment for Manufacturer of Gravure-Coated
 Metalized Paper and Metalized Film" Environ-
 mental Research Brief, US EPA Risk   uno
  Engineering Laboratory, Sept. 1 994,
.  94/008
      A waste minimization assessment was    . .
  performed for a plant that manufactures gravure-
  coated metalized paper and film. The team s
                                       report. Jetaliing r;nu;ru> ana- re.: :..,..,,= r.u-::
                                       indicated that a large quantio.  of unu-ej c;-V-r.^  '•,
                                       mixture is wasted. The greatest cost savings can  .
                                       be achieved by the plant through the installation
                                       of an automated system formixing and diluting
                                       coating mixtures.

                                           Fleischman, Marvin; Kirsch, F. William and
                                        Gwen  P. Looby, 1993. "Waste Minimization
                                       . Assessment for a Manufacturer of-Rotogravure
                                        Printing Cylinders/: US EPA Risk Reduction
                                           Documentation of a waste.minimization
                                        assessment with good information on the various
                                        plating processes used to manufacture rotogra*
                                        vure cylinders. Provides various minimization
                                        options suggested to this facility with associated
                                        savings in terms of estimated waste reduction,
                                        waste management cost-savings, raw material
                                        cost.savings. operating cost, total cost savings.
                                        ' implementation costs and simple payback.
   Case  Studies
     W«t! Szofion Assessment for . Monufarturer of
     Printed Labels
billion printed labels/yr. Steerprintmg
label patterns to be pnnted chromium       ^
About 75 percent of the cyhnders are clwn«J»
etched. Solvents used with ink ^^^
reclaimers. Spent reagents, filters, ctem^
Process wastewater and rinse water mt^
                                                              S &* » P™< *? lfls'
                                                              rernainder are mechanically
                                                       »     ^.    recovered and sold to
                                                             shaped offsite for disposal.
                                                            -    dTstillation. The team's
                                                           m  waste other than water and

     •» -3
                     — Tevcocrar or
                                             oss. -e' c-.c. sav-gs
                            ond reuse; net ohnual saving, 55,016
Case Study 2
ii Case Study 3

f Case Study:  A Gravure Printer

il Connara/ nerve,           _i;—.» Rovievi
  c  '    1995  Pollution Prevention Review	—

',  ^'"1	!	.	 ter worked with the New Jersey Technical
     adjust the co   .         nprcent solvents.

     u, the vinyl contains 70-80 percent         	       	  _, ^,,,, the overall

                  '''. Changing'rne Press Was'ri procedure
                             doctor blades *.ere "washed down" between production
                                             tn  a.ls for to re- ,„ ,nk. The
        '      •   ofnnemDlovee  CSI introduced a new cleaning procedure that reduced
                                     saved by eliminating, wash down resulting in a
  cost savings of $440 per year.    .        ,      .. •.•

                  Switching from TRI-listed to Noniisted Solvents
                   ,     L:,ifh led CSI to change the 'solvents used to make ink for the.
      Concern about employee health led CS\ to change              cyclohexanone and
   strike-off press. The         ^^^S^^sion,' from the room where the
                                                             -        '
   a solvent which is a
   (Pnmsolve®), was added to   '
   eventually replaced the PMA ymh
                                introduction of PMA. a glycol ether acetate. Later
                                          and dipropylene glycol methyl ether
                                          r press cleaning. The company
                                          cure also an unlisted solvent. By
cSyipproximately $3,370 per year.                  ,     ,  ,
     associated fugitive emissions.

    : year.
                                Other P2 Activities

                                        been coverea •Mi
                                     •..        •
                                     ™duce emi5sions ftom
 open ink surfaces.

 I; _._j..-,;«n production totals, job breaK-aowns.au        _       	.—.	:

 H Excessive Zinc Discharge

 '1 Toxi
     The ««. wa

                     v^~^-— ;hj; kettles ar_	
          .  _	-,n-rja>  Copper concentration from these cleanups ere ce;c ^ -^^~:
:'~^~ •  CMU^'M- -ne'dilutionL Colors and earners were tested for zinc and copper cement
Su^'^uosutute'could be found for;the copper pigment, segregated waste water treatment ,
u possible .temporary solution..    ,         '               .-'_.,
                              ,    Water Conservation  '

     All leakin-hoses and faucets were fixed, automatic shutoffs were installed on all toilets.
     All teaK-lux IIU3C3 uu*u ifc*«                                  -^_J .._.« «««*^/*t onnlintr U
             -                        ...       —'•-•'lines and non
      reduced average
130,000 gallons); nonproduction days h
the significant ii
                                                                       ed'Hampden from   :j
                                                     continued-to seek substitute chemicals



Appendix A
General  Printing Regulations

      section is
                        Clean Air Act (CAA)
                            Air Act the Environmental Protection Agency has the
                     m cooperation with state and local governments .to er

  of the act.           ,   :    •       '      .    „    -, •   '• ' •  •        • .  • -

      Title I Provisions for Attainment & Maintenance of National Ambient Air Qualify
                  •   ,:         Standards   '

                                       ity that are applied throughout the regions
                                         where additional air control measures
                                           were established for the following six

                £211^          ;.  Primsr^^^
                                  0,120ppm (235 ig/m-')( I-hour average)  •

                c!ZnMonoxide       9ppm(lOmg/nY) (8-hour average)
       '   '         '               35ppm (40 mg/m3)(l-hour average)

                Paniculate Matter (PM-10) ' 150 \g/rn> (24-hour average)
                                  50 \g/m3 (annual arithmetic mean)

                Sulfur Dioxide        0,40 ppm (365 lg/m^4-hour average)

  '"''.'      ••-.-                   0.03 ppm (80 Ig/m1) (annual arithmetic mean)

                Nitrogep Dioxide   \   0.053 ppm (annual arithmetic mean)

          ,              ,           1  5 Ig/m' (arithmetic mean averaged quarterly)
                 Lead         .

  .    ..n-^S,^,.^^^^,^.^
    While pnnters are not commonly producers of ozone. ^     ^ Q    Therefore, in -printing

        ^                                                 :

                                          t\ j> located man-ozone non-atu\n;ment ire- ^ ."-
                                             hiahest parts per million ippm) reading taken o'-er
^.a^tiivj:;.;"  .'« • «•*•••'- •- -—-       s wuhm these resions are then classified as to v.  et er
jn> :i-h,>ur ?enod for 'hat region. ^eb     Qn [he botn the s,ze of the facility-w.de em.ss.ons
they are mator  A major source is derm          .    u  if any firm has the potential to emit (PTh)
and the categcr> of the nonaitamment ^co;asidered ./major source. where potential to ^^the
                    lg the ambient ozone concentrations.

    Title II Provisions Relating to Mobile Sources

     Not specifically related to the commercial printing industry.

     Title III Hazardous Air Pollutants
           , „ .r™. m a
«,despr«d effcci or the wildhfe.
                                                       ion of environmenml quality ov«r a large
                                                       ievab, C0n.o, S,anda,ds for
            Cadmium compounds
            Carbon tetrachloride
            Chromium compounds
            Cobalt compounds
             Ethyl benzene
             Ethyl glycol
Glycol ethers
Hydrochloric acid
, Isophorbne
Lead compounds
 Methyl ethyl ketone
 Methyl isobutyl ketone
 Methylene chloride
                                                             Polycyclic organic matter
                                                             Propylene oxide
                                                             2.4 Toluene diisocyanate
                                                             U .2 Trichloroethylene
                                                             Vinyl Chloride
          Title IV Acid Deposition Control
          Does not directly relate to the commercial pnnting industry.

          Title V .Permits •                    '

      ,  ''      _..-• -- -..Mater. requirements-. a> ^ell as. .in;. antioipa^d :.^\^~:r.\- ..:-: .--.  -
"•    "'   '     ^m oermH term ,s f,U.>ear>, The pernm mu.t fully detail all em.-.cn  -
                   •*                   method to demonstrate compliance. In ocher ^cra>.
.,mpl,ance with record keeping anidmomtonng..        ,                      _

                                     are the potential to emit rather than the actual emissions.
 ses to determine the time -- --^.       [   ^edpe^uill include all air require-
 operations may c^« "^Sute^?ssion monuonng programs, emergency provisos.
                 o-sS^S^ionUmU, Permit conditions „,! be appUcable to the source
 category rather than on the individual facility.  .     -                               .    -    ^
   •Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection               -   .                          ;
                ,f „- CAA
  chteroftaorocarbons (CFCs, and :«*« S™°S^° ^.S h r= imcrta s«toi«K. for Class I
                                Clean Water Act (CWA)
   Biolo.ici integrity, of *i >»<*»» ^"^ ± sl'immab    AU discharges into
                                    ollutants that result m to<,c
                          • H Pven if no wastewater is produced onsite. If any storm
Often, an NPDES pernnns required e en f no  *         J     a permit will be necessary.
  comes tnto contact wuti mdustnal activ ty or co             ^^ intermediate products.
          w^er mil be emermg .h. scwer
              Carbon tetrachloride
               Hydrochloric acid
                Propylene oxide
                Xylene  (mixed)
, 1000
                  Occupational Health and Safety Act

   requirements.                               .                 •

           Resource Conservation  and  Recovery  Act  (RCRA)
                                            '     '   I the difference between hazardous
.                                 -o,c,ueS,
anklima.mng petroleum or o,h« hazardous subs,ance
daL mining; and
injection, damping.
                                            any solid waste or hazardous waste into or on any
                                              Ltt 0, any constituent thereof may enter ,h«
                                              ,«, .,
; waste.  It defined hazardous waste as a waste
 concentration, or chenncal physu^ o ^
 increase in ^^'^.^^
 pose a present or fu ure hazard to human
 Transported, disposed
 hazardous due to us i
• document 40 CFR Pan 261
 quired that the,waste generator
  Wastes are ! classified as ^.p
 -K (specific waste sources),or types P
  are acutely hazardous
                                        or a  *              a   , } cause or contribute to any
                                                    Qf incapacyitating reversible, illness: or (2)
                                           or the environment when improperly treated, stored.
                                                              wa$te w ^ class,fied ^
                                                 o" ox.c characterisucs. In addition. RCRA
                                                                without testing. It is'
   anv changes which affect their properties (
         ic wastes that-occur in several industries), type
         wastes that are intended to be discarded and
     In 1980. the EPA adopted rules stating that any
     to be considered hazardous ("mixture rule").
               wastes are considered hazardous despite
•derived from rule").
                          Contaminants Found in the  Printing Industry

                        Barium              Silver   "
                        Chromium           Tricholoroethylene

                        Carbon tetrachloride Vinyl Chloride

                         Methyl ethyl ketone
                         Spent solvents (solvents with a FP<140 F (mineral spirits)

                         toluene, alcohol, xylene

                        Listed Wastes Common in the Printing Industry

      above solvents.                                •        .                    •

U019 Benzene
U2U Carbon tetrochlonde
U055 Cumene
 U069 Dibutyl phthatate
 Un2Bhylacetote          .
 U359 E'hanol, 2-ethoxy
                           u i  .h«r
 U359 Bhylene glycol monoethyl ether
  U 122 Formaldehyde
  U \54Methanol
                                 'uJifK -trach'.oroethvlene.
                                 U226 Methyl chloroform
                                 uoSOMethylene chloride
                                 y ! 59 Methyl ethyUefone (MEK)
                                 , , 6 , Methyl isob^, ketone   ,
                                 ^ ^ Q Tetrach,oroethy,ene (perchloroethylene)
                                 U220 Toluene
                                  U223 Toloene diisocyanate
                                  U228 Trichloroethylene
                                  U043 Vinyl chlor.de
                                  UQ4J   y

               I . dichloroeihytene bromoform
              . i • ***
               Generators are
                                              at least 1000 kg
                                                    w ^ ^ exce ding U          ^^

                  rV senemtis murf s.h.p Bastes otfwuhm 90 daw.   •;-,        ,,     ,

                  „    f status are requ.red'to meet certain rules regarding the storage of
   All generators,regardless of status, are/eq ^   lnH,|,d for hazardous waste in sealed containers
              .                          ae.

      Ail wastes must be .torec «^ a ^              tofTransp0rtaiion-tequiretnenis  A


disposal facUity and require the necessary permu.    .             .-   .

            ••   '    '•'«.   •  r.fcrR A is the concept commonly known as the "Cradle to
   Also included under Section G of JRCRA isme   ^P       £pA identification number ,„

Grave" rule. Under thjs rule, ^•^"J^^^ous- -aste produced. Prior to shippm^ a
order to allow the agency to monitor and tr^ck a r hairdo       P environmental agency. The  .

 Jnifonn Hazardous Waste Manifest ^^^^m environmental agency, the genera-
 manifest will have enough copies to ^J °^J and disposal (TSD) facility. An ^du.onal
 tor, transporter, and operator o the «"^J^ generator and the state environmental agency
 copy is signed by the TSD facUuy ^nd returned^ ta ^ge     ^ ^^.^ ^ ^ ^ ongmal

 toPvyenfy receipt and ^^^ that th,y be retained forever.
 copy for a minimum ot tnree ycais,
    Compensation, and               lS Aet
   ssr^sssr^^                        .   .

       Cadmium and compounds
       Carbon tetrachloride
        Chromium and compounds
        Dibutyl phthalate
        Ethanol, 2 ethoxy
        Ethyl acetate
         Hydrochloric Acid
         Lead and compounds
         Methyl chloroform
         Methylene chloride
         Methyl ethyl ketone
          Methyl isobutyl ketone
          Phosphoric acid
          Propylene oxide
          Sulfuric acid
          Toluene diisocyanate
           1,1,1 Trichloroethane
           Vinyl chloride
           Xylene (mixed)
•  10
  • 1
- -5000

environmental agency.

    Oerr.icai Name  .
     - Hydroqujnone
      Propylene oxide
      Sulfuric acid
            Reportable Quantity, fibs.)    '  Threshold Plann.ng ijbs.)
                   100     '             50°    -'•
             :       100                 500-.
                     v     ••  -*'   "  500/10,000*
             , .     100               10,000
           •. '   '•  1000                100°            *
      Toluene 2,4 Diisocyanate
 Revised threshold planning quantity based on new or re-evaluated toxicity data
should be obtained from the state environmental agency
               cals Listed in the Toxic Release Inventory used in the Printing Industry
                                           Hydrochloric acid,
                      Ammonia ^
                      Methylene chloride
                      "Ethyle'ne glycol  .
                       Ethylene oxide
                       Freon 113
      •Copper phthalocyanmep.gmentswe.edel.^d.nl,^ I   ?1
                      Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
                                                          ^ risks ^iuuri with tox.city to
is the
                                 for the EPA to require testing oTch.nica,
   right to" test all new chemical substances to determme the.r tox tcuy              ^ notification
   before manufacturing, processing or .mport.ng ^^^^^commsrcS, and the use and
   L the EPA may regulate ^.^^^^^^ 8 is the requirement for all users
    disposal of any chemical substance ^^f^ °"'he EPA. Printers using processed Him
    and manufacturers to keep records ^^^'?^^ agency to determine repomng

                   ^                                                                  :  -.


Appendix  B
 Human  Resources

Connecticut Department of Environmental
Protection. Office of Pollution Prevention
79 Elm Street. 4th Floor            •
 Hartford. CT 06106-5127
 Phone: 860-424-3297
 Fax:  860-424-4060

 Connecticut Technical Assistance Program
 (ConnTAP)        "•   -.    '•
 50 Columbus Blvd.. 4th Floor
 Hartford. CT 06106
 Phone: 203-241-0777
 Fax: 203-241-2017          :

 ' Illinois Waste Management and Research Center
  One East Hazelwo.od Drive    •            .
  Champaign. IL 61820
  Phone:  217033-8940
  Fax: 217/333-8944

  Illinois Environmental Protection Agency
  Office of Pollution Prevention :
   P.O.Box 19276                  -     ;
 -  "OO Churchill Rd.               "     •
 •" Springfield. IL 62794-9276
••  Phone:  217-782-8700
   Fax: 217-782-9142

   .Indiana Department of Environmental Manage-'

    Offtce of Pollution Prevention and Technical-
    Assistance               ;
    100 N. Senate St.-
    PO. Box 6015   ••   '.
   . Indianapolis, IN 46206-6015
    Phone: 317-233-5626
    F.axf 317-233-5627 v    '
Indiana Pollution Prevention and Safe Materials
Institute         '.             .
1291 Cumberland Avenue. Suite C  '
West Lafayette, IN 47906  ,
Phone: 317-494-6450
Fax: 317-494-6422 ,

Iowa Department of Natural Resources
Waste Management Assistance Division
Wallace State Office Building
 DesMoines.IA 50319-0034
 Phone: 515-281-8941
 Fax:  515-281-8895   •   ,

 Iowa Waste Reduction Center
 University of Northern Iowa
 Cedar Falls. IA 50614-0815  .
 Phone:  319-273-2079
 Fax: 319-273-2926


  Maine Department of Environmental Protection
  Office of Pollution Prevention  „
  State House Station #17
  Augusta, ME 04333
  Phone:  207-287-28 U
  Fax: 207-287-2814
   Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmen-
   tal Affairs     .
   Office of Technical Assistance
   100 Cambridge Street. Suite 2109
   Boston, MA 02202
   Phone:  617-727-3260
  : Fax: 6.17-727-3827

   Toxics Use Reduction Institute
    University of Massachusetts Lowell

Lowell. MA
Phone  50$
 Great Lakes and Mid-Atlantic Hazardous Sub-
 stance Research Center
 Michigan State University Office  _
 A P 4 Research Complex-Engineering   ,
 East Lansing. MI 48824-1326
 Phone-.  517-353-9718
 Fax: 517-355-0250

  Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
  'Environmental Assistance Division
  P O, Box 30457
  Lansing. MI 48909-7957
  Phone:" 5 17-335-73 10
   Fax; 517-335-4729

   Grand Vallev State University
   Waste Reduction and Management Program
   1 Campus Drive
   AUendale. MI 49401
   Phone:  616-895-3048
    Fax:  616-895-3864

    Spill Control Association of America
    1000 Town Center. 22nd Floor
    Detroit. MI 48243
    Phone:  313-358-4400
    Fax:  313-358-3351
510 Lit'jAeue Rd.
St.' Paul. MN 55 1 55
Phone: 612-296-8643
Fax', 6 1 2-297-8676    .
Western Lake Superior Sanitary District
2626 Courtland Street
Ddiuth, MN 55806-1894
Phone:  218-722-3336 ext. 324
 Fax:  218-727-7471

 New Hampshire  .
 New Hampshire Department of Environmental
 Services. Pollution Prevention  Program
 6 Hazen Drive
 Concord, NH 0330 1-6509
  Phone: 603-271-2902
  Fax: 603-271-2456
     Minnesota Technical Assistance Program

      1313S  Fifth Street SE. #207    ,
      Minneapolis. MN 55414
      Phone  612-627-1910
      Fax: 612-627-4769

      Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance
       520 Lafayette Rd.. Second Flor
       St Paul. MN 55155
       Phone: 612-215-0242
       Fax: 612-215-0246

       Minnesota Pollution- Control Agency
      * Pollution Prevention Program
  New Hampshire Department of
  Services. Small Business Technical and
  mental Compliance Assistance Program
  64 North Main Street. 2nd Floor
   Concord, NH 03302-2033
   Phone: 603-271-1370
   Fax: 603-271-1381

   New Jersey
    New Jersey Department of Environmental
    Office of Pollution Prevention
    401 East State Street
    Trenton, NJ 08625
     Phone:  609-777-0518
     Fax:  609-777-1330

     New Jersey Technical Assistance Program
               -Institute of Technology
      323 MLKfr. Drive
      \1C Building
      Newark. NJ 07102
      Phone: 201-596-5864
      Fax: 201-596-6367

       New York
       Cornell Waste Management Institute
       Cornell University
       466 Hollister Hall              .
       Ithaca. NY  14853-3501        .  •
       Phone:  607-255-1187
        Fax:  607-255-0238

                               . ention-
 Canada (Ontario)
Buffalo.. NY  ;'-:02            '!
Phone: -lb-S53-63'0  "   . •   '!\  ^-,; ••  -
Fax: '~.!6,-858-7"13    ,

New York State Department of Environmental
Conservation,         -         :  '  .
Pollution Prevention Unit   ,,    •
50 Wolf Road  •    .
Albany. NY 12233-8010     :
Phone: 518-457-7276
Fax:  518-457-2570 .   ."     .

 New York State Energy Research and Develop-
 ment Authority
 2 Empire State Plaza
 Albany, NY 12223
 Phone:  518-465-6251, ext. 261    .    .
 Fax:  518-432-4630   •

  New York Manufacturing Extension Partnership
  385Jordan Rd.
  Troy, NY  12180
  Phone: 518-283-1010         :
  Fax:. 518-283-1212  '         '        -

  Cleveland Advanced Manufacturing Program
   (CAMP)            ";••.••'
   4600 Prospect Ave.
   Cleveland, OH  44103-4314
   Phone: 216-432-5300
   Fax: 216-361-2900     /      '

    Institute  of Advanced Manufacturing Sciences
 .   Center for Applied Environmental Technolog.es
    I 111 Edison Drive
    Cincinnati. OH 45216-2265
  •  Phone:  513-948-2000  '     .
    Fax: 513-948-2109     ,.    ;             ;

   • Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
    Office of Pollution Prevention
     PO Box 1049. 1800 Watermark Drive
     Columbus. OH 43266-0149
:    Phone: 614-644-3469
     Fax: 614-644-2329
 Environment Canada •          ,
 Pollution Prevention and Abatement
'•'25; St. Clair Ave. East, 7th Floor •  ;
 Toronto,-Ontario M4TIM2

 Automotive Pans Manufacturers Association
 195 The West Mall. 25 Adelaide St. E., Suite 516
 Toronto, Ontario M5C1Y7
 Phone:  416-620-4220
 Fax:  416-620-9730'•                      :

  Great Lakes Pollution Prevention Centre
  265 N.  Front Street, Suite 112   '
  Samia. Ontario N7T1 7X1
  Phone: 519-337-3423^
  Fax: 519-337-3486

  Ontario Waste Exchange (ORTECH)
  2395 Speakman Drive
   Mississauga, Ontario L5K1B3      ,     ,
   Phone: 905-822-4111 ext. 358
   Fax: 905-823-1446 •-•.
   Institute for Cooperation in Environmental
   437 Chestnut Street; Suite 715
   Philadelphia.'PA 19106
   Phone:  215-829-9470
    Fax:  215-829-9471

    Pennsylvania Technical Assistance Program
    Penn State University
   1  117 Tech Center
     UniveTsity Park, PA 16802
     Phone:  814-865-0427       .  ,

   - Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
     Pollution Prevention Program
     P.O. Box 8472                   ;
     Harrisburg, PA 17105
      Phone:  717-787-9647
      Fax:  717-783-3278  .     ,

     . University of Pittsburgh
      Applied Research Center    '
      Center for Hazardous Materials Research

phone  .1: :•<:*•? 3-•-•
Fax  ii:-5:6-555-

Canada  (Quebec)
Environment Canada Librae
PO. Box 10100            ,
Saint-Foy. Quebec G1U4H5
 Phonet 418-649-6545
 Fax: 418-648-3859

 Environment Canada
 National Office of Pollution Prevention
  351 Si. Joseph Blvd.
  Hull. Quebec K1AOH3
  Phone: 819-994-6593
  Fax: 819-953-7970
  Rhode Island
   83 Park Street
   Providence. Rl 02903-1037
   Phone: 401-277-3434
   Fax: 401-277-2591
    Craw ford Hall
    Chemical Engineering Department
    Providence. RI  02908
    Phone: 401-792-2443
    Fax: 401-782-1180

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
.Hazardous Waste Minimization Program
PO  Box 7921 (SW/3)
Madison, WI 53707-7921
Phone: 608-267-3763
 Fax: 608-267-2768

 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
 Pollution Prevention Program
 PO. Box 7921 (TS/6).
 Madison. WI 53707
 Phone:  608-267-9700
  Fax: 608-267-5231

  National and Regional  Groups

   National Pollution Prevention Roundtable
   2000 P Street. NW. Suite 708
   Washington. DC 20036
   Phone: 202-466-P2T2
   Fax:  202-466-7964

   National Pollution Prevention Center for. Higher
   430 E University; Dana Bldg.
    Ann Arbor. MI 48109-1115
    Phone:  313-764-1412

     Great Lakes Regional Pollution Prevention
     1 East Hazelwood Drive
     Champaign. IL  61820
     Phone: 217-333-8946
     Fax: 217-333-8944
     Vermont Department of Environmental
     vator,. Pollution Prevention Program
      103 South Main Street    •
      Waierbury.VT  05671-0404
      Phone: S02-241-3629
      Fax: 802-241-3296
       Solid and Hazardous Was^Educ^on Center
       University of Wisconsin-Extension
       Madison. WI 53707
       Phone: 608-262-0385
      Northeast Waste Management Officials' Assooa-
      129 Portland Street. 6th Floor
      Boston, MA 02114
      Phone: 617-367-8558
       Fax: 617-367-0449

       Printing Associations

       Printing Industries of America
        100 Daingerfield Rd.
        Alexandria. V A  22314

                                              Fax. .:01-3-C-0~00
 Pnnung Industry ot'Illmois.and Indiana Assoaa-
 tien  /    •  -    •     •        i.
 "0 East Lake Street            .     .  '  :
' Chicago.'IL  60601  ...       ^        .
 Phone: 312-704-5000
 Fax: 312-704-5025            ,    ' /  -

'Printing Industry of Ohio       '    ,
 P.O. Box 81,9                               '.
 Westerville, OH 43086-0819
 Fax:  614-794-2049     ,  -    '

 .Printing Industries of Virginia
  1108 East Main St.. Suite 300
 ' Richmond. VA 23219        ;
  •Phone:  804-643-1800          •   .-   , (  •'  •

  Printing Industries of Metropolitan Washington
  7 West Tower               ','-,.-"
   1333HSt.,NW         .        .
   Washington, DC 20005  .                   .
   Phone: 202-682-3001                 ,    .

    Printing Industries of New England
    10 Tech Circle      ,                .'
   'Natick, MA 01760
    Phone: "508-655-8700,
    •Fax: 508-655-2586  '         '      .

    Graphic Arts Technical Foundation
    4615 Forbes Ave.
    Pittsburgh, PA  15213-3796
    Phone:- 412-621-6941     .      •
     Fax: 412-621-3049     •   •.  •

     National Association of Printers and Lithogra-.
     phers      •.             ..'••.•
     1 West Tower
     ,1333 H Street. >W .     .'.•'•   . '"  "     -  :
     \Vashirieton. DC
    . Phone:  202-682-300V             ,

      National Association of Printers and Lithogra-
      780 Palisades Avenue
      Teaneck.NJ 07666     ,     ".'•••.'.'•.
Grav.ure ,

Gravure Association of America
 1200-A Scottsville Rd.                  .     .'
Rochester. NY "14624'' '
 Phone:  716-436-2150
 Fax:  716-436-7689

 FlexograpHy     •.

 Flexographic Technical Association
 900 Marconi Ave.
 Ronkonkoma, NY  11779   ,
 Phone:  516-737-6020                       ,

 Flexographic Technical Association
 210 Stephen Street
 . Levittown. NY 11756               <
  Phone: 516-935-7241
  Fax: 516-935-1460

  Screen Printing                         ,
  Screenprinting and Graphic Imaging Association
   International (SGIA)
   10015 Main Street       ;
  • Fairfax, VA 22031
   Phone: 703-385-1335
.   Fax:  703-273-0456   .

   Other Associations .             .

   . In-Plant Management Association
    1205 W. College Ave.
    Liberty, MO 64068
    Phone:  816-781-1 HI

    National Association of Quick Printers
    401 N. Michigan Ave.
    Chicago, IL 60611
    Phone:  312-644-6610          .

     Environmental Conservation Board of the
     Graphic Communications Industries
     1899 Preston White Drive
     Reston. VA 2209lr4367
     Phone: 703-648-3218

      National Assoc. of Printing Ink Manufacturers

   rucn. NY  .  ?>
Phone- jl.--i3?-.^-v<

Nanonai A^cut.on of Pnnung Ink Nlanufaccur-
 Phone;  201-283-9454

 American Institute of Graphic Arts
 1059 third Avenue
 New York. NY  10021
 Phone:  212-752-0813

  American Newspaper Publishers Association
  The Newspaper Center
  1 1600 Sunrise Valley Drive
  Reston.VA 22091
  Phone: 703-620-9500

   National Association of Photographic Manufac-

   lSU50Mamaroneck Avenue. Suite 307
   'Harmon. NY  10528-1612
   Phone: 914-698-7603

   lnwmauonul Digital Imaging Association (IDIA>
    seOJRoanne Way. Suite 608    .
    Greensboro. NC  27409
    Phone; 910-854-5697
    Fax; 910-854-5956
     mtemauonal Association of Printing House

     Phone: 612-560-1620

     Waterless Pnnung Association
     PO Box 59800
     Oucago. IL 60645
      Phone; 312-743-5677

      GraPhtc Arts Education and Research Founda-

      tion            .     .
       1 899 Preston White Drive
       Reston.VA 22091
   •    Phone: 703-264-7200

Appendix C
Electronic Resources
Printing Web Sites

Printers' Notional Environmental Assistance Center
   ^nrl .igu.umc edu/pne^pne^hraK      ^   ^
   PNEAC is joimly sponsored by WMRC .W         t  i
                                                      Foundalion. and
                                            infomM,on abou, ,h= en»,ron-
                                                  environ.,, .
  GATF Homepage
                           home page provides information about GATF member**.
                 nica, Founda,ion
  Workshops, products, servcies. NSTF scholarships. e,c.

 "PIAHome Page                    ,  .    •       .   .          '
  S^t^of 'A^-lK-ne page provides inform.ion about PIA^embe^p and
  search features to locate local PI A members.   ;

  NAPL Home Page                               ^
  !£S£3S£?££ and Li^raphers ho™ pag« describes NAPL. .ists-NAPL
  lTsour.es. equipment vendors^ manufacturers. e,c.

   SG1A Button Page
    |GIAm"mb«Ship, suppliers. employment opportunmes, etc. ,

    U S. Screen. Printing Institute             \


                                o. m-. ho.
Gravure Association of America
 Craftnet Web Site                                                    ''

 clubs, seminars, etc.
  penaimng to a specific topic via e-maih

    -Pnnters Win Through Pollution Prevention-
    Waste Reduction Assistance Program

    PO. Box 10009
    Richmond. VA 23240-0009


     US EPA
     401 M Street. SW (3404)
     Washington, DC 20460

      < 202) 260-1023

     ,-ConuolUng Waste 'in Web Offset Printing-
      Graphic Are Technical Foundation

       4615 Forbes Ave.
       Pittsburgh. PA 15213-3796


>;   .  -••-.• .rjxu- 'A'a-e EducJuion-Center
Madison. WI 53'0'
 60Si 161-0385

                            Rook of the
                                                           instant phone and fax access to more
 Graphic Arts Monthly
 249 W. 17th St.
 New York,'NY  10011"
 Sales office:  212-463-682.8


Appendix  D
 ariilox roll—a roller that supplies a predeter-
 mined and uniform ink volume to the surface of
 a printing plate.

 . basis weight-the weight in pounds of a ream
 (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size
 for that grade: 25 x 38 for book papers 20 x 26_
  for cover papers, 22 1/2 x 38 for bnstois, 25 j/2
.  x 30 1/2 for index. E.g., 500 sheets-25 x 38 of
  80-lb coated'weighs eighty-pounds,

  bimetal  plate-in lithography, a plate used for
  long runs in which the printing image base is
  copper or brass and the non-printing area is
  aluminum, stainless steel, or chromium.

  blanket-in offset printing (lithography), a
   rubber-surfaced fabric which is clamped around
   a cylinder, to which the image is transferred rom,
   the plate, and from which it is transferred to the
   paper.      ,                 '     ''.--'

   burn-in platemaking; common term used for
   p'Jate exposure
    catching up-m lithography, a term  which
    indicates that the non-image areas of a press
 / plate are starting to take ink or scum.

     chalking-in printing, a term which  refers to
     improper-drying of ink. Pigment dusts off
    '.because the vehicle has been absorbed too
     rapidly into the paper.

                               a surface coating
                                             formed directly on the printing surface. An artist
                                             can pre-separate by using separate overlays for
                                             each color.
                                             contact screen—a photographically-made
                                             halftone screen on film having a dot structure of
                                             graded density, used in vacuum contact with the
                                             photographic film to produce halftones.

                                             continuous tone-a photographic image which
                                             "contains gradient tones from black to white.

                                              crossline screen—in halftone photography, a
                                              grid pattern with opaque lines crossing each
                                              other at right angles, thus forming transparent
                                              squares or "screen apertures."

                                              curl—in paper, the distortion of a sheet due to _
                                               differences in structure or coatings from one side
                                               to the other,.or to absorption of moisture on an.
                                               offset press.

                                               cyan-one of the subractive primaries,the, hue of
                                              • which is used for one of the 4-color process mks.
                                               It reflects blue and green light and absorbs red
                                               light.                    ,
                                                dampeners-in lithography, cloth-covered^
                                                parchment paper or rubber (bare -back) roUers
                                                that distribute the dampening solution to the
                                                press plate or ink roller.
     from eggshell to glossy.

     color separation-in photography (W^V
     the process of separating colot originals into the
      pdrrTry printing color components in negative or
      Sve form. In lithographic platemakmg. the
      manual separation of colors by handwork per-
dampening system—in       _
mechanism on a press for transferring
ing solution to the plate during printing.

distributing rollers-in printing presses^ rubber
covered rollers which convey ink from the
 fountain onto the ink drum.

                 •••„• .-s.;^ -rk from the non-
elec"os-c".c =!ates-plate> for h,gh-speed laser
pnnun* u^ing zinc oxide, organic
photoconductor or cadmium sulphide coatings-

fountain solu,ion-in lithography, a solution of
water, gum arabic and other chemicals used to
dampen the plate and keep non-printing areas
 from accepting ink.

 hatftone-the reproduction of continuous-tone
 artwork, such as a photograph through a
 crossline or contact screen, wh.ch converts the
  ,mage into dots of various sizes.

  hickeys-in lithography, spots or imperfections
  m the printing due to such things as dirt on the
  press, dried ink skin, paper particles, etc..

  impression-in printing, the pressure of type.
  pTate or blanket as it comes in contact with the
 _cire_in color process printing, the un^.r-
 able screen pattern caused by'incorrect screen
 angles of overprinting halftones.

 offset—in printing, the process of using an
 intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an
 image from the image carrier to the substrate.
 Short for offset lithography.

  plate cylinder-the cylinder on a press on which
  the plate is mounted.

  process printing-the printing from a series of
  two or more half-tone plates to produce interme-
  diate colors and shades. In four-color process:
  yellow, magenta, cyan, and black.

   register—in printing, fitting two or more
   printing images on the same paper in exact
   alignment with each other.

   screen angles-in color reproduction^ angles
   at which the half-tone screens are placed with
    relation to one another, to avoid undesirable
    moire patterns.

    trappmg-the ability to print a wet ink film over
    previously  printed  ink. Dry trapping ,s printing
    PJet !nk o've'r dry ink. Wet trapping is pnntmg
     wet ink over previously printed wet ink.
    ink fountain-in printing presses, the^device
    which stores and supplies ink to the inking

    laser platemaking-the use of lasers for _
     scanning pasteups and/or exposing plates ,n the
     same or remote locations.

     mokeready-in .--£•£•£ *2***

                           Heavy and
      *ith the correct impression.
                     of the subtractive primaries the
       absorbs green light.
-up-in printing, two-up, three-up. etc
toLposition of material to be printed on a larger
Seet to take advantage of full press capac-

 the second side.

  plaJfare used for printing both sides.

   blue light.

                      Reader Response Survey

           '•    ..   r , ,1,,  rrin^T '"H..«trv Manual'. Reader Response Survey
 Pollution E^^^^rf1^^  mlot project to develop'a comprehensive pollution prevention
• Th.s manual has been 9^^     ^   fof ^ nnling industry sector. In order to determine the
 manual for techmcal.ass.stan.e p  «^ .^    ^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ hea[. from you. . Your comments '

 ut.lity and make improvements         document. piease take a few moments to answer some
                                    in H., staple and ma.l tKe survey back. We apprec.ate your
 comments 'and suggestions.      :

 Where did you leam about this report?                            ••-

         WMRC newsletter          ,-                  Vr>m^\
    '  '  EPA Pollution Prevention Information Clearmghouse (PPIC)

         Colleague   .
          E-mail announcement                 •              .
          Internet site (please name).
  ror .hcin,
  with each statement
         The overall quality (organization, content) of the manual was high?
         ...  :'   s   •••.*••••      J               •"'  •    -    •
          The manual proved a comprehensive^,f pollution prevention techniques for meta,

          finishing.                    '-    •         >•                          '.•'•_•
                                  '  '  '  '     "           2             1     ••••••
           If you
 5       -    '-4     '      3'.. .     .      ,

felt the manual was not comprehensive what informationwas lacking:
           Was there any
                        information that was unnecessary orinaccurate.
            Information was easily located in the Manual.
             Additional comments regarding the Manual.

                                 .     resuUor> program

        Printing uci!it>
        Uimersuv-affihaied researcher
        PmateK-emploved researcher
        EnMronrriental organization

6 Wou,d ,

 A  .    -

•adhesiVes i'l. 29, 31, 73, 79
 air quality 37, 52, 78. 97
 aqueous inks 90
 aqueous plates • 23

 B            -.'•  .••:   '.

 binders 3, 4
 binding 29,  31, 42        .
 Blanket Wash 45 .
 blanket wash 27,.41, 45

  c                    :
  chemical substitution 42. 62
." Clean Air Act 51, 97
                   •99  27 28  52, 60,  79.
   distillation  10, i^, 7.i, *''*?•'*'.  '
   doctor blade. 18, 73, 81. 87. 89, 93-
    EBC 19, 20      "      '
    engraving 73, 87, 88, 8? >. 90
        n  12 13 14  16. H. 18. W. 26. 2, 31. 4, 42. 43,45. 60. 73f 74. 7,79. 80. 91. 105

     finishing li. 20. 23. 29. 31.33. 62,73                      ;
     fixer 16,17. 31. 43                                        -         - .  ;    •
     flexography .4. 73  74,^ 8 \             42
     fountain solution 11, 18, 27. .31. w, «!•• . •»*

     G          "        '    '        '    •  •'    •"•'•:'    '"      '    . •
             A A 7  18 21  24  74. 87,. 88.  89. 90.91. 92. 94                .     .    .- .
     gravure 4, 6. 7, 18. /£i. *«»._'•••

     H                   .      '.   . '   .   '  .   "  ."•     .   ..'        ' -
                                                      51, 52. 58. 59. 61. 62. 63, 65. 73. 74.
           7ft 79  92 93,  102. 103

,nnage earner 31. 37
mdustnai waste  19, 23
,nUoun!a,n  20   27  28/4 73

tsopropyl alcohol 31. 38. ai.  <"•.


 letterpress 4 6. 74           33, 38. 45. 88
 iimograpny4.  11, 12. 19. 41.

 lowVOC 16. 20. 44. 60.  61
  makeready 31
  material substitution 11, 3 «

  non-heatset 20                 Q1
  nonnazardous waste 25. 79. vo,


   organic solvents 51. 62

   ozone  41. 97. 98. 99

    petroleum-based ink 19. 21. 31

    PH 78. 80
    photochemicals 26             31  81
    photoprocessing 11.  i°- '^  ^  51  92 93
    pigments 13, 19, 21. ^-
    plate making 31.  42
    plate preparation  73
    ptate processing 31. 4-4.  73. 75

     R                   '                                          ''

          15 22. 28.  31. 91. 92. 93                          '

           24.  65.  101.  102. 103                ^  ^ ^  ^  ^ 44. 51. 58. 59. 61, 73. 74, 78

                 1 59. 60. 61. 62. 63.

       screen printing 4  11, 12. 20. 27.
        shop towes          .
        silver recovery 17. 31. «, «->.


                     '.'  -    '     -   • •    ' '•'  ',  ''122

    13  r<  15 16 19. 20, 21/22. 23. 25. 27..2S, 29, 31. 33. 40, 41. 44,51, 52. 53,;62, 53  -,
     78  80-81.82. 90, 92. 93,  101. 102   .     -              .
'source reduction  13. 24, 43, 52.  78  ,     v      ,       .     .   •       ,
 stencil 51, 60, 61, 62; 64      4  ^  5